Science.gov

Sample records for activities evaluation techniques

  1. Evaluation of scheduling techniques for payload activity planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullington, Stanley F.

    1991-01-01

    Two tasks related to payload activity planning and scheduling were performed. The first task involved making a comparison of space mission activity scheduling problems with production scheduling problems. The second task consisted of a statistical analysis of the output of runs of the Experiment Scheduling Program (ESP). Details of the work which was performed on these two tasks are presented.

  2. Exploring techniques for vision based human activity recognition: methods, systems, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Tang, Jinshan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Qiu, Yimin

    2013-01-25

    With the wide applications of vision based intelligent systems, image and video analysis technologies have attracted the attention of researchers in the computer vision field. In image and video analysis, human activity recognition is an important research direction. By interpreting and understanding human activity, we can recognize and predict the occurrence of crimes and help the police or other agencies react immediately. In the past, a large number of papers have been published on human activity recognition in video and image sequences. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the recent development of the techniques, including methods, systems, and quantitative evaluation towards the performance of human activity recognition.

  3. Evaluation of radioisotope tracer and activation analysis techniques for contamination monitoring in space environment simulation chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smathers, J. B.; Kuykendall, W. E., Jr.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Marshall, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Radioisotope measurement techniques and neutron activation analysis are evaluated for use in identifying and locating contamination sources in space environment simulation chambers. The alpha range method allows the determination of total contaminant concentration in vapor state and condensate state. A Cf-252 neutron activation analysis system for detecting oils and greases tagged with stable elements is described. While neutron activation analysis of tagged contaminants offers specificity, an on-site system is extremely costly to implement and provides only marginal detection sensitivity under even the most favorable conditions.

  4. Evaluation of techniques for removal of spacecraft contaminants from activated carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, K. J.; Goldsmith, R. L.; Goldsmith, G. A.; Hoover, P. R.; Nwankwo, J. N.; Turk, A.

    1977-01-01

    Alternative techniques for the regeneration of carbon contaminated with various spacecraft contaminants were evaluated. Four different modes of regeneration were evaluated: (1) thermal desorption via vacuum, (2) thermal desorption via nitrogen purge, (3) in-situ catalytic oxidation of adsorbed contaminants, and (4) in-situ non-catalytic oxidation of adsorbed contaminants.

  5. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  6. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  7. Evaluation of active and passive near-millimeter-wave radiometric imaging techniques for detection of concealed objects

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, E.E.; Foote, F.B.; Schellenbaum, R.L.; Bradley, R.G.

    1981-07-01

    Active and passive radiometric imaging techniques have been used at 1.4- and 3-mm wavelengths (220 and 100 GHz) to evaluate their potential use in detecting concealed objects. An evaluation of the techniques includes a particular study of their potential in detecting shielded nuclear materials and explosives carried covertly by personnel. We have previously reported images of metal objects and nuclear shielding materials that were detected when concealed under clothing. These images appear with the human body as background. Detection of contraband by radiometric imaging techniques depends upon the differences in emissivity and reflectivity of the contraband relative to human tissue. Explosives, unlike metals and metal composites, generally have high emissivities and low reflectivities that closely approximate those of human tissue making explosives difficult to detect. Samples of several common types of explosives (TNT, Detasheet, C4, and several types of water gels) have been examined at the 1.4- and 3-mm wavelengths using active and passive radiometric techniques.

  8. Evaluation of CO exposure in active smokers while smoking using breath analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Oh, Jung-Wook

    2003-10-01

    The current study evaluated the personal CO exposure of active smokers while smoking under controlled conditions, decay rate of CO in the body following active smoking, and CO accumulation in the body from repeated active smoking using a novel device for the direct measurement of alveolar breath CO. Prior to this evaluation, the proposed alveolar CO measurement device was successfully evaluated as regards the effect of humidity, CO recovery, carryover effect, and in comparison with the bag sampling method. The breath concentrations prior to and after a single cigarette were measured using a repeated measure design. Under the controlled conditions employed in the present study, active smoking was found to cause a significant body burden of CO. The post-exposure breath CO level was 1.6-2.0 times higher than the background breath level, depending on the subject and cigarette brand. In addition, the pre- and post-exposure breath concentrations were both significantly different among the subjects, yet the ratios of post-exposure to pre-exposure breath concentrations did not differ significantly between the different cigarette brands. The time-series alveolar breath concentrations measured following active smoking showed that the post-exposure alveolar CO concentrations decreased slowly even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a mono-compartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives estimated in the present study (301, 315, and 385 min) were longer than or comparable to those in previous studies. The breath measurements prior to and after repeated active smoking exhibited a significant increasing trend for both the pre- and post-exposure concentrations. The changes in the pre- and post-exposure breath CO concentrations with repeated smoking ranged from 7% to 23% and from 10% to 15%, respectively, with half-hour intervals between cigarettes, and from 4% to 11% and from 6% to 8%, respectively, with hour intervals between cigarettes

  9. Comparative evaluation of features and techniques for identifying activity type and estimating energy cost from accelerometer data.

    PubMed

    Kate, Rohit J; Swartz, Ann M; Welch, Whitney A; Strath, Scott J

    2016-03-01

    Wearable accelerometers can be used to objectively assess physical activity. However, the accuracy of this assessment depends on the underlying method used to process the time series data obtained from accelerometers. Several methods have been proposed that use this data to identify the type of physical activity and estimate its energy cost. Most of the newer methods employ some machine learning technique along with suitable features to represent the time series data. This paper experimentally compares several of these techniques and features on a large dataset of 146 subjects doing eight different physical activities wearing an accelerometer on the hip. Besides features based on statistics, distance based features and simple discrete features straight from the time series were also evaluated. On the physical activity type identification task, the results show that using more features significantly improve results. Choice of machine learning technique was also found to be important. However, on the energy cost estimation task, choice of features and machine learning technique were found to be less influential. On that task, separate energy cost estimation models trained specifically for each type of physical activity were found to be more accurate than a single model trained for all types of physical activities.

  10. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  11. Evaluation Techniques that Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbrauer, Herman

    1987-01-01

    Suggests using Kirkpatrick's four-point framework to design evaluation of training programs. The points are (1) trainee reaction to the course, (2) trainee learning, (3) trainee behavior on the job, and (4) organizational results. (CH)

  12. Using respirometric techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization to evaluate the heterotrophic active biomass in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A; Wentzel, M C; Bux, F

    2007-10-15

    The separation and accurate quantification of active biomass components in activated sludge is of paramount importance in models, used for the management and design of waste water (WW) treatment plants. Accurate estimates of microbial population concentrations and the direct, in situ determination of kinetic parameters could improve the calibration and validation of existing models of biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems. The aim of this study was to obtain correlations between heterotrophic active biomass (Z(BH)) concentrations predicted by mathematical models and quantitative information obtained by Fluorescent in situ hybridizations (FISH). Respirometric batch test were applied to mixed liquors drawn from a well-defined parent anoxic/aerobic activated sludge system to quantify the Z(BH) concentrations. Similarly fluorescent labeled, 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes specific for ammonia and nitrite oxidizers were used in combination with DAPI staining to validate the Z(BH) active biomass component in activate sludge respirometric batch tests. For the direct enumeration and simultaneous in situ analysis of the distribution of nitrifying bacteria, in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes were used. Probes (NSO 1225, NSR 1156, and NIT3) were used to target the nitrifiers and the universal probe (EUB MIX) was used to target all Eubacteria. Deducting the lithoautotrophic population from the total bacteria population revealed the Z(BH) population. A conversion factor of 8.49 x 10(-11) mg VSS/cell was applied to express the Z(BH) in terms of COD concentration. Z(BH) values obtained by molecular probing correlated closely with values obtained from the modified batch test. However, the trend of consistently poor correspondence of measured and theoretical concentrations were evident. Therefore, the focus of this study was to investigate alternative technology, such as FISH to validate or replace kinetic parameters which are invariably

  13. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M.; Monty, Chelsea N.

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms. PMID:26824529

  14. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M; Monty, Chelsea N

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms.

