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Sample records for activities evaluation items

  1. Evaluating Item Fit for Multidimensional Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo; Stone, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the utility of the s-x[superscript 2] statistic proposed by Orlando and Thissen (2000) in evaluating item fit for multidimensional item response models. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to investigate both the Type I error and statistical power of this fit statistic in analyzing two kinds of multidimensional test…

  2. An Evaluation of Select Approaches For Biased Item Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Convey, John J.

    Transformed item difficulties, chi-square, item characteristic curve (icc) theory and factor score techniques were evaluated as approaches for the identification of biased test items. The study was implemented to determine whether the approaches would provide identical classifications of items as to degree of aberrance for culturally different…

  3. Evaluating Common Item Block Options When Faced with Practical Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkowitz, Amanda; Davis-Becker, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of common item characteristics on the outcome of equating in credentialing examinations when traditionally recommended representation is not possible. This research used real data sets from several credentialing exams to test the impact of content representation, item statistics, and number of common items on…

  4. Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items.

    PubMed

    Sivaswamy, S N; Balachandran, B; Balanehru, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

    1991-08-01

    Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains.

  5. Assessing Scientific Reasoning: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Item Features That Affect Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Jurik; Hartmann, Stefan; Mathesius, Sabrina; Straube, Philipp; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Krüger, Dirk; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the criterion-related test score interpretation of a text-based assessment of scientific reasoning competencies in higher education by evaluating factors which systematically affect item difficulty. To provide evidence about the specific demands which test items of various difficulty make on pre-service…

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of the Values Tracker: A Two-Item Measure of Engagement in Valued Activities in Those With Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Pielech, Melissa; Bailey, Robert W; McEntee, Mindy L; Ashworth, Julie; Levell, Jayne; Sowden, Gail; Vowles, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in valued activities is an important outcome, particularly in treatments that aim to enhance quality of life in those with chronic conditions. The present study describes the initial evaluation of the Values Tracker (VT), a two-item measure of values engagement, in 302 treatment-seeking adults with chronic pain. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the utility of the VT in the statistical prediction of pain-related functioning, after controlling for demographic variables, pain intensity, and pain-related distress. Across analyses, pain intensity accounted for significant variance (range ΔR2 = .06-.09) with pain-related distress adding additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .07-.19). The VT accounted for additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .02-.17) for all variables with the exception of physical disability. These findings provide initial support for the utility of the VT in those with chronic pain. Given the VT's brevity, it may be particularly useful for tracking changes in engagement in values across sessions. PMID:26611467

  7. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    SciTech Connect

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  8. Methodology for Developing and Evaluating the PROMIS® Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Stucky, Brian D.; Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Edelen, Maria Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article describes the procedures used in the PROMIS® Smoking Initiative for the development and evaluation of item banks, short forms (SFs), and computerized adaptive tests (CATs) for the assessment of 6 constructs related to cigarette smoking: nicotine dependence, coping expectancies, emotional and sensory expectancies, health expectancies, psychosocial expectancies, and social motivations for smoking. Methods: Analyses were conducted using response data from a large national sample of smokers. Items related to each construct were subjected to extensive item factor analyses and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Final item banks were calibrated, and SF assessments were developed for each construct. The performance of the SFs and the potential use of the item banks for CAT administration were examined through simulation study. Results: Item selection based on dimensionality assessment and DIF analyses produced item banks that were essentially unidimensional in structure and free of bias. Simulation studies demonstrated that the constructs could be accurately measured with a relatively small number of carefully selected items, either through fixed SFs or CAT-based assessment. Illustrative results are presented, and subsequent articles provide detailed discussion of each item bank in turn. Conclusions: The development of the PROMIS smoking item banks provides researchers with new tools for measuring smoking-related constructs. The use of the calibrated item banks and suggested SF assessments will enhance the quality of score estimates, thus advancing smoking research. Moreover, the methods used in the current study, including innovative approaches to item selection and SF construction, may have general relevance to item bank development and evaluation. PMID:23943843

  9. 48 CFR 52.212-2 - Evaluation-Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation-Commercial....212-2 Evaluation—Commercial Items. As prescribed in 12.301(c), the Contracting Officer may insert a provision substantially as follows: Evaluation—Commercial Items (JAN 1999) (a) The Government will award...

  10. Factor- and Item-Level Analyses of the 38-Item Activities Scale for Kids-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Anita M.; Gorton, George E.; Bjornson, Kristie; Bevans, Katherine; Stout, Jean L.; Narayanan, Unni; Tucker, Carole A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Children and adolescents highly value their ability to participate in relevant daily life and recreational activities. The Activities Scale for Kids-performance (ASKp) instrument measures the frequency of performance of 30 common childhood activities, and has been shown to be valid and reliable. A revised and expanded 38-item ASKp (ASKp38)…

  11. Parahippocampal cortex activation during context reinstatement predicts item recollection

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory is the binding of an event with information about the context in which that event (or item) was experienced. The context of an event may include its spatial and temporal location as well as goal-directed, conscious thoughts evoked during the event. We call this latter type of information “cognitive context.” The Binding of Items and Context (BIC) theory of medial temporal lobe function proposes that parahippocampal cortex (PHc) plays a key role in processing cognitive context. Therefore, we predicted that activity in PHc during reactivation of a previously experienced cognitive context would be correlated with item recollection, even when the associated item and its episodic binding had not yet been retrieved. Using a novel paradigm, we measured brain activation with fMRI in response to covert reinstatement of a cognitive context, prior to presenting an item memory probe. Contexts were studied with multiple items to ensure that spontaneous item retrieval would not occur prior to the test probe. At test, contexts were reinstated for eight seconds before the test probe was presented. We manipulated whether the reinstated context matched the encoding context of the test probe that followed. For such matching contexts, we found that increased PHc activation prior to the test probe predicted recollection following the test probe. If a context unrelated to the eventual test item probe was reinstated, there was no such association between PHc activation during context reinstatement and eventual memory judgments. These findings suggest that PHc activation is correlated with cognitive context retrieval. PMID:23937182

  12. Item Selection, Evaluation, and Simple Structure in Personality Data

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Erik; Turkheimer, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We report an investigation of the genesis and interpretation of simple structure in personality data using two very different self-reported data sets. The first consists of a set of relatively unselected lexical descriptors, whereas the second is based on responses to a carefully constructed instrument. In both data sets, we explore the degree of simple structure by comparing factor solutions to solutions from simulated data constructed to have either strong or weak simple structure. The analysis demonstrates that there is little evidence of simple structure in the unselected items, and a moderate degree among the selected items. In both instruments, however, much of the simple structure that could be observed originated in a strong dimension of positive vs. negative evaluation. PMID:20694168

  13. Evaluating Item Discrimination Power of WHOQOL-BREF from an Item Response Model Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…

  14. Item Bank Development for a Revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Haley, Stephen M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kramer, Jessica M.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Moed, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is a useful clinical and research assessment but it has limitations in content, age range and efficiency. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used to develop the item bank for a new computerized adaptive test version of the PEDI (PEDI-CAT). An expanded item set and response scales were reviewed by clinician experts and examined at parent and clinician focus groups. Eleven parents participated in 32 cognitive interviews to examine content, format, and comprehension of items and responses. A revised set of self-care (n=76), mobility (n=78; walking aids n=13; wheelchair n=14) and social function (n=64) items with pictures and a 4-point ‘Difficulty’ scale were developed. Also, the PEDI’s Caregiver Assistance Scale was replaced by a ‘Responsibility Scale’ with 53 items. The new PEDI-CAT item bank covers a broader range of functional activities for children of all ages and abilities. PMID:20608855

  15. Measurement of teen dating violence attitudes: an item response theory evaluation of differential item functioning according to gender.

    PubMed

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; McCaffrey, Daniel F; Marshall, Grant N; Jaycox, Lisa H

    2009-08-01

    Accurate assessment of attitudes about intimate partner violence is important for evaluation of prevention and early intervention programs. Assessment of attitudes about cross-gender interactions is particularly susceptible to bias because it requires specifying the gender of the perpetrator and the victim. As it is likely that respondents will tend to identify with the same-gender actor, items and scales assessing attitudes about intimate partner violence may not have equivalent measurement properties for male and female respondents. This article examines data from 2,575 high school students who participated in a teen-dating violence intervention study. The majority of participants were Latino (91%), and the sample was nearly evenly split with respect to gender (51% female). Items from two scales (boy-on-girl violence, 4 items; girl-on-boy violence, 5 items) reflecting teens' attitudes about dating violence were calibrated with the graded item response theory (IRT) model and evaluated for differential item functioning (DIF) by gender. A total of three items, two from the girl-on-boy violence scale and one from the boy-on-girl violence scale, were identified as functioning differently for girls and boys. In all cases where DIF was detected, the item's attitudinal statement was easier to accept for the gender group that was portrayed as victim rather than perpetrator. For both scales, accounting for the identified DIF influenced inferences about the magnitude of mean differences in attitudes between boys and girls. These results support the use of IRT scores that account for DIF to minimize measurement error and improve inferences about gender differences in attitudes about dating violence.

  16. Novel bioassay system for evaluating anti-oxidative activities of food items: use of basolateral media from differentiated Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Ai; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2005-12-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including superoxide and nitric oxide (NO), are known to be mediators of oxidative stress and play pivotal roles in the onset of numerous life style-related diseases. While a number of studies have shown that naturally occurring anti-oxidants may be applicable for prevention and therapy for those diseases, most in vitro anti-oxidation tests reported have not provided significant insight into the absorption efficiency or metabolism of dietary anti-oxidants in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we established a novel assay system by focusing on the bioconversion of food constituents using differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells. Various fresh food preparations [ginger, garlic, shimeji (Hypsizigus marmoreus), onion, carrot] were added to the apical side of differentiated Caco-2 monolayers. After incubation, the medium was recovered and tested for its inhibitory effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced generation in differentiated HL-60 cells, and on combined lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-gamma -induced NO generation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The garlic preparation (25% v/v) basolateral medium abolished generation without any cytotoxicity toward HL-60 cells, though it was cytotoxic to Caco-2 cells. In the NO generation tests, all of the food preparations showed notable inhibitory activity, while the garlic preparation (5% v/v) basolateral medium inhibited NO generation with substantial cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 cells. Interestingly, the carrot preparation (1% v/v) basolateral medium inhibited NO generation in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 or Caco-2 cells, and its activities were higher than those of the carrot preparation alone (1% v/v). Our results indicate that the present assay system is appropriate and reliable for determination of the anti-oxidative efficacy of dietary

  17. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings.

  18. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. PMID:25462882

  19. 78 FR 35099 - Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Claim, Authorization and Invoice for Prosthetic Items...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection Activity: [Claim, Authorization and Invoice for Prosthetic Items... information needed to determine eligibility and authorize funding for various prosthetic services. DATES..., VA Form 10- 1394. (d) Prosthetic Authorization for Items or Services, VA Form 10- 2421....

  20. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the 2003-04 NHANES Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

    2011-01-01

    Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses, this study examined whether there were any DIF items in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) physical activity (PA) questionnaire. A subset of adult data from the 2003-04 NHANES study (n = 3,083) was used. PA items related to respondents' occupational, transportation,…

  1. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Core Bereavement Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason M.; Nam, Ilsung; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a routinely administered assessment of grieving, few studies have empirically examined the psychometric properties of the Core Bereavement Items (CBI). The present study investigated the factor structure, internal reliability, and concurrent validity of the CBI in a large, diverse sample of bereaved young adults (N = 1,366).…

  2. Determining importance and grading of items and activities for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeKlever, R.; Verna, B.

    1993-12-31

    Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN), in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project, has been responsible for the Title 2 designs of the initial structures, systems, and components for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and the creation of the design output documents for the Surface-Based Testing (SBT) programs. The ESF and SBT programs are major scientific contributors to the overall site characterization program which will determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain to contain a proposed High Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW) repository. Accurate, traceable and objective characterization and testing documentation that is germane to the protection of public health and safety, and the environment, and that satisfies all the requirements of 10 CFR Part 60(1), must be established, evaluated and accepted. To assure that these requirements are satisfied, specific design functions and products, including items and activities depicted within respective design output documents, are subjected to the requirements of an NRC and DOE-approved Quality Assurance (QA) program. An evaluation (classification) is applied to these items and activities to determine their importance to radiological safety (ITS) and waste isolation (ITWI). Subsequently, QA program controls are selected (grading) for the items and activities. RSN has developed a DOE-approved classification process that is based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and that uses accident/impact scenarios. Results from respective performance assessment and test interference evaluations are also integrated into the classification analyses for various items. The methodology and results of the RSN classification and grading processes, presented herein, relative to ESF and SBT design products, demonstrates a solid, defensible methodological basis for classification and grading.

  3. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities item banks and short forms

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a spinal cord injury (SCI)-focused version of PROMIS and Neuro-QOL social domain item banks; evaluate the psychometric properties of items developed for adults with SCI; and report information to facilitate clinical and research use. Design We used a mixed-methods design to develop and evaluate Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities items. Focus groups helped define the constructs; cognitive interviews helped revise items; and confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods helped calibrate item banks and evaluate differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. Setting Five SCI Model System sites and one Veterans Administration medical center. Participants The calibration sample consisted of 641 individuals; a reliability sample consisted of 245 individuals residing in the community. Results A subset of 27 Ability to Participate and 35 Satisfaction items demonstrated good measurement properties and negligible differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. The SCI-specific measures correlate strongly with the PROMIS and Neuro-QOL versions. Ten item short forms correlate >0.96 with the full banks. Variable-length CATs with a minimum of 4 items, variable-length CATs with a minimum of 8 items, fixed-length CATs of 10 items, and the 10-item short forms demonstrate construct coverage and measurement error that is comparable to the full item bank. Conclusion The Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities CATs and short forms demonstrate excellent psychometric properties and are suitable for clinical and research applications. PMID:26010974

  4. Item Bank Development for a Revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Helene; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen; Coster, Wendy; Kramer, Jessica; Kao, Ying-Chia; Moed, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) is a useful clinical and research assessment, but it has limitations in content, age range, and efficiency. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of the item bank for a new computer adaptive testing version of the PEDI (PEDI-CAT). An expanded item set and response options…

  5. Meta-analytic guidelines for evaluating single-item reliabilities of personality instruments.

    PubMed

    Spörrle, Matthias; Bekk, Magdalena

    2014-06-01

    Personality is an important predictor of various outcomes in many social science disciplines. However, when personality traits are not the principal focus of research, for example, in global comparative surveys, it is often not possible to assess them extensively. In this article, we first provide an overview of the advantages and challenges of single-item measures of personality, a rationale for their construction, and a summary of alternative ways of assessing their reliability. Second, using seven diverse samples (Ntotal = 4,263) we develop the SIMP-G, the German adaptation of the Single-Item Measures of Personality, an instrument assessing the Big Five with one item per trait, and evaluate its validity and reliability. Third, we integrate previous research and our data into a first meta-analysis of single-item reliabilities of personality measures, and provide researchers with guidelines and recommendations for the evaluation of single-item reliabilities.

  6. Meta-Analytic Guidelines for Evaluating Single-Item Reliabilities of Personality Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Spörrle, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Personality is an important predictor of various outcomes in many social science disciplines. However, when personality traits are not the principal focus of research, for example, in global comparative surveys, it is often not possible to assess them extensively. In this article, we first provide an overview of the advantages and challenges of single-item measures of personality, a rationale for their construction, and a summary of alternative ways of assessing their reliability. Second, using seven diverse samples (Ntotal = 4,263) we develop the SIMP-G, the German adaptation of the Single-Item Measures of Personality, an instrument assessing the Big Five with one item per trait, and evaluate its validity and reliability. Third, we integrate previous research and our data into a first meta-analysis of single-item reliabilities of personality measures, and provide researchers with guidelines and recommendations for the evaluation of single-item reliabilities. PMID:23996850

  7. Development of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: constructing an item pool

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Dummett, Sarah; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Morley, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure in development that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The study reported here aimed to inform and generate an item pool for the new measure, which is specifically designed for the assessment of participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions. Methods Items were informed through in-depth interviews conducted with 37 participants spanning a range of conditions. Interviews aimed to identify how their condition impacted their ability to participate in meaningful activities. Conditions included arthritis, cancer, chronic back pain, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method. Statements relating to ICF themes were recast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n=13) were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results ICF themes relevant to activities and participation in everyday life were explored, and a total of 222 items formed the initial item pool. This item pool was refined by the research team and 28 generic items were mapped onto all nine chapters of the ICF construct, detailing activity and participation. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, items, and response options were acceptable to participants. Conclusion Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 28 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. A large-scale postal survey will follow in order to refine the instrument further and to assess its psychometric properties. The final instrument is intended for use in clinical trials and interventions targeted at maintaining or improving activity and participation. PMID:26056503

  8. Selection of Course Evaluation Items by High and Low Rated Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ory, John C.; Brandenburg, Dale C.

    CAFETERIA-type rating systems, modeled after the one developed at Purdue University, allow the instructors being evaluated to select those items which their students will use in evaluating the instructors. Such computer-assisted systems allow the instructor to tailor the evaluation to the particular instructional strategies used. This study…

  9. Item difficulty in the evaluation of computer-based instruction: an example from neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Chariker, Julia H; Naaz, Farah; Pani, John R

    2012-01-01

    This article reports large item effects in a study of computer-based learning of neuroanatomy. Outcome measures of the efficiency of learning, transfer of learning, and generalization of knowledge diverged by a wide margin across test items, with certain sets of items emerging as particularly difficult to master. In addition, the outcomes of comparisons between instructional methods changed with the difficulty of the items to be learned. More challenging items better differentiated between instructional methods. This set of results is important for two reasons. First, it suggests that instruction may be more efficient if sets of consistently difficult items are the targets of instructional methods particularly suited to them. Second, there is wide variation in the published literature regarding the outcomes of empirical evaluations of computer-based instruction. As a consequence, many questions arise as to the factors that may affect such evaluations. The present article demonstrates that the level of challenge in the material that is presented to learners is an important factor to consider in the evaluation of a computer-based instructional system.

  10. Bats at risk? Bat activity and insecticide residue analysis of food items in an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Peter; Brühl, Carsten A

    2012-07-01

    Although bats are reported as being threatened by pesticides, they are currently not considered in European Union pesticide risk assessments. The reason for that contradiction is probably related to the scarcity of information on bat activity in pesticide-treated fields and the pesticide residues on their food items. The authors recorded bat activity and measured pesticide residues on bat-specific food items following applications of two insecticides in an apple orchard. High activity levels of the common pipistrelle bat, a foraging habitat generalist, were detected. Airborne foragers and bats that take part of their food by gleaning arthropods from the vegetation were recorded frequently. The initial value and the decline of pesticide residues were found to depend on the arthropod type, their surface to volume ratio, their mobility, and the mode of action of the applied pesticide. The highest initial residue values were measured on foliage-dwelling arthropods. By following the toxicity-exposure ratio approaches of the current pesticide risk assessment, no acute dietary risk was found for all recorded bat species. However, a potential reproductive risk for bat species that include foliage-dwelling arthropods in their diet was indicated. The results emphasize the importance of adequately evaluating the risks of pesticides to bats, which, compared to other mammals, are potentially more sensitive due to their ecological traits.

  11. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation with college women and men.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M

    2013-01-01

    The 21-item Intuitive Eating Scale (IES; Tylka, 2006) measures individuals' tendency to follow their physical hunger and satiety cues when determining when, what, and how much to eat. While its scores have demonstrated reliability and validity with college women, the IES-2 was developed to improve upon the original version. Specifically, we added 17 positively scored items to the original IES items (which were predominantly negatively scored), integrated an additional component of intuitive eating (Body-Food Choice Congruence), and evaluated its psychometric properties with 1,405 women and 1,195 men across three studies. After we deleted 15 items (due to low item-factor loadings, high cross-loadings, and redundant content), the results supported the psychometric properties of the IES-2 with women and men. The final 23-item IES-2 contained 11 original items and 12 added items. Exploratory and second-order confirmatory factor analyses upheld its hypothesized 4-factor structure (its original 3 factors, plus Body-Food Choice Congruence) and a higher order factor. The IES-2 was largely invariant across sex, although negligible differences on 1 factor loading and 2 item intercepts were detected. Demonstrating validity, the IES-2 total scores and most IES-2 subscale scores were (a) positively related to body appreciation, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life; (b) inversely related to eating disorder symptomatology, poor interoceptive awareness, body surveillance, body shame, body mass index, and internalization of media appearance ideals; and (c) negligibly related to social desirability. IES-2 scores also garnered incremental validity by predicting psychological well-being above and beyond eating disorder symptomatology. The IES-2's applications for empirical research and clinical work are discussed.

  12. Evaluating Sensitivity to Behavioral Change Using Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the researchers evaluated the sensitivity of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) for assessing behavior change in response to an intervention. Included in the analyses were data from 20 completed behavioral consultation cases involving a diverse sample of elementary participants and contexts using a common…

  13. Can a Multidimensional Test Be Evaluated with Unidimensional Item Response Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible consequences of using unidimensional item response theory (UIRT) on a multidimensional college admission test. The test consists of 5 subscales and can be divided into two sections, that is, it can be considered both as a unidimensional and a multidimensional test. The test was examined with both UIRT…

  14. The effects of negative emotion on encoding-related neural activity predicting item and source recognition.

    PubMed

    Yick, Yee Ying; Buratto, Luciano Grüdtner; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    We report here a study that obtained reliable effects of emotional modulation of a well-known index of memory encoding--the electrophysiological "Dm" effect--using a recognition memory paradigm followed by a source memory task. In this study, participants performed an old-new recognition test of emotionally negative and neutral pictures encoded 1 day before the test, and a source memory task involving the retrieval of the temporal context in which pictures had been encoded. Our results showed that Dm activity was enhanced for all emotional items on a late positivity starting at ~400 ms post-stimulus onset, although Dm activity for high arousal items was also enhanced at an earlier stage (200-400 ms). Our results also showed that emotion enhanced Dm activity for items that were both recognised with or without correct source information. Further, when only high arousal items were considered, larger Dm amplitudes were observed if source memory was accurate. Three main conclusions are drawn from these findings. First, negative emotion can enhance encoding processes predicting the subsequent recognition of central item information. Second, if emotion reaches high levels of arousal, the encoding of contextual details can also be enhanced over and above the effects of emotion on central item encoding. Third, the morphology of our ERPs is consistent with a hybrid model of the role of attention in emotion-enhanced memory (Pottage and Schaefer, 2012).

  15. The effects of negative emotion on encoding-related neural activity predicting item and source recognition.

    PubMed

    Yick, Yee Ying; Buratto, Luciano Grüdtner; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    We report here a study that obtained reliable effects of emotional modulation of a well-known index of memory encoding--the electrophysiological "Dm" effect--using a recognition memory paradigm followed by a source memory task. In this study, participants performed an old-new recognition test of emotionally negative and neutral pictures encoded 1 day before the test, and a source memory task involving the retrieval of the temporal context in which pictures had been encoded. Our results showed that Dm activity was enhanced for all emotional items on a late positivity starting at ~400 ms post-stimulus onset, although Dm activity for high arousal items was also enhanced at an earlier stage (200-400 ms). Our results also showed that emotion enhanced Dm activity for items that were both recognised with or without correct source information. Further, when only high arousal items were considered, larger Dm amplitudes were observed if source memory was accurate. Three main conclusions are drawn from these findings. First, negative emotion can enhance encoding processes predicting the subsequent recognition of central item information. Second, if emotion reaches high levels of arousal, the encoding of contextual details can also be enhanced over and above the effects of emotion on central item encoding. Third, the morphology of our ERPs is consistent with a hybrid model of the role of attention in emotion-enhanced memory (Pottage and Schaefer, 2012). PMID:25936685

  16. Evaluation of five guidelines for option development in multiple-choice item-writing.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Rafael J; Moreno, Rafael; Martín, Irene; Trigo, M Eva

    2009-05-01

    This paper evaluates certain guidelines for writing multiple-choice test items. The analysis of the responses of 5013 subjects to 630 items from 21 university classroom achievement tests suggests that an option should not differ in terms of heterogeneous content because such error has a slight but harmful effect on item discrimination. This also occurs with the "None of the above" option when it is the correct one. In contrast, results do not show the supposedly negative effects of a different-length option, the use of specific determiners, or the use of the "All of the above" option, which not only decreases difficulty but also improves discrimination when it is the correct option.

  17. 17 CFR 229.1206 - (Item 1206) Present activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the registrant's present activities, such as the number of wells in the process of being drilled... files the document as reasonably possible. (c) Include only those wells in the process of being drilled... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil...

  18. Rasch analysis of the Persian version of PedsQLTM Oral Health Scale: further psychometric evaluation on item validity including differential item functioning

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Kumar, Santhosh; Pakpour, Amir H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study aimed to further evaluate the psychometric properties of one recently developed oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument (PedsQL Oral Health Scale), including student self-report and parent-proxy report. Specifically, we tested the item validity,threshold order, local dependency, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender and rater. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, and study population was recruited in Qazvin, Iran using one-stage sampling with the unit of school. Students and their parents (1529 dyads) separately completed the Persian version of PedsQL Oral Health Scale. The psychometric properties were analyzed using Rasch rating scale model, including item validity, threshold order for response categories, and DIF across gender (boys vs. girls in student self-report) and rater (student self report vs. parent-proxy report). Results: All items had satisfactory in fit and outfit mean square error. One disordering category (the response of often) was found in parent-proxy report, while all categories were ordered in student self-report. All items were DIF-trivial across gender and rater. Conclusion: PedsQL Oral Health Scale is a valid instrument to measure OHRQoL. However, our results indicated that the parent-proxy report was inferior to the student self-report, and healthcare providers should primarily use the student self-report. PMID:27579258

  19. Classical Item Analysis Using Latent Variable Modeling: A Note on a Direct Evaluation Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2011-01-01

    A directly applicable latent variable modeling procedure for classical item analysis is outlined. The method allows one to point and interval estimate item difficulty, item correlations, and item-total correlations for composites consisting of categorical items. The approach is readily employed in empirical research and as a by-product permits…

  20. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  1. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  2. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  3. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1205 (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory... proves to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well. (2) A productive well is an exploratory, development, or extension well that...

  4. Modeling of Word Translation: Activation Flow from Concepts to Lexical Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Gerakaki, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Whereas most theoretical and computational models assume a continuous flow of activation from concepts to lexical items in spoken word production, one prominent model assumes that the mapping of concepts onto words happens in a discrete fashion (Bloem & La Heij, 2003). Semantic facilitation of context pictures on word translation has been taken to…

  5. Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for night eating syndrome using item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Engel, Scott G; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina; O'Reardon, John P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Mitchell, James E; West, Delia Smith; Wadden, Thomas A; Stunkard, Albert J

    2008-12-01

    Uniform diagnostic criteria for the night eating syndrome (NES), a disorder characterized by a delay in the circadian pattern of eating, have not been established. Proposed criteria for NES were evaluated using item response theory (IRT) analysis. Six studies yielded 1,481 Night Eating Questionnaires which were coded to reflect the presence/absence of five night eating symptoms. Symptoms were evaluated based on the clinical usefulness of their diagnostic information and on the assumptions of IRT analysis (unidimensionality, monotonicity, local item independence, correct model specification), using a two parameter logistic (2PL) IRT model. Reports of (1) nocturnal eating and/or evening hyperphagia, (2) initial insomnia, and (3) night awakenings showed high precision in discriminating those with night eating problems, while morning anorexia and delayed morning meal provided little additional information. IRT is a useful tool for evaluating the diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders and can be used to evaluate potential diagnostic criteria of NES empirically. Behavioral factors were identified as useful discriminators of NES. Future work should also examine psychological factors in conjunction with those identified here.

  6. Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for night eating syndrome using item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Engel, Scott G; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina; O'Reardon, John P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Mitchell, James E; West, Delia Smith; Wadden, Thomas A; Stunkard, Albert J

    2008-12-01

    Uniform diagnostic criteria for the night eating syndrome (NES), a disorder characterized by a delay in the circadian pattern of eating, have not been established. Proposed criteria for NES were evaluated using item response theory (IRT) analysis. Six studies yielded 1,481 Night Eating Questionnaires which were coded to reflect the presence/absence of five night eating symptoms. Symptoms were evaluated based on the clinical usefulness of their diagnostic information and on the assumptions of IRT analysis (unidimensionality, monotonicity, local item independence, correct model specification), using a two parameter logistic (2PL) IRT model. Reports of (1) nocturnal eating and/or evening hyperphagia, (2) initial insomnia, and (3) night awakenings showed high precision in discriminating those with night eating problems, while morning anorexia and delayed morning meal provided little additional information. IRT is a useful tool for evaluating the diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders and can be used to evaluate potential diagnostic criteria of NES empirically. Behavioral factors were identified as useful discriminators of NES. Future work should also examine psychological factors in conjunction with those identified here. PMID:18928902

  7. A framework for evaluating wavelet based watermarking for scalable coded digital item adaptation attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Deepayan; Abhayaratne, Charith

    2009-02-01

    A framework for evaluating wavelet based watermarking schemes against scalable coded visual media content adaptation attacks is presented. The framework, Watermark Evaluation Bench for Content Adaptation Modes (WEBCAM), aims to facilitate controlled evaluation of wavelet based watermarking schemes under MPEG-21 part-7 digital item adaptations (DIA). WEBCAM accommodates all major wavelet based watermarking in single generalised framework by considering a global parameter space, from which the optimum parameters for a specific algorithm may be chosen. WEBCAM considers the traversing of media content along various links and required content adaptations at various nodes of media supply chains. In this paper, the content adaptation is emulated by the JPEG2000 coded bit stream extraction for various spatial resolution and quality levels of the content. The proposed framework is beneficial not only as an evaluation tool but also as design tool for new wavelet based watermark algorithms by picking and mixing of available tools and finding the optimum design parameters.

  8. Evaluating the Psychometric Characteristics of Generated Multiple-Choice Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire; Boulais, André-Philippe; De Champlain, André

    2016-01-01

    Item development is a time- and resource-intensive process. Automatic item generation integrates cognitive modeling with computer technology to systematically generate test items. To date, however, items generated using cognitive modeling procedures have received limited use in operational testing situations. As a result, the psychometric…

  9. Construct Validity Evidence for Single-Response Items to Estimate Physical Activity Levels in Large Sample Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Bowles, Heather R.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2007-01-01

    Valid measurement of physical activity is important for studying the risks for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of construct validity of two similar single-response items assessing physical activity via self-report. Both items are based on the stages of change model. The sample was 687 participants (men =…

  10. Statistical evaluation of synchronous spike patterns extracted by frequent item set mining

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Emiliano; Picado-Muiño, David; Denker, Michael; Borgelt, Christian; Grün, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    We recently proposed frequent itemset mining (FIM) as a method to perform an optimized search for patterns of synchronous spikes (item sets) in massively parallel spike trains. This search outputs the occurrence count (support) of individual patterns that are not trivially explained by the counts of any superset (closed frequent item sets). The number of patterns found by FIM makes direct statistical tests infeasible due to severe multiple testing. To overcome this issue, we proposed to test the significance not of individual patterns, but instead of their signatures, defined as the pairs of pattern size z and support c. Here, we derive in detail a statistical test for the significance of the signatures under the null hypothesis of full independence (pattern spectrum filtering, PSF) by means of surrogate data. As a result, injected spike patterns that mimic assembly activity are well detected, yielding a low false negative rate. However, this approach is prone to additionally classify patterns resulting from chance overlap of real assembly activity and background spiking as significant. These patterns represent false positives with respect to the null hypothesis of having one assembly of given signature embedded in otherwise independent spiking activity. We propose the additional method of pattern set reduction (PSR) to remove these false positives by conditional filtering. By employing stochastic simulations of parallel spike trains with correlated activity in form of injected spike synchrony in subsets of the neurons, we demonstrate for a range of parameter settings that the analysis scheme composed of FIM, PSF and PSR allows to reliably detect active assemblies in massively parallel spike trains. PMID:24167487

  11. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... base items described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section that are located in Libya and that were... telephone number (202) 482-4811. (ii) Reporting requirement. Any person engaging in activity described in... item located in Libya and not described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section must obtain a...

  12. [Research about re-evaluation of screening of traditonal Chinese medicine symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation. PMID:22292395

  13. Comparison of activation level between true and false items in the DRM paradigm.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Sergi, Ida; Iachini, Tina

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the activation levels of true and false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. For this purpose, we used a lexical decision task (LDT) that can be considered a relative pure measure of activation. Participants had to study a list of words that were semantically associated to a critical non-presented word (CI), and afterwards had to classify the actually studied words, the CI and new words in the LDT. Results indicated that the classification latency of the CI was the same as actually studied words and shorter than new words. The results might be interpreted as evidence that the false and true memory items have the same activation level and that the false memory effect can be based on the indirect activation of the CI at the encoding.

  14. Calorie Changes in Chain Restaurant Menu Items: Implications for Obesity and Evaluations of Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Jarlenski, Marian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Supply-side reductions to the calories in chain restaurants are a possible benefit of upcoming menu labeling requirements. Purpose To describe trends in calories available in large U.S. restaurants. Methods Data were obtained from the MenuStat project, a census of menu items in 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurant chains, for 2012 and 2013 (N=19,417 items). Generalized linear models were used to calculate: (1) the mean change in calories from 2012 to 2013, among items on the menu in both years; and (2) the difference in mean calories, comparing newly introduced items to those on the menu in 2012 only (overall and between core versus non-core items). Data were analyzed in 2014. Results Mean calories among items on menus in both 2012 and 2013 did not change. Large restaurant chains in the U.S. have recently had overall declines in calories in newly introduced menu items (−56 calories, 12% decline). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (−67 calories, 10% decline). New beverage (−26 calories, 8% decline) and children’s (−46 calories, 20% decline) items also had fewer mean calories. Among chain restaurants with a specific focus (e.g., burgers), average calories in new menu items not core to the business declined more than calories in core menu items. Conclusions Large chain restaurants significantly reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items. Supply-side changes to the calories in chain restaurants may have a significant impact on obesity prevention. PMID:25306397

  15. Assessing the Straightforwardly-Worded Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale for Differential Item Functioning Across Gender and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Woods, Carol M.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Weeks, Justin W.; Brown, Patrick J.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Menatti, Andrew R.; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin; Liebowitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; Leary Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 371–375, 1983) assesses fear and worry about receiving negative evaluation from others. Rodebaugh et al. Psychological Assessment, 16, 169–181, (2004) found that the BFNE is composed of a reverse-worded factor (BFNE-R) and straightforwardly-worded factor (BFNE-S). Further, they found the BFNE-S to have better psychometric properties and provide more information than the BFNE-R. Currently there is a lack of research regarding the measurement invariance of the BFNE-S across gender and ethnicity with respect to item thresholds. The present study uses item response theory (IRT) to test the BFNE-S for differential item functioning (DIF) related to gender and ethnicity (White, Asian, and Black). Six data sets consisting of clinical, community, and undergraduate participants were utilized (N=2,109). The factor structure of the BFNE-S was confirmed using categorical confirmatory factor analysis, IRT model assumptions were tested, and the BFNE-S was evaluated for DIF. Item nine demonstrated significant non-uniform DIF between White and Black participants. No other items showed significant uniform or non-uniform DIF across gender or ethnicity. Results suggest the BFNE-S can be used reliably with men and women and Asian and White participants. More research is needed to understand the implications of using the BFNE-S with Black participants. PMID:27642228

  16. Evaluation of PFP Furnace Systems for Thermal Stabilization of Washed High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2002-12-17

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. A high-temperature furnace (same make and model as used at the RMC at Plutonium Finishing Plant) and the associated offgas system were set up at PNNL to identify system vulnerabilities and to investigate alternative materials and operating conditions that would mitigate any corrosion and plugging of furnace and offgas components. The key areas of interest for this testing were the furnace heating elements, the offgas line located inside the furnace, the offgas line between the furnace and the filter/knockout pot, the filter/knockout pot, the sample boat, and corrosion coupons to evaluate alternative materials of construction. The evaluation was conducted by charging the furnace with CeO2 that had been impregnated with a mixture of chloride salts (selected to represent the expected residual chloride salt level in washed high chloride items) and heated in the furnace in accordance with the temperature ramp rates and hold times used at PFP.

  17. Item Response Modeling: An Evaluation of the Children's Fruit and Vegetable Self-Efficacy Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe

    2006-01-01

    Perceived self-efficacy (SE) for eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is a key variable mediating FV change in interventions. This study applies item response modeling (IRM) to a fruit, juice and vegetable self-efficacy questionnaire (FVSEQ) previously validated with classical test theory (CTT) procedures. The 24-item (five-point Likert scale) FVSEQ…

  18. Evaluation of Floors and Item Gradients for Reading and Math Tests for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Durmusoglu, Gokce

    2005-01-01

    Ignoring the adequacy of floors and item gradients for tests used with young children can have serious consequences. Thus, because of the importance of early intervention for reading and math problems, we used the criteria suggested by Bracken for adequate floors and item gradients, and reviewed 15 reading tests and 12 math tests for ages 4-0…

  19. Development of a Postacute Hospital Item Bank for the New Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Helene M.

    2010-01-01

    The PEDI-CAT is a new computer adaptive test (CAT) version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Additional PEDI-CAT items specific to postacute pediatric hospital care were recently developed using expert reviews and cognitive interviewing techniques. Expert reviews established face and construct validity, providing positive…

  20. Development of new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy questionnaires using item response modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM) was...

  1. The Marke-Nyman temperament scale. Evaluation of transferability using the Rasch item analysis.

    PubMed

    Bech, P; Allerup, P; Rosenberg, R

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the transferability of the Marke-Nymann Temperament Scale (MNTS) using the Rasch item analysis. The results showed that the three Sjöbring personality dimensions Validity, Stability, and Solidity measured by the MNTS were without transferability. However, the item analysis demonstrated a subscale for each of the three Sjöbring dimensions having adequate transferability, i.e. the subscales continued to test the same dimension in different groups of patients. These subscales still cover much of the range of the original descriptions by Sjöbring.

  2. Controlling Type I Error Rate in Evaluating Differential Item Functioning for Four DIF Methods: Use of Three Procedures for Adjustment of Multiple Item Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye

    2010-01-01

    In DIF studies, a Type I error refers to the mistake of identifying non-DIF items as DIF items, and a Type I error rate refers to the proportion of Type I errors in a simulation study. The possibility of making a Type I error in DIF studies is always present and high possibility of making such an error can weaken the validity of the assessment.…

  3. Further Evaluation of Leisure Items in the Attention Condition of Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Carreau, Abbey; MacDonald, Jackie; Pence, Sacha T.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that including leisure items in the attention condition of a functional analysis may produce engagement that masks sensitivity to attention. In this study, 4 individuals. initial functional analyses indicated that behavior was maintained by nonsocial variables (n = 3) or by attention (n = 1). A preference assessment was used to…

  4. Item response modeling: an evaluation of the children's fruit and vegetable self-efficacy questionnaire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perceived self-efficacy (SE) for eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is a key variable mediating FV change in interventions. This study applies item response modeling (IRM) to a fruit, juice and vegetable self-efficacy questionnaire (FVSEQ) previously validated with classical test theory (CTT) procedur...

  5. Evaluation of Model Selection Strategies for Cross-Level Two-Way Differential Item Functioning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patarapichayatham, Chalie; Kamata, Akihito; Kanjanawasee, Sirichai

    2012-01-01

    Model specification issues on the cross-level two-way differential item functioning model were previously investigated by Patarapichayatham et al. (2009). Their study clarified that an incorrect model specification can easily lead to biased estimates of key parameters. The objective of this article is to provide further insights on the issue by…

  6. Evaluation of Two Types of Differential Item Functioning in Factor Mixture Models with Binary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, HwaYoung; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Conventional differential item functioning (DIF) detection methods (e.g., the Mantel-Haenszel test) can be used to detect DIF only across observed groups, such as gender or ethnicity. However, research has found that DIF is not typically fully explained by an observed variable. True sources of DIF may include unobserved, latent variables, such as…

  7. An Assessment of the Nonparametric Approach for Evaluating the Fit of Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Tie; Wells, Craig S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2014-01-01

    As item response theory has been more widely applied, investigating the fit of a parametric model becomes an important part of the measurement process. There is a lack of promising solutions to the detection of model misfit in IRT. Douglas and Cohen introduced a general nonparametric approach, RISE (Root Integrated Squared Error), for detecting…

  8. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2: Item Refinement and Psychometric Evaluation with College Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M.

    2013-01-01

    The 21-item Intuitive Eating Scale (IES; Tylka, 2006) measures individuals' tendency to follow their physical hunger and satiety cues when determining when, what, and how much to eat. While its scores have demonstrated reliability and validity with college women, the IES-2 was developed to improve upon the original version. Specifically, we added…

  9. An Evaluation of Item Response Theory Classification Accuracy and Consistency Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Hao, Shiqi

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces two new classification consistency indices that can be used when item response theory (IRT) models have been applied. The new indices are shown to be related to Rudner's classification accuracy index and Guo's classification accuracy index. The Rudner- and Guo-based classification accuracy and consistency indices are…

  10. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  11. Evaluating and Refining the Construct of Sexual Quality With Item Response Theory: Development of the Quality of Sex Inventory.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Amanda M; Rogge, Ronald D

    2016-02-01

    This study took a critical look at the construct of sexual quality. The 65 items of four well-validated self-report measures of sexual satisfaction (the Index of Sexual Satisfaction [ISS], Hudson, Harrison, & Crosscup, 1981; the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction [GMSEX], Lawrance & Byers, 1995; the Pinney Sexual Satisfaction Inventory [PSSI], Pinney, Gerrard, & Denney, 1987; the Young Sexual Satisfaction Scale [YSSS], Young, Denny, Luquis, & Young, 1998) and an additional 74 potential sexual quality items were given to 3060 online participants. Using Item Response Theory (IRT), we demonstrated that the ISS, YSSS, and PSSI scales provided suboptimal levels of precision in assessing sexual quality, particularly given the length of those scales. Exploratory factor analyses, IRT, differential item functioning analyses, and longitudinal responsiveness analyses were used to develop and evaluate the Quality of Sex Inventory. Results suggested that, in comparison to existing scales, the QSI (1) offers investigators and clinicians more theoretically focused scales, (2) distinguishes sexual satisfaction from sexual dissatisfaction, and (3) offers greater precision and power for detecting differences with (4) comparably high levels of responsiveness for detecting change over time despite being notably shorter than most of the existing scales. The QSI-satisfaction subscales demonstrated strong convergent validity with other measures of sexual satisfaction and excellent construct validity with anchor scales from the nomological net surrounding that construct, suggesting that they continue to assess the same theoretical construct as prior scales. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:26728053

  12. Evaluating and Refining the Construct of Sexual Quality With Item Response Theory: Development of the Quality of Sex Inventory.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Amanda M; Rogge, Ronald D

    2016-02-01

    This study took a critical look at the construct of sexual quality. The 65 items of four well-validated self-report measures of sexual satisfaction (the Index of Sexual Satisfaction [ISS], Hudson, Harrison, & Crosscup, 1981; the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction [GMSEX], Lawrance & Byers, 1995; the Pinney Sexual Satisfaction Inventory [PSSI], Pinney, Gerrard, & Denney, 1987; the Young Sexual Satisfaction Scale [YSSS], Young, Denny, Luquis, & Young, 1998) and an additional 74 potential sexual quality items were given to 3060 online participants. Using Item Response Theory (IRT), we demonstrated that the ISS, YSSS, and PSSI scales provided suboptimal levels of precision in assessing sexual quality, particularly given the length of those scales. Exploratory factor analyses, IRT, differential item functioning analyses, and longitudinal responsiveness analyses were used to develop and evaluate the Quality of Sex Inventory. Results suggested that, in comparison to existing scales, the QSI (1) offers investigators and clinicians more theoretically focused scales, (2) distinguishes sexual satisfaction from sexual dissatisfaction, and (3) offers greater precision and power for detecting differences with (4) comparably high levels of responsiveness for detecting change over time despite being notably shorter than most of the existing scales. The QSI-satisfaction subscales demonstrated strong convergent validity with other measures of sexual satisfaction and excellent construct validity with anchor scales from the nomological net surrounding that construct, suggesting that they continue to assess the same theoretical construct as prior scales. Implications for research are discussed.

  13. Evaluating the Wald Test for Item-Level Comparison of Saturated and Reduced Models in Cognitive Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Lee, Young-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This article used the Wald test to evaluate the item-level fit of a saturated cognitive diagnosis model (CDM) relative to the fits of the reduced models it subsumes. A simulation study was carried out to examine the Type I error and power of the Wald test in the context of the G-DINA model. Results show that when the sample size is small and a…

  14. Development of new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy questionnaires using item response modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Baranowski, Tom; Watson, Kathy; Bachman, Christine; Baranowski, Janice C; Thompson, Debbe; Hernández, Arthur E; Venditti, Elizabeth; Blackshear, Tara; Moe, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Background Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM) was used to develop new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy scales. The validity of the new scales was compared with accelerometer assessments of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods New PASE and sedentary behavior change (TV viewing, computer video game use, and telephone use) self-efficacy items were developed. The scales were completed by 714, 6th grade students in seven US cities. A limited number of participants (83) also wore an accelerometer for five days and provided at least 3 full days of complete data. The new scales were analyzed using Classical Test Theory (CTT) and IRM; a reduced set of items was produced with IRM and correlated with accelerometer counts per minute and minutes of sedentary, light and moderate to vigorous activity per day after school. Results The PASE items discriminated between high and low levels of PASE. Full and reduced scales were weakly correlated (r = 0.18) with accelerometer counts per minute after school for boys, with comparable associations for girls. Weaker correlations were observed between PASE and minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (r = 0.09 – 0.11). The uni-dimensionality of the sedentary scales was established by both exploratory factor analysis and the fit of items to the underlying variable and reliability was assessed across the length of the underlying variable with some limitations. The reduced sedentary behavior scales had poor reliability. The full scales were moderately correlated with light intensity physical activity after school (r = 0.17 to 0.33) and sedentary behavior (r = -0.29 to -0.12) among the boys, but not for girls. Conclusion New physical activity

  15. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF... the application of § 764.2(e) of this part to activities involving items subject to the EAR that may... Arrangement's Web site (www.wassenaar.org) at the Control Lists web page. Note 1 to paragraph (b)(1)(i):...

  16. Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax.

  17. What is the Ability Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) good for? An evaluation using item response theory.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Marina; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mikolajczak, Moira; Luminet, Olivier; Hansenne, Michel; Rossier, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    The ability approach has been indicated as promising for advancing research in emotional intelligence (EI). However, there is scarcity of tests measuring EI as a form of intelligence. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, or MSCEIT, is among the few available and the most widespread measure of EI as an ability. This implies that conclusions about the value of EI as a meaningful construct and about its utility in predicting various outcomes mainly rely on the properties of this test. We tested whether individuals who have the highest probability of choosing the most correct response on any item of the test are also those who have the strongest EI ability. Results showed that this is not the case for most items: The answer indicated by experts as the most correct in several cases was not associated with the highest ability; furthermore, items appeared too easy to challenge individuals high in EI. Overall results suggest that the MSCEIT is best suited to discriminate persons at the low end of the trait. Results are discussed in light of applied and theoretical considerations.

  18. Evaluating the Contribution of Different Item Features to the Effect Size of the Gender Difference in Three-Dimensional Mental Rotation Using Automatic Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    In complex three-dimensional mental rotation tasks males have been reported to score up to one standard deviation higher than females. However, this effect size estimate could be compromised by the presence of gender bias at the item level, which calls the validity of purely quantitative performance comparisons into question. We hypothesized that…

  19. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

  20. Enhanced Automatic Question Creator--EAQC: Concept, Development and Evaluation of an Automatic Test Item Creation Tool to Foster Modern e-Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutl, Christian; Lankmayr, Klaus; Weinhofer, Joachim; Hofler, Margit

    2011-01-01

    Research in automated creation of test items for assessment purposes became increasingly important during the recent years. Due to automatic question creation it is possible to support personalized and self-directed learning activities by preparing appropriate and individualized test items quite easily with relatively little effort or even fully…

  1. On the Nature of the Relationship between Processing Activity and Item Retention in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towse, John N.; Hitch, Graham J.; Hutton, Una

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments investigated forgetting when a processing task is interpolated between presentation and recall of memory items with children ages 8-17 years. Findings showed consistent effects of the duration of the task, but no effects of its difficulty or similarity to memory material, and no developmental differences in task performance.…

  2. 17 CFR 229.1205 - (Item 1205) Drilling and other exploratory and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... not a dry well. (3) Completion refers to installation of permanent equipment for production of oil or..., disclose: (1) The number of net productive and dry exploratory wells drilled; and (2) The number of net productive and dry development wells drilled. (b) Definitions. For purposes of this Item 1205, the...

  3. Using the Nominal Response Model to Evaluate Response Category Discrimination in the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen; Reise, Steven; Cai, Li; Hays, Ron D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a nominal response item response theory model to estimate category boundary discrimination (CBD) parameters for items drawn from the Emotional Distress item pools (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) project. For polytomous items with ordered response…

  4. Numerical Differentiation Methods for Computing Error Covariance Matrices in Item Response Theory Modeling: An Evaluation and a New Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Wei; Cai, Li; Thissen, David; Xin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In item response theory (IRT) modeling, the item parameter error covariance matrix plays a critical role in statistical inference procedures. When item parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm, the parameter error covariance matrix is not an automatic by-product of item calibration. Cai proposed the use of Supplemented EM algorithm for…

  5. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a German Version of the PROMIS® Item Banks for Satisfaction With Participation.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Michaela; Gramm, Lukas; Heyduck, Katja; Glattacker, Manuela; Farin, Erik

    2015-06-01

    The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative aims to provide reliable and precise item banks measuring patient-reported outcomes in different health domains. The aim of the present work was to provide a German translation of the PROMIS item banks for satisfaction with participation and to psychometrically test these German versions. Cognitive interviews followed a forward-backward translation. Distribution characteristics, unidimensionality, Rasch model fit, reliability, construct validity, and internal responsiveness were tested in 262 patients with chronic low back pain undergoing rehabilitation. Results for the final 13- and 10-item German static scales (Satisfaction with Participation in Social Roles-German version [PSR-G] and Satisfaction for Participation in Discretionary Social Activities-German version [PSA-G]) regarding unidimensionality were satisfactory. The scales are reliable and show good Rasch model fit and distribution characteristics. Both scales are sensitive to small to moderate clinical changes, and we observed initial proof of construct validity. These German versions of the Satisfaction with Participation scales can be recommended to assess participation in a clinical context. The scales' applicability in other contexts should be examined.

  6. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    PubMed

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618

  7. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    PubMed

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering

    PubMed Central

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18–82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618

  9. Technical Evaluation for the Determination of CGI Designation for Safety Class Items Incorporated in Hose-in-Hose Transfer Line Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    BUCHANAN, J.R.

    2000-05-16

    The purpose of this technical evaluation is to determine whether the secondary hoses are to be categorized as Commercial Grade Items (CGI) or Engineered Equipment. This determination will identify whether or not use of the CGI Dedication process is appropriate.

  10. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to

  11. Distributed patterns of activity in sensory cortex reflect the precision of multiple items maintained in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Emrich, Stephen M; Riggall, Adam C; Larocque, Joshua J; Postle, Bradley R

    2013-04-10

    Traditionally, load sensitivity of sustained, elevated activity has been taken as an index of storage for a limited number of items in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Recently, studies have demonstrated that the contents of a single item held in VSTM can be decoded from early visual cortex, despite the fact that these areas do not exhibit elevated, sustained activity. It is unknown, however, whether the patterns of neural activity decoded from sensory cortex change as a function of load, as one would expect from a region storing multiple representations. Here, we use multivoxel pattern analysis to examine the neural representations of VSTM in humans across multiple memory loads. In an important extension of previous findings, our results demonstrate that the contents of VSTM can be decoded from areas that exhibit a transient response to visual stimuli, but not from regions that exhibit elevated, sustained load-sensitive delay-period activity. Moreover, the neural information present in these transiently activated areas decreases significantly with increasing load, indicating load sensitivity of the patterns of activity that support VSTM maintenance. Importantly, the decrease in classification performance as a function of load is correlated with within-subject changes in mnemonic resolution. These findings indicate that distributed patterns of neural activity in putatively sensory visual cortex support the representation and precision of information in VSTM.

  12. An Evaluation of Forced-Choice and True-False Item Formats in Personality Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; And Others

    In a comparative evaluation of a standard true-false format for personality assessment and a forced-choice format, subjects from college residential units were assigned randomly to respond either to the forced-choice or standard true-false form of the Personality Research Form (PRF). All subjects also rated themselves and the members of their…

  13. Gathering Evidence for Validity during the Design, Development, and Qualitative Evaluation of Thermochemistry Concept Inventory Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, David; Barbera, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Assessment instruments developed specifically for chemistry classrooms have increased in number over the past decade. In the design, development, and evaluation of these instruments, the chemical education community has adopted many of the practices and standards used by the greater assessment communities. Methodologies for creating new assessment…

  14. Using Item Data for Evaluating Criterion Reference Measures with an Empirical Investigation of Index Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Keith E.; Sabers, Darrell L.

    Data required for evaluating a Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) is described with a matrix. The information within the matrix consists of the "pass-fail" decisions of two CRMs. By differentially defining these two CRMs, different concepts of reliability and validity can be examined. Indices suggested for analyzing the matrix are listed with…

  15. Evaluating the Consistency of Angoff-Based Cut Scores Using Subsets of Items within a Generalizability Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannan, Priya; Sgammato, Adrienne; Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Katz, Irvin R.

    2015-01-01

    The Angoff method requires experts to view every item on the test and make a probability judgment. This can be time consuming when there are large numbers of items on the test. In this study, a G-theory framework was used to determine if a subset of items can be used to make generalizable cut-score recommendations. Angoff ratings (i.e.,…

  16. Evaluating Fidelity to the Wraparound Service Model for Youth: Application of Item Response Theory to the Wraparound Fidelity Index

    PubMed Central

    Pullmann, Michael D.; Bruns, Eric J.; Sather, April K.

    2013-01-01

    The wraparound process is a mechanism for multi-system planning and care coordination for youth with serious emotional and behavioral problems. Fidelity monitoring is critical to effective implementation of evidence-based practices in children’s mental health, as it helps ensure that complex interventions like wraparound are implemented as intended. The 40-item Wraparound Fidelity Index, version 4 (WFI-4; Bruns, Burchard, Suter, Leverentz-Brady, & Force, 2004) is the most frequently used measure of fidelity to the wraparound process, but analysis of its psychometric properties is insufficient. An item response theory approach, Rasch partial credit models for ordered polytomous data, was used on ratings from 1,234 facilitators, 1,006 caregivers, and 221 team members, focused on 1,478 youths (55% male). Results indicated the WFI-4 measured a unidimensional construct, with little evidence of item bias and good item and model fit. However, the item information curve was skewed, with most people endorsing high-fidelity responses, and several items had duplicative location estimates. A reduced 20-item measure is proposed. Internal reliability estimates for scores from this reduced measure were approximately equivalent to the longer measure. However, both versions would benefit from additional items located in the highest-fidelity area of either version of the scale where scores by greater than half of our sample fall, but only three items are located. PMID:23544392

  17. Early sensory cortex is activated in the absence of explicit input during crossmodal item retrieval: evidence from MEG.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Ajay S; Gilbert, Jessica R; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-02-01

    Crossmodal associations form a fundamental aspect of our daily lives. In this study we investigated the neural correlates of crossmodal association in early sensory cortices using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a paired associate recognition paradigm in which subjects were tested after multiple training sessions over a span of four weeks. Subjects had to learn 12 abstract, nonlinguistic, pairs of auditory and visual objects that consisted of crossmodal (visual-auditory, VA; auditory-visual, AV) and unimodal (visual-visual, VV; auditory-auditory, AA) paired items. Visual objects included abstract, non-nameable, fractal-like images, and auditory objects included abstract tone sequences. During scanning, subjects were shown the first item of a pair (S1), followed by a delay, then the simultaneous presentation of a visual and auditory stimulus (S2). Subjects were instructed to indicate whether either of the S2 stimuli contained the correct paired associate of S1. Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAMspm), a minimum variance beamformer, was then used to assess source power differences between the crossmodal conditions and their corresponding unimodal conditions (i.e., AV-AA and VA-VV) in the beta (15-30 Hz) and low gamma frequencies (31-54 Hz) during the S1 period. We found greater power during S1 in the corresponding modality-specific association areas for crossmodal compared with unimodal stimuli. Thus, even in the absence of explicit sensory input, the retrieval of well-learned, crossmodal pairs activate sensory areas associated with the corresponding modality. These findings support theories which posit that modality-specific regions of cortex are involved in the storage and retrieval of sensory-specific items from long-term memory.

  18. Action Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Keane, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Maximizing school resources and managing a shrinking budget--these are two important items affected when a building's roofing system does not perform properly. Rather than acting in haste, school and university administrators should do what every teacher tells a student prior to answering any question: think through the research and studies to…

  19. Taking an Item-Level Approach to Measuring Change with the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation: An Application of Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Robert M., III

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of curricular or instructional innovations, researchers often attempt to measure change in students' conceptual understanding of the target subject matter. The measurement of change is therefore a critical endeavor. Often, this is accomplished through pre-post testing using an assessment such as a…

  20. [Functional capacity in the elderly: analyzing questions on mobility and basic and instrumental activities of daily living using Item Response Theory].

    PubMed

    César, Cibele Comini; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-05-01

    This article aims to evaluate the items used to measure functional capacity in the 2010 Health Survey in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using Item Response Theory. We analyzed the scale's dimensionality, the items' position and discriminatory power, and the precision of the functional capacity estimate. The study was based on a sample of 2,174 individuals aged 60 to 99 years, 61% of whom were women, with a median of 4 years of schooling. The instrument with 21 items (4 response options) showed a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. Factor analysis identified one factor that explained 92% of the variability between the items. The results indicated: (i) redundancy in items; (ii) precise estimation of functional capacity only for elderly below the median on the scale; and (iii) inability of the elderly to differentiate between response options. The analysis suggests the need to discuss items included in the instrument in order to cover a wider range of the scale and seek more appropriate response options. PMID:26083169

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of 5- and 4-Item Versions of the LATCH Breastfeeding Assessment Tool during the Initial Postpartum Period among a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal consistency, structural validity, sensitivity and specificity of the 5- and 4-item versions of the LATCH assessment tool among a multiethnic population in Singapore. Methods The study was a secondary analysis of a subset of data (n = 907) from our previous breastfeeding survey from 2013 to 2014. The internal consistency of the LATCH was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. The structural validity was assessed using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the proposed factors were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using separate samples. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the LATCH score thresholds for predicting non-exclusive breastfeeding. Results The Cronbach’s alpha values of the 5- and 4-item LATCH assessments were 0.70 and 0.74, respectively. The EFA demonstrated a one-factor structure for the 5- and 4-item LATCH assessments among a randomized split of 334 vaginally delivered women. Two CFA of the 4-item LATCH demonstrated better fit indices of the models compared to the two CFA of the 5-item LATCH among another randomized split of 335 vaginally delivered women and 238 cesarean delivered women. Using cutoffs of 5.5 and 3.5 were recommended when predicting non-exclusive breastfeeding for 5- and 4-item versions of the LATCH assessment among vaginally delivered women (n = 669), with satisfactory sensitivities (94% and 95%), low specificities (0% and 2%), low positive predictive values (25%) and negative predictive values (20% and 47%). A cutoff of 5.5 was recommended to predict non-exclusive breastfeeding for 5- and 4-item versions among cesarean delivered women (n = 238) with satisfactory sensitivities (93% and 98%), low specificities (4% and 9%), low positive predictive values (41%) and negative predictive values (65% and 75%). Therefore, the tool has good sensitivity but poor specificity, positive and negative predictive

  2. Surveying for "artifacts": the susceptibility of the OCB-performance evaluation relationship to common rater, item, and measurement context effects.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Whiting, Steven W; Welsh, David T; Mai, Ke Michael

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increased attention paid to biases attributable to common method variance (CMV) over the past 50 years, researchers have only recently begun to systematically examine the effect of specific sources of CMV in previously published empirical studies. Our study contributes to this research by examining the extent to which common rater, item, and measurement context characteristics bias the relationships between organizational citizenship behaviors and performance evaluations using a mixed-effects analytic technique. Results from 173 correlations reported in 81 empirical studies (N = 31,146) indicate that even after controlling for study-level factors, common rater and anchor point number similarity substantially biased the focal correlations. Indeed, these sources of CMV (a) led to estimates that were between 60% and 96% larger when comparing measures obtained from a common rater, versus different raters; (b) led to 39% larger estimates when a common source rated the scales using the same number, versus a different number, of anchor points; and (c) when taken together with other study-level predictors, accounted for over half of the between-study variance in the focal correlations. We discuss the implications for researchers and practitioners and provide recommendations for future research.

  3. Surveying for "artifacts": the susceptibility of the OCB-performance evaluation relationship to common rater, item, and measurement context effects.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Whiting, Steven W; Welsh, David T; Mai, Ke Michael

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increased attention paid to biases attributable to common method variance (CMV) over the past 50 years, researchers have only recently begun to systematically examine the effect of specific sources of CMV in previously published empirical studies. Our study contributes to this research by examining the extent to which common rater, item, and measurement context characteristics bias the relationships between organizational citizenship behaviors and performance evaluations using a mixed-effects analytic technique. Results from 173 correlations reported in 81 empirical studies (N = 31,146) indicate that even after controlling for study-level factors, common rater and anchor point number similarity substantially biased the focal correlations. Indeed, these sources of CMV (a) led to estimates that were between 60% and 96% larger when comparing measures obtained from a common rater, versus different raters; (b) led to 39% larger estimates when a common source rated the scales using the same number, versus a different number, of anchor points; and (c) when taken together with other study-level predictors, accounted for over half of the between-study variance in the focal correlations. We discuss the implications for researchers and practitioners and provide recommendations for future research. PMID:23565897

  4. Evaluation of the Physical Activity Biography: Sport and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Rogen, Sandra; Hofmann, Peter; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Müller, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Beside the genetic disposition, physical activity (PA) is one of the major health factors and can play a large role in the prevention and therapy of many diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity-related diseases etc.). In contrast to the genetic disposition, PA can be deliberately influenced by lifestyle. Therefore, it is of high importance to assess PA patterns. In order to assess PA reliably and validly, a new questionnaire (Physical Activity Biography, PAB) was created. The PAB assesses recreational PA (sport and transport) and enables to distinguish between endurance intensity levels and considers strength and high speed activity patterns throughout life. This study aims to evaluate the PAB by means of item analysis, retest-reliability and validity (criteria were physical fitness assessed by the questionnaire FFB-mot and by exercise tests). 141 participants answered the PAB. For deriving retest-reliability, 81 participants completed the PAB after a retest-interval of one month again. 55 participated in exercise tests and answered the FFB-mot to determine construct validity. Retest-reliability (ICC) above 0.7 was found for most items. For the items assessing recent PA, the criteria of convergent and discriminant validity were given. Despite the complexity of the question under study, the results fulfilled the expectations concerning reliability and validity. The PAB enables to assess the amount of sport and locomotion a person has accomplished during different life time frames and, because of the protective effects of PA on various diseases, may become an important tool for risk assessment. Key points The risk of chronic diseases depends largely on physical activity biography. A new questionnaire (PAB) assessing recent and lifetime physical activity was created. The PAB assesses physical activity during sports and transport. The results of the evaluation of the PAB fulfilled the expectations. The PAB enables to determine a person’s amount of

  5. Functional Activities Questionnaire items that best discriminate and predict progression from clinically normal to mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Zoller, Amy S.; Lorius, Natacha; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) emerges in the transition from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. Some IADL scales are sensitive to early deficits in MCI, but none have been validated for detecting subtle functional changes in clinically normal (CN) elderly at risk for AD. Methods Data from 624 subjects participating in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and 524 subjects participating in the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, which are two large cohorts including CN elderly and MCI subjects, were used to determine which Functional Activities Questionnaire items best discriminate between and predict progression from CN to MCI. Results We found that “Remembering appointments” and “assembling tax records” best discriminated between CN and MCI subjects, while worse performance on “paying attention and understanding a TV program”, “paying bills/balancing checkbook”, and “heating water and turning off the stove” predicted greater hazard of progressing from a diagnosis of CN to MCI. Conclusions These results demonstrate that certain questions are especially sensitive in detecting the earliest functional changes in CN elderly at risk for AD. As the field moves toward earlier intervention in preclinical AD, it is important to determine which IADL changes can be detected at that stage and track decline over time. PMID:26017560

  6. Evaluation of a Lag Schedule of Reinforcement in a Group Contingency to Promote Varied Naming of Categories Items with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiskow, Katie M.; Donaldson, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of Lag 0 and Lag 1 schedules of reinforcement on children's responses naming category items in a group context and subsequent responses emitted during individual testing in which the schedule of reinforcement remained Lag 0. Specifically, we measured response variability and novel responses to categories for 3 children who…

  7. Taking the Missing Propensity into Account When Estimating Competence Scores: Evaluation of Item Response Theory Models for Nonignorable Omissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köhler, Carmen; Pohl, Steffi; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2015-01-01

    When competence tests are administered, subjects frequently omit items. These missing responses pose a threat to correctly estimating the proficiency level. Newer model-based approaches aim to take nonignorable missing data processes into account by incorporating a latent missing propensity into the measurement model. Two assumptions are typically…

  8. Developing Parallel Career and Occupational Development Objectives and Exercise (Test) Items in Spanish for Assessment and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratti, Jose E.; And Others

    A parallel Spanish edition was developed of released objectives and objective-referenced items used in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the field of Career and Occupational Development (COD). The Spanish edition was designed to assess the identical skills, attitudes, concepts, and knowledge of Spanish-dominant students…

  9. Agriculture Library of Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Duncan, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection is reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test…

  10. Item Difficulty Modeling of Paragraph Comprehension Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Joanna S.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Recent assessment research joining cognitive psychology and psychometric theory has introduced a new technology, item generation. In algorithmic item generation, items are systematically created based on specific combinations of features that underlie the processing required to correctly solve a problem. Reading comprehension items have been more…

  11. Examination of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale-Version 2 and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale-Straightforward Items Factor Structure in a Sample of U.S. College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liu; Lowe, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the factor structure of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-Straightforward Items (BFNE-S) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-Version 2 (BFNE-II) among 151 college students from the United States. Results indicated that the BFNE-S and the BFNE-II scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability.…

  12. Evaluation of measurement equivalence of the Family Satisfaction with the End-of-Life Care in an ethnically diverse cohort: Tests of differential item functioning

    PubMed Central

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Ramirez, Mildred; Kleinman, Marjorie; Ornstein, Katherine; Siu, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background The Family Satisfaction with End-of-Life Care is an internationally used measure of satisfaction with cancer care. However, the Family Satisfaction with End-of-Life Care has not been studied for equivalence of item endorsement across different socio-demographic groups using differential item functioning. Aims The aims of this secondary data analysis were (1) to examine potential differential item functioning in the family satisfaction item set with respect to type of caregiver, race, and patient age, gender, and education and (2) to provide parameters and documentation of differential item functioning for an item bank. Design A mixed qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted. A priori hypotheses regarding potential group differences in item response were established. Item response theory and Wald tests were used for the analyses of differential item functioning, accompanied by magnitude and impact measures. Results Very little significant differential item functioning was observed for patient's age and gender. For race, 13 items showed differential item functioning after multiple comparison adjustment, 10 with non-uniform differential item functioning. No items evidenced differential item functioning of high magnitude, and the impact was negligible. For education, 5 items evidenced uniform differential item functioning after adjustment, none of high magnitude. Differential item functioning impact was trivial. One item evidenced differential item functioning for the caregiver relationship variable. Conclusion Differential item functioning was observed primarily for race and education. No differential item functioning of high magnitude was observed for any item, and the overall impact of differential item functioning was negligible. One item, satisfaction with “the patient's pain relief,” might be singled out for further study, given that this item was both hypothesized and observed to show differential item functioning for race and education

  13. Evaluation of a single-item screening question to detect limited health literacy in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepika; Sheth, Heena; Bender, Filitsa H; Weisbord, Steven D; Green, Jamie A

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that a single-item question might be useful in identifying patients with limited health literacy. However, the utility of the approach has not been studied in patients receiving maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD). We assessed health literacy in a cohort of 31 PD patients by administering the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and a single-item health literacy (SHL) screening question "How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?" (Extremely, Quite a bit, Somewhat, A little bit, or Not at all). To determine the accuracy of the single-item question for detecting limited health literacy, we performed sensitivity and specificity analyses of the SHL and plotted the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve using the REALM as a reference standard. Using a cut-off of "Somewhat" or less confident, the sensitivity of the SHL for detecting limited health literacy was 80%, and the specificity was 88%. The positive likelihood ratio was 6.9. The SHL had an AUROC of 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 1.00). Our results show that the SHL could be effective in detecting limited health literacy in PD patients.