  15. Techniques for active passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  16. Apoptosis Evaluation by Electrochemical Techniques.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Miao, Peng

    2016-03-04

    Apoptosis has close relevance to pathology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Accurate and convenient detection of apoptosis would be beneficial for biological study, clinical diagnosis, and drug development. Based on distinct features of apoptotic cells, a diversity of analytical techniques have been exploited for sensitive analysis of apoptosis, such as surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical methods, flow cytometry, and some imaging assays. Among them, the features of simplicity, easy operation, low cost, and high sensitivity make electrochemical techniques powerful tools to investigate electron-transfer processes of in vitro biological systems. In this contribution, a general overview of current knowledge on various technical approaches for apoptosis evaluation is provided. Furthermore, recently developed electrochemical biosensors for detecting apoptotic cells and their advantages over traditional methods are summarized. One of the main considerations focuses on designing the recognition elements based on various biochemical events during apoptosis.

  17. Evaluation of microscopic techniques (epifluorescence microscopy, CLSM, TPE-LSM) as a basis for the quantitative image analysis of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Lopez, C; Pons, M N; Morgenroth, E

    2005-01-01

    Microscopic techniques ranging from epifluorescence microscopy to confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and two photon excitation laser scanning microscopy (TPE-LSM) combined with fluorescent stains can help to evaluate complex microbial aggregates such as activated sludge flocs. To determine the application limits of these microscopic techniques, activated sludge samples from three different sources were evaluated after staining with a fluorescent viability indicator (Baclight Bacterial Viability Kit, Molecular Probes). Image analysis routines were developed to quantify overall amounts of red and green stained cells, location of stained cells within the flocs, and the spatial organization in clusters and filaments. It was found that the selection of the appropriate microscopic technique depends strongly on the type of microbial aggregates being analyzed. For flocs with high cell density, the use of TPE-LSM is preferred, since it provides a clearer image of the internal structure of the aggregate. Epifluorescence microscopy did not allow to reliably quantify red stained cells in dense aggregates. CLSM did not adequately image the internal filamentous structure and the location of stained cells within dense flocs. However, for typical activated sludge flocs epifluorescence and CLSM proved adequate.

  18. Test techniques for evaluating flight displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Newman, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid development of graphics technology allows for greater flexibility in aircraft displays, but display evaluation techniques have not kept pace. Historically, display evaluation has been based on subjective opinion and not on the actual aircraft/pilot performance. Existing electronic display specifications and evaluation techniques are reviewed. A display rating technique analogous to handling qualities ratings was developed and is recommended for future evaluations. The choice of evaluation pilots is also discussed and the use of a limited number of trained evaluators is recommended over the use of a large number of operational pilots.

  19. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of volatiles obtained by four different techniques from Salvia rosifolia Sm., and evaluation for biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ozek, Gulmira; Demirci, Fatih; Ozek, Temel; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Khan, Shabana I; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Duran, Ahmet; Hamzaoglu, Ergin

    2010-01-29

    Four different isolation techniques, conventional hydrodistillation (HD), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), microdistillation (MD) and micro-steam distillation-solid-phase microextraction (MSD-SPME), have been used to analyze the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Salvia rosifolia Sm. by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. HD and MWHD techniques produced quantitatively (yield, 0.39% and 0.40%) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar essential oils. alpha-Pinene (15.7-34.8%), 1,8-cineole (16.6-25.1%), beta-pinene (6.7-13.5%), beta-caryophyllene (1.4-5.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.4-4.4%) were identified as major constituents of this Turkish endemic species. Besides, the hydrodistilled oil of S. rosifolia was evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The hydrodistilled oil of S. rosifolia showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with a MIC value of 125microg/mL. Other human pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans) were also inhibited within a moderate range (MIC=125-1000microg/mL). Antifungal activity of the oil was also observed against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. No cytotoxicity was observed for S. rosifolia oil up to 25mg/mL against malignant melanoma, epidermal, ductal and ovary carcinoma.

  20. Satellite Moisture Retrieval Techniques. Volume 1. Technique Development and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    VOLUME 2: Atmospheric Sounding Bibliography — NAVENVPREDRSCHFAC CR 83-01( b ) — for listings developed by literature search in the subject area. 19...Contractor Report CR 83-01 (a): Satellite Moisture Retrieval Techniques, Vol 1, Technique Development and Evaluation (2) CR 83-01 ( b ): Vol 2...AND EVALUATION Prepared By: A. Rosenberg, D. B . Hogan, and C. K. Bowman V /, RCA Government Systems Division, Astro-Electronics, Princeton, New

  1. Protective activity of cedron (Aloysia triphylla) infusion over genetic damage induced by cisplatin evaluated by the comet assay technique.

    PubMed

    Zamorano-Ponce, Enrique; Fernández, Julia; Vargas, Gilda; Rivera, Pilar; Carballo, Marta A

    2004-08-30

    Using the comet assay technique, this paper examines the protection from the cisplatin-induced genetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells provided by cedron-leaf infusion. Animals were separated into six groups: (I) untreated, (II) negative control, (III) treated with cedron-leaf infusion (5%), (IV) treated with cisplatin (6 mg/kg b.w.), (V) pretreated with infusion and treated with cisplatin and (VI) positive control (cyclophosphamide, 20 mg/kg b.w.). Based on the tail moment values found, four types of comets were distinguished. No statistical differences (P<0.01) were found between untreated animals, negative control and infusion treated mice. As expected, treatment of mice with a single dose of cis-DDP-induced genetic damage and the pretreatment with infusion prior to cis-DDP injection inhibited the capacity of cisplatin to induce genetic damage. Cell viability was up to 90% in all cases. The results suggest that infusion could exert its in vivo antigenotoxic action by enhancing the antioxidant status of bone marrow cells. The found could be attributed to its scavenging potency towards free radicals.

  2. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae Bacteria on Maize Photosynthetic Activity Evaluated Using the Photoacoustic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the photosynthetic process of maize plants ( Zea mays), which were grown using seeds inoculated with plant growth promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae, was monitored. Photothermal and photobaric signals obtained by a time-resolved photoacoustic measurement configuration were used for measuring the oxygen evolution rate in situ. A frequency-resolved configuration of the method was utilized to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of the maize leaves. The latter parameters, which can be used as indicators of the photosynthetic activity of maize, are found to vary according to the plant-microbe interaction. Treatment with plant growth promoting bacteria induced a decrease in the oxygen diffusion coefficient of about 20 %.

  3. Lightning Simulation Test Technique Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Example Resistive Response Measurement 94 43 Example dI/dt Response Measurement 95 44 Statistical Distribution of Swept CW Extrapolated Values - Nose...Aircraft 2 2 Prior Research and Development Tests on Full-Scale Air Vehicles 10 3 Summary of Simulation Technique Capabilities 14 4 Test Bed Resistance ...second L Inductance henrys R Resistance ohms V Potential difference volts STANDARD UNITS A amperes dB, dBm decibels Hz hertz kA kiloamps kV kilovolts

  4. Industrial R&D Program Evaluation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, David P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The history of research and development (R&D) and its evaluation within the 3M Company are traced as an example of the progression of the use of evaluation and evaluation techniques. Scoring methods, cost-benefit analysis, and risk analysis have been among the most frequently used program evaluation methods. (SLD)

  5. Evaluation of Demand Prediction Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817 5886 JiZ A q C64 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Robert Arnberg of LMI deserves credit for assembling many files cf D041 data for...the best techniques of those we studied. • Use of a Poisson or constant variance-to-mean ratio (VMR) leads to poor allocation of resources. Treating...the program element is not in the D041 record or is zero for some quarters with positive demand, or has apparent errors that lead to a less stable

  6. MOSS, an evaluation of software engineering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, J. R.; Pruitt, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of the software engineering techniques used for the development of a Modular Operating System (MOSS) was described. MOSS is a general purpose real time operating system which was developed for the Concept Verification Test (CVT) program. Each of the software engineering techniques was described and evaluated based on the experience of the MOSS project. Recommendations for the use of these techniques on future software projects were also given.

  7. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

    PubMed

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  8. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  9. Evaluation of structure-reactivity descriptors and biological activity spectra of 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-butanone using spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Megha; Deval, Vipin; Gupta, Archana; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Prabhu, S. S.