  14. Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

  15. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  16. DECOMMISSIONING OF SHIELDED FACILITIES AT WINFRITH USED FOR POST IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF NUCLEAR FUELS & OTHER ACTIVE ITEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.D.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the approaches used in the clearing, cleaning, decontamination and decommissioning of a very large suite of seven concrete shielded caves and other facilities used by UKAEA at Winfrith Technology Centre, England over a period of about 30 years for the postirradiation examination (PIE) of a wide range of nuclear fuels and other very active components. The basic construction of the facilities will first be described, setting the scene for the major challenges that 1970s' thinking posed for decommissioning engineers. The tendency then to use large and heavy items of equipment supported upon massive steel bench structures produced a series of major problems that had to be overcome. The means of solving these problems by utilization of relatively simple and inexpensive equipment will be described. Later, a further set of challenges was experienced to decontaminate the interior surfaces to allow man entries to be undertaken at acceptable dose rates. The paper will describe the types of tooling used and the range of complementary techniques that were employed to steadily reduce the dose rates down to acceptable levels. Some explanations will also be given for the creation of realistic dose budgets and the methods of recording and continuously assessing the progress against these budgets throughout the project. Some final considerations are given to the commercial approaches to be adopted throughout this major project by the decommissioning engineers. Particular emphasis will be given to the selection of equipment and techniques that are effective so that the whole process can be carried out in a cost-effective and timely manner. The paper also provides brief complementary information obtained during the decommissioning of a plutonium-contaminated facility used for a range of semi-experimental purposes in the late 1970s. The main objective here was to remove the alpha contamination in such a manner that the volume of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (P

  17. Suppressive effects of Okinawan food items on free radical generation from stimulated leukocytes and identification of some active constituents: implications for the prevention of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akira; Ishida, Hisashi; Kobo, Kimie; Furukawa, Ikuyo; Ikeda, Yasutaka; Yonaha, Megumi; Aniya, Yohko; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2005-01-01

    Okinawa prefecture in Japan is a distinct area characterized by unique traditional food habits and longevity. Prolonged exposure to activated leukocytes, playing pivotal roles in chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis, is known to lead to oxidative and nitrosative damage to macromolecules in the body since they are primary sources of free radicals, such as superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we estimated anti-oxidative and anti-nitrosative activities of Okinawan food items by employing two cellular experimental systems: (1) phorbol ester-induced O(2)(-) generation from differentiated HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells; and (2) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO generation in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. A total of 138 food items, consisting of 42 samples unique to Okinawa and 96 common in the Japanese main island, were purchased at local markets in Okinawa and extracted with chloroform. When tested at a concentration of 100 microg/ml, 38% (16/42) of the former showed 70% or more inhibition of O(2)(-) generation while 21% (20/96) of the latter did so. In parallel, 64% (27/42) of the former showed significant NO generation suppression in contrast to 48% (46/96) of the latter . Twenty-one active species were further tested at a concentration of 20 mug/ml, and eleven species, including sugar cane, wild turmeric, and zedoary, were indicated to be most promising items with anti-oxidative and anti-nitrosative properties. In addition, some of the active constituents (chebulagic acid, a resveratrol derivative, and sesquiterpenoids) were identified. Our results suggest that food items typical in the Okinawa area have higher cancer preventive potential than those common in Japan.

  18. Evaluation of a lag schedule of reinforcement in a group contingency to promote varied naming of categories items with children.

    PubMed

    Wiskow, Katie M; Donaldson, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    We compared the effects of Lag 0 and Lag 1 schedules of reinforcement on children's responses naming category items in a group context and subsequent responses emitted during individual testing in which the schedule of reinforcement remained Lag 0. Specifically, we measured response variability and novel responses to categories for 3 children who demonstrated the lowest level of variability during an initial individual Lag 0 testing session. An additional 3 children who emitted a high level of variability during initial individual Lag 0 testing sessions served as peers during group sessions. Results showed that participants conformed to the Lag 1 schedule and were more likely to repeat peer responses in the group and during individual testing in the Lag 1 condition. Furthermore, the reinforcement schedule in effect during group sessions affected participants' varied responses during individual testing, during which the reinforcement schedule remained unchanged. PMID:27174183

  19. Evaluation of community-based nurse case management activities for symptomatic HIV/AIDS clients.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Henry, S B; Holzemer, W L; Falknor, P

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate case management activities performed by nurse case managers in the California Pilot Care and Waiver Projects for HIV/AIDS patients. Nurse case managers, social workers, and site directors completed a 62-item survey. Significant differences appeared in ratings among the groups on five items. The nurse case managers responding to the survey indicated that a wide variety of nursing skills are used to provide case management services to persons living with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. This survey validates the interdisciplinary case management model in a community-based HIV population.

  20. A simple tool for diet evaluation in primary health care: validation of a 16-item food intake questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hemiö, Katri; Pölönen, Auli; Ahonen, Kirsti; Kosola, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Lindström, Jaana

    2014-03-04

    Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ) and create an easy to use method to estimate patients' nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women) completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman correlation. Further, nutrient intakes were compared using kappa-statistics and exact and opposite agreement of intake tertiles. The results indicated that the 16-FIQ reliably categorized individuals according to their nutrient intakes. Methods to estimate nutrient intake based on the answers given in 16-FIQ were created. In linear regression models nutrient intake estimates from the food records were used as the dependent variables and sum variables derived from the 16-FIQ were used as the independent variables. Valid regression models were created for the energy proportion of fat, saturated fat, and sucrose and the amount of fibre (g), vitamin C (mg), iron (mg), and vitamin D (μg) intake. The 16-FIQ is a valid method for estimating nutrient intakes in group level. In addition, the 16-FIQ could be a useful tool to facilitate identification of people in need of dietary counselling and to monitor the effect of counselling in primary health care.

  1. Aware and (dis)liking: item-based analyses reveal that valence acquisition via evaluative conditioning emerges only when there is contingency awareness.

    PubMed

    Pleyers, Gordy; Corneille, Olivier; Luminet, Olivier; Yzerbyt, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in the liking of an affectively neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, or CS) following the pairing of that stimulus with another stimulus of affective value (the unconditioned stimulus, or US). In 3 experiments, the authors assessed contingency awareness, that is, awareness of the CS-US associations, by relying on participants' responses to individual items rather than using a global method of assessment. They found that EC emerged on contingency aware CSs only. Of note, whether the CSs were evaluated explicitly (Experiments 1 and 2) or implicitly (Experiment 3) did not make a difference. This pattern supports the idea that awareness of the CS-US associations may be required for valence acquisition via EC.

  2. Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuEChERS method: a case study from the Jimma Zone.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Samples of maize, teff, red pepper, and coffee (green bean and coffee bean with pulp) were collected from a local market in the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, DTT and its metabolites, and endosulfan (α, β). In the analytical procedure, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction methodology with dispersive solid phase extraction clean up (d-SPE) technique was applied. Validation of the QuEChERS method was satisfactory. Recovery percentages of most pesticides were in the range of 70% to 120%, with good repeatability (%relative standard deviation < 20). The limit of detection and limit of quantification varied between 0.001 µg/g and 0.092 µg/g and between 0.002 µg/g and 0.307 µg/g, respectively. The main pesticides detected were DDT, endosulfan, cypermethrin, and permethrin. All of the pesticides analyzed were detected in red pepper and green coffee bean. Residues of DDT in coffee pulp significantly differed (p < 0.01) from other food items except for red pepper. The concentration of pesticides in the food items varied from 0.011 mg/kg to 1.115 mg/kg. All food items contained 1 or more pesticides. Two-thirds of the samples had residues below corresponding maximum residue limits, and the remaining one-third of samples were above the maximum residue limits. These results indicate the need for a good pesticide monitoring program to evaluate consumer risk for the Ethiopian people.

  3. Maintaining Item and Test Security in a CAT Environment: A Simulation Study. Laboratory of Psychometric and Evaluative Research Report No. 309.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsula, Liane N.; Steffen, Mandred

    One challenge associated with computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is the maintenance of test and item security while allowing for daily testing. An alternative to continually creating new pools containing an independent set of items would be to consider each CAT pool as a sample of items from a larger collection (referred to as a VAT) rather than…

  4. Automated Item Selection Using Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.; And Others

    This paper presents a new heuristic approach to interactive test assembly that is called the successive item replacement algorithm. This approach builds on the work of W. J. van der Linden (1987) and W. J. van der Linden and E. Boekkooi-Timminga (1989) in which methods of mathematical optimization are combined with item response theory to…

  5. Evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) Spanish Version 4 in South America: Classic Psychometric and Item Response Theory Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dapueto, Juan J; Francolino, Carla; Servente, Liliana; Chang, Chih-Hung; Gotta, Irene; Levin, Roberto; Abreu, María del Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Background The FACT-G has gone through many validation studies. However, little research has been conducted in South American Spanish speaking patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the FACT-G Spanish Version 4 in Uruguayan cancer patients. Methods The data analyzed were collected from 309 patients, with various tumor sites, at different stages of disease and receiving different treatments. Results Reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's coefficient alpha and showed high internal consistency for each of the subscales and its total scale (range = .78 – .91) of the FACT-G. The FACT-G total score also showed significant mean differences among known groups (performance status, in vs. outpatients) when tested by ANOVA and t-test. When the tumor stage (Local and Regional vs. Metastatic disease) was used as a clinical anchor, the FACT-G total score, the Physical Well-being (PWB), and Functional Well-being (FWB) subscale scores showed mean differences, ranging from 5 to 10 points in a scale from 0–108 (effect sizes = 0.30–0.60). Item response theory (IRT)-based evaluation using mean square fit statistics (.60–1.4) criteria showed that only two items misfit: "Estoy satisfecho(a) con mi vida sexual" (I am satisfied with my sex life) and "Estoy satisfecho(a) de cómo estoy enfrentando mi enfermedad" (I am satisfied with how I am coping with my illness). Conclusion The results indicated that, using both traditional and IRT approaches, the Spanish FACT-G has good reliability and validity to be used as a QOL instrument among Uruguayan cancer patients. PMID:12969512

  6. Brain activity is related to individual differences in the number of items stored in auditory short-term memory for pitch: evidence from magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Grimault, Stephan; Nolden, Sophie; Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Hyde, Krista; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert; Robitaille, Nicolas; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine brain activity related to the maintenance of non-verbal pitch information in auditory short-term memory (ASTM). We focused on brain activity that increased with the number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the retention interval of an auditory memory task. We used very simple acoustic materials (i.e., pure tones that varied in pitch) that minimized activation from non-ASTM related systems. MEG revealed neural activity in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices that increased with a greater number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the maintenance of pitch representations in ASTM. The present results reinforce the functional role of frontal and temporal cortices in the retention of pitch information in ASTM. This is the first MEG study to provide both fine spatial localization and temporal resolution on the neural mechanisms of non-verbal ASTM for pitch in relation to individual differences in the capacity of ASTM. This research contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms mediating the representation and maintenance of basic non-verbal auditory features in the human brain.

  7. Factors Associated with Evaluating Public Relations Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    More than 150 public relations practitioners responded to a survey designed to identify and clarify factors associated with evaluative research in public relations. Responses indicated that (1) no more than half the practitioners formally evaluate their public relations activities on a regular basis; (2) the majority of evaluation is done…

  8. The Human Activity of Evaluation Theorizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Ellett, Frederick, Jr.

    Theorizing about evaluation should be conceptualized as a human activity governed by certain strategies and principles. The theories advanced by various evaluators have changed over the years, thus illustrating ten principles of evaluation. The starting point for theory development or modification is self-reflection and review of one's own…

  9. Restricted interests and teacher presentation of items.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items.

  10. RESTRICTED INTERESTS AND TEACHER PRESENTATION OF ITEMS

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items. PMID:21941381

  11. Ramsay-Curve Item Response Theory for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    In Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT), the latent variable distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters of a unidimensional item response model using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. This study evaluates RC-IRT for the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with comparisons to the normal model and to the empirical…

  12. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  13. Comparing Item Characteristic Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops and applies three nonparametric comparisons of the shapes of two item characteristic surfaces: (1) proportional latent odds; (2) uniform relative difficulty; and (3) item sensitivity. A method is presented for comparing the relative shapes of two item characteristic curves in two examinee populations who were administered an…

  14. Random Item IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    It is common practice in IRT to consider items as fixed and persons as random. Both, continuous and categorical person parameters are most often random variables, whereas for items only continuous parameters are used and they are commonly of the fixed type, although exceptions occur. It is shown in the present article that random item parameters…

  15. Psychometric study of the Persian short-form eight-item Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-8) to evaluate health related quality of life (HRQoL)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess validation and reliability of the Persian version of the short-form 8-item Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-8) and to compare its psychometric properties with that of the long-form questionnaire (PDQ-39) in order to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 114 non-demented idiopathic PD (IPD) patients consecutively recruited from an outpatient referral movement disorder clinic. Patients were interviewed to fill in the Persian version of PDQ-39 and PDQ-8 questionnaires and clinical examination was performed to measure disease severity indices. Results The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the entire PDQ-8 was 0.740 (95% CI: 0.661-0.806). Replacement of PDQ-8 items with other questions with the highest internal consistency within each dimension of the original PDQ-39 did not improve Cronbach’s alpha coefficient [0.723 (95% CI: 0.639-0.794)]. The scores from both PDQ-8 and PDQ-39 had significant correlation with the Hoehn & Yahr (rPDQ-8 = 0.376, rPDQ-39 = 0.442), and Schwab & England (rPDQ-8 = -0.503, rPDQ-39 = -0.598) disease severity scales and disease duration (rPDQ-8 = 0.342, rPDQ-39 = 0.396). Conclusions Persian version of the short-form PDQ (PDQ-8) was shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess disease-specific HRQoL in a PD population when used independently. Although the PDQ-8 items were not necessarily those with the highest internal consistency in the components of PDQ-39, they entirely showed proper psychometric properties especially in mental and behavioral aspects. PDQ-8 is a practical and informative instrument in daily clinical practice where clinicians are in shortage of time and when a validated self-reported brief questionnaire is of value. PMID:24885477

  16. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  17. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  18. Evaluating SPP/APR Improvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to assist State Education Agency (SEA) and Lead Agency (LA) staff and technical assistance providers in designing a meaningful evaluation for the State Performance Plan (SPP)/Annual Performance Report (APR) improvement activities. It provides: (1) information about the relevance of evaluation in the context of improvement…

  19. An Investigation of Different Treatment Strategies for Item Category Collapsing in Calibration: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay-lim, Brenda Siok-Hoon; Zhang, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the statistical result validity, model-data fit must be evaluated for each item. In practice, certain actions or treatments are needed for misfit items. If all misfit items are treated, much item information would be lost during calibration. On the other hand, if only severely misfit items are treated, the inclusion of misfit items may…

  20. 48 CFR 252.209-7010 - Critical Safety Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... clause: Critical Safety Items (AUG 2011) (a) Definitions. Aviation critical safety item means a part, an... control activity. (i) With respect to an aviation critical safety item, means the systems command of a... or equipment, in which an aviation critical safety item is to be used; and (ii) With respect to...

  1. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part III. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: An Item Response Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the third of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we use item response theory to analyze students' responses to three out of the four conceptual cosmology surveys we developed. The specific item response theory model we use is…

  2. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  3. The Relationship between Item Parameters and Item Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2004-01-01

    The effect of item parameters (discrimination, difficulty, and level of guessing) on the item-fit statistic was investigated using simulated dichotomous data. Nine tests were simulated using 1,000 persons, 50 items, three levels of item discrimination, three levels of item difficulty, and three levels of guessing. The item fit was estimated using…

  4. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214-72 Section 852.214-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES... Alternate item(s). As prescribed in 814.201-6(b)(2), insert the following provision: Alternate Item(s)...

  5. Does Acquiescence Affect Individual Items Consistently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Chester Chun Seng; Zhou, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found the effects of acquiescence to be generally consistent across item "aggregates" within a single survey (i.e., essential tau-equivalence), but it is unknown whether this phenomenon is consistent at the" individual item" level. This article evaluated the often assumed but inadequately tested…

  6. Geography: Library of Test Items. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  7. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  8. Geography Library of Test Items. Volume Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouimanos, John, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…

  9. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  10. The 4-Item Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA-4) Instrument: A Simple Tool for Evaluating Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia Following Brief Training.

    PubMed

    Alphs, Larry; Morlock, Robert; Coon, Cheryl; van Willigenburg, Arjen; Panagides, John

    2010-07-01

    Objective. To assess the ability of mental health professionals to use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instrument, derived from the Negative Symptom Assessment-16, to rapidly determine the severity of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.Design. Open participation.Setting. Medical education conferences.Participants. Attendees at two international psychiatry conferences.Measurements. Participants read a brief set of the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instructions and viewed a videotape of a patient with schizophrenia. Using the 1 to 6 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment severity rating scale, they rated four negative symptom items and the overall global negative symptoms. These ratings were compared with a consensus rating determination using frequency distributions and Chi-square tests for the proportion of participant ratings that were within one point of the expert rating.Results. More than 400 medical professionals (293 physicians, 50% with a European practice, and 55% who reported past utilization of schizophrenia ratings scales) participated. Between 82.1 and 91.1 percent of the 4-items and the global rating determinations by the participants were within one rating point of the consensus expert ratings. The differences between the percentage of participant rating scores that were within one point versus the percentage that were greater than one point different from those by the consensus experts was significant (p<0.0001). Participants rating of negative symptoms using the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment did not generally differ among the geographic regions of practice, the professional credentialing, or their familiarity with the use of schizophrenia symptom rating instruments.Conclusion. These findings suggest that clinicians from a variety of geographic practices can, after brief training, use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment effectively to rapidly assess negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Assessment of visiting activities for young children using the UNAWE Evaluation Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    When the target is young children and the activity type is play, the assessment of the activity is not easy. The table of domains of active learning shown in the EU Universe Awareness Programme Evaluation Guide is useful for the assessment; the Guide shows the four domains; motivation, scientific skills, universe knowledge, and intercultural attitudes, and many items of objectives in each domains. The Guide can be a basic format and the items can be modified so as to fit each activity. Taking my activity as an example, I will present an assessment using the Guide. The activity I will present is "Uchu no O-hanashi," a visiting activity which includeds slide show, story telling, and enjoying pictures on large sheets for children at nursery, kindergarten, preschool and other sites. In order to obtain the data, I have recorded the voice of children. The analysis method is a kind of qualitative one. I picked up "motivation" and "scientific skills" words from the record when they muttered about and asked each other what they felt, what they found, and what they got excited about. Among the items in the "scientific skills domain," looking at carefully, asking, exchanging opinions, interpreting or trying to interpret, and trying were frequently appeared. Other skills such as devising and confirming were not frequently appeared but they would sometimes appear later at home or at school after the activity. I also picked up the words of children obtaining scientific way of view and attitude through the activity. One example is "It seems that stars float in the sky and do not move. Do they really set like the Sun, our nearest star? I never saw stars set!" A boy was trying to make a new framework for his understanding. This kind of thinking will enrich his or her future "universe knowledge" and "intercultural attitudes."

  12. Pattern Activity Clustering and Evaluation (PACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Banas, Christopher; Paul, Michael; Bussjager, Becky; Seetharaman, Guna

    2012-06-01

    With the vast amount of network information available on activities of people (i.e. motions, transportation routes, and site visits) there is a need to explore the salient properties of data that detect and discriminate the behavior of individuals. Recent machine learning approaches include methods of data mining, statistical analysis, clustering, and estimation that support activity-based intelligence. We seek to explore contemporary methods in activity analysis using machine learning techniques that discover and characterize behaviors that enable grouping, anomaly detection, and adversarial intent prediction. To evaluate these methods, we describe the mathematics and potential information theory metrics to characterize behavior. A scenario is presented to demonstrate the concept and metrics that could be useful for layered sensing behavior pattern learning and analysis. We leverage work on group tracking, learning and clustering approaches; as well as utilize information theoretical metrics for classification, behavioral and event pattern recognition, and activity and entity analysis. The performance evaluation of activity analysis supports high-level information fusion of user alerts, data queries and sensor management for data extraction, relations discovery, and situation analysis of existing data.

  13. Using a Linear Regression Method to Detect Outliers in IRT Common Item Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yong; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Hanwei

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory (IRT) method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…

  14. Item Writer Judgments of Item Difficulty versus Actual Item Difficulty: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how accurate one item writer can be on item difficulty estimates and whether factors affecting item writer judgments correspond to predictors of actual item difficulty. The items were based on conversational dialogs (presented as videos online) that focus on pragmatic functions. Thirty-five 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-year learners…

  15. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability. PMID:26941699

  16. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability.

  17. Use of Distractor Analysis in Evaluating Instructional Effectiveness: A Method for Diagnosing Item Error Response Patterns to Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancino, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the use of a method of distractor analysis for diagnosing item error response patterns and determine the effect of this intervention on student achievement levels on state administered spring mathematics assessments. Distractor Pattern Functioning was the treatment provided to teachers in this…

  18. Performance evaluation of salivary amylase activity monitor.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kanemori, Takahiro; Kanemaru, Masashi; Takai, Noriyasu; Mizuno, Yasufumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2004-10-15

    In order to quantify psychological stress and to distinguish eustress and distress, we have been investigating the establishment of a method that can quantify salivary amylase activity (SMA). Salivary glands not only act as amplifiers of a low level of norepinephrine, but also respond more quickly and sensitively to psychological stress than cortisol levels. Moreover, the time-course changes of the salivary amylase activity have a possibility to distinguish eustress and distress. Thus, salivary amylase activity can be utilized as an excellent index for psychological stress. However, in dry chemistry system, a method for quantification of the enzymatic activity still needs to be established that can provide with sufficient substrate in a testing tape as well as can control enzymatic reaction time. Moreover, it is necessary to develop a method that has the advantages of using saliva, such as ease of collection, rapidity of response, and able to use at any time. In order to establish an easy method to monitor the salivary amylase activity, a salivary transcription device was fabricated to control the enzymatic reaction time. A fabricated salivary amylase activity monitor consisted of three devices, the salivary transcription device, a testing-strip and an optical analyzer. By adding maltose as a competitive inhibitor to a substrate Ga1-G2-CNP, a broad-range activity testing-strip was fabricated that could measure the salivary amylase activity with a range of 0-200 kU/l within 150 s. The calibration curve of the monitor for the salivary amylase activity showed R2=0.941, indicating that it was possible to use this monitor for the analysis of the salivary amylase activity without the need to determine the salivary volume quantitatively. In order to evaluate the assay variability of the monitor, salivary amylase activity was measured using Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test as a psychological stressor. A significant difference of salivary amylase activity was recognized

  19. ASCAL: A Microcomputer Program for Estimating Logistic IRT Item Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, C. David; Gialluca, Kathleen A.

    ASCAL is a microcomputer-based program for calibrating items according to the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory. It uses a modified multivariate Newton-Raphson procedure for estimating item parameters. This study evaluated this procedure using Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques. The current version of ASCAL was then compared to…

  20. Vegetable parenting practices scale: Item response modeling analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...

  1. A Mixture Rasch Model with Item Response Time Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…

  2. Evaluating Teaching and Research Activities--Finding the Right Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Javier; Mora, Jose-Gines

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes on a national, regional, and institutional level the evaluation systems used to assess teaching and research activities at Spanish universities. Also examines ways in which evaluation systems orient to promote research activities to the detriment of teaching activities. (SWM)

  3. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Physics, 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  4. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Nineteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  5. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eighteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  6. The Role of Item Models in Automatic Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2012-01-01

    Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…

  7. Australian Item Bank Program: Handbook for Science Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This handbook is designed to assist teachers in using the Science Item Bank to construct diagnostic tests and end-of-course achievement tests. The item bank consists of over 2,800 multiple-choice items, and teachers are encouraged to supplement this source of test items with other forms of test questions. Key answers to these questions are arrived…

  8. Item Information and Discrimination Functions for Trinary PCM Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkermans, Wies; Muraki, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    For trinary partial credit items, the shape of the item information and item discrimination functions is examined in relation to the item parameters. Conditions under which these functions are unimodal and bimodal are discussed, and the locations and values of maxima are derived. Practical relevance of the results is discussed. (SLD)

  9. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-02-20

    tests, including data collection, are the responsibility of the assigned Principal Investigator(s) (PIS) and are not evaluated in this DIE. This DIE focuses on integrating and compiling the evaluations of previous DIES which were prepared for various ESF subsurface testing activities, including the use of temporary items currently located or being developed for these testing activities, and to provide a bounding evaluation for potential future ESF subsurface testing activities that are sufficiently similar to the generic testing activities addressed herein. Subsurface testing activities items/facilities evaluated herein include: ongoing and planned testing in the TS Loop, alcoves, and niches, planned testing in the ECRB Starter Tunnel, borehole drilling and workover, and tracers, fluids, and materials (TFM) usage. Detailed identification of individual testing items/facilities and generic descriptions for subsurface-testing-related activities are provided in Section 6. The conclusions and requirements of this DIE conservatively bound the conclusions and requirements of previously approved DIES for the ESF subsurface testing activities addressed herein, based on conservative engineering judgment and on concurrence with this DIE (via a formal review process) by the originating and reviewing organizations of the previously approved evaluations. Hence, this DIE supersedes the following DIES listed in Table 1.1.

  10. Development and assessment of floor and ceiling items for the PROMIS physical function item bank

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Disability and Physical Function (PF) outcome assessment has had limited ability to measure functional status at the floor (very poor functional abilities) or the ceiling (very high functional abilities). We sought to identify, develop and evaluate new floor and ceiling items to enable broader and more precise assessment of PF outcomes for the NIH Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies using NIH PROMIS item improvement protocols with expert review, participant survey and focus group methods. In Study 1, respondents with low PF abilities evaluated new floor items, and those with high PF abilities evaluated new ceiling items for clarity, importance and relevance. In Study 2, we compared difficulty ratings of new floor items by low functioning respondents and ceiling items by high functioning respondents to reference PROMIS PF-10 items. We used frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations to analyze the data. Results In Study 1, low (n = 84) and high (n = 90) functioning respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and disability scores of 0.62 and 0.30. More than 90% of the 31 new floor and 31 new ceiling items were rated as clear, important and relevant, leaving 26 ceiling and 30 floor items for Study 2. Low (n = 246) and high (n = 637) functioning Study 2 respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores of 1.62 and 0.003. Compared to difficulty ratings of reference items, ceiling items were rated to be 10% more to greater than 40% more difficult to do, and floor items were rated to be about 12% to nearly 90% less difficult to do. Conclusions These new floor and ceiling items considerably extend the measurable range of physical function at either extreme. They will help improve instrument performance in populations with broad functional ranges and those concentrated at

  11. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  12. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  13. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect

    S. Goodin

    2002-07-22

    tests, including data collection, are the responsibility of the assigned Principal Investigator(s) (PIS) and are not evaluated in this DIE. This DIE focuses on integrating and compiling the evaluations of previous DIEs which were prepared for various ESF subsurface testing activities, including the use of temporary items currently located or being developed for these testing activities (see Table 1. l), and to provide a bounding evaluation for potential future ESF subsurface testing activities that are sufficiently similar to the generic testing activities addressed herein. Subsurface testing activities items/facilities evaluated herein include: ongoing and planned testing in the TS Loop, alcoves, and niches, planned testing in the ECRB Starter Tunnel, borehole drilling and workover, and tracers, fluids, and materials (TFM) usage. Detailed identification of individual testing items/facilities and generic descriptions for subsurface-testing-related activities are provided in Section 6.

  14. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  15. Bacteriological evaluation of passive ultrasonic activation.

    PubMed

    Spoleti, Pablo; Siragusa, Martha; Spoleti, María Julia

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of passive ultrasonic activation on root canal disinfection. Sixty human teeth (group A: upper incisors, group B: upper canines, and group C: distobuccal root of first upper molars) were selected and sterilized in an autoclave. A standardized inoculum was placed into the canals, and they were incubated for 72 h at 37 degrees C. Then, they were divided into subgroup 1, which received sterile saline (SS) as an irrigant, and subgroup 2, which received sterile saline with passive ultrasonic activation (SU). The endodontic treatment was performed with a crown-down technique. Bacteriological identification of surviving colonies was carried out. Surviving colonies were higher when ultrasonics was not used (group A: SS: x 32.13, SU: x 13.53; group B: SS: x 53.70, SU: x 44.60; group C: SS: x 39.16, SU: x 29.40). The homogeneity proportion tests to compare the results of both subgroups showed that the surviving proportions were higher (p = 0.01) when the ultrasonic activation was not used. PMID:12540211

  16. Examining Differential Item Functions of Different Item Ordered Test Forms According to Item Difficulty Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokluk, Ömay; Gül, Emrah; Dogan-Gül, Çilem

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to examine whether differential item function is displayed in three different test forms that have item orders of random and sequential versions (easy-to-hard and hard-to-easy), based on Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods and bearing item difficulty levels in mind. In the correlational research, the…

  17. Development of the PROMIS® Social Motivations for Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D.; Kuhfeld, Megan; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking behavior is influenced by social motivations such as the expected social benefits of smoking and the social cues that induce craving. This paper describes development of the PROMIS® Social Motivations for Smoking item banks, which will serve to standardize assessment of these social motivations among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers completed an online survey. Item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses were conducted to identify a unidimensional set of items for each group. Short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) were evaluated as tools for more efficiently assessing this construct. Results: A total of 15 items were included in the item banks (9 items common to daily and nondaily smokers, 3 unique to daily, 3 unique to nondaily). Scores based on full item banks are highly reliable (reliability = 0.90–0.91). Additionally, the item banks are strongly unidimensional and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A fixed SF for use with both daily and nondaily smokers consists of 4 items (reliability = 0.80). Results from simulated CATs showed that, on average, fewer than 5 items are needed to assess this construct with adequate precision using the item banks. Conclusions: A new set of items has been identified for assessing the social motivations for smoking in a reliable, standardized manner for daily and nondaily smokers. In addition to using the full item banks, efficient assessment can be achieved by using SFs, employing CATs, or selecting items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. PMID:25118231

  18. Development of the PROMIS® Coping Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Smoking is a coping strategy for many smokers who then have difficulty finding new ways to cope with negative affect when they quit. This paper describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing the coping expectancies of smoking for daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a large sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses (according to gender, age, and ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) for assessing coping expectancies of smoking. Results: For both daily and nondaily smokers, the unidimensional Coping Expectancies item banks (21 items) are relatively DIF free and are highly reliable (0.96 and 0.97, respectively). A common 4-item SF for daily and nondaily smokers also showed good reliability (0.85). Adaptive tests required an average of 4.3 and 3.7 items for simulated daily and nondaily respondents, respectively, and achieved reliabilities of 0.91 for both when the maximum test length was 10 items. Conclusions: This research provides a new set of items that can be used to reliably assess coping expectancies of smoking, through a SF, CAT, or a tailored set selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118227

  19. Component Identification and Item Difficulty of Raven's Matrices Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy E.; Kluever, Raymond C.

    Item components that might contribute to the difficulty of items on the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) were studied. Subjects providing responses to CPM items were 269 children aged 2 years 9 months to 11 years 8 months, most of whom were referred for testing as potentially gifted. A second…

  20. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…

  1. Use of an Aquarium as a Novel Enrichment Item for Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population. PMID:25255069

  2. Use of an aquarium as a novel enrichment item for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-09-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population.

  3. The Influence of Negatively Worded Scale Items on Overall Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ory, John C.; Valois, Robert F.

    Two studies investigate whether the placement and/or wording (either positively or negatively) of diagnostic rating scale items influenced student responses to the global items in the evaluation of a course of instruction. The Instructor and Course Evaluation System (ICES) developed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign was used to…

  4. How to Activate Teachers through Teacher Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert

    2014-01-01

    There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…

  5. The Future of Item Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of the item in test construction, and suggests some new methods of item analysis. A look at dynamic, graphical item analysis is provided that uses the advantages of modern, high-speed, highly interactive computing. Several illustrations are provided. (Author/TJH)

  6. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a sample of youth aged 10–17 years (N=720). Results Peer support, parent physical activity, and perceived barriers were directly related to youth activity. The proposed model accounted for 14.7% of the variance in physical activity. Conclusions The results demonstrate a need to further explore additional individual, social, and environmental factors that may influence youth’s regular participation in physical activity. PMID:20524889

  7. Development of the PROMIS® Health Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Stucky, Brian D.; Cerully, Jennifer; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers’ health-related outcome expectancies are associated with a number of important constructs in smoking research, yet there are no measures currently available that focus exclusively on this domain. This paper describes the development and evaluation of item banks for assessing the health expectancies of smoking. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of health expectancies items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated the performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess health expectancies. Results: A total of 24 items were included in the Health Expectancies item banks; 13 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 6 are unique to daily, and 5 are unique to nondaily. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Health Expectancies item banks are unidimensional, reliable (reliability = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.87). Results from simulated CATs showed that health expectancies can be assessed with good precision with an average of 5–6 items adaptively selected from the item banks. Conclusions: Health expectancies of smoking can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via SFs, CATs, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118229

  8. Development of the PROMIS® Nicotine Dependence Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine dependence is a core construct important for understanding cigarette smoking and smoking cessation behavior. This article describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing nicotine dependence among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of nicotine dependence items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess dependence. Results: A total of 32 items were included in the Nicotine Dependence item banks; 22 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 5 are unique to daily smokers, and 5 are unique to nondaily smokers. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Nicotine Dependence item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. SFs common to daily and nondaily smokers consist of 8 and 4 items (reliability = 0.91 and 0.81, respectively). Results from simulated CATs showed that dependence can be assessed with very good precision for most respondents using fewer than 6 items adaptively selected from the item banks. Conclusions: Nicotine dependence on cigarettes can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via one of the SFs, by using CATs, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118226

  9. Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua; Shi, Ning-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous items. To reflect the difference between the two types of items and to improve the precision of ability estimation, an adaptive weighted maximum-a-posteriori (WMAP) estimation is proposed. To evaluate the performance of…

  10. Data Sparseness and Online Pretest Item Calibration/Scaling Methods in CAT. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ban, Jae-Chun; Hanson, Bradley A.; Yi, Qing; Harris, Deborah J.

    The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate three online pretest item calibration/scaling methods in terms of item parameter recovery when the item responses to the pretest items in the pool would be sparse. The three methods considered were the marginal maximum likelihood estimate with one EM cycle (OEM) method, the marginal maximum…

  11. Identifying and understanding Indigenous ways of evaluating physical activity programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Erica Blue; Butler Iii, James; Green, Kerry M; Chaudhary, Kaushal Raj

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous evaluation frameworks have not been investigated in the context of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) physical activity programs, an important area given the relationship between effective physical activity programs and quality of life among these populations. To address this gap, staff members of AI/AN physical activity programs were interviewed to explore their understanding of and experiences with evaluation. Findings suggest that Indigenous evaluation is perceived as narrative and holistic, Indigenous knowledge is used in program decision making, though it is not always acknowledged as evaluation, and there is not a universally desired way to evaluate AI/AN physical activity programs. PMID:27668593

  12. Never Seem to Find the Time: Evaluating the Physiological Time Course of Visual Word Recognition with Regression Analysis of Single Item ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2014-01-01

    Visual word recognition is a process that, both hierarchically and in parallel, draws on different types of information ranging from perceptual to orthographic to semantic. A central question concerns when and how these different types of information come online and interact after a word form is initially perceived. Numerous studies addressing aspects of this question have been conducted with a variety of techniques (e.g., behavior, eye-tracking, ERPs), and divergent theoretical models, suggesting different overall speeds of word processing, have coalesced around clusters of mostly method-specific results. Here, we examine the time course of influence of variables ranging from relatively perceptual (e.g., bigram frequency) to relatively semantic (e.g., number of lexical associates) on ERP responses, analyzed at the single item level. Our results, in combination with a critical review of the literature, suggest methodological, analytic, and theoretical factors that may have led to inconsistency in results of past studies; we will argue that consideration of these factors may lead to a reconciliation between divergent views of the speed of word recognition. PMID:24954966

  13. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  14. A feasibility study into the screening and imaging of hand luggage for threat items at 35 GHz using an active large aperture (1.6 m) security screening imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, Nicholas J.; O'Reilly, Dean; Salmon, Neil A.; Andrews, David A.; Rezgui, Nacer-Ddine; Harmer, Stuart W.

    2013-10-01

    The feasibility of screening hand luggage for concealed threat items such as Person-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices (PBIED's) both metallic and non-metallic, together with handguns and at millimetre wavelengths is investigated. Previous studies by the authors and others indicate that hand baggage material and fabric is much more transmissive and has less scattering at lower millimetre wave frequencies and the ability to use K-band active imaging with high spatial resolution presents an opportunity to image and hence recognise concealed threats. For this feasibility study, a 1.6 m aperture, 35 GHz security screening imaging system with a spatial resolution of 2.5 cm and a depth of field of around 5 cm is employed, using spatially incoherent illuminating panels to enhance image contrast. In this study, realistic scenarios using backpacks containing a realistic range of threat and non-threat items are scanned, both carried and standalone. This range of items contains large vessels suitable for containing simulated home-made PBIED's and handguns. The comprehensive list of non-threat items includes laptops, bottles, clothing and power supplies. For this study, the range at which imaging data at standoff distances can be acquired is confined to that of the particular system in use, although parameters such as illumination and integration time are optimised. However, techniques for extrapolating towards effective standoff distances using aperture synthesis imagers are discussed. The transmission loss through fabrics and clothing that may form, or be contained in baggage, are reported over range of frequencies ranging from 26 to 110 GHz.

  15. Development of A Promis Item Bank to Measure Pain Interference

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Cook, Karon F.; Jensen, Mark P.; Chen, Wen-Hung; Choi, Seung; Revicki, Dennis; Cella, David; Rothrock, Nan; Keefe, Francis; Callahan, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the psychometric properties of the PROMIS Pain Interference (PROMIS-PI) bank. An initial candidate item pool (n=644) was developed and evaluated based on review of existing instruments, interviews with patients, and consultation with pain experts. From this pool, a candidate item bank of 56 items was selected and responses to the items were collected from large community and clinical samples. A total of 14,848 participants responded to all or a subset of candidate items. The responses were calibrated using an item response theory (IRT) model. A final 41-item bank was evaluated with respect to IRT assumptions, model fit, differential item function (DIF), precision, and construct and concurrent validity. Items of the revised bank had good fit to the IRT model (CFI and NNFI/TLI ranged from 0.974 to 0.997), and the data were strongly unidimensional (e.g., ratio of first and second eigenvalue = 35). Nine items exhibited statistically significant DIF. However, adjusting for DIF had little practical impact on score estimates and the items were retained without modifying scoring. Scores provided substantial information across levels of pain; for scores in the T-score range 50-80, the reliability was equivalent to 0.96 to 0.99. Patterns of correlations with other health outcomes supported the construct validity of the item bank. The scores discriminated among persons with different numbers of chronic conditions, disabling conditions, levels of self-reported health, and pain intensity (p< 0.0001). The results indicated that the PROMIS-PI items constitute a psychometrically sound bank. Computerized adaptive testing and short forms are available. PMID:20554116

  16. Item diagnostics in multivariate discrete data.

    PubMed

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Liu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Researchers who evaluate the fit of psychometric models to binary or multinomial items often look at univariate and bivariate residuals to determine how a poorly fitting model can be improved. There is a class of z statistics and also a class of generalized X₂ statistics that can be used for examining these marginal fits. We describe these statistics and compare them with regard to the control of Type I error and statistical power. We show how the class of z statistics can be extended to accommodate items with multinomial response options. We provide guidelines for the use of these statistics, including how to control for multiple testing, and present 2 detailed examples. Using the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) for discrete data to adjudge fit, the examples illustrate how the use of these methods can dramatically improve the fit of item response theory models to widely used measures in personality and clinical psychology. PMID:25867486

  17. Active spectral sensor evaluation under varying conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant stress has been estimated by spectral signature using both passive and active sensors. As optical sensors measure reflected light from a target, changes in illumination characteristics critically affect sensor response. Active sensors are of benefit in minimizing uncontrolled illumination effe...

  18. The active commuting route environment scale (ACRES): development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people's behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possible relationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists' and pedestrians' perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof. Methods Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation. Results There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups' ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 'moderate' (0.42) to 'almost perfect' (0.87). Conclusions The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. PMID:20609250

  19. Development of a Simple 12-Item Theory-Based Instrument to Assess the Impact of Continuing Professional Development on Clinical Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Borduas, Francine; Freitas, Adriana; Jacques, André; Godin, Gaston; Luconi, Francesca; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Background Decision-makers in organizations providing continuing professional development (CPD) have identified the need for routine assessment of its impact on practice. We sought to develop a theory-based instrument for evaluating the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions. Methods and Findings Our multipronged study had four phases. 1) We systematically reviewed the literature for instruments that used socio-cognitive theories to assess healthcare professionals' clinically-oriented behavioral intentions and/or behaviors; we extracted items relating to the theoretical constructs of an integrated model of healthcare professionals' behaviors and removed duplicates. 2) A committee of researchers and CPD decision-makers selected a pool of items relevant to CPD. 3) An international group of experts (n = 70) reached consensus on the most relevant items using electronic Delphi surveys. 4) We created a preliminary instrument with the items found most relevant and assessed its factorial validity, internal consistency and reliability (weighted kappa) over a two-week period among 138 physicians attending a CPD activity. Out of 72 potentially relevant instruments, 47 were analyzed. Of the 1218 items extracted from these, 16% were discarded as improperly phrased and 70% discarded as duplicates. Mapping the remaining items onto the constructs of the integrated model of healthcare professionals' behaviors yielded a minimum of 18 and a maximum of 275 items per construct. The partnership committee retained 61 items covering all seven constructs. Two iterations of the Delphi process produced consensus on a provisional 40-item questionnaire. Exploratory factorial analysis following test-retest resulted in a 12-item questionnaire. Cronbach's coefficients for the constructs varied from 0.77 to 0.85. Conclusion A 12-item theory-based instrument for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral

  20. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... days for Category IA items and 60 calendar days for Category IB items contained in a vault or in a... days for Category IA items and seven calendar days for Category BI items located elsewhere in the...

  1. How Do Users Evaluate Individual Documents? An Analysis of Dimensions of Evaluation Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Iris; Benoit, Edward, III; Zhang, Huan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation plays an important role in users' information searching and retrieving processes. While previous research mainly focuses on applied criteria, less research is on other dimensions of evaluation. This study explores the dimensions of evaluation activities including criteria applied, elements examined, activity engaged in and…

  2. [Assessing and evaluating physical activity during counseling in health care].

    PubMed

    Hagströmer, Maria; Wisén, Anita; Hassmén, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To make individualized counseling possible, valid and reliable measures of physical activity are necessary. In health care, quality must be continuously secured and developed. Follow-up of life-style habits such as physical activity does not differ from monitoring of other treatment in the health care setting.  After counseling and appropriate period of time, evaluation should be done to assess if there has been any change in the physical activity level. For assessment and evaluation of physical activity in routine clinical practice the National Board for Health and Social Welfare indicator questions regarding physical activity are recommended. For a more detailed assessment and evaluation of physical activity and sedentary behavior comprehensive validated instruments/diaries should be used. For precise and objective assessment and evaluation of both physical activity and sedentary behavior, movement sensors are recommended.

  3. Item-properties may influence item-item associations in serial recall.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Madan, Christopher R; Bedwell, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Attributes of words, such as frequency and imageability, can influence memory for order. In serial recall, Hulme, Stuart, Brown, and Morin (Journal of Memory and Language, 49(4), 500-518, 2003) found that high-frequency words were recalled worse, and low-frequency words better, when embedded in alternating lists than pure lists. This is predicted by associative chaining, wherein each recalled list-item becomes a recall-cue for the next item. However, Hulme, Stuart, Brown, and Morin (Journal of Memory and Language, 49(4), 500-518, 2003) argued their findings supported positional-coding models, wherein items are linked to a representation of position, with no direct associations between items. They suggested their serial-position effects were due to pre-experimental semantic similarity between pairs of items, which depended on frequency, or a complex tradeoff between item- and order-coding (Morin, Poirier, Fortin, & Hulme, Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 13(4), 724-729, 2006). We replicated the smooth serial-position effects, but accounts based on pre-existing similarity or item-order tradeoffs were untenable. Alternative accounts based, on imageability, phonological and lexical neighbourhood sizes were also ruled out. The standard chaining account predicts that if accuracy is conditionalized on whether the prior item was correct, the word-frequency effect should reappear in alternating lists; however, this prediction was not borne out, challenging this retrieval-based chaining account. We describe a new account, whereby frequency influences the strengths of item-item associations, symmetrically, during study. A manipulation of word-imageability also produced a pattern consistent with item-item cueing at study, but left room for effects of imageability at the final stage of recall. These findings provide further support for the contribution of associative chaining to serial-recall behaviour and show that item-properties may influence serial-recall in multiple ways.

  4. Comparison of Methods for Varying Item Presentation during Noncontingent Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Rocio; Worsdell, April; Trahan, Maranda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three item presentation methods during noncontingent reinforcement (NCR). Four individuals with developmental disabilities and problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement were recruited for the study. Single-item stimulus preference assessments were…

  5. Textiles and Design Library of Test Items. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jan, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection is reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test…

  6. Distributed Item Review: Administrator User Guide. Technical Report #1603

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, P. Shawn

    2016-01-01

    The Distributed Item Review (DIR) is a secure and flexible, web-based system designed to present test items to expert reviewers across a broad geographic area for evaluation of important dimensions of quality (e.g., alignment with standards, bias, sensitivity, and student accessibility). The DIR is comprised of essential features that allow system…

  7. Practical Guide to Conducting an Item Response Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toland, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) is a psychometric technique used in the development, evaluation, improvement, and scoring of multi-item scales. This pedagogical article provides the necessary information needed to understand how to conduct, interpret, and report results from two commonly used ordered polytomous IRT models (Samejima's graded…

  8. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate item(s). 852.214-72 Section 852.214-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  9. Gender-Based Differential Item Performance in Mathematics Achievement Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Allen E.

    A procedure for the detection of differential item performance (DIP) is used to investigate the relationships between characteristics of mathematics achievement items and gender differences in performance. Eight randomly equivalent samples of high school seniors were each given a unique form of the ACT Assessment Mathematics Usage Test (ACTM).…

  10. Differential Item Functioning Analysis Using Rasch Item Information Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Mapuranga, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is a statistical technique used for ensuring the equity and fairness of educational assessments. This study formulates a new DIF analysis method using the information similarity index (ISI). ISI compares item information functions when data fits the Rasch model. Through simulations and an international…

  11. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  12. 75 FR 71491 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... procurement preference: Animal repellents; bath products; bioremediation materials; compost activators and... first six items designated for preferred procurement (71 FR 13686, March 16, 2006), USDA stated that it... procurement: Animal repellents; bath products; bioremediation materials; compost activators and...

  13. Selecting Items for Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    1982-01-01

    Three item selection methods for criterion-referenced tests are examined: the classical theory of item difficulty and item-test correlation; the latent trait theory of item characteristic curves; and a decision-theoretic approach for optimal item selection. Item contribution to the standardized expected utility of mastery testing is discussed. (CM)

  14. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  15. A Further Analysis of the Value of Choice: Controlling for Illusory Discriminative Stimuli and Evaluating the Effects of Less Preferred Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Anna C.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Layer, Stacy A.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to address limitations of prior research that has isolated choice as an independent variable. Children's preferences for the opportunity to choose were evaluated in a concurrent-chains arrangement in which identical consequences were available in choice and no-choice conditions. Results demonstrated that preference for choice, in and of…

  16. Aware and (Dis)Liking: Item-Based Analyses Reveal that Valence Acquisition via Evaluative Conditioning Emerges Only when There Is Contingency Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleyers, Gordy; Corneille, Olivier; Luminet, Olivier; Yzerbyt, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in the liking of an affectively neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, or CS) following the pairing of that stimulus with another stimulus of affective value (the unconditioned stimulus, or US). In 3 experiments, the authors assessed contingency awareness, that is, awareness of the CS-US…

  17. Age-related Differential Item Functioning for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Information System (PROMIS®) Physical Functioning Items

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Sylvia H; Spritzer, Karen L; Morales, Leo S; Hays, Ron D

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the equivalence of the PROMIS® wave 1 physical functioning item bank, by age (50 years or older versus 18-49). Materials and methods A total of 114 physical functioning items with 5 response choices were administered to English- (n=1504) and Spanish-language (n=640) adults. Item frequencies, means and standard deviations, item-scale correlations, and internal consistency reliability were estimated. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by age was evaluated. Results Thirty of the 114 items were fagged for DIF based on an R-squared of 0.02 or above criterion. The expected total score was higher for those respondents who were 18-49 than those who were 50 or older. Conclusions Those who were 50 years or older versus 18-49 years old with the same level of physical functioning responded differently to 30 of the 114 items in the PROMIS® physical functioning item bank. This study yields essential information about the equivalence of the physical functioning items in older versus younger individuals. PMID:24052925

  18. [Alexithymia and automatic activation of emotional-evaluative information].

    PubMed

    Suslow, T; Arolt, V; Junghanns, K

    1998-05-01

    The emotional valence of stimuli seems to be stored in the associative network and is automatically activated on the mere observation of a stimulus. A principal characteristic of alexithymia represents the difficulty to symbolize emotions verbally. The present study examines the relationship between the dimensions of the alexithymia construct and emotional priming effects in a word-word paradigma. The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale was administered to 32 subjects along with two word reading tasks as measures of emotional and semantic priming effects. The subscale "difficulty describing feelings" correlated as expected negatively with the negative inhibition effect. The subscale "externally oriented thinking" tended to correlate negatively with the negative facilitation effect. Thus, these dimensions of alexithymia are inversely related to the degree of automatic emotional priming. In summary, there is evidence for an impaired structural integration of emotion and language in persons with difficulties in describing feelings. Poor "symbolization" of emotions in alexithymia is discussed from a cognitive perspective. PMID:9632952

  19. [Alexithymia and automatic activation of emotional-evaluative information].

    PubMed

    Suslow, T; Arolt, V; Junghanns, K

    1998-05-01

    The emotional valence of stimuli seems to be stored in the associative network and is automatically activated on the mere observation of a stimulus. A principal characteristic of alexithymia represents the difficulty to symbolize emotions verbally. The present study examines the relationship between the dimensions of the alexithymia construct and emotional priming effects in a word-word paradigma. The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale was administered to 32 subjects along with two word reading tasks as measures of emotional and semantic priming effects. The subscale "difficulty describing feelings" correlated as expected negatively with the negative inhibition effect. The subscale "externally oriented thinking" tended to correlate negatively with the negative facilitation effect. Thus, these dimensions of alexithymia are inversely related to the degree of automatic emotional priming. In summary, there is evidence for an impaired structural integration of emotion and language in persons with difficulties in describing feelings. Poor "symbolization" of emotions in alexithymia is discussed from a cognitive perspective.

  20. Generalizability in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…

  1. Career and Occupational Development Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    The career and occupational development items contained in this document are part of a kit consisting of four documents which bring together different types of items that measure a number of career and occupational development (COD) objectives developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (NAEP--which completed a national…

  2. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty-One. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Physics, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  3. Evaluation of the bactericidal activity of galectins.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Connie M; Cummings, Richard D; Stowell, Sean R

    2015-01-01

    Over a century ago, Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood group antigens could predict the immunological outcome of red blood cell transfusion. While the discovery of ABO(H) blood group antigens revolutionized transfusion medicine, many questions remain regarding the development and regulation of naturally occurring anti-blood group antibody formation. Early studies suggested that blood group antibodies develop following stimulation by bacteria that express blood group antigens. While this may explain the development of anti-blood group antibodies in blood group negative individuals, how blood group positive individuals, who cannot generate anti-blood group antibodies, protect themselves against blood group positive microbes remained unknown. Recent studies suggest that several members of the galectin family specifically target blood group positive microbes, thereby providing innate immune protection against blood group antigen positive microbes regardless of the blood group status of an individual. Importantly, subsequent studies suggest that this unique form of immunity may not be limited to blood group expressing microbes, but may reflect a more generalized form of innate immunity against molecular mimicry. As this form of antimicrobial activity represents a unique and unprecedented form of immunity, we will examine important considerations and methodological approaches that can be used when seeking to ascertain the potential antimicrobial activity of various members of the galectin family.

  4. Evaluation of pharmacological activity of Hibiscus tiliaceus.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Awal, S M; Nazmir, Sonia; Nasrin, Sonia; Nurunnabi, Tauhidur Rahman; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus tiliaceus, locally known as Bhola was examined for phytochemical properties and its cytotoxic, antibacterial, analgesic and neuropharmacological activities using the ethanol extract of leaf and bark. The phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract indicated the presence of tannins, whereas bark extract indicated the presence of alkaloid, reducing sugar and tannins. A preliminary cytotoxicity of these extracts was determined by a simple and low cost assay using brine shrimp lethality. The leaf extract of the plant exhibited moderate cytotoxic effect (LC50: 20 µg/ml, LC90: 40 µg/ml) whereas the bark extract exhibited low cytotoxic effect (LC50: 50 µg/ml). In the analgesic test, the leaf extract showed comparatively high analgesic action than bark extract. There was no activity found in the leaf extract against the test bacterial strains, however bark extract exhibited a very little inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In the neuropharmacological test, the leaf and bark extract produced a decrease in both the time of onset of sleeping and the total sleeping time. The present study showed evidence that both leaf and bark extract of H. tiliaceus contain medicinally important bioactive compounds, thereby used as traditional medicine. PMID:27516947

  5. Indicators of periodontal disease activity: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fine, D H; Mandel, I D

    1986-05-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that the traditional clinical criteria are inadequate for: determining active disease sites in periodontitis, monitoring quantitatively the response to therapy or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future breakdown. In an attempt to develop objective measures, a wide variety of studies have been undertaken using saliva, blood, plaque and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as the specimen source. Examination has included: specific bacteria and their products; host cells and their products (enzymatic and antibacterial, both immunologic and non-immunologic); products of tissue injury derived from local epithelial and connective tissues and bone. Although most of the work to date has failed to provide reliable aids to the clinician, refinements in techniques for sampling and the availability of more sophisticated analytic techniques give cause for optimism. Methods proposed for detection of disease-associated bacteria in subgingival plaque vary in their sensitivity and specificity. Dark field microscopy shows some correlation with existing disease; however, the limited specificity of this method imposes severe restrictions on its usefulness. Highly specific polyclonal and monoclonal antisera to suspected pathogens Bacteroides gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans have been developed and improved methods of identification of these microbes in plaque by ELISA immunofluorescence and flow cytometry are under development. With respect to the host response, a strong correlation between antibody patterns to specific bacteria and periodontal disease categories appears to be emerging. Although most studies have focused on serum antibody derived from peripheral blood, a shift to detection of local antibody response appears to be likely. Techniques of measurement that are exquisitely sensitive have been developed for detection of major immune recognition proteins such as antibody and complement in crevicular fluid. Research

  6. Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    The frequency effect in short-term serial recall is influenced by the composition of lists. In pure lists, a robust advantage in the recall of high-frequency (HF) words is observed, yet in alternating mixed lists, HF and low-frequency (LF) words are recalled equally well. It has been argued that the preexisting associations between all list items determine a single, global level of supportive activation that assists item recall. Preexisting associations between items are assumed to be a function of language co-occurrence; HF-HF associations are high, LF-LF associations are low, and mixed associations are intermediate in activation strength. This account, however, is based on results when alternating lists with equal numbers of HF and LF words were used. It is possible that directional association between adjacent list items is responsible for the recall patterns reported. In the present experiment, the recall of three forms of mixed lists-those with equal numbers of HF and LF items and pure lists-was examined to test the extent to which item-to-item associations are present in serial recall. Furthermore, conditional probabilities were used to examine more closely the evidence for a contribution, since correct-in-position scoring may mask recall that is dependent on the recall of prior items. The results suggest that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items.

  7. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.

  8. Immediate serial recall, word frequency, item identity and item position.

    PubMed

    Poirier, M; Saint-Aubin, J

    1996-12-01

    Eighteen subjects completed an immediate serial recall task, where the to-be-recalled lists consisted of either high, medium, or low-frequency items. Moreover, lists were either phonologically similar or distinct. Results showed that increasing frequency enhanced item information recall but had no effect on order recall. Conversely, increasing phonological similarity had a detrimental effect on order recall but no significant effect on item recall. It is argued that both effects reflect retrieval processes where degraded representations are reconstructed on the basis of long-term knowledge: Low-frequency words have reduced accessibility, lowering the probability of correct reconstruction, and phonologically similar items are more easily confused with other recall candidates.

  9. An NCME Instructional Module on Item-Fit Statistics for Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Allison J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing valid inferences from item response theory (IRT) models is contingent upon a good fit of the data to the model. Violations of model-data fit have numerous consequences, limiting the usefulness and applicability of the model. This instructional module provides an overview of methods used for evaluating the fit of IRT models. Upon completing…

  10. Evaluation of Radiation Doses Due to Consumption of Contaminated Food Items and Calculation of Food Class-Specific Derived Intervention Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzelman, K M; Mansfield, W G

    2010-04-27

    This document evaluates the expected radiation dose due to the consumption of several specific food classes (dairy, meat, produce, etc.) contaminated with specific radionuclides, and relates concentration levels in food to the detection abilities of typical aboratory analysis/measurement methods. The attached charts present the limiting organ dose as a function of the radionuclide concentration in a particular food class, and allow the user to compare these concentrations and doses to typical analytical detection apabilities. The expected radiation dose depends on several factors: the age of the individual; the radionuclide present in the food; the concentration of the radionuclide in the food; and the amount of food consumed. Food consumption rates for individuals of various ges were taken from the 1998 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) document, Accidental Radioactive Contamination of HUman Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. In that document, the FDA defines the erived Intervention Level (DIL), which is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in food that if consumed could result in an individual receiving a radiation dose exceeding the Protection Action Guide (PAG) thresholds for intervention. This document also resents odified, food class specific DIL, which is calculated using a somewhat modified version of the FDA's procedure. This document begins with an overview of the FDA's DIL calculation, followed by a description of the food class specific DIL calculations, and finally charts of the radiation dose per radioactivity concentration for several food class/radionuclide combinations.

  11. Evaluation of Control Parameters for the Activated Sludge Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, T. Ray; Sherrard, Josephy H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of the parameters currently being used to design and operate the activated sludge process is presented. The advantages and disadvantages for the use of each parameter are discussed. (MR)

  12. USE OF AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO EVALUATE YOUNG CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking a young child's activity pattern data with the environmental, biological, and personal samples that are collected during an exposure assessment is important in evaluating potential exposures and dose associated with environmental contaminants. A number of different appro...

  13. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology.

  14. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. PMID:25524862

  15. The medial temporal lobes distinguish between within-item and item-context relations during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Signy; Levine, Brian

    2015-12-01

    During autobiographical memory retrieval, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) relate together multiple event elements, including object (within-item relations) and context (item-context relations) information, to create a cohesive memory. There is consistent support for a functional specialization within the MTL according to these relational processes, much of which comes from recognition memory experiments. In this study, we compared brain activation patterns associated with retrieving within-item relations (i.e., associating conceptual and sensory-perceptual object features) and item-context relations (i.e., spatial relations among objects) with respect to naturalistic autobiographical retrieval. We developed a novel paradigm that cued participants to retrieve information about past autobiographical events, non-episodic within-item relations, and non-episodic item-context relations with the perceptuomotor aspects of retrieval equated across these conditions. We used multivariate analysis techniques to extract common and distinct patterns of activity among these conditions within the MTL and across the whole brain, both in terms of spatial and temporal patterns of activity. The anterior MTL (perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating within-item relations later in retrieval whereas the posterior MTL (posterior parahippocampal cortex and posterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating item-context relations across the retrieval phase. These findings provide novel evidence for functional specialization within the MTL with respect to naturalistic memory retrieval.

  16. How Item Banks and Their Application Can Influence Measurement Practice in Rehabilitation Medicine: A PROMIS Fatigue Item Bank Example

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Cella, David; Choi, Seung; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Christodoulou, Christopher; Gershon, Richard; Stone, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To illustrate how measurement practices can be advanced using as an example the fatigue item bank (FIB) and its applications (short-forms and computerized adaptive test) that were developed via the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Cooperative Group. Design Psychometric analysis of data collected by an internet survey company using Item Response Theory (IRT) related techniques. Setting A United States general population representative sample collected via internet. Participants 803 respondents used for dimensionality evaluation of the PROMIS FIB and 14,931 respondents used for item calibrations Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures 112 fatigue items developed by the PROMIS fatigue domain working group, 13-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, and 4-item SF-36 Vitality scale. Results The PROMIS FIB version 1 which consists of 95 items demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) showed consistently better precision than short-forms. However, all three short-forms showed good precision for the majority of participants, in that more than 95% of sample could be precisely measured with a reliability greater than 0.9. Conclusions Measurement practice can be advanced by using a psychometrically sound measurement tool and its applications. This example shows that CAT and short-forms derived from the PROMIS FIB can reliably estimate fatigue reported by the US general population. Evaluation in clinical populations is warranted before the item bank can be used for clinical trials. PMID:21958919

  17. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  18. From concepts to lexical items.

    PubMed

    Bierwisch, M; Schreuder, R

    1992-03-01

    In this paper we address the question how in language production conceptual structures are mapped onto lexical items. First we describe the lexical system in a fairly abstract way. Such a system consists of, among other things, a fixed set of basic lexical entries characterized by four groups of information: phonetic form, grammatical features, argument structure, and semantic form. A crucial assumption of the paper is that the meaning in a lexical entry has a complex internal structure composed of more primitive elements (decomposition). Some aspects of argument structure and semantic form and their interaction are discussed with respect to the issue of synonymy. We propose two different mappings involved in lexical access. One maps conceptual structures to semantic forms, and the other maps semantic forms to conceptual structures. Both mappings are context dependent and are many-to-many mappings. We present an elaboration of Levelt's (1989) model in which these processes interact with the grammatical encoder and the mental lexicon. Then we address the consequences of decomposition for processing models, especially the nature of the input of lexical access and the time course. Processing models that use the activation metaphor may have difficulties accounting for certain phenomena where a certain lemma triggers not one, but two or more word forms that have to be produced with other word forms in between.

  19. Measurement Assurance for End-Item Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to assure the end product meets specifications and customer requirements. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipments (MTE), provide the evidence of product conformity to the prescribed requirements. Therefore the processes which employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to development and execution of these processes. Traditionally, calibration of MTE is given more focus in industry standards and process control efforts than the equally important proper usage of the same equipment. It is a common complaint of calibration laboratory personnel that MTE users are only interested in "a sticker." If the QMS requires the MTE "to demonstrate conformity of the product," then the quality of the measurement process must be adequate for the task. This leads to an ad hoc definition; measurement assurance is a discipline that assures that all processes, activities, environments, standards, and procedures involved in making a measurement produce a result that can be rigorously evaluated for validity and accuracy. To evaluate that the existing measurement processes are providing an adequate level of quality to support the decisions based upon this measurement data, an understanding of measurement assurance basics is essential. This topic is complimentary to the calibration standard, ANSI/NCSL Z540.3-2006, which targets the calibration of MTE at the organizational level. This paper will discuss general measurement assurance when MTE is used to provide evidence of product conformity, therefore the target audience of this paper is end item users of MTE. A central focus of the paper will be the verification of tolerances and the associated risks, so calibration professionals may find the paper useful in communication with their customers, MTE users.

  20. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)

  1. Evaluation of an Internet, Stage-Based Physical Activity Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Ronald L.; Hardy, Aaron; Aldana, Steven G.; George, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of online, stage-based materials on exercise behavior and stage of readiness to change. College faculty participated in stage-based, action-message, or control groups. Occupational and leisure activity, 7-day physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks.…

  2. Outcome Evaluation of Active Support Training in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Harman, Anthony D.; Lin, Chwen-Jen; Lee, Wan-ping; Chang, Shu-chuan; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Active Support was implemented for the first time in Taiwan in March, 2009. This study aims to evaluate whether the supervisors and front line managers of residential services receiving Active Support Training (AST) caused a positive impact on their users with intellectual disabilities (ID) while comparing this with their counterparts with ID…

  3. Annual Report on Resident Fish Activities, 1985 Fiscal Year, Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, Action Item 41.8.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-09-01

    This report addresses the status for resident fish projects currently implemented by the Bonneville Power Administration under the amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Projects that have been in place for a sufficient length of time are discussed in greater detail with a brief evaluation presented.

  4. Sub-Technical Vocabulary and the ESP Teacher: An Analysis of Some Rhetorical Items in Medical Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mona

    1988-01-01

    Subtechnical vocabulary includes items that are neither highly technical nor obviously general, and rhetorical/organizational items are in this category. They serve to signal the writer's intentions or his/her evaluation of the material presented. A technique for identifying subtechnical items is explained. Three identified items are analyzed, and…

  5. Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

  6. Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

  7. The Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale: An Alternative Way of Measuring Mathematical Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez-Peña, M. Isabel; Guilera, Georgina; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale (SIMA), based on the item suggested by Ashcraft, provided valid and reliable scores of mathematical anxiety. A large sample of university students (n = 279) was administered the SIMA and the 25-item Shortened Math Anxiety Rating Scale (sMARS) to evaluate the relation between the scores…

  8. An Empirical Investigation of Methods for Assessing Item Fit for Mixed Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Ansley, Timothy N.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical information regarding performance of model-fit procedures has been a persistent need in measurement practice. Statistical procedures for evaluating item fit were applied to real test examples that consist of both dichotomously and polytomously scored items. The item fit statistics used in this study included the PARSCALE's G[squared],…

  9. Using a Model of Analysts' Judgments to Augment an Item Calibration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Carl; Thum, Yeow Meng; He, Wei; Ma, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    When conducting item reviews, analysts evaluate an array of statistical and graphical information to assess the fit of a field test (FT) item to an item response theory model. The process can be tedious, particularly when the number of human reviews (HR) to be completed is large. Furthermore, such a process leads to decisions that are susceptible…

  10. A Study of the Homogeneity of Items Produced From Item Forms Across Different Taxonomic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Margaret B.; Argo, Jana K.

    This study determined whether item forms ( rules for constructing items related to a domain or set of tasks) would enable naive item writers to generate multiple-choice items at three taxonomic levels--knowledge, comprehension, and application. Students wrote 120 multiple-choice items from 20 item forms, corresponding to educational objectives…

  11. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of New Benzimidazolehydrazones.

    PubMed

    Onnis, Valentina; Demurtas, Monica; Deplano, Alessandro; Balboni, Gianfranco; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano; Pacifico, Salvatore; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and antiproliferative activity of new benzimidazole derivatives bearing an hydrazone mojety at the 2-position is described. The new N'-(4-arylidene)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carbohydrazides were evaluated for their cytostatic activity toward the murine leukemia (L1210), human T-cell leukemia (CEM), human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) and human pancreas carcinoma cells (Mia Paca-2). A preliminary structure-activity relationship could be defined. Some of the compounds possess encouraging and consistent antiproliferative activity, having IC50 values in the low micromolar range. PMID:27144551

  12. Annual Report on Wildlife Activities, September 1985 - April 1986, Action item 40.1, Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-04-01

    This annual report addresses the status of wildlife projects Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has implemented from September 1985 to April 1986 under the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) established pursuant to the Northwest Power Act (P.L. 96-501). Wildlife projects implemented prior to September 1985 are discussed in BPA's September 1985 Annual Report on Wildlife Activities. This report provides a brief synopsis, review, and discussion of wildlife activities BPA has undertaken. When available, annual and final reports are listed for each project. The wildlife section of the Program establishes a process intended to achieve two objectives: wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement planning; and implementation of actions to protect, mitigate, and enhance wildlife affected by development and operation of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia River Basin. The wildlife mitigation planning process developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) is a stepwise process that proceeds through the review of the status of wildlife mitigation at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities [Measure 1004 (b)(l)]; estimates wildlife losses from hydroelectric development and operation [Measure 1004 (b)(2)]; and recommends actions for the protection, mitigation, or enhancement of wildlife [Measure 1004 (b)(3), Mitigation Plans]. Implementation of wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement will occur upon amendment of wildlife actions into the Program by the Council. The majority of BPA's effort to date has gone towards coordinating and implementing wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement planning projects.

  13. ‘Forget me (not)?’ – Remembering Forget-Items Versus Un-Cued Items in Directed Forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Zwissler, Bastian; Schindler, Sebastian; Fischer, Helena; Plewnia, Christian; Kissler, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Humans need to be able to selectively control their memories. This capability is often investigated in directed forgetting (DF) paradigms. In item-method DF, individual items are presented and each is followed by either a forget- or remember-instruction. On a surprise test of all items, memory is then worse for to-be-forgotten items (TBF) compared to to-be-remembered items (TBR). This is thought to result mainly from selective rehearsal of TBR, although inhibitory mechanisms also appear to be recruited by this paradigm. Here, we investigate whether the mnemonic consequences of a forget instruction differ from the ones of incidental encoding, where items are presented without a specific memory instruction. Four experiments were conducted where un-cued items (UI) were interspersed and recognition performance was compared between TBR, TBF, and UI stimuli. Accuracy was encouraged via a performance-dependent monetary bonus. Experiments varied the number of items and their presentation speed and used either letter-cues or symbolic cues. Across all experiments, including perceptually fully counterbalanced variants, memory accuracy for TBF was reduced compared to TBR, but better than for UI. Moreover, participants made consistently fewer false alarms and used a very conservative response criterion when responding to TBF stimuli. Thus, the F-cue results in active processing and reduces false alarm rate, but this does not impair recognition memory beyond an un-cued baseline condition, where only incidental encoding occurs. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26635657

  14. Thermal response based item identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. K.; Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems in NDA of nuclear materials is identifying the chemical form of the nuclear material and the surrounding matrix. Recent work analyzing the calorimeter response of sources embedded in a variety of matrices has led to a possible solution to this problem. The wide range of thermal time constants exhibited by typical matrix materials lends itself to permitting the differentiation between materials, based on time constants extracted from the measured response. Potential applications include simple item identification, item fingerprinting as part of shipper-receiver measurements, and distinguishing between Pu metal and Pu oxide as required under certain proposed attribute measurements. The results of applying this technique to a variety of items will be presented and discussed.