    2016-10-01

    The structure and several spectroscopic features along with reactivity parameters of the compound 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-butanone (Nabumetone) have been studied using experimental techniques and tools derived from quantum chemical calculations. Structure optimization is followed by force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The vibrational spectra have been interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis. UV-visible spectrum and the effect of solvent have been discussed. The electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies have been determined by TD-DFT approach. In order to understand various aspects of pharmacological sciences several new chemical reactivity descriptors - chemical potential, global hardness and electrophilicity have been evaluated. Local reactivity descriptors - Fukui functions and local softnesses have also been calculated to find out the reactive sites within molecule. Aqueous solubility and lipophilicity have been calculated which are crucial for estimating transport properties of organic molecules in drug development. Estimation of biological effects, toxic/side effects has been made on the basis of prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) prediction results and their analysis by Pharma Expert software. Using the THz-TDS technique, the frequency-dependent absorptions of NBM have been measured in the frequency range up to 3 THz.

  10. Technique for Evaluating Multiple Probability Occurrences /TEMPO/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    Technique is described for adjustment of engineering response information by broadening the application of statistical subjective stimuli theory. The study is specifically concerned with a mathematical evaluation of the expected probability of relative occurrence which can be identified by comparison rating techniques.

  11. Statistical evaluation of vibration analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, G. Martin; Miller, Patrice S.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation methodology is presented for a selection of candidate vibration analysis techniques applicable to machinery representative of the environmental control and life support system of advanced spacecraft; illustrative results are given. Attention is given to the statistical analysis of small sample experiments, the quantification of detection performance for diverse techniques through the computation of probability of detection versus probability of false alarm, and the quantification of diagnostic performance.

  12. Evaluation of a native vegetation masking technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    A crop masking technique based on Ashburn's vegetative index (AVI) was used to evaluate native vegetation as an indicator of crop moisture condition. A mask of the range areas (native vegetation) was generated for each of thirteen Great Plains LANDSAT MSS sample segments. These masks were compared to the digitized ground truth and accuracies were computed. An analysis of the types of errors indicates a consistency in errors among the segments. The mask represents a simple quick-look technique for evaluating vegetative cover.

  13. Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

  14. Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Phenomenological Verification Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred

    2006-01-01

    Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group, 45th Weather Squadron, and National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL use mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output in creating their operational forecasts. These models aid in forecasting weather phenomena that could compromise the safety of launch, landing, and daily ground operations and must produce reasonable weather forecasts in order for their output to be useful in operations. Considering the importance of model forecasts to operations, their accuracy in forecasting critical weather phenomena must be verified to determine their usefulness. The currently-used traditional verification techniques involve an objective point-by-point comparison of model output and observations valid at the same time and location. The resulting statistics can unfairly penalize high-resolution models that make realistic forecasts of a certain phenomena, but are offset from the observations in small time and/or space increments. Manual subjective verification can provide a more valid representation of model performance, but is time-consuming and prone to personal biases. An objective technique that verifies specific meteorological phenomena, much in the way a human would in a subjective evaluation, would likely produce a more realistic assessment of model performance. Such techniques are being developed in the research community. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to conduct a literature search to identify phenomenological verification techniques being developed, determine if any are ready to use operationally, and outline the steps needed to implement any operationally-ready techniques into the Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The AMU conducted a search of all literature on the topic of phenomenological-based mesoscale model verification techniques and found 10 different techniques in various stages of development. Six of the techniques were developed to verify precipitation forecasts, one

  15. Evaluation of object level change detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Bergeron, Stuart; Hugo, Doug; O'Brien, Michael A.

    2007-04-01

    A variety of change detection (CD) methods have been developed and employed to support imagery analysis for applications including environmental monitoring, mapping, and support to military operations. Evaluation of these methods is necessary to assess technology maturity, identify areas for improvement, and support transition to operations. This paper presents a methodology for conducting this type of evaluation, discusses the challenges, and illustrates the techniques. The evaluation of object-level change detection methods is more complicated than for automated techniques for processing a single image. We explore algorithm performance assessments, emphasizing the definition of the operating conditions (sensor, target, and environmental factors) and the development of measures of performance. Specific challenges include image registration; occlusion due to foliage, cultural clutter and terrain masking; diurnal differences; and differences in viewing geometry. Careful planning, sound experimental design, and access to suitable imagery with image truth and metadata are critical.

  16. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-12-21

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  17. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  18. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  19. PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE--APPLICATIONS IN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COOK, DESMOND L.

    THIS MONOGRAPH IS INTENDED TO DISSEMINATE TO THE EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY THE BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF A RECENTLY DEVELOPED PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ENTITLED PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT). PERT IS A METHODOLOGY FOR PLANNING THE DIVERSE ACTIVITIES IN EITHER LARGE OR SMALL PROJECTS. STEPS OF THE PERT TECHNIQUE…

  20. Monitoring by Control Technique - Activated Carbon Adsorber

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Activated Carbon Adsorber control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  1. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. PMID:27706082

  2. Evaluation of Debridement Techniques for Endodontic Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-20

    Cstf3 everse OFd neeO a 1 d IIeif by locLETEa WE~~ CLJANIATO OF TH)S PAITIE OFh~ Iat NOVnteSred) EVALUATION OF DEBRIDEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR ENDODONTIC ...INSTRUMENTS *RONALD 0. SEGALL, DMD **CARLOS E. del RIO, DDS ***JOHN M. BRADY, DDS, MSPH ****WILLIAM A. AYER, DDS, PhD :f*MAJ, DC Endodontic Resident, US... Endodontic Residency, US Army Institute of Dental Research, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20012 ***COL, DC Chief, Dept. of Biophysics

  3. an evaluation of techniques for root observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Awaz; Monnier, Yogan; Stokes, Alexia

    2015-04-01

    An evaluation of techniques for root observations Below-ground processes play an essential role in ecosystem nutrient cycling and the global carbon budget (C) cycle because they regulate storage of large quantities of carbon. Quantifying root dynamics, that is, production, longevity, mortality and decomposition, is crucial to the understanding of ecosystem structure and function, and in predicting how ecosystems respond to climate variability. The necessity for accumulating information about root system growth is thus clear. However, we have a relatively poor understanding of the best method of observation, especially in the natural soil environment. The objective of this study is to compare four techniques of root observation, that is, manual scanner, smartphone scanner, flatbed scanner and classical observations, for determining the best technique. Root growth dynamics were measured in Rhizotrons. The project involves several field-sites situated in agroforests comprising hybrid walnut trees and pasture/crops along a climatic gradient in France. The results of this project will provide data allowing researchers to facilitate the choice of the most suitable observation method for their research.

  4. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques were investigated in microgravity with specific application to planned medical capabilities for Space Station Freedom (SSF). A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed with the goal of evaluating and quantifying the efficacy of different types of microgravity CPR techniques. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. Three experiments were involved chosen for their clinical background, certification, and practical experience in prior KC-135 parabolic flight. The CPR evaluation was performed using a standard training mannequin (recording resusci-Annie) which was used in practice prior to the actual flight. Aboard the KC-135, the prototype medical restraint system (MRS) for the SSF Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) was used for part of the study. Standard patient and crew restraints were used for interface with the MRS. During the portion of study where CPR was performed without MRS, a set of straps for crew restraint similar to those currently employed for the Space Shuttle program were used. The entire study was recorded via still camera and video.

  5. Innovative Techniques for Evaluating Behavioral Nutrition Interventions.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Rachel E; Laugero, Kevin D; Graham, Dan J; Cunningham, Brian T; Jahns, Lisa; Lora, Karina R; Reicks, Marla; Mobley, Amy R

    2017-01-01

    Assessing outcomes and the impact from behavioral nutrition interventions has remained challenging because of the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With the current high global obesity and related chronic disease rates, novel methods to evaluate the impact of behavioral nutrition-based interventions are much needed. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and review the current status of knowledge as it relates to 4 different innovative methods or tools to assess behavioral nutrition interventions. Methods reviewed include 1) the assessment of stress and stress responsiveness to enhance the evaluation of nutrition interventions, 2) eye-tracking technology in nutritional interventions, 3) smartphone biosensors to assess nutrition and health-related outcomes, and 4) skin carotenoid measurements to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Specifically, the novel use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, by characterizing the brain's responsiveness to an intervention, can help researchers develop programs with greater efficacy. Similarly, if eye-tracking technology can enable researchers to get a better sense as to how participants view materials, the materials may be better tailored to create an optimal impact. The latter 2 techniques reviewed, smartphone biosensors and methods to detect skin carotenoids, can provide the research community with portable, effective, nonbiased ways to assess dietary intake and quality and more in the field. The information gained from using these types of methodologies can improve the efficacy and assessment of behavior-based nutrition interventions.