  15. Trash track--active location sensing for evaluating e-waste transportation.

    PubMed

    Offenhuber, Dietmar; Wolf, Malima I; Ratti, Carlo

    2013-02-01

    Waste and recycling systems are complex and far-reaching, but its mechanisms are poorly understood by the public, in some cases government organizations and even the waste management sector itself. The lack of empirical data makes it challenging to assess the environmental impact of trash collection, removal and disposal. This is especially the case for the global movement of electronic wastes. Senseable City Lab's Trash Track project tackles this scarcity of data by following the trajectories of individual objects. The project presents a methodology involving active location sensors that were placed on end-of-life products donated by volunteers in the Seattle, Washington area. These tags sent location messages chronicling their journey, some over the course of a month or more. In this paper, the authors focus on the analysis of traces acquired from 146 items of electronic waste, estimating evaluating the environmental impact, including the travel distances and end-of-life treatments for the products. Combining this information with impact evaluation from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Waste Reduction Model (WARM) allows for the creation of environmental impact profiles for individual pieces of trash.

  16. Annual Report on Wildlife Activities, September 1985-April 1986, Action Item 40.1, Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-04-01

    This annual report addresses the status of wildlife projects Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has implemented from September 1985 to April 1986. This report provides a brief synopsis, review, and discussion of wildlife activities BPA has undertaken. BPA's effort has gone towards implementing wildlife planning. This includes measure 1004 (b)(2), loss statements and measure 1004 (b)(3), mitigation plans. Loss statements have been completed for 14 facilities in the Basin with 4 additional ones to be completed shortly. Mitigation plans have been completed for 5 hydroelectric facilities in Montana. The Northwest Power Planning Council is presently considering two mitigation plans (Hungry Horse and Libby) for amendment into the Program. Currently, mitigation plans are being prepared for the 8 Federal hydroelectric facilities in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon, Grand Coulee Dam in the state of Washington, and Palisades Dam on the Snake River in Idaho.

  17. Multidimensional Item Response Theory Parameter Estimation with Nonsimple Structure Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model parameters can be carried out using the normal ogive with unweighted least squares estimation with the normal-ogive harmonic analysis robust method (NOHARM) software. Previous simulation research has demonstrated that this approach does yield accurate and efficient estimates of item…

  18. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  19. Synthesis and antitumor activity evaluation of lamiridosin A derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Xia; Yan, Jian-Wei; Yan, Fu-Lin; Yin, Yan-Yan; Zhuang, Fang-Fang; Ji, Zi-Yang

    2016-01-01

    A series of lamiridosin A derivatives were synthesized through simple procedures. Their antitumor activities were evaluated against EC9706, MGC803, and B16 cell lines in vitro. Several compounds showed potent antitumor activity, especially compound 10, with IC50 value of 2.36 μmol/L against MGC803 cell lines, is more potent than marketed positive drug 5-fluorouridine (5-FU).

  20. Completeness assessment of type II active pharmaceutical ingredient drug master files under generic drug user fee amendment: review metrics and common incomplete items.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huyi; Li, Haitao; Song, Wei; Shen, Diandian; Skanchy, David; Shen, Kun; Lionberger, Robert A; Rosencrance, Susan M; Yu, Lawrence X

    2014-09-01

    Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments (GDUFA) of 2012, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) must pay a user fee and pass a Completeness Assessment (CA) before they can be referenced in an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA), ANDA amendment, or ANDA prior approval supplement (PAS). During the first year of GDUFA implementation, from October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013, approximately 1,500 Type II API DMFs received at least one cycle of CA review and more than 1,100 Type II DMFs were deemed complete and published on FDA's "Available for Reference List". The data from CA reviews were analyzed for factors that influenced the CA review process and metrics, as well as the areas of DMF submissions which most frequently led to an incomplete CA status. The metrics analysis revealed that electronic DMFs appear to improve the completeness of submission and shorten both the review and response times. Utilizing the CA checklist to compile and proactively update the DMFs improves the chance for the DMFs to pass the CA in the first cycle. However, given that the majority of DMFs require at least two cycles of CA before being deemed complete, it is recommended that DMF fees are paid 6 months in advance of the ANDA submissions in order to avoid negatively impacting the filling status of the ANDAs. PMID:25034968

  1. Completeness assessment of type II active pharmaceutical ingredient drug master files under generic drug user fee amendment: review metrics and common incomplete items.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huyi; Li, Haitao; Song, Wei; Shen, Diandian; Skanchy, David; Shen, Kun; Lionberger, Robert A; Rosencrance, Susan M; Yu, Lawrence X

    2014-09-01

    Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments (GDUFA) of 2012, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) must pay a user fee and pass a Completeness Assessment (CA) before they can be referenced in an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA), ANDA amendment, or ANDA prior approval supplement (PAS). During the first year of GDUFA implementation, from October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013, approximately 1,500 Type II API DMFs received at least one cycle of CA review and more than 1,100 Type II DMFs were deemed complete and published on FDA's "Available for Reference List". The data from CA reviews were analyzed for factors that influenced the CA review process and metrics, as well as the areas of DMF submissions which most frequently led to an incomplete CA status. The metrics analysis revealed that electronic DMFs appear to improve the completeness of submission and shorten both the review and response times. Utilizing the CA checklist to compile and proactively update the DMFs improves the chance for the DMFs to pass the CA in the first cycle. However, given that the majority of DMFs require at least two cycles of CA before being deemed complete, it is recommended that DMF fees are paid 6 months in advance of the ANDA submissions in order to avoid negatively impacting the filling status of the ANDAs.

  2. Item Generation for Test Development [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2003-01-01

    This volume, based on papers presented at a 1998 conference, collects thinking and research on item generation for test development. It includes materials on psychometric and cognitive theory, construct-oriented approaches to item generation, the item generation process, and some applications of item generative principles. (SLD)

  3. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  4. Item-Writing Guidelines for Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A teacher learning how to write test questions (test items) will almost certainly encounter item-writing guidelines--lists of item-writing do's and don'ts. Item-writing guidelines usually are presented as applicable across all assessment settings. Table I shows some guidelines that I believe to be generally applicable and two will be briefly…

  5. Unidimensional Interpretations for Multidimensional Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…

  6. Application of Optimal Designs to Item Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), examinees are presented with various sets of items chosen from a precalibrated item pool. Consequently, the attrition speed of the items is extremely fast, and replenishing the item pool is essential. Therefore, item calibration has become a crucial concern in maintaining item banks. In this study, a two-parameter logistic model is used. We applied optimal designs and adaptive sequential analysis to solve this item calibration problem. The results indicated that the proposed optimal designs are cost effective and time efficient. PMID:25188318

  7. 42 CFR 2.53 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit and evaluation activities. 2.53 Section 2.53 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.53 Audit...

  8. 42 CFR 2.53 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Audit and evaluation activities. 2.53 Section 2.53 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.53 Audit...

  9. 42 CFR 2.53 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audit and evaluation activities. 2.53 Section 2.53 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.53 Audit...

  10. 42 CFR 2.53 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit and evaluation activities. 2.53 Section 2.53 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.53 Audit...

  11. Evaluation of cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Rossum, A C; Wood, M L; Bishop, S L; Deblock, H; Charles, J B

    1997-04-15

    This study represents the first systematic evaluation of dysrhythmias before, during, and after spaceflight including extravehicular activity (EVA). The data, based on 7 Shuttle crew members, revealed a nonsignificant decrease in ventricular and supraventricular ectopy during EVA, suggesting that the incidence of dysrhythmias is no greater during EVA than with any other phase of a mission or preflight.

  12. Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary, Physically Active Lifestyle Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Marybeth H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a fit for life program at a university and to use the findings from an extensive literature review, consultations with formative and summative committees, and data collection to develop an interdisciplinary, physically active lifestyle (IPAL) course model. To address the 5 research questions examined in…

  13. Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2012-08-01

    For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

  14. Randomized Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…

  15. Reducing automatically activated racial prejudice through implicit evaluative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H

    2006-04-01

    The authors report a set of experiments that use an implicit evaluative conditioning procedure to reduce automatically activated racial prejudice in White participants in a short period and with relatively few trials. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants were unaware of the repeated conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) pairings of Black-good and White-bad. In Experiment 2, the procedure was found to be effective in reducing prejudice as indicated by an evaluative priming measure of automatically activated racial attitudes. In Experiment 3, this reduction in prejudice was found to persist throughout a 2-day separation between the conditioning procedure and the administration of the dependent measure. The implications of the present findings for the persistence of automatically activated racial prejudice are discussed.

  16. The effects of item familiarity on the neural correlates of successful associative memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Nancy A; Turney, Indira C; Webb, Christina E; Overman, Amy A

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is considered to be resource-demanding, requiring individuals to learn individual items and the specific relationships between those items. Previous research has shown that prior studying of items aids in associative memory for pairs composed of those same items, as compared to pairs of items that have not been prelearned (e.g., Kilb & Naveh-Benjamin, 2011). In the present study, we sought to elucidate the neural correlates mediating this memory facilitation. After being trained on individual items, participants were scanned while encoding item pairs composed of items from the pretrained phase (familiarized-item pairs) and pairs whose items had not been previously learned (unfamiliarized-item pairs). Consistent with previous findings, the overall subsequent recollection showed the engagement of bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and hippocampus, when compared to subsequent forgetting. However, a direct comparison between familiarized- and unfamiliarized-item pairs showed that subsequently recollected familiarized-item pairs were associated with decreased activity across much of the encoding network, including bilateral PHG, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and regions associated with item-specific processing within occipital cortex. Increased activity for familiarized-item pairs was found in a more limited set of regions, including bilateral parietal cortex, which has been associated with the formation of novel associations. Additionally, activity in the right parietal cortex correlated with associative memory success in the familiarized condition. Taken together, these results suggest that prior exposure to items can reduce the demands incurred on neural processing throughout the associative encoding network and can enhance associative memory performance by focusing resources within regions supporting the formation of associative links.

  17. Exploring alternative conceptions from Newtonian dynamics and simple DC circuits: Links between item difficulty and item confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinic, Maja; Boone, William J.; Krsnik, Rudolf; Beilfuss, Meredith L.

    2006-02-01

    Croatian 1st-year and 3rd-year high-school students (N = 170) completed a conceptual physics test. Students were evaluated with regard to two physics topics: Newtonian dynamics and simple DC circuits. Students answered test items and also indicated their confidence in each answer. Rasch analysis facilitated the calculation of three linear measures: (a) an item-difficulty measure based upon all responses, (b) an item-confidence measure based upon correct student answers, and (c) an item-confidence measure based upon incorrect student answers. Comparisons were made with regard to item difficulty and item confidence. The results suggest that Newtonian dynamics is a topic with stronger students' alternative conceptions than the topic of DC circuits, which is characterized by much lower students' confidence on both correct and incorrect answers. A systematic and significant difference between mean student confidence on Newtonian dynamics and DC circuits items was found in both student groups. Findings suggest some steps for physics instruction in Croatia as well as areas of further research for those in science education interested in additional techniques of exploring alternative conceptions.

  18. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Cheryl A; Smith, Bryan K; DuBose, Katrina D; Greene, J Leon; Bailey, Bruce W; Williams, Shannon L; Ryan, Joseph J; Schmelzle, Kristin H; Washburn, Richard A; Sullivan, Debra K; Mayo, Matthew S; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI). It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control). Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control), which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Enjoyment ratings for classroom-based lessons were also higher for intervention students. Competing factors, which might influence program results, were not carried out at intervention or control schools or were judged to be minimal. Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity. PMID:18606013

  19. Item response theory analysis of the mechanics baseline test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardamone, Caroline N.; Abbott, Jonathan E.; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel T.; Pawl, Andrew; Pritchard, David E.

    2012-02-01

    Item response theory is useful in both the development and evaluation of assessments and in computing standardized measures of student performance. In item response theory, individual parameters (difficulty, discrimination) for each item or question are fit by item response models. These parameters provide a means for evaluating a test and offer a better measure of student skill than a raw test score, because each skill calculation considers not only the number of questions answered correctly, but the individual properties of all questions answered. Here, we present the results from an analysis of the Mechanics Baseline Test given at MIT during 2005-2010. Using the item parameters, we identify questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test that are not effective in discriminating between MIT students of different abilities. We show that a limited subset of the highest quality questions on the Mechanics Baseline Test returns accurate measures of student skill. We compare student skills as determined by item response theory to the more traditional measurement of the raw score and show that a comparable measure of learning gain can be computed.

  20. Item Dependency in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iramaneerat, Cherdsak; Myford, Carol M.; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is an assessment approach employed in medical education, in which residents rotate through multiple stations of standardized clinical tasks to evaluate their clinical competence. Because items used to evaluate residents' performance in each OSCE station are linked to the same task and are rated…

  1. Evaluation of antiseptic antiviral activity of chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Geller, Chloé; Finance, Chantal; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel

    2011-06-01

    Antiviral antisepsis and disinfection are crucial for preventing the environmental spread of viral infections. Emerging viruses and associated diseases, as well as nosocomial viral infections, have become a real issue in medical fields, and there are very few efficient and specific treatments available to fight most of these infections. Another issue is the potential environmental resistance and spread of viral particles. Therefore, it is essential to properly evaluate the efficacy of antiseptics-disinfectants (ATS-D) on viruses. ATS-D antiviral activity is evaluated by (1) combining viruses and test product for an appropriately defined and precise contact time, (2) neutralizing product activity, and (3) estimating the loss of viral infectivity. A germicide can be considered to have an efficient ATS-D antiviral activity if it induces a >3 or >4 log(10) reduction (American and European regulatory agency requirements, respectively) in viral titers in a defined contact time. This unit describes a global methodology for evaluating chemical ATS-D antiviral activity.

  2. Active thermography in qualitative evaluation of protective materials.

    PubMed

    Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Wiecek, Bogusław

    2009-01-01

    This is a study of the possibilities of a qualitative evaluation of protective materials with active thermography. It presents a simulation of a periodic excitation of a multilayer composite material. Tests were conducted with lock-in thermography on Kevlar composite consisting of 16 layers of Kevlar fabric reinforced with formaldehyde resin with implanted delamination defects. Lock-in thermography is a versatile tool for nondestructive evaluation. It is a fast, remote and nondestructive procedure. Hence, it was used to detect delaminations in the composite structure of materials used in the production of components designed for personal protection. This method directly contributes to an improvement in safety.

  3. Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders to Mand for the Removal of Stimuli That Prevent Access to Preferred Items

    PubMed Central

    Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Powell, Nicole M.; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2013-01-01

    Mand training is often a primary focus in early language instruction and typically includes mands that are positively reinforced. However, mands maintained by negative reinforcement are also important skills to teach. These include mands to escape aversive demands or unwanted items. Another type of negatively reinforced mand important to teach involves the removal of a stimulus that prevents access to a preferred activity. We taught 5 participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders to mand for the removal of a stimulus in order to access a preferred item that had been blocked. An evaluation was conducted to determine if participants responded differentially when the establishing operations for the preferred item were present versus absent. All participants learned to mand for the removal of the stimulus exclusively under conditions when the establishing operation was present. PMID:23814366

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of dioleoyl glyceric acids showing antitrypsin activity.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Sato, Shun; Kitamoto, Dai; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Previously, Lešová et al. reported the isolation and identification of metabolite OR-1, showing antitrypsin activity, produced during fermentation by Penicillium funiculosum. The structure of OR-1 was a mixture of glyceric acid (GA), esterified with C(14)-C(18) fatty acids, and oleic acid (C18:1) as the most predominant fatty acid (Folia Microbiol. 46, 21-23, 2001). In this study, dioleoyl D-GA and dioleoyl L-GA were synthesized via diesterification with oleoyl chloride, and their antitrypsin activities were evaluated using both a disk diffusion method and spectral absorption measurements. The results show that both compounds and their equivalent mixtures possess antitrypsin activities; however, their IC(50) values (approximately 2 mM) are much higher than that of OR-1 (4.25 µM), suggesting that dioleoyl GA does not play a major role in the OR-1 antitrypsin activity. PMID:21606621

  5. Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the patient activation measure (PAM13)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) consists of 13 items and assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills, and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. The aim of this study was to translate the original American version of the PAM13 into German and to test the psychometric properties of the German version in an elderly, multimorbid population with various chronic conditions. Methods Translation was performed by a standardized forward-backward translation process. The PAM13 was sent to 9.075 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled study. 4.306 participants responded to the questionnaire. Descriptive and reliability analyses were carried out. To examine scale properties, Andrich’s Rasch Rating Scale Model was fitted. Results The internal consistency is good (α = 0.88) and the item-rest-correlations were found as strong to moderate. The unidimensionality of the construct was confirmed, with a variance explanation of 40.9% and good model-fits for the Rasch model. However, the lowest response options were very rarely used across all items (below 5%) and ranking order of items according to their difficulty was substantially different from that of the American version. Differential item functioning (DIF) was found in subgroups (sex, age, health status), but differences were small. Conclusion The German version of the PAM13 showed acceptable reliability and the model-fit statistics confirmed the Rasch model. The different ranking order of the items and the unfair distribution of the response options suggest further research on validation and revision of the construct. PMID:24172020

  6. Target Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenden, Dan

    The Instructor and Course Evaluation System (ICES) is a computer-based system for obtaining student ratings of instructors and courses. To use ICES, an instructor will choose 23 evaluative items from an item catalog. These items are then printed on a standard form. Students respond to these items using a five position scale. On the back of the…

  7. The reliability and validity of the English version of the Evaluation of Daily Activity Questionnaire for people with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Alan; Tyson, Sarah F.; Nordenskiöld, Ulla; Hawkins, Ruth; Prior, Yeliz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The Evaluation of Daily Activity Questionnaire (EDAQ) includes 138 items in 14 domains identified as important by people with RA. The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the English EDAQ. Methods. A total of 502 participants completed two questionnaires 3 weeks apart. The first consisted of the EDAQ, HAQ, RA Quality of Life (RAQoL) and the Medical Outcomes Scale (MOS) 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36v2), and the second consisted of the EDAQ only. The 14 EDAQ domains were tested for: unidimensionality—using confirmatory factor analysis; fit, response dependency, invariance across groups (differential item functioning)—using Rasch analysis; internal consistency [Person Separation Index (PSI)]; concurrent validity—by correlations with the HAQ, SF-36v2 and RAQoL; and test–retest reliability (Spearman’s correlations). Results. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 14 EDAQ domains indicated unidimensionality, after adjustment for local dependency in each domain. All domains achieved a root mean square error of approximation <0.10 and satisfied Rasch model expectations for local dependency. DIF by age, gender and employment status was largely absent. The PSI was consistent with individual use (PSI = 0.94 for all 14 domains). For all domains, except Caring, concurrent validity was good: HAQ (rs = 0.72–0.91), RAQoL (rs = 0.67–0.82) and SF36v2 Physical Function scale (rs = −0.60 to −0.84) and test–retest reliability was good (rs = 0.70–0.89). Conclusion. Analysis supported a 14-domain, two-component structure (Self care and Mobility) of the EDAQ, where each domain, and both components, satisfied Rasch model requirements, and have robust reliability and validity. PMID:25863045

  8. Promoting cold-start items in recommender systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, the so-called item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. Interestingly, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely, these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such observation. In a word, getting in-depth understanding on recommender systems could pave the way for the owners to popularize their cold-start products with low costs.

  9. Promoting cold-start items in recommender systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, the so-called item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. Interestingly, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely, these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such observation. In a word, getting in-depth understanding on recommender systems could pave the way for the owners to popularize their cold-start products with low costs. PMID:25479013

  10. Promoting Cold-Start Items in Recommender Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, the so-called item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. Interestingly, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely, these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such observation. In a word, getting in-depth understanding on recommender systems could pave the way for the owners to popularize their cold-start products with low costs. PMID:25479013

  11. In vitro Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Nauclea orientalis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Raghavamma, S. T. V.; Rao, N. Rama

    2010-01-01

    Antianthelmintic activity of successive extracts (chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous) of Nauclea orientalis leaves were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) and compared with that of albendazole. It was found that the extracts exhibited, respectively dose-dependent action and inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and death of earthworms. The results indicated that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were more potent. PMID:21218070

  12. 38 CFR 1.489 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.489 Audit and evaluation activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584, and the following paragraphs, patient medical records covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of...

  13. 38 CFR 1.489 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.489 Audit and evaluation activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584, and the following paragraphs, patient medical records covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of...

  14. 38 CFR 1.489 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.489 Audit and evaluation activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584, and the following paragraphs, patient medical records covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of...

  15. 38 CFR 1.489 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.489 Audit and evaluation activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584, and the following paragraphs, patient medical records covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of...

  16. 38 CFR 1.489 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.489 Audit and evaluation activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584, and the following paragraphs, patient medical records covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of...

  17. New methodology for evaluating osteoclastic activity induced by orthodontic load.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Adriele Silveira; Fernandes, Alline Birra Nolasco; Maciel, José Vinicius Bolognesi; Netto, Juliana de Noronha Santos; Bolognese, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a dynamic process of bone modeling involving osteoclast-driven resorption on the compression side. Consequently, to estimate the influence of various situations on tooth movement, experimental studies need to analyze this cell. Objectives The aim of this study was to test and validate a new method for evaluating osteoclastic activity stimulated by mechanical loading based on the fractal analysis of the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface. Material and Methods The mandibular right first molars of 14 rabbits were tipped mesially by a coil spring exerting a constant force of 85 cN. To evaluate the actual influence of osteoclasts on fractal dimension of bone surface, alendronate (3 mg/Kg) was injected weekly in seven of those rabbits. After 21 days, the animals were killed and their jaws were processed for histological evaluation. Osteoclast counts and fractal analysis (by the box counting method) of the PDL-bone interface were performed in histological sections of the right and left sides of the mandible. Results An increase in the number of osteoclasts and in fractal dimension after OTM only happened when alendronate was not administered. Strong correlation was found between the number of osteoclasts and fractal dimension. Conclusions Our results suggest that osteoclastic activity leads to an increase in bone surface irregularity, which can be quantified by its fractal dimension. This makes fractal analysis by the box counting method a potential tool for the assessment of osteoclastic activity on bone surfaces in microscopic examination. PMID:25760264

  18. Test-retest reliability of health behavior items in the Community Health Survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin A; Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Hun Je; Oh, In Hwan; Lee, Jakyoung

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Responses to health-related items on the Community Health Survey (CHS) provide evidence that is used to develop community-based health policy. This study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of selected health behavioral items on the CHS according to item category, response period, and response scale. METHODS: A sample of 159 men and women 20 to 69 years of age participated in a test-retest with an interval of 14 to 21 days. A total of 28 items relating to smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and weight control, and mental health were selected. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of the items using kappa statistics. RESULTS: Kappa values ranged from 0.44 to 0.93. Items concerning habits had higher kappa values (mean, 0.7; standard error, 0.05) than items concerning awareness or attitudes (p=0.012). The kappa value of items with two- to four-point scales was 0.63, which was higher than the value of 0.59 for items with scales involving five or more points, although this difference was not statistically significant. Different kappa values were observed for each reference period, but no statistically significant differences were noted. CONCLUSIONS: The test-retest reliability of the CHS items that we studied was associated with item category. Further study of the relationship between item category and reliability in domains other than health behaviors is required. PMID:26493776

  19. Item Response Theory Approaches to Harmonization and Research Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Perraillon, Marcelo Coca; Kim, Jong Bae

    2014-01-01

    The need to harmonize different outcome metrics is a common problem in research synthesis and economic evaluation of health interventions and technology. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of multidimensional item response theory (IRT) to equate different scales which purport to measure the same construct at the item level. We provide an overview of multidimensional item response theory in general and the bi-factor model which is particularly relevant for applications in this area. We show how both the underlying true scores of two or more scales that are intended to measure the same latent variable can be equated and how the item responses from one scale can be used to predict the item responses for a scale that was not administered but are necessary for the purpose of economic evaluations. As an example, we show that a multidimensional IRT model predicts well both the EQ-5D descriptive system and the EQ-5D preference index from SF-12 data which cannot be directly used to perform an economic evaluation. Results based on multidimensional IRT performed well compared to traditional regression methods in this area. A general framework for harmonization of research instruments based on multidimensional IRT is described. PMID:25435794

  20. Evaluation of Clinical Biomaterial Surface Effects on T Lymphocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Analiz; Anderson, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies in our laboratory have shown that lymphocytes can influence macrophage adhesion and fusion on biomaterial surfaces. However, few studies have evaluated how material adherent macrophages can influence lymphocyte behavior, specifically T cells. In this study, we cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors on three synthetic non-biodegradable biomedical polymers: Elasthane 80A (PEU), Silicone rubber (SR), or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Upregulation of T cell surface activation markers (CD69 and CD25), lymphocyte proliferation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) concentrations were evaluated by flow cytometry, carboxy-fluorescein diacetate, succinimydyl ester (CFSE) incorporation, and multiplex cytokine immunoassay, respectively, to assess T cell activation. Following 3 and 7 days of culture, CD4+ helper T cells from cultures of any of the material groups did not express the activation markers CD69 and CD25 and lymphocyte proliferation was not present. IL-2 and IFNγ levels were produced, but dependent on donor. These data indicate that T cells are not activated in response to clinically relevant synthetic biomaterials. The data also suggest that lymphocyte subsets exclusive of T cells are the source of the lymphokines, IL-2 and IFN-γ, in certain donors. PMID:19172618

  1. Sedative hypnotic activity of manahshila (realgar) -an experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kodlady, Naveena; Doddamani, M S; Vishwanath, Y; Patgiri, B J

    2011-01-01

    Manahshila (Realgar) is one of the three major Arsenicals used in Ayurvedic therapeutics since ages. It is indicated in skin, respiratory, ophthalmic and psychological disorders. It is mentioned to be the best among Rasayanas and a good aphrodisiac. As Manahshila is indicated in Unmada (Psychological disorder); wide use of Manahshila in the formulations mentioned for psychological disorders; some of those formulations are used in treatment of sleeplessness and Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) which is a commonly used Shodhana reagent of Manahshila is reported to be sedative, the potential sedative hypnotic activity is inferred and an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the sedative hypnotic activity of Manahshila. Effect of Ardraka Shodhita Manahshila (ASM) on the spontaneous motor activity of albino rats in actophotometer and on diazepam induced sleeping time was evaluated. There was a statistically significant reduction in the spontaneous motor activity (P<0.001) in the ASM treated Manahshila and there was early onset and hypnotic potentiation in the diazepam induced sleep in rats (P<0.01). PMID:22557432

  2. Evaluating the Effects of Differences in Group Abilities on the Tucker and the Levine Observed-Score Methods for Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Equating. ACT Research Report Series 2010-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hanwei; Cui, Zhongmin; Zhu, Rongchun; Gao, Xiaohong

    2010-01-01

    The most critical feature of a common-item nonequivalent groups equating design is that the average score difference between the new and old groups can be accurately decomposed into a group ability difference and a form difficulty difference. Two widely used observed-score linear equating methods, the Tucker and the Levine observed-score methods,…

  3. The Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire: evaluation of a brief questionnaire to measure physical activity, dietary control, maintenance of a healthy weight, and psychological antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Traina, Shana B; Mathias, Susan D; Colwell, Hilary H; Crosby, Ross D; Abraham, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed measurement properties of the 17-item Diabetes Intention, Attitude, and Behavior Questionnaire (DIAB-Q), which measures intention to engage in self-care behaviors, including following a diabetes diet and engaging in appropriate physical activity. Methods The DIAB-Q includes questions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Items were developed using published literature, input from health care professionals, and qualitative research findings in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In Stage I of the study, 23 adults with T2DM were interviewed to evaluate the content and clarity of the DIAB-Q. In Stage II 1,015 individuals with T2DM completed the DIAB-Q and supplemental questionnaires, including the Short Form-36 acute (SF-36), section III of the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities questionnaire, and self-administered items relevant to the treatment and management of T2DM (eg, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]) at baseline and 3–7 days later. Once the DIAB-Q scale structure was determined, its test–retest reliability, construct validity, and known-groups validity were evaluated, and minimal clinically important change was estimated. Results In Stage I, the 23 respondents surveyed generally reported that the DIAB-Q was clear and comprehensive and endorsed questions as relevant to their intentions to engage in diabetes-related self-care activities. Most subjects in Stage II were male, Caucasian, and married. Mean age was 63 years. Factor analysis revealed six psychological constructs (Behavior, Planning, Intention, Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude, and Subjective Norm). Test–retest reliability was acceptable (≥0.70) for all scales, except Perceived Behavioral Control. Construct validity was demonstrated based on correlations with diabetes-specific items/scales and the SF-36. Known-groups validity was confirmed for Behavior, Planning, and

  4. CATCH: physical activity process evaluation in a multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, T L; Strikmiller, P K; Stone, E J; Woods, S E; Ehlinger, S S; Romero, K A; Budman, S T

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the process evaluation model for the physical activity intervention component of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) and describes the major procedures used to monitor CATCH PE, the physical education intervention. The paper focuses on CATCH PE teacher training and in-service support as well as on the curriculum implementation. Monitoring training and support included assessing the in-service training workshops and the follow-up on-site assistance provided by staff. Monitoring the implementation included assessing the quantity and quality of CATCH PE instruction in terms of student physical activity engagement and lesson context, the fidelity of the curricular implementation, and the opportunities for other physical activity by children throughout the school day.

  5. [Activities of Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Joe

    2002-01-01

    The final report of NASA funded activities at Iowa State University (ISU) for the period between 1/96 and 1/99 includes two main areas of activity. The first is the development and delivery of an x-ray simulation package suitable for evaluating the impact of parameters affects the inspectability of an assembly of parts. The second area was the development of images processing tools to remove reconstruction artifacts in x-ray laminagraphy images. The x-ray simulation portion of this work was done by J. Gray and the x-ray laminagraphy work was done by J. Basart. The report is divided into two sections covering the two activities respectively. In addition to this work reported the funding also covered NASA's membership in the NSF University/Industrial Cooperative Research Center.

  6. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaves.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Liang Liang; Lin, Yi Ming

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf extracts was investigated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The methanolic extract and its four water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane fractions were prepared and subjected to antioxidant evaluation. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction had stronger antioxidant activity than the other ones. HPLC data indicated that S. cumini leaf extracts contained phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin, responsible for their antioxidant activity. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, free radical-scavenging ability and the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts supported this observation. PMID:18927517

  7. Evaluation of sedative and anticonvulsant activities of Unmadnashak Ghrita.

    PubMed

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Dorle, Avinash K

    2004-09-01

    'Unmadnashak Ghrita' (UG) is a ayurvedic formulation containing Ferula narthex (6 g), Gardenia gummifera (6 g), Ellataria cardamom (6 g), Bacopa monneri (6 g), and cow's ghee (clarified butter fat) (76 g). In the present study, neuropharmacological activities of UG were evaluated for its gross behavioural effect, pentobarbitone sleeping time, spontaneous locomotor activity, antagonism to amphetamine induced hyperlocomotor activity, analgesic activity by tail flick test, rota-rod performance (motor coordination test), maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures, and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice. The formulation showed CNS-depressant activity in gross behavioural test, potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and there was significant decrease in spontaneous locomotor count in mice. The formulation also antagonized the behavioral effects of CNS-stimulant drug amphetamine, and showed analgesic effect in mice. UG failed to affect the motor coordination test. The formulation also protected mice from MES and PTZ induced convulsions. These results suggest that UG has CNS-depressant and anticonvulsant activity in mice. PMID:15261966

  8. Evaluation of dust activity and climate effects in North China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiang-ao; Liang, Feng; Wang, Ming-xing

    2004-01-01

    TOMS/AI data with nearly 20 years are utilized in the paper to evaluate dust activities in North China. Combined with simultaneous NCEP reanalysis climate data, climate effects on dust activities are assessed. The results showed that the whole North China suffers impact by dust aerosols, with three centers standing out in TOMS/AI spring average map that are western three basins, which are characterized by lower annual precipitation and elevation. Gobi deserts in Mongolia Plateau do not attain higher TOMS/AI value due to cloud contamination and relative higher elevation. Spring is the season with the highest TOMS dust aerosol index; within the western three basins, high dust aerosol index appears in both spring and summer, especially in Tarim Basin. Wind speed in spring and precipitation in previous rainy season play important roles in controlling dust activities, higher wind speed and less precipitation than the normal are in favor of dust activities in spring. Temperature in spring and previous winter also affect dust activity to a certain extent, but with contrary spatial distribution. Temperature in winter exert effect principally in west part, contrarily, temperature effect in spring is mainly shown in east part. Both of them have negative correlation with dust activity.

  9. Evaluation of soil biological activity after a diesel fuel spill.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Tejada, M; Gallego, M; Gonzalez, J L

    2009-06-15

    Diesel fuel contamination in soils may be toxic to soil microorganisms and plants and acts as a source of groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil biological activity and phytotoxicity to garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) in a soil polluted with diesel fuel. For this, a diesel fuel spill was simulated on agricultural soil at dose 1 l m(-2). During the experiment (400 days) the soil was not covered in vegetation and no agricultural tasks were carried out. A stress period of 18 days following the spill led to a decrease in soil biological activity, reflected by the soil microbial biomass and soil enzymatic activities, after which it increased again. The n-C(17)/Pristine and n-C(18)/Phytane ratios were correlated negatively and significantly with the dehydrogenase, arylsulphatase, protease, phosphatase and urease activities and with the soil microbial biomass during the course of the experiment. The beta-glucosidase activity indicated no significant connection with the parameters related with the evolution of hydrocarbons in the soil. Finally, the germination activity of the soil was seen to recover 200 days after the spill.

  10. Oxyresveratrol: Structural Modification and Evaluation of Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Chatsumpun, Nutputsorn; Chuanasa, Taksina; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Jongbunprasert, Vichien; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Oxyresveratrol (2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene, 1), a phytoalexin present in large amounts in the heartwood of Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham., has been reported to possess a wide variety of biological activities. As part of our continuing studies on the structural modification of oxyresveratrol, a library of twenty-six compounds was prepared via O-alkylation, aromatic halogenation, and electrophilic aromatic substitution. The two aromatic rings of the stilbene system of 1 can be chemically modulated by exploiting different protecting groups. Such a strategy allows for selective and exclusive modifications on either ring A or ring B. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for a panel of biological activities, including free radical scavenging activity, DNA protective properties, antiherpetic activity, inhibition of α-glucosidase and neuraminidase, and cytotoxicity against some cancer cell lines. Several derivatives were comparably active or even more potent than the parent oxyresveratrol and/or the appropriate positive controls. The partially etherified analogs 5'-hydroxy-2,3',4-trimethoxystilbene and 3',5'-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxystilbene demonstrated promising anti-herpetic and DNA protective activities, offering new leads for neuropreventive agent research, whereas 5'-hydroxy-2,3',4,-triisopropoxystilbene displayed anti-α-glucosidase effects, providing a new lead molecule for anti-diabetic drug development. 3',5'-Diacetoxy-2,4-diisopropoxystilbene showed potent and selective cytotoxicity against HeLa cancer cells, but the compound still needs further in vivo investigation to verify its anticancer potential. PMID:27104505

  11. Oxyresveratrol: Structural Modification and Evaluation of Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Chatsumpun, Nutputsorn; Chuanasa, Taksina; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Jongbunprasert, Vichien; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Oxyresveratrol (2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene, 1), a phytoalexin present in large amounts in the heartwood of Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham., has been reported to possess a wide variety of biological activities. As part of our continuing studies on the structural modification of oxyresveratrol, a library of twenty-six compounds was prepared via O-alkylation, aromatic halogenation, and electrophilic aromatic substitution. The two aromatic rings of the stilbene system of 1 can be chemically modulated by exploiting different protecting groups. Such a strategy allows for selective and exclusive modifications on either ring A or ring B. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for a panel of biological activities, including free radical scavenging activity, DNA protective properties, antiherpetic activity, inhibition of α-glucosidase and neuraminidase, and cytotoxicity against some cancer cell lines. Several derivatives were comparably active or even more potent than the parent oxyresveratrol and/or the appropriate positive controls. The partially etherified analogs 5'-hydroxy-2,3',4-trimethoxystilbene and 3',5'-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxystilbene demonstrated promising anti-herpetic and DNA protective activities, offering new leads for neuropreventive agent research, whereas 5'-hydroxy-2,3',4,-triisopropoxystilbene displayed anti-α-glucosidase effects, providing a new lead molecule for anti-diabetic drug development. 3',5'-Diacetoxy-2,4-diisopropoxystilbene showed potent and selective cytotoxicity against HeLa cancer cells, but the compound still needs further in vivo investigation to verify its anticancer potential.

  12. Combining Users' Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant. PMID:25856329

  13. Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, M.D.; Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A.

    1990-12-31

    A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang

    2004-11-18

    ''Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry'' focuses on the potential for microbial communities that could be active in repository emplacement drifts to influence the in-drift bulk chemical environment. This report feeds analyses to support the inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), but this work is not expected to generate direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. The purpose was specified by, and the evaluation was performed and is documented in accordance with, ''Technical Work Plan For: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Analyses'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172402], Section 2.1). This report addresses all of the FEPs assigned by the technical work plan (TWP), including the development of exclusion arguments for FEPs that are not carried forward to the TSPA-LA. Except for an editorial correction noted in Section 6.2, there were no other deviations from the TWP. This report documents the completion of all assigned tasks, as follows (BSC 2004 DIRS 172402, Section 1.2.1): (1) Perform analyses to evaluate the potential for microbial activity in the waste emplacement drift under the constraints of anticipated physical and chemical conditions. (2) Evaluate uncertainties associated with these analyses. (3) Determine whether the potential for microbes warrants a feed to TSPA-LA to account for predicted effects on repository performance. (4) Provide information to address the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NUREG-1804) (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) and Key Technical Issues and agreements, as appropriate. (5) Develop information for inclusion or exclusion of FEPs.

  15. Item Overlap Correlations: Definitions, Interpretations, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1994-01-01

    Item overlap coefficient (IOC) formulas are discussed, providing six warnings about their calculation and interpretation and some explanations of why item overlap influences the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory factor structures. (SLD)

  16. [National evaluation of the diagnosis of activated protein C resistance].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Manzano, Guadalupe; de la Peña-Díaz, Aurora; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Corona-de la Peña, Norma; Cruz-Cruz, Donají; Gaminio, Elizabeth; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Mayagoitia, Teresa; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Poblete, Teresita; Quintana-Martínez, Sandra; Ramírez, Raúl; Razo, Daniel; Ruiz de Chávez-Ochoa, Adriana; Reyes-Núñez, Virginia Adriana; Salazar, Rosario; Vicencio-Santiago, Guadalupe Virginia; Villa, Rosario; Reyes-Núñez, Aurelia Virginia

    2003-01-01

    test evaluates the partially activated thromboplastin time (aPTT) in a plasma sample before and after adding activated PC. The result is reported as a standardized sensibility index: aPTT post-activated PC/aPTT pre-activated PC. The conclusions of this national reunion pretend to optimize the available resources in our country in order to allow a wide and less-expensive diagnosis of patients with thrombosis. PMID:14515684

  17. Structure activity relationship, cytotoxicity and evaluation of antioxidant activity of curcumin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pramod K; Sahu, Praveen K; Sahu, Puran L; Agarwal, Dau D

    2016-02-15

    Series of curcumin derivatives/analogues were designed and efficient method for synthesis thereof is described. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their cytotoxicity and evaluated their antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity effect has been evaluated against three cell lines Hep-G2, HCT-116 and QG-56 by MTT assay method. Structure activity relationship has revealed that particularly, compound 3c, (IC50 value 6.25 μM) has shown better cytotoxicity effect against three cell lines. According to results of SAR study, it was found that 4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole derivatives (2e and 2f), pyrazoles (3a, 3b, 3c and 3d) benzylidenes (4d) exhibited better antioxidant activity than curcumin. A correlation of structure and activities relationship of these compounds with respect to drug score profiles and other physico-chemical properties of drugs are described and verified experimentally. PMID:26810315

  18. Evaluating the effect of stressors on thiaminase activity in alewife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepak, J.M.; Kraft, C.E.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Brown, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    No consistent explanation has been found for the variability in the thiaminase activity of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus despite the role of alewife thiaminase in large-scale salmonine mortality in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We conducted experiments to evaluate the effect of two stressors, reduced salt content in the water and food limitation, on alewife thiaminase activity. Alewives were subjected to treatments in replicated tanks in which conductivity was lowered (<100 ??S/cm) for 8 d and feeding was limited for 39 d. Circulating white blood cells, plasma cortisol, plasma glucose, and whole-body thiaminase were measured in individual alewives to assess their response to these experimental treatments. Alewives from the controls had significantly larger numbers of circulating white blood cells than those in the salt-reduced and food-limited treatments (24,000 and 19,000 cells/??L and 11,000 and 9,000 cells/??L for alewives from the two control and salt-reduced treatment tanks, respectively, and 34,000 and 30,000 cells/??L and 21,000 and 16,000 cells/??L for alewives from the two control and food-limited treatment tanks). No significant differences in alewife thiaminase activity were found between treatment fish and their controls. The mean thiaminase activity in the alewives studied increased from 6,900 to 16,000 pmol??g -1??min-1 from the time of their collection in Cayuga Lake to the start of laboratory experiments 1.5-2.5 years later; the latter value was more than twice that of previously reported levels of thiaminase activity from alewives collected in the wild. These data suggest that the variability in alewife thiaminase is not related to stress from salt reduction or food limitation, but laboratory holding conditions significantly increased thiaminase through a mechanism not evaluated by our experimental treatments. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…

  20. Flawed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Maria T.; Stocking, Martha L.

    A multiple choice test item is identified as flawed if it has no single best answer. In spite of extensive quality control procedures, the administration of flawed items to test-takers is inevitable. Common strategies for dealing with flawed items in conventional testing, grounded in the principle of fairness to test-takers, are reexamined in the…

  1. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  2. 47 CFR 32.7600 - Extraordinary items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... items, if reported other than as extraordinary items. (c) This account shall be charged or credited and Account 4070, Income taxes—accrued, shall be credited or charged for all current income tax effects (Federal, state and local) of extraordinary items. (d) This account shall also be charged or credited,...

  3. Processing Polarity Items: Contrastive Licensing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddy, Douglas; Drenhaus, Heiner; Frisch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment that investigated the failure to license polarity items in German using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The results reveal distinct processing reflexes associated with failure to license positive polarity items in comparison to failure to license negative polarity items. Failure to license both negative and…

  4. Computer Equipment Repair Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 321 test items for use in teaching a course in repairing computer equipment. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in the following skill areas (with selected skills mentioned in brackets): performing…

  5. Linking Item Parameters to a Base Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Taehoon; Petersen, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares three methods of item calibration--concurrent calibration, separate calibration with linking, and fixed item parameter calibration--that are frequently used for linking item parameters to a base scale. Concurrent and separate calibrations were implemented using BILOG-MG. The Stocking and Lord in "Appl Psychol Measure"…

  6. On the Relationship between Differential Item Functioning and Item Difficulty: An Issue of Methods? Item Response Theory Approach to Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between differential item functioning (DIF) and item difficulty on the SAT is such that more difficult items tended to exhibit DIF in favor of the focal group (usually minority groups). These results were reported by Kulick and Hu, and Freedle and have been enthusiastically discussed by more recent literature. Examining the…

  7. Criterion-Referenced Test Items for Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This test item bank on welding contains test questions based upon competencies found in the Missouri Welding Competency Profile. Some test items are keyed for multiple competencies. These criterion-referenced test items are designed to work with the Vocational Instructional Management System. Questions have been statistically sampled and validated…

  8. 7 CFR 2902.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., USDA will use life cycle cost information only from tests using the BEES analytical method. (c... availability of such items and the economic and technological feasibility of using such items, including life cycle costs. USDA will gather information on individual products within an item and extrapolate...

  9. 7 CFR 2902.5 - Item designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., USDA will use life cycle cost information only from tests using the BEES analytical method. (c... availability of such items and the economic and technological feasibility of using such items, including life cycle costs. USDA will gather information on individual products within an item and extrapolate...

  10. Identification of a Semiparametric Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peress, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We consider the identification of a semiparametric multidimensional fixed effects item response model. Item response models are typically estimated under parametric assumptions about the shape of the item characteristic curves (ICCs), and existing results suggest difficulties in recovering the distribution of individual characteristics under…

  11. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  12. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The literature in modern test theory on procedures for identifying items with differential item functioning (DIF) among two groups of persons includes the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Generally, it is not recognized explicitly that if there is real DIF in some items which favor one group, then as an artifact of this procedure, artificial DIF…

  13. Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

  14. Ramsay-Curve Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test, questionnaire, or interview has different measurement properties for one group of people versus another, irrespective of true group-mean differences on the constructs being measured. This article is focused on item response theory based likelihood ratio testing for DIF (IRT-LR or…

  15. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single-group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of…

  16. Evaluation of Cell Binding Activities of Leptospira ECM Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Gregory T.; Hahn, Beth L.; Evangelista, Karen V.; Padmore, Lavinia; Aranda, Patrick S.; Coburn, Jenifer

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a zoonotic infection that occurs globally. The bacteria colonize the renal proximal tubules of many animals and are shed in the urine. Contact with the urine, or with water contaminated with the urine of infected animals can cause infection of new host animals, including humans. Mechanisms of colonization of the proximal tubule and other tissues are not known, but specific interactions between bacterial adhesins and host substrates are likely to be critical in this process. Several extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesins have been previously identified, but more recently, it has been shown that Leptospira bind more efficiently to cells than ECM. In this work, recombinant forms of five putative Leptospira ECM adhesins, namely LipL32, Loa22, OmpL1, p31/LipL45, and LenA were evaluated for binding to cells as well as an expanded variety of ECM components. Reproducible and significant adhesin activity was demonstrated only for OmpL1, which bound to both mammalian cell lines tested and to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). While determination of biologically significant bacterial adhesion activity will require generation of site-directed mutant strains, our results suggest that OmpL1 is a strong candidate for future evaluation regarding the roles of the adhesin activity of the protein during L. interrogans infection. PMID:25875373

  17. Synthesis, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity evaluation of hydroxyurea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kos, Ivan; Jadrijević-Mladar, Milena; Butula, Ivan; Biruš, Mladen; Maravić-Vlahoviček, Gordana; Dabelić, Sanja

    2013-06-01

    5 Synthesis and biological evaluation of a series (N = 16) of cyclic and acyclic hydroxyurea derivatives, including benzotriazole-, isocyanuric acid- and biuret-containing compounds, are disclosed. 1-N-(benzyloxycarbamoyl)benzotriazole was used as a benzyloxyisocyanate donor, a useful intermediate in the preparation of substituted hydroxyurea. Antibacterial activities of synthesized hydroxyurea derivatives were tested on three E. coli strains, i.e., a strain susceptible to antibiotics, a strain resistant to macrolide antibiotics and a strain resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Six compounds (three acyclic and three cyclic hydroxyureas) showed growth inhibition of the tested E. coli strains, with different specificity toward each strain. Results of the cytotoxic activity evaluation revealed that twelve out of sixteen test compounds were cytotoxic to human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 and/or human acute T cell leukemia Jurkat cell line. 1-(N-hydroxycarbamoyl) benzotriazole () increased the metabolic activity of both cell lines. Two compounds, 1-(N-hydroxycarbamoyl) benzotriazole (5) and N,N',N''-trihydroxybiuret (15), were identified as potential NO donors.

  18. Evaluating Three Active Thermal Architectures for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Cynthia D.; Hong, Andrew E.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Navarro, Moses; Marett, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Mass and cost are typically the two biggest challenges facing space craft designers. Active thermal control systems for crewed space-craft are typically among the more massive and costly systems on the vehicle. A study was completed evaluating three different thermal control system architectures to evaluate overall performance, mass and cost for a typical exploration mission profile. The architectures that were evaluated were 1 - a two-loop system using an internal liquid loop interfacing with an external liquid loop and flow loop with flow through radiators; 2 - a-single loop architecture with flow through radiators utilizing a regenerative heat exchanger and heater; and 3 - a single-loop architecture with heat pipe radiators. Environmental conditions, calculated for a given lunar exploration mission, and mission heat load profiles, generated based on previous Orion time lines, were evalauated through the phases of the on orbit mission. Performance for each of the architectures was evaluated along with the resultant mass of each system. Recommendations include adding a thermal topping system to lunar missions due to the extreme hot environments encountered in near-lunar approaches.

  19. Evaluation of anticoagulant activity of two algal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Faggio, C; Pagano, M; Dottore, A; Genovese, G; Morabito, M

    2016-09-01

    Marine algae are important sources of phycocolloids like agar, carrageenans and alginates used in industrial applications. Algal polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive products showing interesting properties. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential uses as anticoagulant drugs of algal sulphate polysaccharides extracted from Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Agardhiella subulata (Rhodophyta) collected in Ganzirri Lake (Cape Peloro Lagoon, north-eastern Sicily, Italy). Toxicity of algal extracts through trypan blue test and anticoagulant action measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) test has been evaluated. Algal extracts showed to prolong the PT and APTT during the coagulation cascade and to avoid the blood coagulation of samples. Furthermore, the algal extracts lack toxic effects towards cellular metabolism and their productions are relatively at low cost. This permits to consider the algae as the biological source of the future.

  20. Development of the PROMIS® Positive Emotional and Sensory Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D.; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The positive emotional and sensory expectancies of cigarette smoking include improved cognitive abilities, positive affective states, and pleasurable sensorimotor sensations. This paper describes development of Positive Emotional and Sensory Expectancies of Smoking item banks that will serve to standardize the assessment of this construct among daily and nondaily cigarette smokers. Methods: Data came from daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers who completed an online survey. To identify a unidimensional set of items, we conducted item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of fixed-item short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess the construct. Results: Eighteen items were included in the item banks (15 common across daily and nondaily smokers, 1 unique to daily, 2 unique to nondaily). The item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.95 for both), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.86). Results from simulated CATs indicated that, on average, less than 8 items are needed to assess the construct with adequate precision using the item banks. Conclusions: These analyses identified a new set of items that can assess the positive emotional and sensory expectancies of smoking in a reliable and standardized manner. Considerable efficiency in assessing this construct can be achieved by using the item bank SF, employing computer adaptive tests, or selecting subsets of items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. PMID:25118228

  1. Collaborative Examination Item Review Process in a Team-Taught, Self-Care Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, David J.; Sampognaro, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To improve examination item quality by educating and involving course instructors in evidence-based item review and encouraging use of this process in future courses. Methods. A peer-review process was implemented in a 2-course sequence (intervention) that involved training and review sessions before each examination and was compared to the previous year’s courses (control). Instructors completed a presurvey and postsurvey on training, experience, self-confidence, and self-rated success in multiple-choice item writing. Statistics were calculated for all items in the control and intervention sequences and compared using independent t tests. Items also were classified into levels based on difficulty and discrimination, and distribution into these levels was compared between sequences with independent t tests. Results. No significant difference was found between control and intervention sequence items with regard to mean difficulty (86.3% and 84.4%) or discrimination (0.23- and 0.25), respectively, although item classification distribution did appear to change between the control and intervention sequences’ subjective feelings of confidence, and success in item writing increased between presurvey and postsurvey. Confidence in ability to peer-review test items and to implement a formal item evaluation process also increased. Conclusion. Item statistics did not change significantly, but reviewed and edited items distributed more favorably into item statistic-based categories. This method of review positively affected instructors’ perceptions of their item-writing confidence and success and improved self-rated opinions of their ability to edit items and train others to do so. PMID:26430274

  2. Development of the PROMIS® Negative Psychosocial Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Shadel, William G.; Cerully, Jennifer; Kuhfeld, Megan; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Negative psychosocial expectancies of smoking include aspects of social disapproval and disappointment in oneself. This paper describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing psychosocial expectancies among daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses (according to gender, age, and race/ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of psychosocial expectancies items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess psychosocial expectancies. Results: A total of 21 items were included in the Psychosocial Expectancies item banks: 14 items are common across daily and nondaily smokers, 6 are unique to daily, and 1 is unique to nondaily. For both daily and nondaily smokers, the Psychosocial Expectancies item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.95 and 0.93, respectively), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.85). Results from simulated CATs showed that, on average, fewer than 8 items are needed to assess psychosocial expectancies with adequate precision when using the item banks. Conclusions: Psychosocial expectancies of smoking can be assessed on the basis of these item banks via the SF, by using CAT, or through a tailored set of items selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118230

  3. Approximation Preserving Reductions among Item Pricing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to determine the prices of the items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy those items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we derive approximation preserving reductions among several item pricing problems and show that all of them have algorithms with good approximation ratio.

  4. Evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of Chyawanprash using in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Madaan, Alka; Kanjilal, Satyajyoti; Gupta, Arun; Sastry, J L N; Verma, Ritu; Singh, Anu T; Jaggi, Manu

    2015-03-01

    Chyawanprash is an ayurvedic formulation used in Indian traditional medicinal system for its beneficial effect on human health. We investigated the immunostimulatory effects of Chyawanprash (CHY) using in vitro assays evaluating the secretion of cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-α) from murine bone marrow derived Dendritic Cells (DC) which play pivotal role in immunostimulation. The effects of CHY on phagocytosis in murine macrophages (RAW264.7) and Natural Killer (NK) cell activity were also investigated. At non-cytotoxic concentrations (20-500 μg/ml), CHY enhanced the secretion of all the three cytokines from DC. CHY also stimulated both, macrophage (RAW264.7) as well as NK cell activity, in vitro. In conclusion, the data substantiates the immunoprotective role of CHY at cellular level mediated by immunostimulation in key immune cells viz. dendritic Cells, macrophages and NK cells.

  5. Development of a Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Levesque, Lucie; Holden, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Q--SPACE) based on student perceptions. Twenty-eight items rated on 4-point Likert scales were administered to 244 middle school students in 9 schools. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the underlying structure of the items and 2…

  6. Emergency Power For Critical Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, William R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.

  7. Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Phyllanthus niruri

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; S. Chauhan, Nagendra; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri ) extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like follicular density, anagen/telogen (A/T) ratio and histological observation of animal skin sections. Finasteride solution was applied topically as standard. In vitro experiments were also performed to study the effect of extract on the activity of 5α-reductase enzyme Results: Groups treated with petroleum ether extract of plant showed hair re-growth as reflected by follicular density, A/T ratio and skin sections. Histopathology and morphologic observations of hair re-growth at shaved sites showed active follicular proliferation. In vitro experiments results showed inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extract on type-2 5α-reductase enzyme and an increase in the amount of testosterone with increasing concentrations. Conclusion: It could be concluded that petroleum ether extracts of P. niruri might be useful in the treatment of testosterone-induced alopecia in the experimental animal by inhibiting 5α-reductase enzyme. PMID:26693408

  8. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Clones. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    To reduce the cost of item writing and to enhance the flexibility of item presentation, items can be generated by item-cloning techniques. An important consequence of cloning is that it may cause variability on the item parameters. Therefore, a multilevel item response model is presented in which it is assumed that the item parameters of a…

  9. Distractor Similarity and Item-Stem Structure: Effects on Item Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascalon, M. Evelina; Meyers, Lawrence S.; Davis, Bruce W.; Smits, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This article examined two item-writing guidelines: the format of the item stem and homogeneity of the answer set. Answering the call of Haladyna, Downing, and Rodriguez (2002) for empirical tests of item writing guidelines and extending the work of Smith and Smith (1988) on differential use of item characteristics, a mock multiple-choice driver's…

  10. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  11. An Item Response Theory Model for Incorporating Response Time Data in Binary Personality Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a general item response theory model for personality items that allows the information provided by the item response times to be used to estimate the individual trait levels. The submodel describing the item response times is a modification of Thissen's log-linear model and is based on the distance-difficulty hypothesis in…

  12. RIM: A Random Item Mixture Model to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickx, Sofie; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul; Magis, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is assumed for the item difficulties such that the…

  13. Developing an Interpretation of Item Parameters for Personality Items: Content Correlates of Parameter Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickar, Michael J.; Ury, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    Attempted to relate content features of personality items to item parameter estimates from the partial credit model of E. Muraki (1990) by administering the Adjective Checklist (L. Goldberg, 1992) to 329 undergraduates. As predicted, the discrimination parameter was related to the item subtlety ratings of personality items but the level of word…

  14. Differential Item Functioning of GRE Mathematics Items across Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Testing Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Lixiong; Drake, Samuel; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether item features are related to observed differences in item difficulty (DIF) between computer- and paper-based test delivery media. Examinees responded to 60 quantitative items similar to those found on the GRE general test in either a computer-based or paper-based medium. Thirty-eight percent of the items were…

  15. A Standardization Approach to Adjusting Pretest Item Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shun-Wen; Hanson, Bradley A.; Harris, Deborah J.

    This study presents and evaluates a method of standardization that may be used by test practitioners to standardize classical item statistics when sample sizes are small. The effectiveness of this standardization approach was compared through simulation with the one-parameter logistic (1PL) and three parameter logistic (3PL) models based on the…

  16. An Investigation of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chon, Kyong Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate procedures for assessing model fit of IRT models for mixed format data. In this study, various IRT model combinations were fitted to data containing both dichotomous and polytomous item responses, and the suitability of the chosen model mixtures was evaluated based on a number of model fit procedures.…

  17. Item-Level Time Limits Are Not a Panacea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Florian; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The excellent paper by Goldhammer (this issue) deals with a most relevant and very pervasive problem of ability assessment: the evaluation of performance by considering speed and accuracy of performance. Goldhammer proposes item-level time limits as a possible remedy for individual differences in the speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) to keep time…

  18. Scores Based on Dangerous Responses to Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)

  19. Item Response Theory in the context of Improving Student Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Chase; Davis, Jeremy; Pyper, Brian

    2011-10-01

    We are interested to see if Item Response Theory can help to better inform the development of reasoning ability in introductory physics. A first pass through our latest batch of data from the Heat and Temperature Conceptual Evaluation, the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, and the Epistemological Beliefs About Physics Survey may help in this effort.

  20. Investigation of Science Inquiry Items for Use on an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards Using Cognitive Lab Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Gilmore, Joanna A.; Price, Karen J.; Bennett, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefits of item enhancements applied to science-inquiry items for incorporation into an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards for high school students. Six items were included in the cognitive lab sessions involving both students with and without disabilities. The enhancements (e.g., use of visuals,…

  1. Transfer Student Success: Educationally Purposeful Activities Predictive of Undergraduate GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauria, Renee M.; Fuller, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the effects of Educationally Purposeful Activities (EPAs) on transfer and nontransfer students' cumulative GPAs. Hierarchical, linear, and multiple regression models yielded seven statistically significant educationally purposeful items that influenced undergraduate student GPAs. Statistically significant positive EPAs for…

  2. The Disgust Scale: Item Analysis, Factor Structure, and Suggestions for Refinement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Williams, Nathan L.; Tolin, David F.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Elwood, Lisa S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 4 studies presented (N = 1,939), a converging set of analyses was conducted to evaluate the item adequacy, factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Disgust Scale (DS; J. Haidt, C. McCauley, & P. Rozin, 1994). The results suggest that 7 items (i.e., Items 2, 7, 8, 21, 23, 24, and 25) should be considered for removal from the DS.…

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of the antiplasmodial activity of tryptanthrin derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Onambele, Liliane Abodo; Riepl, Herbert; Fischer, Rainer; Pradel, Gabriele; Prokop, Aram; Aminake, Makoah Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the most deadly diseases threatening humankind and is still affecting a significant proportion of the world population, especially in Africa. Chemotherapy is a vital component of the fight against the disease and new antimalarial agents are urgently needed to curb the spread of malaria parasites that are resistant to existing drugs. The natural product tryptanthrin is known for its wide range of activities, including antiplasmodial activity, but its poor solubility has undermined its development as potent antimicrobial and antiprotozoan agent. The aim of this work was to synthesize analogues of tryptanthrin and to evaluate their antiplasmodial activity against the asexual and sexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Our results suggest that most tryptanthrin analogues retained their antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant malaria parasites in the nanomolar range (30–100 nM). The antiplasmodial activity of the most active compound NT1 (IC50: 30 nM; SI: 155.9) was similar in both strains and close to that of chloroquine (IC50: 20 nM) on the sensitive strain. The antiplasmodial activity was improved with derivatization, thus pointing out the necessity to explore tryptanthrin using medicinal chemistry approaches. Ten (10) of the tested derivatives met the criteria, allowing for advancement to animal testing, i.e., SI > 100 and IC50 < 100 nM. In addition to their activity on the asexual stages, tryptanthrin and two selected derivatives (NT1 and T8) prevented the maturation of gametocytes at their IC90 concentrations, indicating a transmission-blocking potential. Moreover, NT1 was able to impair gametogenesis by reducing the exflagellation of microgametes by 20% at IC90, while tryptanthrin and T8 had no influence on exflagellation. The results of this study confirm that tryptanthrin and its derivatives are potential antimalarial candidates with abilities to kill the intraerythrocytic

  4. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Picrorhiza kurroa (Leaves) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kant, K.; Walia, M.; Agnihotri, V. K.; Pathania, Vijaylata; Singh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is a well-known herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Although it shows antioxidant, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, it is most valued for its hepatoprotective effect. The rhizomes are widely used against indigestion problems since ancient times due to improper digestive secretions. Aim of this study was to explore antioxidant study of P. kurroa leaves for a new source of naturally occurring antioxidants. Two pure compounds, luteolin-5-O-glucopyranoside (1) and picein (2) were isolated from butanol extract through column chromatography. Different extracts of P. kurroa leaves (ethanol, ethyl acetate, butanol) were quantified for isolated compound (2) by high-performance liquid chromatography. All the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated for its antioxidant activity using two assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay. The linear detection range was 1.56-200 μg/ml for picein. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for picein were 2.34 and 7.81 μg/ml, respectively. Butanol and ethyl acetate extract showed greater antioxidant activity as compare to ethanol extract. Compound 1 and ascorbic acid showed nearly similar antioxidant activity where as 2 showed no activity at standard concentration. The IC50 values for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay for ascorbic acid, compound 1, ethanol extract and its different fractions (ethyl acetate and butanol) were found to be 0.81, 1.04, 67.48, 39.58, 37.12 and 2.59, 4.02, 48.36, 33.24, 29.48 μg, respectively. PMID:24082348

  5. Neuro-QOL: quality of life item banks for adults with neurological disorders: item development and calibrations based upon clinical and general population testing

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jin Shei; Bode, Rita; Choi, Seung; Moy, Claudia; Bleck, Tom; Miller, Deborah; Peterman, Amy; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Neuro-QOL provides a clinically relevant and psychometrically robust health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessment tool for both adults and children with common neurological disorders. We now report the psychometric results for the adult tools. Methods An extensive research, survey and consensus process was used to produce a list of 5 priority adult neurological conditions (stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and ALS). We identified relevant health related quality of life (HRQL) domains through multiple methods and data sources including a comprehensive review of the literature and literature search, expert interviews and surveys and patient and caregiver focus groups. The final domain framework consisted of 17 domains of Physical, Mental and Social health. There were five phases of item development: (1) identification of 3,482 extant items, (2) item classification and selection, (3) item review and revision, (4) cognitive interviews with 63 patients to assess their understanding of individual items and (5) field testing of 432 representative items. Participants and Procedures Participants were drawn from the US general population and clinical settings, and included both English and Spanish speaking subjects (N = 3,246). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the dimensionality of unidimensional domains. Where the domain structure was previously unknown, the dataset was split and first analyzed with exploratory factor analysis and then CFA. Samejima’s graded response model (GRM) was used to calculate IRT parameters. We further evaluated differential item functioning (DIF) on gender, education and age. Results Thirteen unidimensional calibrated item banks consisting of 297 items were developed. All of the tested item banks had high reliability and few or no locally dependent items. The range of item slopes and thresholds with good information are reported for each of the item banks. The banks can support CAT and

  6. New technologies for item monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  7. Exploring Alternative Conceptions from Newtonian Dynamics and Simple DC Circuits: Links between Item Difficulty and Item Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinic, Maja; Boone, William J.; Krsnik, Rudolf; Beilfuss, Meredith L.

    2006-01-01

    Croatian 1st-year and 3rd-year high-school students (N = 170) completed a conceptual physics test. Students were evaluated with regard to two physics topics: Newtonian dynamics and simple DC circuits. Students answered test items and also indicated their confidence in each answer. Rasch analysis facilitated the calculation of three linear…

  8. Impact of Eliminating Anchor Items Flagged from Statistical Criteria on Test Score Classifications in Common Item Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkee, Thakur; Choi, Seung

    2005-01-01

    Proper maintenance of a scale established in the baseline year would assure the accurate estimation of growth in subsequent years. Scale maintenance is especially important when the state performance standards must be preserved for future administrations. To ensure proper maintenance of a scale, the selection of anchor items and evaluation of…

  9. Measuring Student Ability, Classifying Schools, and Detecting Item Bias at School Level, Based on Student-Level Dichotomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennink, Margot; Croon, Marcel A.; Keuning, Jos; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2014-01-01

    In educational measurement, responses of students on items are used not only to measure the ability of students, but also to evaluate and compare the performance of schools. Analysis should ideally account for the multilevel structure of the data, and school-level processes not related to ability, such as working climate and administration…

  10. Evaluating Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activity of Marrubium crassidens

    PubMed Central

    Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Sharifi, Simin; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Naturally occurring substances as novel drugs in cancer therapy, at all times, represent a challenge to science since medicinal plants are proving to be brilliant sources of new chemopreventive agents. Methods: In the present study, methanol extract from aerial parts of Marrubium crassidens was assessed for its antiproliferative activity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through MTT bioassay using cell viability and cytotoxicity indices. The antioxidant property of M. crassidens extract together with its phenolic and flavonoids content were evaluated, as well. Results: According to data obtained in the study, M. crassidens exhibited antiproliferative activity with a gradual rise in cytotoxicty effect setting out on 240µg/mL concentration of the extract. Moreover, the RC50 value for antioxidant activity of the extract was determined as 40µg/mL and values for the total phenolic and flavonoids were calculated as 512.64mg gallic acid equivalent and 212.73mg quercetin equivalent per 100g of dry plant material. Conclusion: Generally, the observed antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of M. crassidens could be certified to the high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid content detected in the extract. PMID:25364663

  11. Evaluation of colour parameters and antioxidant activities of fruit wines.

    PubMed

    Kalkan Yildirim, Hatice

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of oenological colorimetric indexes, CIELAB parameters, total phenols and antioxidant activities has been studied in different fruit wines made from black mulberry, blackberry, quince, apple, apricot, melon, red raspberry, bilberry, sour cherry and strawberry. The highest value of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents were determined in bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines (61.80%, 1161 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 60.00%, 1232 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 58.10%, 1081 mg/l gallic acid equivalents), respectively. The highest values for A420 nm, A520 nm, A620 nm, the proportion of blue, wine colour, wine total colour of pigments, wine polymeric pigment colour and K-K values logarithmic colour intensity) were determined in bilberry fruit wine. Positive correlation was found between antioxidant activities and total phenols (r=0.958, P = 0.001). The results of grouping of different parameters in n-dimensional space with different fruit wines demonstrated the importance of bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines as natural antioxidants and colourants. PMID:16849114

  12. Evaluation of Hemagglutination Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L−1. The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH. PMID:25759815

  13. Evaluation of hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L(-1). The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH.

  14. Evaluation of hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L(-1). The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH. PMID:25759815

  15. Validation of 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in Chinese version of Dizziness Handicap Inventory for screening objective benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Liang; Wang, Qian; Pan, Hui; Wu, Jing; Fang, Jie; Sun, Xu-Hong; Zhai, Yu; Dong, You-Rong; Liu, Jian-Ren

    2016-08-01

    As possible candidate screening instruments for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), studies to validate the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) sub-scale (5-item and 2-item) and total scores are rare in China. From May 2014 to December 2014, 108(55 with and 53 without BPPV) patients complaining of episodic vertigo in the past week from a vertigo outpatient clinic were enrolled for DHI evaluation, as well as demographic and other clinical data. Objective BPPV was subsequently determined by positional evoking maneuvers under the record of optical Frenzel glasses. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of DHI total, 5-item and 2-item questionnaires to screen for BPPV was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. It revealed that the DHI 5-item questionnaire had good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0.72). Area under the curve of total DHI, 5-item and 2-item scores for discriminating BPPV from those without was 0.678 (95 % CI 0.578-0.778), 0.873(95 % CI 0.807-0.940) and 0.895(95 % CI 0.836-0.953), respectively. It revealed 74.5 % sensitivity and 88.7 % specificity in separating BPPV and those without, with a cutoff value of 12 in the 5-item questionnaire. The corresponding rate of sensitivity and specificity was 78.2 and 88.7 %, respectively, with a cutoff value of 6 in 2-item questionnaire. The present study indicated that both 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in the Chinese version of DHI may be more valid than DHI total score for screening objective BPPV and merit further application in clinical practice in China.