  6. Evaluation of the Trifecta obturating technique.

    PubMed

    Al-Dewani, N; Hayes, S J; Dummer, P M

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate and compare the radiographic quality and sealability of root fillings in extracted human teeth using lateral condensation of gutta-percha or the Trifecta obturating system. One hundred freshly extracted human mature, single-rooted teeth were divided into four identical groups of 25 teeth on the basis of root canal shape. The root canals of two groups were prepared in such a way as to produce a relatively parallel canal shape with little or no flare towards the coronal orifice. The root canals of the other two groups were prepared in such a way as to produce a canal shape that was deliberately more flared to ensure that they were wider at the orifice than at the endpoint of the preparation. All root canals were flushed with 17% EDTA solution and 2.5% NaOCl to remove the dentinal smear layer. The canals of one flared and one parallel group were obturated using cold lateral condensation and the canals of the other two groups were obturated using the Trifecta system. The sealability of each technique was assessed by a dye penetration method. The radiographic quality of obturation was determined for each canal using a 4-point scale. Canals filled with thermoplasticised gutta-percha had significantly less apical dye penetration than those obturated by lateral condensation (P < 0.001). Lateral condensation achieved significantly better scores for radiographic quality than thermoplasticised gutta-percha from both the bucco-lingual (P < 0.001) and the mesio-distal views (P < 0.001). Root canals obturated using the Trifecta technique showed significantly more apical extrusion of sealer than those obturated by lateral condensation (P < 0.001). Under laboratory conditions the Trifecta technique had better sealability but poorer radiographic quality than lateral condensation.

  7. Diagnostics techniques and dosimetric evaluations for environmental radioactivity investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.; Gatto, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted about the investigation of the natural/anthropo-genic radioactivity of various environmental matrices. Different diagnostics techniques were employed: high resolution HpGe gamma spectrometry, to quantify the activity concentration of radionuclides that emit gamma photons; alpha spectrometry, for the determination of the specific activity of α -emitters radioisotopes; liquid scintillation, to measure the activity concentration of tritium, radon and total alpha/beta in liquid samples; alpha spectrometry through the Rad7 setup, to estimate the gas radon activity concentration in air, water and soil; total alpha/beta counter, for the activity concentration quantification of radionuclides, in solid samples, emitting alpha/beta particles. From the dosimetric point of view, knowledge of the radioactivity level in the environmental matrices allows to evaluate any possible radiological hazard for the population, through the calculation of the appropriate parameters of radioprotection and their comparison with the safety limits reported by the literature.

  8. Muscle Activation Patterns During Different Squat Techniques.

    PubMed

    Slater, Lindsay V; Hart, Joseph M

    2017-03-01

    Slater, LV, and Hart, JM. Muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 667-676, 2017-Bilateral squats are frequently used exercises in sport performance programs. Lower extremity muscle activation may change based on knee alignment during the performance of the exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. Twenty-eight healthy, uninjured subjects (19 women, 9 men, 21.5 ± 3 years, 170 ± 8.4 cm, 65.7 ± 11.8 kg) volunteered. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius of the dominant leg. Participants completed 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee anteriorly (AP malaligned), 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee medially (ML malaligned) and 5 squats with control alignment (control). Normalized EMG data (MVIC) were reduced to 100 points and represented as percentage of squat cycle with 50% representing peak knee flexion and 0 and 99% representing fully extended. Vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased in the medio-lateral (ML) malaligned squat compared with the control squat. In the antero-posterior (AP) malaligned squat, the vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased during initial descent and final ascent; however, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris activation increased during initial ascent compared with the control squat. The biceps femoris and gastrocnemius displayed increased activation during both malaligned squats compared with the control squat. In conclusion, participants had altered muscle activation patterns during squats with intentional frontal and sagittal malalignment as demonstrated by changes in quadriceps, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius activation during the squat cycle.

  9. Evaluation of two platelet-rich plasma processing methods and two platelet-activation techniques for use in llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Semevolos, Stacy A; Youngblood, Cori D; Grissom, Stephanie K; Gorman, M Elena; Larson, Maureen K

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2 processing methods (commercial kit vs conical tube centrifugation) for preparing platelet rich plasma (PRP) for use in llamas and alpacas. SAMPLES Blood samples (30 mL each) aseptically collected from 6 healthy llamas and 6 healthy alpacas. PROCEDURES PRP was prepared from blood samples by use of a commercial kit and by double-step conical tube centrifugation. A CBC was performed for blood and PRP samples. Platelets in PRP samples were activated by means of a freeze-thaw method with or without 23mM CaCl2, and concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 were measured. Values were compared between processing methods and camelid species. RESULTS Blood CBC values for llamas and alpacas were similar. The commercial kit yielded a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment (mean increase, 8.5 fold vs 2.8 fold) and WBC enrichment (mean increase, 3.7 fold vs 1.9 fold) than did conical tube centrifugation. Llamas had a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment than alpacas by either processing method. No difference in WBC enrichment was identified between species. Concentrations of both growth factors were significantly greater in PRP samples obtained by use of the commercial kit versus those obtained by conical tube centrifugation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For blood samples from camelids, the commercial kit yielded a PRP product with a higher platelet and WBC concentration than achieved by conical tube centrifugation. Optimal PRP platelet and WBC concentrations for various applications need to be determined for llamas and alpacas.

  10. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  11. Eigenspace techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Liebst, Bradley S.; Farm, Jerome A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of eigenspace techniques for the design of an active flutter suppression system for a hypothetical research drone is discussed. One leading edge and two trailing edge aerodynamic control surfaces and four sensors (accelerometers) are available for each wing. Full state control laws are designed by selecting feedback gains which place closed loop eigenvalues and shape closed loop eigenvectors so as to stabilize wing flutter and reduce gust loads at the wing root while yielding accepatable robustness and satisfying constrains on rms control surface activity. These controllers are realized by state estimators designed using an eigenvalue placement/eigenvector shaping technique which results in recovery of the full state loop transfer characteristics. The resulting feedback compensators are shown to perform almost as well as the full state designs. They also exhibit acceptable performance in situations in which the failure of an actuator is simulated.

  12. Retrospective Evaluation of Anaesthetic Techniques for Caesarean

    PubMed Central

    Sarı, Melek Aksoy; Küçükgüçlü, Semih; Özbilgin, Şule; Günenç, Ferim Sakize; Mercan, Sümeyye; Esen, Ayşenur; Yetim, Büşra

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the maternal, foetal and neonatal effects of anaesthetic techniques used in caesarean sections (C/S) retrospectively over 6 years at the Hospital of Medical School of Dokuz Eylül University and to compare the results with the literature from Turkey and developed countries. Methods After obtaining approval from the ethics committee, anaesthetic and gestational data from all caesarean operations performed over a 6-year period between 2005 and 2010 was retrospectively obtained from hospital archives. Results During this period, a total of 10,819 labours was conducted and C/S ratio was 55% with 5953 patients. General anaesthesia was performed in 1479 patients (24.8%) and regional anaesthesia was performed in 4474 patients (75.2%) [Spinal anaesthesia for 1203 patients (26.9%), epidural anaesthesia for 830 patients (18.5%) and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for 2441 patients (54.6%)]. In 2010, regional anaesthesia ratio increased to 84.6%, whereas in 2005, it was 63.8%. Regional anaesthesia was used significantly more often in both elective and urgent patients (82% elective and 65.2% emergency). Because of failed regional anaesthesia or surgical complications, anaesthesia was changed to general anaesthesia in 215 patients (4.8%). APGAR scores in 1 and 5 min were significantly higher with regional anaesthesia when compared with general anaesthesia. Conclusion Regional anaesthesia rate for C/S patients in the Hospital of Medical School of Dokuz Eylül University is increased and is higher than Turkey’s average; but these figures are still lower than those in the developed countries. PMID:27366533

  13. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles Obtained by Four Different Techniques from Salvia rosifolia Sm. and Evaluation for Biological Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Salvia rosifolia Sm. (Lamiaceae), endemic to Turkey, were obtained by four different isolation techniques and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Also in scope of the present work, the...