  16. DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT MISCELLANEOUS PROCESS INVENTORY WASTE ITEMS OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Phyllis C

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign to target certain items associated with URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing for final disposal. This waste was generated during processing, surveillance, and maintenance activities associated with the facilities identified in the process knowledge (PK) provided in Appendix A. A list of items for sampling and analysis were generated from a subset of materials identified in the WHP populations (POPs) 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, plus a small number of items not explicitly addressed by the WHP. Specifically, UCOR S&M project personnel identified 62 miscellaneous waste items that would require some level of evaluation to identify the appropriate pathway for disposal. These items are highly diverse, relative to origin; composition; physical description; contamination level; data requirements; and the presumed treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF). Because of this diversity, ORAU developed a structured approach to address item-specific data requirements necessary for acceptance in a presumed TSDF that includes the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF)—using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile—the Y-12 Sanitary Landfill (SLF) if appropriate; Energy

  17. Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

    2011-01-01

    Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ΔT° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon.

  18. Planetary protection R&D activities in the ESA exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, G.

    Since the begin of the Aurora exploration programme in 2001 the Human Spaceflight Microgravity and Exploration Directorate HME of ESA has invested in research and development activities related to planetary protection Some of these activities are focused on the recently approved ExoMars mission others are applicable to Mars missions in general including MSR the technology development of the latter one being part of the exploration core programme The proposed activities have been approved and initiated An overview of the activities and first results will be presented The main activities are begin itemize item Bioburden and Biodiversity evaluation in S C Facilities this activity will cover a period of almost two years and include the standard assay extension of the standard assay culture conditions identification of isolates using 16S rDNA via PCR and test of a rapid spore assay Protocols are developed in coordination with NASA-JPL item Extension of dry heat microbial reduction process to higher temperatures this activity will include a detailed study of the humidity effect on the inactivation kinetics This activity is in coordination with efforts at NASA-JPL item Validation of a dry heat sterilization process item Development of a low-temperature sterilization method the focus of this activity is on vapor hydrogen peroxide item Robotic capabilities for clean AIV AIT item Decontamination of man-rated systems item Definition of functional requirements for a Mars Sample Return Biological Containment Facility end itemize In

  19. Evaluation of wound healing activity of some herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mukherjee, Kakali; Rajesh Kumar, M; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2003-03-01

    The wound healing activity of two herbal formulations (Himax ointment and lotion) containing Indradaru extract, i.e. Arjuna bark (Terminalia arjuna, Family-Combretaceae), extract was evaluated for its wound healing potential in two types of wound models in rats (i) excision wound model and (ii) incision wound model. Both the formulations responded significantly in both the wound models tested. The results were also comparable to that of the standard drug nitrofurazone used as a standard drug for comparison in this present investigation. The results were also comparable in terms of wound contracting ability, epithelization period, tensile strength and regeneration of tissues at the wound area. Thus, this investigation con fi rms the use of the Himax ointment and lotion containing Terminalia arjuna extract as a wound-healing agent as known from folklore medicine.

  20. High Temperature Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanically actuated blade tip clearance control concept was evaluated in a nonrotating test rig to quantify secondary seal leakage at elevated temperatures. These tests were conducted to further investigate the feasibility of actively controlling the clearance between the rotor blade tips and the surrounding shroud seal in the high pressure turbine (HPT) section of a turbine engine. The test environment simulates the state of the back side of the HPT shroud seal with pressure differentials as high as 120 psig and temperatures up to 1000 F. As expected, static secondary seal leakage decreased with increasing temperature. At 1000 F, the test rig's calculated effective clearance (at 120 psig test pressure) was 0.0003 in., well within the industry specified effective clearance goal.

  1. Word Processing for Item Banking and Test Production. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Joseph L.

    This report describes the sequence of activities that took place as the Examination Division of the New Jersey Department of Civil Service introduced a word processing system for a test item bank and for production of camera-ready test copy. The equipment selection, installation and orientation procedures are discussed. Keyboard and CRT terminals,…

  2. 17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1202 (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves. (a) Summary of oil and gas... tabular format as provided below: Summary of Oil and Gas Reserves as of Fiscal-Year End Based on Average Fiscal-Year Prices Reserves category Reserves Oil(mbbls) Natural gas(mmcf) Synthetic oil(mbbls)...

  3. 17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... oil mbbls Syn. gas mmcf Product A measure Scenario 1 Scenario 2 (2) The registrant may, but is not... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1202 (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves. (a) Summary of oil and gas... tabular format as provided below: Summary of Oil and Gas Reserves as of Fiscal-Year End Based on...

  4. 17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... oil mbbls Syn. gas mmcf Product A measure Scenario 1 Scenario 2 (2) The registrant may, but is not... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1202 (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves. (a) Summary of oil and gas... tabular format as provided below: Summary of Oil and Gas Reserves as of Fiscal-Year End Based on...

  5. 41 CFR 109-1.5109 - Control of sensitive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of sensitive...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5109 Control of sensitive items... by each DOE activity/site, taking into consideration value, costs of administration, need for...

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of active noise reduction in flight helmets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forshaw, S. E.; Rylands, J. M.; Crabtree, R. B.

    1988-08-01

    The advent of high powered fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft and tracked armoured fighting vehicles has increased the level of noise to which crews are exposed. Active noise reduction (ANR) offers a means of increasing the attenuation at low and mid frequencies. It relies on sensing the sound inside a circumaural device and cancelling it by means of negative feedback through a miniature speaker inside the enclosed volume. This study was carried out to investigate laboratory procedures appropriate for measuring the effectiveness of ANR devices. The procedures were: ear-canal measurements using an acoustic test fixture (an objective procedure), and masked threshold and loudness balance tests (psycho-physical procedures). In addition, the effect of ANR on signal detection and speech reception was investigated. The results do not clearly permit one procedure to be recommended for the evaluation of ANR systems. Signal detection performance and speech intelligibility may be used, but the results are specific to the acoustic environment of the listener and the detection task or speech-system parameters of the evaluation. When the attenuation of the ANR system is measured objectively with a transducer inside the earmuff/ear-canal volume, the location of the transducer affects the observed ANR attenuations.

  7. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  8. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determined by the requirements of each Government agency's supply system. The item of supply concept... quality controlled item than the regular item of production, or (d) A modification of a regular item...

  9. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determined by the requirements of each Government agency's supply system. The item of supply concept... quality controlled item than the regular item of production, or (d) A modification of a regular item...

  10. Developing and evaluating effective bioscience learning activities for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Salvage-Jones, Judith; Hamill, Jessie; Todorovic, Michael; Barton, Matthew J; Johnston, Amy N B

    2016-07-01

    Effective engagement of nursing students in the study of biosciences remains a challenge for many tertiary institutes. In this study we attempted to implement and then evaluate a simple hands-on intervention, consisting of a series of hands-on games and puzzles, to increase nursing student engagement with core concepts and anatomical learning involved in clinical anatomy and physiology. The study used a quazi-experimental longitudinal before and after design, to explore the effect of a learning intervention on student performance. Set across three different campuses of the same University, it included 1320 first year undergraduate nursing students from 2013 to 2014 who were studying Anatomy and Physiology. Students were exposed to the interventions or not, and concomitant academic performance, weekly quiz scores, performance in fortnightly worksheets and, across the semester, exam performance were compared. The results show that while the intervention appeared to increase academic performance in students on one campus (2013) compared to the other two, this difference was not sustained into 2014 when a bigger cohort was examined. Despite significant subjective student satisfaction and enthusiasm about these learning and teaching interventions, the data does not support the capacity of these activities to enhance student academic performance. Tertiary entrance scores, being a non-native English speakers and socio-economic status all had a bigger impact on student performance than engagement with fun anatomy and physiology activities. PMID:27428695

  11. [Investigation of the process of personal hygiene items biodegradation by cellulose-fermenting microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Il'in, V K; Starkov, L V; Kostrov, S V; Belikodvorskaia, G A; Chuvil'skaia, N A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2004-01-01

    Cellulose-containing wastes are one of the heaviest and biggest ingredients of solid domestic wastes piling up during spaceflight. For the most part these are disposable personal hygiene items used in large quantities in the absence of shower. These wastes contain human body products which are very dangerous from the sanitary-epidemiological standpoint. The purpose was to explore potentiality of microbial biodegradation of cellulose-containing hygiene items anaerobically with dry mass transformation into liquid and biogas. Among specific objectives were test cultivation of active strains of reference cultures of cellulose-fermenting anaerobic thermophilic bacteria on hygiene items as the only source of carbon, evaluation of ways and need of pretreatment of gauze pads to stimulate biodegradation, and chemical analysis of resulting biogas. From the investigation it was concluded that gauze pads are susceptible to biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria producing a low toxicity gas fraction. Therefore, the proposed technology can be considered as a candidate for integration into the spacecrew life support system. PMID:15372800

  12. Design, structure activity relationship, cytotoxicity and evaluation of antioxidant activity of curcumin derivatives/analogues.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pramod K

    2016-10-01

    New fourteen 3,4-dihydropyrimidine derivatives/analogues of curcumin (2a-2n) were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated for their cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity effect has been evaluated against three cell lines HeLa, HCT-116 and QG-56 by MTT assay method. From SAR study, it has been revealed that particularly, compound 2e and 2j (IC50 value 12.5 μM) have shown better cytotoxicity effect against three cell lines. According to results of SAR study, it was found that 3,4-dihydropyrimidines of curcumin, 2c, 2d, 2j and 2n exhibited better antioxidant activity than curcumin. A correlation of structure and activities relationship of these compounds with respect to drug score profiles and other physico-chemical properties of drugs are described and verified experimentally. Therefore, we conclude that physico-chemical analyses may prove structural features of curcumin analogues with their promising combined cytotoxicity/antioxidant activity and it is also concluded from virtual and practical screening that the compounds were varied to possess a broad range of lipophilic character, revealed by Log P values. PMID:27318975

  13. A model of hippocampal spiking responses to items during learning of a context-dependent task.

    PubMed

    Raudies, Florian; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Single unit recordings in the rat hippocampus have demonstrated shifts in the specificity of spiking activity during learning of a contextual item-reward association task. In this task, rats received reward for responding to different items dependent upon the context an item appeared in, but not dependent upon the location an item appears at. Initially, neurons in the rat hippocampus primarily show firing based on place, but as the rat learns the task this firing became more selective for items. We simulated this effect using a simple circuit model with discrete inputs driving spiking activity representing place and item followed sequentially by a discrete representation of the motor actions involving a response to an item (digging for food) or the movement to a different item (movement to a different pot for food). We implemented spiking replay in the network representing neural activity observed during sharp-wave ripple events, and modified synaptic connections based on a simple representation of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity. This simple network was able to consistently learn the context-dependent responses, and transitioned from dominant coding of place to a gradual increase in specificity to items consistent with analysis of the experimental data. In addition, the model showed an increase in specificity toward context. The increase of selectivity in the model is accompanied by an increase in binariness of the synaptic weights for cells that are part of the functional network.

  14. A model of hippocampal spiking responses to items during learning of a context-dependent task

    PubMed Central

    Raudies, Florian; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Single unit recordings in the rat hippocampus have demonstrated shifts in the specificity of spiking activity during learning of a contextual item-reward association task. In this task, rats received reward for responding to different items dependent upon the context an item appeared in, but not dependent upon the location an item appears at. Initially, neurons in the rat hippocampus primarily show firing based on place, but as the rat learns the task this firing became more selective for items. We simulated this effect using a simple circuit model with discrete inputs driving spiking activity representing place and item followed sequentially by a discrete representation of the motor actions involving a response to an item (digging for food) or the movement to a different item (movement to a different pot for food). We implemented spiking replay in the network representing neural activity observed during sharp-wave ripple events, and modified synaptic connections based on a simple representation of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity. This simple network was able to consistently learn the context-dependent responses, and transitioned from dominant coding of place to a gradual increase in specificity to items consistent with analysis of the experimental data. In addition, the model showed an increase in specificity toward context. The increase of selectivity in the model is accompanied by an increase in binariness of the synaptic weights for cells that are part of the functional network. PMID:25294991

  15. Are Faculty Predictions or Item Taxonomies Useful for Estimating the Outcome of Multiple-Choice Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The…

  16. An NCME Instructional Module on Estimating Item Response Theory Models Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jee-Seon; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an introduction to Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation for item response models. A brief description of Bayesian inference is followed by an overview of the various facets of MCMC algorithms, including discussion of prior specification, sampling procedures, and methods for evaluating chain…

  17. Explaining Crossing DIF in Polytomous Items Using Differential Step Functioning Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    Crossing, or intersecting, differential item functioning (DIF) is a form of nonuniform DIF that exists when the sign of the between-group difference in expected item performance changes across the latent trait continuum. The presence of crossing DIF presents a problem for many statistics developed for evaluating DIF because positive and negative…

  18. Expected Values and Reliability of Number-Right Scores for IRT Calibrated Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    This paper provides analytic evaluations of expected (marginal) true-score measures for binary items given their item response theory (IRT) calibration. Under the assumption of normal trait distributions, marginalized true scores, error variance, true score variance, and reliability for norm-referenced and criterion-references interpretations are…

  19. A Comparison of Latent Growth Models for Constructs Measured by Multiple Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.

    2007-01-01

    Univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) of composites of multiple items (e.g., item means or sums) has been frequently used to analyze the growth of latent constructs. This study evaluated whether LGM of composites yields unbiased parameter estimates, standard errors, chi-square statistics, and adequate fit indexes. Furthermore, LGM was compared…

  20. Item Pool Construction Using Mixed Integer Quadratic Programming (MIQP). GMAC® Research Report RR-14-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) to construct multiple highly equivalent item pools simultaneously, and compares the results from mixed integer programming (MIP). Three different MIP/MIQP models were implemented and evaluated using real CAT item pool data with 23 different content areas and a goal of equal information…

  1. An Explanatory Item Response Theory Approach for a Computer-Based Case Simulation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nilüfer

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Practitioners working with multiple-choice tests have long utilized Item Response Theory (IRT) models to evaluate the performance of test items for quality assurance. The use of similar applications for performance tests, however, is often encumbered due to the challenges encountered in working with complicated data sets in which local…

  2. Key Items to Get Right When Conducting a Randomized Controlled Trial in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This is a checklist of key items to get right when conducting a randomized controlled trial to evaluate an educational program or practice ("intervention"). It is intended as a practical resource for researchers and sponsors of research, describing items that are often critical to the success of a randomized controlled trial. A significant…

  3. An Examination of Two Procedures for Identifying Consequential Item Parameter Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Meng, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate two procedures flagging consequential item parameter drift (IPD) in an operational testing program. The first procedure was based on flagging items that exhibit a meaningful magnitude of IPD using a critical value that was defined to represent barely tolerable IPD. The second procedure…

  4. Multiple-Choice Test Items: What Are Textbook Authors Telling Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Randy A.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of educational psychology textbooks identified textbook authors' guidelines for teachers to follow when writing multiple-choice test items. Selected guidelines were used to evaluate multiple-choice items (N=1,080) from 18 college instructor guides to educational psychology texts. Results indicated that approximately 60 percent of the…

  5. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  6. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using the Lasso Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the "LR lasso DIF method": logistic regression (LR) model is formulated for all item responses. The model contains item-specific intercepts,…

  7. The Heidelberg Sports Activity Score - A New Instrument to Evaluate Sports Activity

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, JB; Weinmann, S; Schmitt, H; Bruckner, T; Krueger, M; Clarius, M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: An appropriate measuring instrument for assessing if sports activity changes after a surgical treatment is not available yet. We hypothesised that the Heidelberg Sport Activity Score is a valid and adequate instrument for measuring sport activity in patients before and after operative treatment. Design: This retrospective study presents a new score (Heidelberg Sports Activity Score - HAS) for measuring the sport activity in 11 selected sports. Validity, sensitivity and test-retest-reliability have been assessed. Setting: The score includes importance of the sports for patients, impairment of the corresponding joint, and frequency and duration of the sporting activities undertaken. The HAS was validated using 3 criteria: external validation, internal comparison of groups and correlation with the Tegner Score. Patients: A total of 655 patients were recruited for this study. The inclusion criterion was a planned or already received reconstruction (such as a high tibial osteotomy or implantation of a hip or knee prosthesis). The sport activity of these patients was evaluated before and after treatment. Main Outcome Measurement: The mean HAS was 32.1 points preoperatively and 37.0 postoperatively (p=0.017). Results: A high correlation was found between the HAS and the Tegner Score (TS) (r=0.729; p=0.010). The Test-Retest- Reliability was performed within a time interval of 2 weeks and a significant correlation of r=0.752 was found (p<0.01). Sensitivity was analysed using a sample of patients before and after high tibial osteotomy. Conclusions: The HAS is a new, easy to use, effective and valid measuring instrument for the assessment of sports activity in patients before and after operative treatment. PMID:23407589

  8. Evaluation of spermicidal activity of MI-saponin A.

    PubMed

    Saha, P; Majumdar, S; Pal, D; Pal, B C; Kabir, S N

    2010-05-01

    The seed extracts of Madhuca latifolia were reported to have spermicidal activity. The current investigation identified the spermicidal component of the extracts and evaluated its spermicidal potential in vitro. As characterized by infrared, mass, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral analyses, Mi-saponin A (MSA) was found to be the most potent component among a mixture of saponins. The mean effective concentrations of MSA that induced irreversible immobilization were 320 microg/mL for rat and 500 microg/mL for human sperm, as against the respective concentrations of 350 and 550 microg/mL of nonoxynol 9 (N-9). The mode of spermicidal action was evaluated by a battery of tests including (a) double fluoroprobe staining for sperm viability, (b) hypoosmotic swelling test and, assays for 5' nucleotidase and acrosin for physiological integrity of sperm plasma membrane, (c) scanning and transmission electron microscopy for sperm membrane ultrastructure, and (d) plasma membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The observations, taken together, were interpreted to mean that the spermicidal effect of MSA involved increased membrane LPO leading to structural and functional disintegration of sperm plasma membrane and acrosomal vesicle. A comparative in vitro cytotoxicity study in human vaginal keratocyte (Vk2/E6E7) and endocervical (End/E6E7) cell lines demonstrated that the 50% cell cytotoxicity (CC(50)) values, and consequently the safety indices, for MSA were >or= 8-fold higher as compared to those of N-9. In conclusion, MSA is a potent spermicidal molecule that may be explored further for its suitability as an effective component of vaginal contraceptive. PMID:20220105

  9. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  10. A comparison of item response theory-based methods for examining differential item functioning in object naming test by language of assessment among older Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Frances M.; Heslin, Kevin C.; Mehta, Kala M.; Yang, Cheng-Wu; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Morales, Leo S.; Hays, Ron D.; Stewart, Anita L.; Mungas, Dan; Jones, Richard N.; Teresi, Jeanne A.

    2012-01-01

    Object naming tests are commonly included in neuropsychological test batteries. Differential item functioning (DIF) in these tests due to cultural and language differences may compromise the validity of cognitive measures in diverse populations. We evaluated 26 object naming items for DIF due to Spanish and English language translations among Latinos (n=1,159), mean age of 70.5 years old (Standard Deviation (SD)±7.2), using the following four item response theory-based approaches: Mplus/Multiple Indicator, Multiple Causes (Mplus/MIMIC; Muthén & Muthén, 1998–2011), Item Response Theory Likelihood Ratio Differential Item Functioning (IRTLRDIF/MULTILOG; Thissen, 1991, 2001), difwithpar/Parscale (Crane, Gibbons, Jolley, & van Belle, 2006; Muraki & Bock, 2003), and Differential Functioning of Items and Tests/MULTILOG (DFIT/MULTILOG; Flowers, Oshima, & Raju, 1999; Thissen, 1991). Overall, there was moderate to near perfect agreement across methods. Fourteen items were found to exhibit DIF and 5 items observed consistently across all methods, which were more likely to be answered correctly by individuals tested in Spanish after controlling for overall ability. PMID:23471423

  11. FILE: A Program for Cataloging Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindler, Dick L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer program which allows the user to establish and maintain a file of up to 1,000 items. Items are stored alphabetically and may be searched. Copy of the program for Apple II Plus (DOS 3.3) may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  12. Flawed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Maria T.; Stocking, Martha L.

    1997-01-01

    Common strategies for dealing with flawed items in conventional testing, grounded in principles of fairness to examinees, are re-examined in the context of adaptive testing. The additional strategy of retesting from a pool cleansed of flawed items is found, through a Monte Carlo study, to bring about no practical improvement. (SLD)

  13. Classification Scheme for Items in CAAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marion G.

    In planning the development of the system for computer assisted assembly of tests, it was agreed at the outset that one of the basic requirements for the successful initiation of any such system would be the development of a detailed item content classification system. The design of the system for classifying item content is a key element in…

  14. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  15. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  16. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  17. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  18. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  19. Detecting Gender Bias through Test Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2009-01-01

    Many physical science and physics instructors might not be trained in pedagogically appropriate test construction methods. This could lead to test items that do not measure what they are intended to measure. A subgroup of these items might show bias against some groups of students. This paper describes how the author became aware of potentially…

  20. Modeling Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    An application of a hierarchical IRT model for items in families generated through the application of different combinations of design rules is discussed. Within the families, the items are assumed to differ only in surface features. The parameters of the model are estimated in a Bayesian framework, using a data-augmented Gibbs sampler. An obvious…

  1. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Item monitoring. 74.55 Section 74.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.55 Item monitoring. (a) Licensees subject to §...

  2. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business... the Handbook. DATES: Comments should be submitted in writing to the address shown below on or...

  3. Item Banks: What, Where, Why and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzaldua, Ric M.

    This paper discusses item banks calibrated to indicate levels of difficulty to assist in test development. The item bank topics discussed are: (1) purpose; (2) development issues; (3) advantages and disadvantages; and (4) practical issues. The most common issues are content validity, reliability, concerns with software purchase and programming,…

  4. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25... OTHER FIREARMS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 479.25 Collector's items. The Director shall determine in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 5845(a), whether a firearm or device, which...

  5. A human factors evaluation of Extravehicular Activity gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1989-01-01

    One of the major problems faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human-hand capabilities. NASA has sponsored a program to develop a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six performance domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based upon an assessment of general human-hand functioning and EVA task requirements, several tests within each performance domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand, an EVA glove without pressure, an EVA glove at operation pressure. Thus, the differential effect on performance of the glove with and without pressure was tested. Bare hand performance was used to 'calibrate' the effects. Ten subjects participated in the test setup as a repeated-measures experimental design. The paper will report the results of the test program.

  6. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    PubMed

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (p<0.05 to 0.001) decreased distance travelled by the charcoal meal. The large dose of the tested plant extracts was slightly more effective than the small one. The antidiarrhoeal effect was confirmed by the reported dose dependent inhibition of the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. The EP and PM methanol extract produced a transient stimulation followed by inhibition in doses of less than 0.05 and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively. Higher concentrations caused rapid muscle relaxation. Tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids were reported as major active constituents of the tested plants. PMID:16114083

  7. Evaluation of an Active Humidification System for Inspired Gas

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Nicolás G.; Villalba, Darío S.; Gogniat, Emiliano; Feld, Vivivana; Ribero Vairo, Noelia; Sartore, Marisa; Bosso, Mauro; Scapellato, José L.; Intile, Dante; Planells, Fernando; Noval, Diego; Buñirigo, Pablo; Jofré, Ricardo; Díaz Nielsen, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The effectiveness of the active humidification systems (AHS) in patients already weaned from mechanical ventilation and with an artificial airway has not been very well described. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an AHS in chronically tracheostomized and spontaneously breathing patients. Methods Measurements were quantified at three levels of temperature (T°) of the AHS: level I, low; level II, middle; and level III, high and at different flow levels (20 to 60 L/minute). Statistical analysis of repeated measurements was performed using analysis of variance and significance was set at a P<0.05. Results While the lowest temperature setting (level I) did not condition gas to the minimum recommended values for any of the flows that were used, the medium temperature setting (level II) only conditioned gas with flows of 20 and 30 L/minute. Finally, at the highest temperature setting (level III), every flow reached the minimum absolute humidity (AH) recommended of 30 mg/L. Conclusion According to our results, to obtain appropiate relative humidity, AH and T° of gas one should have a device that maintains water T° at least at 53℃ for flows between 20 and 30 L/m, or at T° of 61℃ at any flow rate. PMID:25729499

  8. Testing and evaluation for astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) operability.

    PubMed

    Shields, N; King, L C

    1998-09-01

    Because it is the human component that defines space mission success, careful planning is required to ensure that hardware can be operated and maintained by crews on-orbit. Several methods exist to allow researchers and designers to better predict how hardware designs will behave under the harsh environment of low Earth orbit, and whether designs incorporate the necessary features for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) operability. Testing under conditions of simulated microgravity can occur during the design concept phase when verifying design operability, during mission training, or concurrently with on-orbit mission operations. The bulk of testing is focused on normal operations, but also includes evaluation of credible mission contingencies or "what would happen if" planning. The astronauts and cosmonauts who fly these space missions are well prepared and trained to survive and be productive in Earth's orbit. The engineers, designers, and training crews involved in space missions subject themselves to Earth based simulation techniques that also expose them to extreme environments. Aircraft falling ten thousand feet, alternating g-loads, underwater testing at 45 foot depth, enclosure in a vacuum chamber and subject to thermal extremes, each carries with it inherent risks to the humans preparing for space missions.

  9. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    PubMed

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (p<0.05 to 0.001) decreased distance travelled by the charcoal meal. The large dose of the tested plant extracts was slightly more effective than the small one. The antidiarrhoeal effect was confirmed by the reported dose dependent inhibition of the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. The EP and PM methanol extract produced a transient stimulation followed by inhibition in doses of less than 0.05 and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively. Higher concentrations caused rapid muscle relaxation. Tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids were reported as major active constituents of the tested plants.

  10. The short- and long-term fates of memory items retained outside the focus of attention

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Adam S.; Starrett, Michael J.; Rose, Nathan S.; Emrich, Stephen M.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2015-01-01

    When a test of working memory (WM) requires the retention of multiple items, a subset of them can be prioritized. Recent studies have shown that, although prioritized (i.e., attended) items are associated with active neural representations, unprioritized (i.e., unattended) memory items can be retained in WM despite the absence of such active representations, and with no decrement in their recognition if they are cued later in the trial. These findings raise two intriguing questions about the nature of the short-term retention of information outside the focus of attention. First, when the focus of attention shifts from items in WM, is there a loss of fidelity for those unattended memory items? Second, could the retention of unattended memory items be accomplished by long-term memory mechanisms? We addressed the first question by comparing the precision of recall of attended versus unattended memory items, and found a significant decrease in precision for unattended memory items, reflecting a degradation in the quality of those representations. We addressed the second question by asking subjects to perform a WM task, followed by a surprise memory test for the items that they had seen in the WM task. Long-term memory for unattended memory items from the WM task was not better than memory for items that had remained selected by the focus of attention in the WM task. These results show that unattended WM representations are degraded in quality and are not preferentially represented in long-term memory, as compared to attended memory items. PMID:25472902

  11. The short- and long-term fates of memory items retained outside the focus of attention.

    PubMed

    LaRocque, Joshua J; Eichenbaum, Adam S; Starrett, Michael J; Rose, Nathan S; Emrich, Stephen M; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-04-01

    When a test of working memory (WM) requires the retention of multiple items, a subset of them can be prioritized. Recent studies have shown that, although prioritized (i.e., attended) items are associated with active neural representations, unprioritized (i.e., unattended) memory items can be retained in WM despite the absence of such active representations, and with no decrement in their recognition if they are cued later in the trial. These findings raise two intriguing questions about the nature of the short-term retention of information outside the focus of attention. First, when the focus of attention shifts from items in WM, is there a loss of fidelity for those unattended memory items? Second, could the retention of unattended memory items be accomplished by long-term memory mechanisms? We addressed the first question by comparing the precision of recall of attended versus unattended memory items, and found a significant decrease in precision for unattended memory items, reflecting a degradation in the quality of those representations. We addressed the second question by asking subjects to perform a WM task, followed by a surprise memory test for the items that they had seen in the WM task. Long-term memory for unattended memory items from the WM task was not better than memory for items that had remained selected by the focus of attention in the WM task. These results show that unattended WM representations are degraded in quality and are not preferentially represented in long-term memory, as compared to attended memory items.

  12. The Usefulness of Differential Item Functioning Methodology in Longitudinal Intervention Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perceived self-efficacy (SE) for engaging in physical activity (PA) is a key variable mediating PA change in interventions. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of item response modeling-based (IRM) differential item functioning (DIF) in the investigation of group differences ...

  13. 78 FR 76067 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Item Unique Identifier Update (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...) Ensures item level traceability throughout lifecycle to strengthen supply chain integrity, enhance cyber...); and (v) High risk item identified by the requiring activity as vulnerable to supply chain threat, a... rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 35921 on June 15, 2012. The comment period closed on August...

  14. 77 FR 35921 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Item Unique Identifier Update (DFARS Case 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... and efficiency; and (e) Ensures item level traceability throughout lifecycle to strengthen supply... nonreparable); and (vi) High risk item identified by the requiring activity as vulnerable to supply chain... following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov . Submit comments via the Federal...

  15. Test Anxiety and Item Order: New Parameters for Item Response Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Richard C.

    Examinees (N=1,233) at the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF) were administered one of three test forms in which only item order differed. The study was undertaken to determine the validity of the assumption underlying item response theory (IRT) that there are fixed item parameters that can predict performance. The Rasch IRT model was…

  16. Assessing the Utility of Item Response Theory Models: Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuneman, Janice Dowd

    The current status of item response theory (IRT) is discussed. Several IRT methods exist for assessing whether an item is biased. Focus is on methods proposed by L. M. Rudner (1975), F. M. Lord (1977), D. Thissen et al. (1988) and R. L. Linn and D. Harnisch (1981). Rudner suggested a measure of the area lying between the two item characteristic…

  17. Designing P-Optimal Item Pools in Computerized Adaptive Tests with Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xuechun

    2012-01-01

    Current CAT applications consist of predominantly dichotomous items, and CATs with polytomously scored items are limited. To ascertain the best approach to polytomous CAT, a significant amount of research has been conducted on item selection, ability estimation, and impact of termination rules based on polytomous IRT models. Few studies…

  18. Comparing Methods for Item Analysis: The Impact of Different Item-Selection Statistics on Test Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners often depend on item analysis to select items for exam forms and have a variety of options available to them. These include the point-biserial correlation, the agreement statistic, the B index, and the phi coefficient. Although research has demonstrated that these statistics can be useful for item selection, no research as of yet has…

  19. Asymptotic Standard Errors for Item Response Theory True Score Equating of Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cher Wong, Cheow

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous works by Lord and Ogasawara for dichotomous items, this article proposes an approach to derive the asymptotic standard errors of item response theory true score equating involving polytomous items, for equivalent and nonequivalent groups of examinees. This analytical approach could be used in place of empirical methods like…

  20. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  1. The Generalized Logit-Linear Item Response Model for Binary-Designed Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM), which represents the item-solving process as a series of dichotomous operations or steps. The GLLIRM assumes that the probability function of the item response is a logistic function of a linear composite of basic parameters which describe the operations, and the…

  2. Calibration and Validation of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference Item Bank in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Crins, Martine H P; Roorda, Leo D; Smits, Niels; de Vet, Henrica C W; Westhovens, Rene; Cella, David; Cook, Karon F; Revicki, Dennis; van Leeuwen, Jaap; Boers, Maarten; Dekker, Joost; Terwee, Caroline B

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Group translated the adult PROMIS Pain Interference item bank into Dutch-Flemish. The aims of the current study were to calibrate the parameters of these items using an item response theory (IRT) model, to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Dutch-Flemish translations compared to the original English items, and to evaluate their reliability and construct validity. The 40 items in the bank were completed by 1085 Dutch chronic pain patients. Before calibrating the items, IRT model assumptions were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Items were calibrated using the graded response model (GRM), an IRT model appropriate for items with more than two response options. To evaluate cross-cultural validity, differential item functioning (DIF) for language (Dutch vs. English) was examined. Reliability was evaluated based on standard errors and Cronbach's alpha. To evaluate construct validity correlations with scores on legacy instruments (e.g., the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire) were calculated. Unidimensionality of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank was supported by CFA tests of model fit (CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.986). Furthermore, the data fit the GRM and showed good coverage across the pain interference continuum (threshold-parameters range: -3.04 to 3.44). The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank has good cross-cultural validity (only two out of 40 items showing DIF), good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98), and good construct validity (Pearson correlations between 0.62 and 0.75). A computer adaptive test (CAT) and Dutch-Flemish PROMIS short forms of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank can now be developed. PMID:26214178

  3. Calibration and Validation of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference Item Bank in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Crins, Martine H P; Roorda, Leo D; Smits, Niels; de Vet, Henrica C W; Westhovens, Rene; Cella, David; Cook, Karon F; Revicki, Dennis; van Leeuwen, Jaap; Boers, Maarten; Dekker, Joost; Terwee, Caroline B

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Group translated the adult PROMIS Pain Interference item bank into Dutch-Flemish. The aims of the current study were to calibrate the parameters of these items using an item response theory (IRT) model, to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Dutch-Flemish translations compared to the original English items, and to evaluate their reliability and construct validity. The 40 items in the bank were completed by 1085 Dutch chronic pain patients. Before calibrating the items, IRT model assumptions were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Items were calibrated using the graded response model (GRM), an IRT model appropriate for items with more than two response options. To evaluate cross-cultural validity, differential item functioning (DIF) for language (Dutch vs. English) was examined. Reliability was evaluated based on standard errors and Cronbach's alpha. To evaluate construct validity correlations with scores on legacy instruments (e.g., the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire) were calculated. Unidimensionality of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank was supported by CFA tests of model fit (CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.986). Furthermore, the data fit the GRM and showed good coverage across the pain interference continuum (threshold-parameters range: -3.04 to 3.44). The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank has good cross-cultural validity (only two out of 40 items showing DIF), good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98), and good construct validity (Pearson correlations between 0.62 and 0.75). A computer adaptive test (CAT) and Dutch-Flemish PROMIS short forms of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Pain Interference item bank can now be developed.