  14. Statistical Evaluation of Time Series Analysis Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benignus, V. A.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of a modified version of NASA's multivariate spectrum analysis program is discussed. A multiple regression model was used to make the revisions. Performance improvements were documented and compared to the standard fast Fourier transform by Monte Carlo techniques.

  15. An effective technique for denture border evaluation.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, R D; DeFreest, C F

    1997-09-01

    Proper extension and adjustment of denture borders is a critical component in successful removable prosthodontic treatment. Unfortunately, commonly marketed disclosing media may not provide appropriate viscosities for the accurate assessment of denture border extensions. This article provides a technique for the mixing, unit-dose packaging, and utilization of a disclosing medium that is extremely well-suited for denture border applications. The technique employs commonly available materials and compiles with current "unit-dose" guidelines.

  16. Momentum--"Evaluating Your Marketing Program: Measuring and Tracking Techniques."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meservey, Lynne D.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests 10 tracking techniques for evaluating marketing performance. Techniques involve utilization rate, inquiry and source of inquiry tracking, appointment and interview tracking, enrollment conversion, cost per inquiry and per enrollment, retention rate, survey results, and "mystery shopper." (RJC)

  17. Multiple Activities Program: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omaha Public Schools, NE.

    This is an evaluation report of the Multiple Activities Program, an ESEA Title I Program conducted in the Omaha Public Schools from September 1969 to September 1970. The report is designed as an adaptation of the C.I.P.P. evaluation model (context, input, process, and product). The needs, objectives, activities, and success of each strand within…

  18. Economic evaluation techniques for the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.A.; Hufschmidt, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the methods of evaluating seven case studies. Three chapters are introductory discussing a hypothetical case. The following seven chapters discuss respectively: Economic Evaluation of Tongonan Geothermal Power Plant Project in Leyte, Philippines; Evaluation of Losses of Marine Product Resources Caused by Coastal Development of Tokyo, Bay; Evaluation of Lumpinee Public Park in Bangkok, Thailand; The Pam Pong Water Resources Project in Thailand; Selected Policy Options for the Fuelwood Production and Use in the Philippines; and Systematic Analysis of Water Pollution Control Options in a Suburban Region of Beijing, China.

  19. Classroom Techniques to Evaluate Advertising in Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel J.

    Teachers should understand how the persuasive process employed by advertisers affects consumers' cognitive responses. They should also be aware of the purposes and techniques employed by the American consumer movement, which is attempting to augment the rights and power of buyers in relation to sellers. Since a review of the current rights of…

  20. Innovative techniques for evaluating behavioral nutrition interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing outcomes and impact from behavioral nutrition interventions in the community has remained challenging for a variety of reasons. One main reason is the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With current global obesity and related chronic dis...

  1. Evaluation of a Temperature Remote Sensing Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    concnional Raman for the technique is to monitor temperature in a super- spectroscopy , shich rCqttircs the ncastrement of rela- somio acrod,,namic test...where atomic col- spread of the absorption line. It is normalized such that lisions are infrequent, the Doppler effect determines the width of the...ex- Note: Only the intense modes were recorded cellent tool for high-resolution spectroscopy . at each temperature Coarse frequency tuning of the laser

  2. A novel technique for active fibre production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner-Erny, Ruth; Di Labio, Loredana; Lüthy, Willy

    2007-04-01

    Active fibre devices are conventionally manufactured using MCVD technique. Recently it has been shown that nearly equivalent results can also be obtained with sol-gel technology. Now we present a novel technique allowing simplification of the manufacturing process even more. The required constituents are mixed in the form of dry micro- and nano-sized particles. A silica glass tube forming the future core region of a fibre preform is filled with a powder mix of SiO 2, 1% Nd (as Nd 2O 3) and 10% Al (as Al 2O 3). This tube is mounted in the centre of a larger tube forming the future cladding. The empty space between the two tubes is filled with SiO 2 powder. After preheating, the evacuated preform is drawn to a fibre. A length of 45 cm, cladding-pumped with a diode laser at 808 nm as well as a core-pumped fibre of 5.1 cm length showed laser action between 1.05 and 1.1 μm.

  3. Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

    1999-02-16

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

  4. Instructional Evaluation Techniques: Ends Dictate the Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrock, Sharon A.; And Others

    This paper discusses two separate studies undertaken in the same academic department to ascertain consistency in student evaluation ratings. Each study used Frey's Endeavor Instrument, a 7-item form that is specifically designed to solicit student input for administrative decision making, and the Southern Illinois University Instructor & Course…

  5. Reefs and Learning: Education Evaluation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepath, Carl M.

    2006-01-01

    Marine education research designs are discussed, and student learning outcomes while monitoring a coral reef is evaluated. Changes in environmental knowledge and attitudes, ecological intention to act, and direct reef experience were investigated. Differences between student pre-test and the post-test responses were observed, and analysis is…

  6. Evaluation of Jigsaw, a Cooperative Learning Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eleven fifth-grade teachers received Jigsaw training and conducted Jigsaw in their classes for one year. Process evaluation revealed the quality and frequency of Jigsaw implementation varied greatly. Jigsaw had no positive effect on the outcome variables (student attitudes, achievement, attendance, behavior), even in proficiently implemented…

  7. Method for automatically evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique

    DOEpatents

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    A method for automatically evaluating a manufacturing technique comprises the steps of: receiving from a user manufacturing process step parameters characterizing a manufacturing process; accepting from the user a selection for an analysis of a particular lean manufacturing technique; automatically compiling process step data for each process step in the manufacturing process; automatically calculating process metrics from a summation of the compiled process step data for each process step; and, presenting the automatically calculated process metrics to the user. A method for evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique can comprise the steps of: collecting manufacturing process step characterization parameters; selecting a lean manufacturing technique for analysis; communicating the selected lean manufacturing technique and the manufacturing process step characterization parameters to an automatic manufacturing technique evaluation engine having a mathematical model for generating manufacturing technique evaluation data; and, using the lean manufacturing technique evaluation data to determine whether to transition from an existing manufacturing technique to the selected lean manufacturing technique.

  8. A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TR-7799 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7799 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory A Discrete Scatterer Technique ... Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  9. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  10. Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-16

    Due to Test Results 3-9 3.5 Representative Data 3-11 3.6 Control Model 3-21 4.0 Simulation 4-1 5.0 HAC/LAC 5-1 5.1 Theory 5-1...5.1.1 HAC Theory 5-1 5.1.2 LAC Theory 5-4 5.1.3 HAC/LAC Combined Control 5-6 5.1.4 HAC/LAC Applied to ACES 5-7 5.2 Model Selection and...5-39 5-50 6.0 Positivity 6-1 6-1 6-9 6-9 6-17 6-31 5.4 Observation 5.5 Test Results 5.6 Conclusions 6.1 Theory 6.2 Model

  11. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2016-06-01

    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  12. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. The post classification comparison technique reliably identified areas of change and was used as the standard for qualitatively evaluating the other three techniques. The layered spectral/temporal change classification and the delta data change detection results generally agreed with the post classification comparison technique results; however, many small areas of change were not identified. Major discrepancies existed between the post classification comparison and spectral/temporal change detection results.

  13. Evaluating Permeability Enchancement Using Electrical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Pritchett

    2008-09-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) development projects involve the artificial stimulation of relatively impermeable high-temperature underground regions (at depths of 2-4 kilometers or more) to create sufficient permeability to permit underground fluid circulation, so that hot water can be withdrawn from production wells and used to generate electric power. Several major research projects of this general type have been undertaken in the past in New Mexico (Fenton Hill), Europe, Japan and Australia. Recent U.S. activities along these lines focus mainly on stimulating peripheral areas of existing operating hydrothermal fields rather than on fresh 'greenfield' sites, but the long-term objective of the Department of Energy's EGS program is the development of large-scale power projects based on EGS technology (MIT, 2006; NREL, 2008). Usually, stimulation is accomplished by injecting water into a well at high pressure, enhancing permeability by the creation and propagation of fractures in the surrounding rock (a process known as 'hydrofracturing'). Beyond just a motivation, low initial system permeability is also an essential prerequisite to hydrofracturing. If the formation permeability is too high, excessive fluid losses will preclude the buildup of sufficient pressure to fracture rock. In practical situations, the actual result of injection is frequently to re-open pre-existing hydrothermally-mineralized fractures, rather than to create completely new fractures by rupturing intact rock. Pre-existing fractures can often be opened using injection pressures in the range 5-20 MPa. Creation of completely new fractures will usually require pressures that are several times higher. It is preferable to undertake development projects of this type in regions where tectonic conditions are conducive to shear failure, so that when pre-existing fractures are pressurized they will fail by shearing laterally. If this happens, the fracture will often stay open afterwards even if

  14. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  15. Evaluation of gravimetric techniques to estimate the microvascular filtration coefficient.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2011-06-01

    Microvascular permeability to water is characterized by the microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)). Conventional gravimetric techniques to estimate K(f) rely on data obtained from either transient or steady-state increases in organ weight in response to increases in microvascular pressure. Both techniques result in considerably different estimates and neither account for interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. We therefore developed a theoretical framework to evaluate K(f) estimation techniques by 1) comparing conventional techniques to a novel technique that includes effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return, 2) evaluating the ability of conventional techniques to reproduce K(f) from simulated gravimetric data generated by a realistic interstitial fluid balance model, 3) analyzing new data collected from rat intestine, and 4) analyzing previously reported data. These approaches revealed that the steady-state gravimetric technique yields estimates that are not directly related to K(f) and are in some cases directly proportional to interstitial compliance. However, the transient gravimetric technique yields accurate estimates in some organs, because the typical experimental duration minimizes the effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. Furthermore, our analytical framework reveals that the supposed requirement of tying off all draining lymphatic vessels for the transient technique is unnecessary. Finally, our numerical simulations indicate that our comprehensive technique accurately reproduces the value of K(f) in all organs, is not confounded by interstitial storage and lymphatic return, and provides corroboration of the estimate from the transient technique.

  16. Evaluation Techniques for Individualized Instruction: Revision and Summative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englert, DuWayne C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the collection and analysis of summative data for a slide/tape self-instruction program on an introductory zoology course. Points of concern regarding curricular changes, teaching assistant training, student use, student performance evaluation, development, and revision are discussed from their unique perspectives within the summative…

  17. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. Methods These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV), RMS values, variance values (VAR) and difference absolute mean value (DAMV). EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation), abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Results Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively) the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Conclusions Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology. PMID:21073705

  18. Evaluation Techniques for Individualized Instruction: Development and Formative Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedient, Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Steps used in the formative evaluation of a project designed to incorporate self-instructional materials in an introductory zoology course included techniques which: (1) involved colleagues in the material development; (2) assessed relevant student characteristics, expectations, and evaluations; and (3) were used in the examinations. (MBR)

  19. Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) Technique for Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1996-01-01

    The Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) technique is applied to a generalized frequency domain electromagnetic problem. Most of the frequency domain techniques in computational electromagnetics result in a matrix equation, which is solved at a single frequency. In the AWE technique, the Taylor series expansion around that frequency is applied to the matrix equation. The coefficients of the Taylor's series are obtained in terms of the frequency derivatives of the matrices evaluated at the expansion frequency. The coefficients hence obtained will be used to predict the frequency response of the system over a frequency range. The detailed derivation of the coefficients (called 'moments') is given along with an illustration for electric field integral equation (or Method of Moments) technique. The radar cross section (RCS) frequency response of a square plate is presented using the AWE technique and is compared with the exact solution at various frequencies.

  20. Aerospace Education Workshop Techniques and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizzell, Helen J.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines procedures and lists hints for planning successful workshops in aerospace education; included are possible locations, resources, orientation activities, brochures, speakers, and follow-up activities for various combinations of participants (parents, elementary school and secondary school teachers, vocational-technical oriented students,…

  1. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of satisfactory techniques for detecting change in coastal zone environments is required before operational monitoring procedures can be established. In an effort to meet this need a study was directed toward developing and evaluating different types of change detection techniques, based upon computer aided analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data, to monitor these environments. The Matagorda Bay estuarine system along the Texas coast was selected as the study area. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. Each of the four techniques was used to analyze a LANDSAT MSS temporal data set to detect areas of change of the Matagorda Bay region.

  2. A Colloquial Approach: An Active Learning Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Pedro

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the effectiveness of teaching methodologies on fundamental engineering courses such as transport phenomena. Recommends the colloquial approach, an active learning strategy, to increase student involvement in the learning process. (ZWH)

  3. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abullais, Shahabe Saquib; Dani, Nitin; Ningappa, Priyanka; Golvankar, Kapil; Chavan, Amit; Malgaonkar, Nikhil; Gore, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Background: High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patients were divided into two groups according to the technique used. Each group contained ten patients. One group was treated by “conventional scalpel technique” and other group by “new paralleling technique”. To evaluate patients response, visual analogue scale for pain and speech were taken at first postoperative day, 1-week and 1-month. In other part of the study the oral hygiene maintenance was evaluated by using plaque and gingival bleeding index at baseline before frenectomy, 1-week and 1-month after frenectomy. Results: Results showed that new paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less postoperative discomfort and also there was significant improvement in the oral hygiene maintenance by the patient after frenectomy. Conclusion: High maxillary frenum causes hindrance in oral hygiene maintenance. Paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less discomfort to the patient during healing phase when compared with the conventional technique. PMID:27041834

  4. Non-destructive evaluation of anchorage zones by ultrasonics techniques.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Gaillet, L

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for damage assessment in bridges' anchorages. The Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technique is compared to classical Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in terms of defect detection and structural health classification. The AU technique is firstly used on single seven-wire strands damaged by artificial defects. The effect of growing defects on the waves traveling through the strands is evaluated. Thereafter, three specimens of anchorages with unknown defects are inspected by the AU and UT techniques. Damage assessment results from both techniques are then compared. The structural health conditions of the specimens can be then classified by a damage severity criterion. Finally, a damaged anchorage socket with mastered defects is controlled by the same techniques. The UT allows the detection and localization of damaged wires. The AU technique is used to bring out the effect of defects on acoustic features by comparing a healthy and damaged anchorage sockets. It is concluded that the UT method is suitable for local and crack-like defects, whereas the AU technique enables the assessment of the global structural health of the anchorage zones.

  5. Development of evaluation method for software hazard identification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shih, C.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C. T.; Wang, L. H.; Yu, Y. C.; Chen, C. W.

    2006-07-01

    This research evaluated the applicable software hazard identification techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flow-graph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various software hazard identification combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (with transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and simulation-based model-analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantages are the completeness complexity and implementation cost. This evaluation method can be a platform to reach common consensus for the stakeholders. Following the evolution of software hazard identification techniques, the evaluation results could be changed. However, the insight of software hazard identification techniques is much more important than the numbers obtained by the evaluation. (authors)

  6. Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J.; Yuen, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Air Force goal is to develop vibration control techniques for large flexible spacecraft by addressing sensor, actuator, and control hardware and dynamic testing. The Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) program will address the Air Force goal by looking at two leading control techniques and implementing them on a structural model of a flexible spacecraft under laboratory testing. The first phase in the ACES program is to review and to assess the High Authority Control/Low Authority Control (HAC/LAC) and Filter accomodated Model Error Sensitivity Suppression (FAMESS) control techniques for testing on the modified VCOSS structure. Appropriate sensors and actuators will be available for use with both techniques; locations will be the same for both techniques. The control actuators will be positioned at the midpoint and free end of the structure. The laser source for the optical sensor is mounted on the feed mast. The beam will be reflected from a mirror on the offset antenna onto the detectors mounted above the shaker table bay. The next phase is to develop an analysis simulation with the control algorithms implemented for dynamics verification. The third phase is to convert the control laws into high level computer language and test them in the NASA-MSFC facility. The final phase is to compile all analytical and test results for performance comparisons.