  4. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    de Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F; Polo, Aldino N B; Benedetti, Angélica M; Leão, Mônica M D; Slusarski-Santana, Veronice; Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R C

    2013-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb2O5 catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb2O5/NaX, Nb2O5/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  5. A National Perspective on the Current Evaluation Activities in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Israel, Glenn D.; Diehl, David

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance Extension evaluation efforts it is important to understand current practices. The study reported here researched the evaluation behaviors of county-based Extension professionals. Extension professionals from eight states (n = 1,173) responded to a survey regarding their evaluation data collection, analysis, and reporting…

  6. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  7. Measuring Activity Limitation Outcomes in Youth with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Mary D.; Mulcahey, MJ; Calhoun, Christina; Ni, Pengsheng; Vogel, Lawrence C.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional Objectives The Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury Activity Measure (PEDI-SCI AM), which includes calibrated item banks (child and parent versions) for General Mobility, Daily Routines, Wheeled Mobility and Ambulation, can be administered using computerized adaptive tests (CATs) or short forms (SFs). The study objectives are: 1.) examine the psychometric properties of the PEDISCI AM item banks and 10-item CATs); 2.) develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of PEDI-SCI AM SFs. Setting U.S. Shriners Hospitals for Children (California, Illinois and Pennsylvania). Methods Calibration data from a convenience sample of 381 children and adolescents with SCI and 322 parents or caregivers were used to examine PEDI-SCI AM item banks, 10-item CATs and SF scores. We calculated group reliability, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and interclass coefficients (ICCs) to assess agreement between 10-item CATs, SFs and item banks. The percent of the sample with highest (ceiling) and lowest (floor) scores was also determined. An expert panel selected items for 14 SFs. Results PEDI-SCI item banks, 10-item CATs and SFs demonstrate acceptable group reliability (0.73-0.96) and internal consistency (0.77-0.98). ICC values show strong agreement with item banks for 10-item CATs (0.72-0.99) and SFs. Floor effects are minimal (<15%). Ceiling effects are minimal for children with tetraplegia, but high in children with paraplegia for General Mobility (13.41-26.05%) and Daily Activities (12.99-32.71%). Conclusions The PEDI-SCI AM exhibited strong psychometric properties for children with tetraplegia. Replenishment of the General Mobility and Daily Routines item banks is needed to reduce ceiling effects noted for youth with paraplegia. PMID:26572606

  8. Statistical evaluation of the simulated convective activity over Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Karacostas, Theodore S.; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project DAPHNE (www.daphne-meteo.gr), the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1) is used to produce very high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of the convective activity over Thessaly plain and hence, enhancing our knowledge on the impact of high resolution elevation and land use data in the moist convection. The expecting results act as a precursor for the potential applicability of a planned precipitation enhancement program. The three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and Thessaly region-central Greece (d03), are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and boundary conditions of the coarse domain, while in the vertical, 39 sigma levels (up to 50 hPa) are used, with increased resolution in the boundary layer. Microphysical processes are represented by WSM6 scheme, sub-grid scale convection by Kain-Fritsch scheme, longwave and shortwave radiation by RRTMG scheme, surface layer by Monin-Obukhov (MM5), boundary layer by Yonsei University and soil physics by NOAH Unified model. Six representative days with different upper-air synoptic circulation types are selected, while high resolution (3'') elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM - version 4) are inserted in the innermost domain (d03), along with the Corine Land Cover 2000 raster data (3''x3''). The aforementioned data sets are used in different configurations, in order to evaluate the impact of each one on the simulated convective activity in the vicinity of Thessaly region, using a grid of available meteorological stations in the area. For each selected day, four (4) sensitivity simulations are performed, setting a total number of 24 runs. Finally, the best configuration provides

  9. Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration

  10. Bookmark locations and item response model selection in the presence of local item dependence.

    PubMed

    Skaggs, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The bookmark standard setting procedure is a popular method for setting performance standards on state assessment programs. This study reanalyzed data from an application of the bookmark procedure to a passage-based test that used the Rasch model to create the item ordered booklet. Several problems were noted in this implementation of the bookmark procedure, including disagreement among the SMEs about the correct order of items in the bookmark booklet, performance level descriptions of the passing standard being based on passage difficulty as well as item difficulty, and the presence of local item dependence within reading passages. Bookmark item locations were recalculated for the IRT three-parameter model and the multidimensional bifactor model. The results showed that the order of item locations was very similar for all three models when items of high difficulty and low discrimination were excluded. However, the items whose positions were the most discrepant between models were not the items that the SMEs disagreed about the most in the original standard setting. The choice of latent trait model did not address problems of item order disagreement. Implications for the use of the bookmark method in the presence of local item dependence are discussed.

  11. Item response theory for measurement validity

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Frances M.; KAO, Solon T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Item response theory (IRT) is an important method of assessing the validity of measurement scales that is underutilized in the field of psychiatry. IRT describes the relationship between a latent trait (e.g., the construct that the scale proposes to assess), the properties of the items in the scale, and respondents’ answers to the individual items. This paper introduces the basic premise, assumptions, and methods of IRT. To help explain these concepts we generate a hypothetical scale using three items from a modified, binary (yes/no) response version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale that was administered to 19,399 respondents. We first conducted a factor analysis to confirm the unidimensionality of the three items and then proceeded with Mplus software to construct the 2-Parameter Logic (2-PL) IRT model of the data, a method which allows for estimates of both item discrimination and item difficulty. The utility of this information both for clinical purposes and for scale construction purposes is discussed. PMID:25114494

  12. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.820 What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? Programs are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities...

  13. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.820 What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? Programs are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities...

  14. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2516.820 What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs? Programs are... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities...

  15. Evaluation of instruments for measuring the burden of sport and active recreation injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nadine E; Gabbe, Belinda J; Wolfe, Rory; Cameron, Peter A

    2010-02-01

    Sport and active recreation injuries are common. Participants are generally young, healthy and physically active individuals and as a result their injuries can have long-ranging effects for both the individuals and society. Accurate and appropriate measurement of the outcomes of sport and active recreation injuries is essential for understanding the time frame and quality of recovery, and quantifying the burden of these injuries. The WHO has developed a framework that can be used for studying health-related outcomes called the International Classification of Function (ICF). As such, the ICF is a useful tool for assessing the suitability of outcome measures for general sport and active recreation populations. This article provides a review of outcome measures that are potentially suitable for use in a general sport and active recreation injury population, assessed within the framework of the ICF. An extensive literature search was performed to identify instruments used in sport and active recreation (and general) injury populations that would be suitable for measuring the outcomes and burden of sport and recreation injuries and return to physical activity. The search identified six health status and health-related quality-of-life (HR-QOL) measures and five functional outcome measures. Of the outcome measures reviewed, the Short Form-36 was the most commonly used and covered many of the areas relevant to a sport and active recreation population. The comprehensiveness of the Sickness Impact Profile-36 meant that it contained many relevant items; however, its usefulness is limited by its high level of responder burden. The Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment provided a detailed measure of function, appropriate to a sport and active recreation population, and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended can provide a suitable global measure of function. The Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire is a potential means of measuring return to physical activity for this

  16. Methods for Evaluating Learner Activities with New Technologies: Guidelines for the Lab@Future Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwanza-Simwami, Daisy; Engestrom, Yrjo; Amon, Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    The task of evaluating learner activities with new technologies is becoming increasingly complex because traditional evaluation strategies do not adequately consider the unique and often dynamic characteristics of learners and activities carried out. Learner activities are largely driven by motives and relationships that exist in the context in…

  17. A Strategy for Optimizing Item-Pool Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item production to test assembly. A simulation study with…

  18. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  19. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  20. 77 FR 69812 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; DC Choice Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; DC Choice Evaluation AGENCY: Institute of... of Collection: DC Choice Evaluation. OMB Control Number: Pending. Type of Review: New...

  1. 78 FR 2379 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Impact Evaluation of Math Professional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Impact Evaluation of Math Professional... of Collection: Impact Evaluation of Math Professional Development. OMB Control Number: 1850-NEW. Type..., and teachers for a study of math professional development. The study will provide...

  2. Extending item response theory to online homework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.

  3. Experiments in materials science from household items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1993-01-01

    Everyday household items are used to demonstrate some unique properties of materials. A coat hanger, rubber band, balloon, and corn starch have typical properties which we often take for granted but can be truly amazing.

  4. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  5. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, Teresa L; Sampson, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  6. The effects of linguistic modification on ESL students' comprehension of nursing course test items.

    PubMed

    Bosher, Susan; Bowles, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that language may be a source of construct-irrelevant variance for non-native speakers of English, or English as a second language (ESL) students, when they take exams. As a result, exams may not accurately measure knowledge of nursing content. One accommodation often used to level the playing field for ESL students is linguistic modification, a process by which the reading load of test items is reduced while the content and integrity of the item are maintained. Research on the effects of linguistic modification has been conducted on examinees in the K-12 population, but is just beginning in other areas. This study describes the collaborative process by which items from a pathophysiology exam were linguistically modified and subsequently evaluated for comprehensibility by ESL students. Findings indicate that in a majority of cases, modification improved examinees' comprehension of test items. Implications for test item writing and future research are discussed. PMID:18575241

  7. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela; Todorova, Iva; Parushev, Stoyan; Tsvetkova, Iva; Najdenski, Hristo; Ubukata, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of synthetic aliphatic and aromatic monoacylglycerols (MAGs) was studied against two human pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The active compounds inhibited selectively S. aureus. The most active compounds amongst them were those with medium size aliphatic chain and aromatic MAGs with electron withdrawing substituents at the aryl ring. The introduction of one or two-carbon spacer between the aryl ring and the carboxylic function did not influence antibacterial effectiveness. PMID:19004249

  8. Synthesis, antiarrhythmic activity, and toxicological evaluation of mexiletine analogues.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Mariagrazia; Carocci, Alessia; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Toma, Maddalena; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Lovece, Angelo; Catalano, Alessia; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Bruno, Claudio; De Palma, Annalisa; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Chiarini, Alberto; Franchini, Carlo; Ghelardini, Carla; Habtemariam, Solomon; Lentini, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Four mexiletine analogues have been tested for their antiarrhythmic, inotropic, and chronotropic effects on isolated guinea pig heart tissues and to assess calcium antagonist activity, in comparison with the parent compound mexiletine. All analogues showed from moderate to high antiarrhythmic activity. In particular, three of them (1b,c,e) were more active and potent than the reference drug, while exhibiting only modest or no negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and vasorelaxant activity, thus showing high selectivity of action. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity and 1b,c,d did not impair motor coordination. All in, these new analogues exhibit an interesting cardiovascular profile and deserve further investigation. PMID:27267000

  9. Synthesis, antiarrhythmic activity, and toxicological evaluation of mexiletine analogues.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Mariagrazia; Carocci, Alessia; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Toma, Maddalena; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Lovece, Angelo; Catalano, Alessia; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Bruno, Claudio; De Palma, Annalisa; Contino, Marialessandra; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Chiarini, Alberto; Franchini, Carlo; Ghelardini, Carla; Habtemariam, Solomon; Lentini, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Four mexiletine analogues have been tested for their antiarrhythmic, inotropic, and chronotropic effects on isolated guinea pig heart tissues and to assess calcium antagonist activity, in comparison with the parent compound mexiletine. All analogues showed from moderate to high antiarrhythmic activity. In particular, three of them (1b,c,e) were more active and potent than the reference drug, while exhibiting only modest or no negative inotropic and chronotropic effects and vasorelaxant activity, thus showing high selectivity of action. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity and 1b,c,d did not impair motor coordination. All in, these new analogues exhibit an interesting cardiovascular profile and deserve further investigation.

  10. New method for evaluating antibacterial activity directly on fabric.

    PubMed

    Lashen, E S

    1971-04-01

    Bacteriostasis of treated fabric was evaluated directly by a colony count made on the treated fabric after impregnation with seeded agar containing triphenyltetrazolium chloride and incubation in a horizontal, suspended position in a petri dish.

  11. [Evaluation of systemic lupus erythematosus activity during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Olesińska, Marzena; Wiesik-Szewczyk, Ewa; Chwalińska-Sadowska, Hanna

    2007-07-01

    Pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered a high-risk pregnancy. It is complicated by preeclampsia, premature labour and miscarriage more frequently than in the general population. Improved prognosis depends on low disease activity during conception and on appropriate medical care (SLE activity monitoring, selection of therapy safe for the mother and the developing foetus, advances in neonatology). Because symptoms of physiological pregnancy and SLE exacerbation are similar, their correct interpretation is essential for skin lesions, arthralgias, arterial hypertension or results of laboratory tests: proteinuria, thrombocytopenia or leucopenia observed in the patient. In order to standardise the assessment of SLE activity during pregnancy, scores of this activity are used. In the past, scores validated on non-pregnant populations (including male patients) were used: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM), European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurment (ECLAM). Only recently have SLE activity scores been introduced that are specific for pregnant women: Lupus Activity Index In Pregnancy (LAI-P), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pregnancy Disease Activity Index (SLEPDAI), modified--Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (m-SLAM) and a visual three-grade score modified--Physician Global Assessment (m-PGA). So far, only scores LAI-P and m-PGA have been validated. According to the LAI-P score, clinical data are divided into 4 groups. Group 1 includes mild clinical symptoms, group 2--symptoms of involvement of internal organs, group 3 pertains to modifications of treatment and group 4 to laboratory parameters. Point values are ascribed to individual parameters depending on their intensity.

  12. Frontoparietal networks involved in categorization and item working memory.

    PubMed

    Braunlich, Kurt; Gomez-Lavin, Javier; Seger, Carol A

    2015-02-15

    Categorization and memory for specific items are fundamental processes that allow us to apply knowledge to novel stimuli. This study directly compares categorization and memory using delay match to category (DMC) and delay match to sample (DMS) tasks. In DMC participants view and categorize a stimulus, maintain the category across a delay, and at the probe phase view another stimulus and indicate whether it is in the same category or not. In DMS, a standard item working memory task, participants encode and maintain a specific individual item, and at probe decide if the stimulus is an exact match or not. Constrained Principal Components Analysis was used to identify and compare activity within neural networks associated with these tasks, and we relate these networks to those that have been identified with resting state-fMRI. We found that two frontoparietal networks of particular interest. The first network included regions associated with the dorsal attention network and frontoparietal salience network; this network showed patterns of activity consistent with a role in rapid orienting to and processing of complex stimuli. The second uniquely involved regions of the frontoparietal central-executive network; this network responded more slowly following each stimulus and showed a pattern of activity consistent with a general role in role in decision-making across tasks. Additional components were identified that were associated with visual, somatomotor and default mode networks. PMID:25482265

  13. Using Automatic Item Generation to Meet the Increasing Item Demands of High-Stakes Educational and Occupational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The use of new test administration technologies such as computerized adaptive testing in high-stakes educational and occupational assessments demands large item pools. Classic item construction processes and previous approaches to automatic item generation faced the problems of a considerable loss of items after the item calibration phase. In this…

  14. Item-Weighted Likelihood Method for Ability Estimation in Tests Composed of Both Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Jian; Shi, Ning-Zhong; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of both dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous ones. To reflect the difference between the two types of items, polytomous items are usually pre-assigned with larger weights. We propose an item-weighted likelihood method to better assess examinees' ability…

  15. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Brazilian Plants and Identification of the Active Principles

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Niero, Rivaldo; Bolda Mariano, Luisa Nathália; Gomes do Nascimento, Fabiana; Vicente Farias, Ingrid; Gazoni, Vanessa Fátima; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Giménez, Alberto; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Salamanca, Efrain; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0 μg/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 μg/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4 μg/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1 μg/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5 μg/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23840252

  16. The sensory timecourses associated with conscious visual item memory and source memory.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Preston P; Slotnick, Scott D

    2015-09-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) findings have suggested that during visual item and source memory, nonconscious and conscious sensory (occipital-temporal) activity onsets may be restricted to early (0-800 ms) and late (800-1600 ms) temporal epochs, respectively. In an ERP experiment, we tested this hypothesis by separately assessing whether the onset of conscious sensory activity was restricted to the late epoch during source (location) memory and item (shape) memory. We found that conscious sensory activity had a late (>800 ms) onset during source memory and an early (<200 ms) onset during item memory. In a follow-up fMRI experiment, conscious sensory activity was localized to BA17, BA18, and BA19. Of primary importance, the distinct source memory and item memory ERP onsets contradict the hypothesis that there is a fixed temporal boundary separating nonconscious and conscious processing during all forms of visual conscious retrieval.

  17. Perceptions and Evaluation of a Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study, conducted in the Midwestern United States, explored the perceptions of teachers at two different elementary schools as they implemented a physical activity program during the school day. The program engaged students in daily physical activity through brief, organized, structured physical exercise. Interviews and…

  18. Evaluation of PPARa activation by known blueberry constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that pterostilbene, a stilbene found in some Vaccinium berries, is an agonist for the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha isoform (PPARa). In the present study, we demonstrate a dose-dependent activation of PPARa by pterostilbene in a r...

  19. Acoustical Evaluation of Carbonized and Activated Cotton Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of manufacturing a carbonized and activated nonwoven made by cotton fiber was investigated in this paper. The study was focused on the acoustic application and nonwoven composites with cotton nonwoven as a base layer and glass fiber nonwoven, cotton nonwoven, and carbonized and activated...

  20. Using Deterministic, Gated Item Response Theory Model to detect test cheating due to item compromise.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhan; Henson, Robert; Luecht, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Deterministic, Gated Item Response Theory Model (DGM, Shu, Unpublished Dissertation. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2010) is proposed to identify cheaters who obtain significant score gain on tests due to item exposure/compromise by conditioning on the item status (exposed or unexposed items). A "gated" function is introduced to decompose the observed examinees' performance into two distributions (the true ability distribution determined by examinees' true ability and the cheating distribution determined by examinees' cheating ability). Test cheaters who have score gain due to item exposure are identified through the comparison of the two distributions. Hierarchical Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used as the model's estimation framework. Finally, the model is applied in a real data set to illustrate how the model can be used to identify examinees having pre-knowledge on the exposed items.

  1. Human visual short-term memory precision can be varied at will when the number of retained items is low.

    PubMed

    Machizawa, Maro G; Goh, Crystal C W; Driver, Jon

    2012-06-01

    It has been debated whether human visual working memory is limited by the number of items or the precision with which they are represented. In the research reported here, we show that the precision of working memory can be flexibly and willfully controlled, but only if the number of retained items is low. Electroencephalographic recordings revealed that a neural marker for visual working memory (contralateral delay activity, or CDA) that is known to increase in amplitude with the number of retained items was also affected by the precision with which items were retained. However, willfully enhanced precision increased CDA amplitude only when the number of retained items was low. These results show that both the number and the (willfully controlled) precision of retained items constrain visual working memory: People can enhance the precision of their visual working memory, but only for a few items. PMID:22527526

  2. Aeromechanical Evaluation of Smart-Twisting Active Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Joon W.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Hoffman, Frauke; van der Wall, Berend G.; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jung, Sung N.; You, Young H.; Tanabe, Yasutada; Bailly, Joelle; Lienard, Caroline; Delrieux, Yves

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of Smart-Twisting Active Rotor (STAR) was made to assess potential benefits of the current active twist rotor concept for performance improvement, vibration reduction, and noise alleviation. The STAR rotor is a 40% Mach-scaled, Bo105 rotor with an articulated flap-lag hinge at 3.5%R and no pre-cone. The 0-5 per rev active twist harmonic inputs were applied for various flight conditions including hover, descent, moderate to high speed level flights, and slowed rotor high advance ratio. For the analysis, the STAR partners used multiple codes including CAMRAD II, S4, HOST, rFlow3D, elsA, and their associated software. At the high thrust level in hover, the 0 per rev active twist with 80% amplitude increased figure of merit (FM) by 0.01-0.02 relative to the baseline. In descent, the largest BVI noise reduction was on the order of 2 to 5 dB at the 3 per rev active twist. In the high speed case (mu = 0.35), the 2 per rev actuation was found to be the most effective in achieving a power reduction as well as a vibration reduction. At the 2 per rev active twist, total power was reduced by 0.65% at the 60 deg active twist phase, and vibration was reduced by 47.6% at the 45 deg active twist phase. The use of the 2 per rev active twist appears effective for vibration reduction. In the high advance ratio case (mu = 0.70), the 0 per rev actuation appeared to have negligible impact on performance improvement. In summary, computational simulations successfully demonstrated that the current active twist concept provided a significant reduction of the maximum BVI noise in descent, a significant reduction of the vibration in the high speed case, a small improvement on rotor performance in hover, and a negligible impact on rotor performance in forward flight.

  3. Development and use of an evaluation tool for taste-testing activities by school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lucia L; Schneider, Constance; Mendoza, Concepcion; George, Gretchen; Neelon, Marisa; Roche, Brenda; Ginsburg, David

    2012-12-01

    We describe the development and application of a teacher-administered tool for routine program evaluation of food-tasting activities among low-income children and adolescents in a classroom or afterschool setting. This six-item evaluation tool is intended to capture student willingness to try new foods and ask for them at home. Phase 1 involved one-on-one interviews to determine the feasibility of the taste test tool among nine elementary school teachers in 2009 (168 students) and a validation pilot study in 2010 among 114 school-aged students participating in a University of California Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Nutrition Education (UC SNAP-Ed) summer program. Phase 2 determined instrument reliability and compared student response by grade level and food category in a convenience sample of 514 UC SNAP-Ed classrooms in 2010-2011. The mean proportion of the classroom ever having tried the foods before was 0.62 ± 0.33, and 0.77 ± 0.27 were willing to ask for the foods at home (P<0.0001). Compared with younger students (preschool through sixth grade), older students (seventh through 12th grade) were less likely to try the foods in class and less willing to try them again or ask for them at home (P<0.05). Students reported significantly greater previous exposure and willingness to try the food again for fruits than for vegetables (P<0.0001). A teacher-administered taste test tool is feasible to use in a group setting and capable of yielding valid, reliable information to evaluate student response and to guide SNAP-Ed program delivery.

  4. A Model-Free Diagnostic for Single-Peakedness of Item Responses Using Ordered Conditional Means.

    PubMed

    Polak, Marike; de Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem J

    2012-09-01

    In this article we propose a model-free diagnostic for single-peakedness (unimodality) of item responses. Presuming a unidimensional unfolding scale and a given item ordering, we approximate item response functions of all items based on ordered conditional means (OCM). The proposed OCM methodology is based on Thurstone & Chave's (1929) criterion of irrelevance, which is a graphical, exploratory method for evaluating the "relevance" of dichotomous attitude items. We generalized this criterion to graded response items and quantified the relevance by fitting a unimodal smoother. The resulting goodness-of-fit was used to determine item fit and aggregated scale fit. Based on a simulation procedure, cutoff values were proposed for the measures of item fit. These cutoff values showed high power rates and acceptable Type I error rates. We present 2 applications of the OCM method. First, we apply the OCM method to personality data from the Developmental Profile; second, we analyze attitude data collected by Roberts and Laughlin (1996) concerning opinions of capital punishment.

  5. 48 CFR 204.7103 - Contract line items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract line items. 204..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7103 Contract line items....

  6. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30... differentiates one item from another item in the Federal Catalog System. Each item of supply is expressed in...

  7. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30... differentiates one item from another item in the Federal Catalog System. Each item of supply is expressed in...

  8. 41 CFR 101-30.101-2 - Item of supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 30-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30... differentiates one item from another item in the Federal Catalog System. Each item of supply is expressed in...

  9. Psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Spanish version of the 11-item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale.

    PubMed

    Buz, José; Pérez-Arechaederra, Diana

    2014-04-15

    ABSTRACT Background: Loneliness has been associated with physical and mental health problems. It has also been considered a serious social problem that increases the use and costs of health services. The most widely used instrument in Europe for measuring loneliness is the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS). The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 11-item DJGLS by means of the Rasch model, and its convergent and discriminant validity. Methods: Participants were a representative sample of Spanish community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older. We evaluated sociodemographic variables, health, social support, social activity, and subjective well-being measures. Results: Person and item fit statistics, and standardized residual principal component analysis revealed that the DJGLS was essentially unidimensional. However, we found DIF across marital status and living arrangements. Moderate to high associations were found between loneliness and depression, self-rated loneliness, positive and negative emotions, and satisfaction with life. The DJGLS differentiated between well known-groups according to gender, marital status, living arrangements, health, structural and functional aspects of social networks, and social activity. Conclusions: The DJGLS is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring loneliness in Spanish older adults. The addition of a few items in order to improve the measurement range is strongly recommended. Our findings are consistent with previous research indicating that loneliness is an important aspect of mental health and subjective well-being, and support the use of the scale to detect vulnerable population in old age. PMID:24735718

  10. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of selected lozenges.

    PubMed

    Richards, R M; Xing, D K

    1993-12-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial activities of 10 lozenges (Merothol, Merocets, Merocaine, Strepsils (two varieties), Dequacaine, Dequacets, Zensyls, Tyrozets, and Labosept) were determined by use of a microtiter counting method with Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans as the test organisms. Merothol, Merocets, Merocaine, and both Strepsils formulations all reduced the counts of both S. aureus and S. pyogenes suspensions by approximately 6 log cycles within 5 and 20 min, respectively. Merothol, Merocets, and Merocaine also caused a reduction in the counts of the C. albicans suspension approximately 5 log cycles within 40 min, but no other lozenge formulation showed rapid and marked activity against C. albicans. Dequacaine and Dequacets showed marked but much slower activities against this yeast. Zensyls caused an approximately 6-log-cycle reduction in bacterial counts within 40 min, and Dequacaine, Dequacets, and Tyrozets showed marked but slower antibacterial activities. This work confirmed by a statistically sound in vitro method the in vivo antibacterial activities reported for Merothol, Merocets, and Merocaine, demonstrated equivalent antibacterial activities for Strepsils, and indicated that Merothol, Merocets, and Merocaine also showed marked activities against C. albicans. PMID:8308699

  11. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark.

    PubMed

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.

  12. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark

    PubMed Central

    Nariya, Pankaj B.; Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B.

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl–2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity. PMID:24049418

  13. Food item use by coyote sex and age classes

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of catalase-like activity of different classes of redox-active therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Maia, Clarissa G C; Weitner, Tin; Carballal, Sebastián; Sampaio, Romulo S; Lieb, Dominik; Ghazaryan, Robert; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Radi, Rafael; Reboucas, Julio S; Spasojevic, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2015-09-01

    (-1). The analogous Fe(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins showed ~10-fold higher activity than the corresponding MnPs, but the values of kcat(H2O2) are still ~4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the enzyme. While the kcat(H2O2) values for Fe ethyl and n-octyl analogs were 803.5 and 368.4M(-1) s(-1), respectively, the FePs are more prone to H2O2-driven oxidative degradation, therefore allowing for similar yields in H2O2 dismutation as analogous MnPs. The kcat(H2O2) values are dependent on the electron deficiency of the metal site as it controls the peroxide binding in the first step of the dismutation process. SOD-like activities depend on electron deficiency of the metal site also, as it controls the first step of O2(●-) dismutation. In turn, the kcat(O2(●-)) parallels the kcat(H2O2). Therefore, the electron-rich anionic non-SOD mimic MnTBAP(3-) has essentially very low catalase-like activity, kcat(H2O2)=5.8M(-1) s(-1). The catalase-like activities of Mn(III) and Fe(III) porphyrins are at most, 0.0004 and 0.05% of the enzyme activity, respectively. The kcat(H2O2) values of 8.2 and 6.5M(-1) s(-1) were determined for electron-rich Mn(II) cyclic polyamine-based compounds, M40403 and M40404, respectively. The EUK-8, with modest SOD-like activity, has only slightly higher kcat(H2O2)=13.5M(-1) s(-1). The biological relevance of kcat(H2O2) of MnTE-2-PyP(5+), MnTDE-2-ImP(5+), MnTBAP(3-), FeTE-2-PyP(5+), M40403, M40404, and Mn salen was evaluated in wild-type and peroxidase/catalase-deficient E. coli. PMID:26026699

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of catalase-like activity of different classes of redox-active therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Maia, Clarissa G C; Weitner, Tin; Carballal, Sebastián; Sampaio, Romulo S; Lieb, Dominik; Ghazaryan, Robert; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Radi, Rafael; Reboucas, Julio S; Spasojevic, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2015-09-01

    (-1). The analogous Fe(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins showed ~10-fold higher activity than the corresponding MnPs, but the values of kcat(H2O2) are still ~4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the enzyme. While the kcat(H2O2) values for Fe ethyl and n-octyl analogs were 803.5 and 368.4M(-1) s(-1), respectively, the FePs are more prone to H2O2-driven oxidative degradation, therefore allowing for similar yields in H2O2 dismutation as analogous MnPs. The kcat(H2O2) values are dependent on the electron deficiency of the metal site as it controls the peroxide binding in the first step of the dismutation process. SOD-like activities depend on electron deficiency of the metal site also, as it controls the first step of O2(●-) dismutation. In turn, the kcat(O2(●-)) parallels the kcat(H2O2). Therefore, the electron-rich anionic non-SOD mimic MnTBAP(3-) has essentially very low catalase-like activity, kcat(H2O2)=5.8M(-1) s(-1). The catalase-like activities of Mn(III) and Fe(III) porphyrins are at most, 0.0004 and 0.05% of the enzyme activity, respectively. The kcat(H2O2) values of 8.2 and 6.5M(-1) s(-1) were determined for electron-rich Mn(II) cyclic polyamine-based compounds, M40403 and M40404, respectively. The EUK-8, with modest SOD-like activity, has only slightly higher kcat(H2O2)=13.5M(-1) s(-1). The biological relevance of kcat(H2O2) of MnTE-2-PyP(5+), MnTDE-2-ImP(5+), MnTBAP(3-), FeTE-2-PyP(5+), M40403, M40404, and Mn salen was evaluated in wild-type and peroxidase/catalase-deficient E. coli.

  16. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF UPSTREAM WATERSHED ACTIVITIES TO DOWNSTREAM STREAMFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking the impacts of upstream activities such as urban development to changes in downstream streamflow is critical to achieving a balance between economic development and environmental protection as a basis for sustainable watershed development. This paper presents a modeling a...

  17. Evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos*

    PubMed Central

    Hadaway, A. B.; Barlow, F.; Grose, J. E. H.; Turner, C. R.; Flower, L. S.

    1970-01-01

    New pyrethrin-like compounds are compared with earlier synthetic pyrethroids and natural pyrethrins for intrinsic toxicity to adult mosquitos and for residual contact activity. Two of the compounds are at least as toxic as pyrethrin I to female Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Residues of these compounds are very persistent in the dark or in very subdued lighting but they decompose on exposure to normal intensities of daylight and rapidly lose their insecticidal activity. PMID:4392939

  18. [Express evaluation of antioxidant activity of uracil derivatives].

    PubMed

    Gimadieva, A R; Khazimullina, Yu Z; Belaya, E A; Zimin, Yu S; Abdrakhmanov, I B; Mustafin, A G

    2015-01-01

    Using photometric methods the antioxidant activity of 19 uracil derivatives has been analyzed. The test using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals can be applied for the rapid assessment of antioxidant activity of uracils. Among uracil derivatives studied the compounds possesing a proton-donor group in C-5 position--free or alkylated amino group, as well as hydroxyl group were the most active: 5-aminouracil (IC50 3 mg/ml), 5-amino-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 5 mg/ml), 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 15 mg/ml), 5-hydroxy-1,3,6-trimethyluracil (IC50 of 15 mg/ml), 5-ethylamino-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 20 mg/ml), 5-methylamino-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 20 mg/ml), 5-allylaminouracil (IC50 of 20 mg/ml), 5-amino-1,3,6- trimethyluracil (IC50 of 25 mg/ml). These uracil derivatives were more active than the reference compounds ionol (IC50 of 30 mg/ml) and a-naphthylamine (IC50 of 45 mg/ml), but less active than ascorbic acid (IC50 0.8 mg/ml). There was a correlation between the results of DPPH test (IC50) and coupling constants of uracil derivatives with peroxide radicals of 1,4-dioxane (fk7). Uracil with proton-donor group at C-5 also showed high ferrum-reducing activity as determined by FRAP.

  19. Evaluation of Parmotrema reticulatum Taylor for Antibacterial and Antiinflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jain, A. P.; Bhandarkar, S.; Rai, G.; Yadav, A. K.; Lodhi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Lichens produce variety of secondary metabolites including depsides, depsidones and dibenzofurans having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Present study provides evidence for in vitro antibacterial and in vivo antiinflammatory activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of Parmotrema reticulatum. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Cotton pellet-induced granuloma, xylene-induced ear swelling, carragennan-induced edema, histamine-induced and carboxymethylcellulose sodium-induced leukocyte emigration in mice models were used to quantify the antiinflammatory activity. Acetone and ethanol extracts were showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (minimal inhibitory concentration: 100 and 150 μg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal inhibitory concentration: 100 and 200 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (minimal inhibitory concentration: 200 and 250 μg/ml), and Pseudomonasa eruginosa (minimal inhibitory concentration: 200 and 300 μg/ml). Acetone extract was inhibited edema significantly at 200 mg/kg with xylene, cotton pellet, carragennan and histamine induced edema in vivo models. Ethanol extract was found effective at dose of 300 mg/kg with all in vivo antiinflammatory models. The results showed significant (P<0.01) antiinflammatory effects at 200 and 300 mg/kg dose of acetone and ethanol extracts, respectively, which can be concluded that significant activity may be due to presence of flavanoids in ethanol extract and usnic acid in acetone extract. PMID:27168687

  20. The Impact of Non-attempted and Dually-Attempted Items on Person Abilities Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate response strategy with person ability estimates. Two behavioral strategies were examined: (a) the strategy to skip items in order to save time on timed tests, and, (b) the strategy to select two responses on an item, with the hope that one of them may be considered correct. Participants were 4,422 individuals who were administered a standardized achievement measure related to math, biology, chemistry, and physics. In the present evaluation, only the physics subscale was employed. Two analyses were conducted: (a) a person-based one to identify differences between groups and potential correlates of those differences, and, (b) a measure-based analysis in order to identify the parts of the measure that were responsible for potential group differentiation. For (a) person abilities the 2-PL model was employed and later the 3-PL and 4-PL models in order to estimate upper and lower asymptotes of person abilities. For (b) differential item functioning, differential test functioning, and differential distractor functioning were investigated. Results indicated that there were significant differences between groups with completers having the highest ability compared to both non-attempters and dual responders. There were no significant differences between no-attempters and dual responders. The present findings have implications for response strategy efficacy and measure evaluation, revision, and construction. PMID:27790174