  7. Opportunities to Create Active Learning Techniques in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Danielle J.; Legare, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the growing body of research that focuses on active learning techniques. Active learning techniques require students to consider a given set of information, analyze, process, and prepare to restate what has been learned--all strategies are confirmed to improve higher order thinking skills. Active…

  8. Evaluating the impact of MEDLINE using the Critical Incident Technique.

    PubMed

    Siegel, E R; Rapp, B A; Lindberg, D A

    1991-01-01

    An adaptation of the Critical Incident Technique for the evaluation of an online information system is described. 552 users of the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, interviewed by telephone and responding to a highly structured set of open-ended questions, reported 1,158 incidents in which the results of a MEDLINE search was especially helpful (or not helpful) in carrying out professional activities. Systematic analysis of these "critical incidents" produced three comprehensive and detailed views of the purposes and outcomes of MEDLINE searches: (1) why information is sought from MEDLINE; (2) the impact of MEDLINE-derived information on medical decision-making; and (3) the ultimate outcome of having (or not having) the desired information on medical situations prompting a MEDLINE search. Results revealed that MEDLINE is used to satisfy a diversity of medical needs concerning patient care, the progress of biomedical research, the quality of education received by health professionals in training, the safety and effectiveness of health care institutions, the operation of the system of third-party reimbursement, for legal decisions, and for the knowledge of the public.

  9. Evaluation of various techniques for microalgal biomass quantification.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad H; La, Hyun-Joon; Seo, Seong-Hyun; Asgharnejad, Hashem; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2015-12-20

    Biomass concentration is one of the most important parameters in the biotechnology processes. Its measurement relies on the physical, chemical or biological properties of the cells. Several techniques were applied in this work to measure the cell concentration of four microalgae: Botryococcussp., Botryococcusbraunii, Chlorella vulgaris, and Ettlia sp. The experiments were performed using samples taken from a chemostat for each strain to provide microalgal cell suspensions in a stable physiological state and concentration. The dry cell weight (DCW) was used as the reference method for the evaluation of other methods. The two commercial sensors used to determine optical density and dielectric permittivity showed a broad effective measurement range up to more than 20gl(-1). A Red-Green-Blue model analysis of microalgal digital images in combination with Fourier equation significantly extended the measurements range up to 6gl(-1). Cell count using a flow cytometer showed a broad range of linearity to DCW in washed samples, but other counting methods using hemocytometer and microscopic automated count were limited. Finally, the oxygen production rate, representing the photosynthetic activity, showed a linear regression with DCW at cell concentrations lower than 1gl(-1).

  10. Flow cytometric allergy diagnosis: basophil activation techniques.

    PubMed

    Bridts, Chris H; Sabato, Vito; Mertens, Christel; Hagendorens, Margo M; De Clerck, Luc S; Ebo, Didier G

    2014-01-01

    The basis of flow cytometric allergy diagnosis is quantification of changes in expression of basophilic surface membrane markers (Ebo et al., Clin Exp Allergy 34: 332-339, 2004). Upon encountering specific allergens recognized by surface receptor FcεRI-bound IgE, basophils not only secrete and generate quantifiable bioactive mediators but also up-regulate the expression of different markers (e.g., CD63, CD203c) which can be detected by multicolor flow cytometry using specific monoclonal antibodies (Ebo et al., Cytometry B Clin Cytom 74: 201-210, 2008). Here, we describe two flow cytometry-based protocols which allow detection of surface marker activation (Method 1) and changes in intragranular histamine (Method 2), both reflecting different facets of basophil activation.

  11. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Kunerth, Dennis C.

    2014-09-01

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing

  12. Technique for surface oxidation of activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Golden, T.C.

    1987-10-27

    A method of activating a carbon adsorbent is described, which comprises oxidizing the surface of the carbon adsorbent with a mild oxidizing acid in the presence of a metal oxidation catalyst at an elevated temperature and boiling the mixture of the carbon adsorbent, mild oxidizing acid and metal oxidation catalyst to dryness. Then rinse the surface oxidizing carbon adsorbent with water; and dry the rinsed surface oxidized carbon adsorbent. In a process for the removal of water or carbon dioxide from a gas stream containing water or carbon dioxide of the type wherein the gas stream containing water or carbon dioxide is contacted with a solid phase adsorbent under pressure-swing adsorption or thermal-swing adsorption processing conditions, the improvement is described comprising utilizing an adsorbent produced by the activation of a carbon adsorbent. The activation comprises oxidizing the surface of the carbon adsorbent with a mold oxidizing acid in the presence of a metal oxidation catalyst at an elevated temperature and boiling the mixture of the carbon adsorbent, mild oxidizing acid and metal oxidation catalyst to dryness. Then rinse the surface oxidized carbon adsorbent with water; and dry the rinsed surface oxidized carbon adsorbent.

  13. New Techniques to Evaluate the Incendiary Behavior of Insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Trigwell, Steve; Ritz, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    New techniques for evaluating the incendiary behavior of insulators is presented. The onset of incendive brush discharges in air is evaluated using standard spark probe techniques for the case simulating approaches of an electrically grounded sphere to a charged insulator in the presence of a flammable atmosphere. However, this standard technique is unsuitable for the case of brush discharges that may occur during the charging-separation process for two insulator materials. We present experimental techniques to evaluate this hazard in the presence of a flammable atmosphere which is ideally suited to measure the incendiary nature of micro-discharges upon separation, a measurement never before performed. Other measurement techniques unique to this study include; surface potential measurements of insulators before, during and after contact and separation, as well as methods to verify fieldmeter calibrations using a charge insulator surface opposed to standard high voltage plates. Key words: Kapton polyimide film, incendiary discharges, brush discharges, contact and frictional electrification, ignition hazards, insulators, contact angle, surface potential measurements.

  14. Teacher Evaluation in Foreign Language Education: Behavior Alteration Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    A study examined the relationship between French teachers' use of behavior alteration techniques in the classroom, and the perceptions of individuals evaluating the teacher (students, peers, administrators) on the quality of instructional performance. Junior and community college French students, language teachers, and administrators responded to…

  15. Evaluating ITV Production Techniques: Community of Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Lawrence E.

    Effective production techniques for an ITV series, "Community of Living Things," are evaluated in this paper. The program is part of a junior high life science series. Five basic practices, chosen for their student interest and instructional value, were utilized: (1) rapidity of visualization, (2) few teacher appearances, (3) repetitive film…

  16. Kontrolltechniken im Englischunterricht. (Evaluation Techniques in Teaching English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrand, Heinrich

    1978-01-01

    Describes five techniques to be used in the evaluation of writing and as exercises in foreign language teaching: the so-called free response to problems presented, fill-in blanks, construction form, alternative form, and association form. (IFS/WGA)

  17. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF RISK MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often, the performance of risk management techniques is evaluated by measuring the concentrations of the chemials of concern before and after risk management effoprts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust understanding of the effectiveness of risk man...

  18. Economic evaluation techniques in healthcare. Reinventing the wheel?

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1997-02-01

    Application of the technique of economic evaluation has increased markedly in the past 5 years. Literature on the techniques of economic evaluation is over 30 year old, and the principal architect of such techniques in Britain is Professor Alan Williams of the University of York. In 1974 he wrote a 'checklist of questions' to apply to economic studies. These questions have since been elaborated by Mike Drummond and colleagues, and by the end of the 1980s guidelines were well articulated. Since this time there have been substantial investments in 'gilding the lily', leading to marginal improvements. This investment in 'reinventing the wheel' could more usefully be applied to resolution of contentious areas where there is still a lack of consensus. It is time to stop going around in circles with guideline reiteration and quasi-consensus statements, and instead target resources where they give the greatest return to knowledge.

  19. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Barker, Alan M; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Albright, Austin P; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  20. Pattern Activity Clustering and Evaluation (PACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Banas, Christopher; Paul, Michael; Bussjager, Becky; Seetharaman, Guna

    2012-06-01

    With the vast amount of network information available on activities of people (i.e. motions, transportation routes, and site visits) there is a need to explore the salient properties of data that detect and discriminate the behavior of individuals. Recent machine learning approaches include methods of data mining, statistical analysis, clustering, and estimation that support activity-based intelligence. We seek to explore contemporary methods in activity analysis using machine learning techniques that discover and characterize behaviors that enable grouping, anomaly detection, and adversarial intent prediction. To evaluate these methods, we describe the mathematics and potential information theory metrics to characterize behavior. A scenario is presented to demonstrate the concept and metrics that could be useful for layered sensing behavior pattern learning and analysis. We leverage work on group tracking, learning and clustering approaches; as well as utilize information theoretical metrics for classification, behavioral and event pattern recognition, and activity and entity analysis. The performance evaluation of activity analysis supports high-level information fusion of user alerts, data queries and sensor management for data extraction, relations discovery, and situation analysis of existing data.

  1. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  2. Restoring accommodation: surgical technique and preliminary evaluation in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahi, Hassan; Chapon, Pascal F.; Hamaoui, Marie; Lee, William E.; Holden, Brien; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose. To evaluate an innovative surgical technique for phaco-ersatz, a cataract surgery designed to restore accommodation. Techniques for very small capsulorhexis as well as the refilling procedure were developed. This study evaluates the feasibility and reproducibility of the surgical technique. Methods. The right eye of 8 NZW rabbits (~ 2 Kg) were operated following the ARVO Statements for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The surgery is begun by making a small peripheral capsulorhexis of about 1 mm using. The lens content is then removed. The lens is then refilled with a novel in situ polymerizable gel and the corneal incision is closed using one 10/0 Nylon interrupted stitch. Results. The capsulorhexis technique was succesfully performed and reproducible in all animals. The average size of the capsulorhexis opening was 1. 2 mm (+/-0.14). Lens material removal and refilling of the capsular bag with an in situ polymerizable material was also performed in each trial study. Conclusion. This surgical technique seemed feasible and reproducible.

  3. Techniques to Evaluate Dental Erosion: A Systematic Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mahasweta; Joshi, Nikhil; Kathariya, Rahul; Angadi, Prabhakar; Raikar, Sonal

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews different techniques for evaluating dental erosion, weighs the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques, and presents the latest trends in the study of dental erosion. In May 2014, an initial search was carried out in the PubMed/MEDLINE database of indexed journals from 1975 to 2013 using the following keywords: dental erosion; dental erosion In-vitro; and dental erosion in-vivo. Bibliographic citations from the papers found were then used to find other useful sources. The authors categorize the techniques into three classes: in-vitro, in-vivo and in-vitro/in-vivo. The article discusses the instrumentation required to use each of these techniques, as well as their rationale, merits and applications. The emergence of in-vitro/in-vivo techniques offers the potential to accurately quantify tooth wear in clinical situations. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies show that these techniques will improve diagnosis, treatment planning and management of dental erosion.

  4. Techniques to Evaluate Dental Erosion: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mahasweta; Joshi, Nikhil; Angadi, Prabhakar; Raikar, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews different techniques for evaluating dental erosion, weighs the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques, and presents the latest trends in the study of dental erosion. In May 2014, an initial search was carried out in the PubMed/MEDLINE database of indexed journals from 1975 to 2013 using the following keywords: dental erosion; dental erosion In-vitro; and dental erosion in-vivo. Bibliographic citations from the papers found were then used to find other useful sources. The authors categorize the techniques into three classes: in-vitro, in-vivo and in-vitro/in-vivo. The article discusses the instrumentation required to use each of these techniques, as well as their rationale, merits and applications. The emergence of in-vitro/in-vivo techniques offers the potential to accurately quantify tooth wear in clinical situations. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies show that these techniques will improve diagnosis, treatment planning and management of dental erosion. PMID:27891489

  5. Analytical techniques for the evaluation of liquid protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tatford, Owen C; Gomme, Peter T; Bertolini, Joseph

    2004-08-01

    A common problem in the manufacture of liquid protein therapeutics is the tendency for aggregation and particle formation on extended storage. Analytical techniques are required to study the propensity of solutions to form aggregates and particles and to allow the investigation of the effect of conditions encountered during manufacture and storage. A key challenge is to utilize appropriate specific and sensitive techniques to allow the early detection of initial aggregation events, thereby avoiding the need to resort to extended stability trials. The present review evaluates a range of techniques for the detection of changes in protein conformation and the formation of aggregates and particles. It is hoped that the availability of this information will encourage and facilitate studies to resolve stability issues associated with protein therapeutics.

  6. Performance Evaluation of OWC Using Different Modulation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Heena; Saxena, Jyoti; Dewra, Sanjeev

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, performance of an optical wireless communication (OWC) channel has been investigated using different modulation techniques such as phase shift keying (PSK), differential PSK (DPSK) and optical quadrature PSK (OQPSK). This investigation has been compared at a bit rate of 20 Gbps. The results are evaluated in terms of quality (Q) factor and bit error rate (BER) using different modulation techniques. It is observed that by using PSK modulation technique, the signal can travel up to 70 km transmission distance with acceptable BER of 3.48×10-12 and Q factor of 6.93. It is also observed that by using DPSK and OQPSK, system covers transmission distance of 80 and 90 km with acceptable values of Q factor of 6.59, 6.02 and BER of 2.34×10-11, 1.46×10-10, respectively.

  7. Non-destructive evaluation techniques for chemical weapons destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1996-09-01

    fThe safe and verifiable disposition, either by incineration or chemical neutralization of chemical warfare (CW) agents requires correct {ital a priori} identification of each munition or container to be processed. A variety of NDE techniques have been used or tested for the examination and characterization of munitions. In the U.S., three widely used techniques are X-ray radiography, acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS), and prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PINS). The technical bases, instrumental implementations, and applications of the U.S. versions of these methods are briefly discussed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Techniques for the evaluation of outgassing from polymeric wafer pods

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.C.; Liang, A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Bender, S.F.; Lujan, R.D.; Blewer, R.S.; Bowers, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in using wafer-level isolation environments or pods (microenvironments) to provide a more controllable, cleaner wafer environment during wafer processing. It has been shown that pods can be effective in reducing the amount of particulate contamination on wafers during manufacturing. However, there have also been studies that indicate that pods and wafer boxes can be the source of condensible, molecular organic contamination. This paper summarizes the work that has been performed during the past year at Sandia National Laboratories` Contamination Free Manufacturing Research Center (CFMRC) on (1) devising standard, low-temperature, high sensitivity techniques to detect outgassing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polymers used to construct wafer pods and (2) development of a technique that can be used to continuously measure the condensible contamination within pods so that the pod environment can be monitored during manufacturing. Although these techniques have been developed specifically for assessing contamination threats from wafer pods, they can be used to evaluate other potential contamination sources. The high sensitivity outgassing techniques can be used to evaluate outgassing of volatiles from other clean-room materials and the real-time outgassing sensor can be used to monitor contamination condensation in non-pod environments such as ballroom-type cleanrooms and minienvironments.

  9. Comparative research on activation technique for GaAs photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang; Chen, Xinlong; Yang, Rui

    2012-03-01

    The properties of GaAs photocathodes mainly depend on the material design and activation technique. In early researches, high-low temperature two-step activation has been proved to get more quantum efficiency than high-temperature single-step activation. But the variations of surface barriers for two activation techniques have not been well studied, thus the best activation temperature, best Cs-O ratio and best activation time for two-step activation technique have not been well found. Because the surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) before activation is only in connection with the body parameters for GaAs photocathode such as electron diffusion length and the spectral response current (SRC) after activation is in connection with not only body parameters but also surface barriers, thus the surface escape probability (SEP) can be well fitted through the comparative research between SPS before activation and SEP after activation. Through deduction for the tunneling process of surface barriers by Schrödinger equation, the width and height for surface barrier I and II can be well fitted through the curves of SEP. The fitting results were well proved and analyzed by quantitative analysis of angle-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ADXPS) which can also study the surface chemical compositions, atomic concentration percentage and layer thickness for GaAs photocathodes. This comparative research method for fitting parameters of surface barriers through SPS before activation and SRC after activation shows a better real-time in system method for the researches of activation techniques.

  10. Clinical evaluation of a new technique for interdental enamel reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, M; Jost-Brinkmann, P G; Zellmann, M; Zellmann, S; Radlanski, R J

    2000-01-01

    In orthodontics, reduction of tooth-size by grinding interproximal surfaces (stripping) of teeth is a common procedure. In order to achieve perfectly smooth surfaces, clinicians have carefully tested various methods and progressively improved this therapeutic procedure. In this in-vivo study we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the morphologic effect of a 3-step technique using an oscillating perforated diamond-coated disc for enamel reduction and 2 Sof-Lex XT discs for polishing. This technique was applied in 32 patients with an average age of 15.5 years. A total of 296 interproximal surfaces was treated and replicas were produced for scanning electron microscopy evaluation. The scanning electron microscopy investigations demonstrated that more than 90% of the reproximated surfaces were very well or well polished, resulting in polished enamel surfaces smoother than untreated enamel. This technique proved to be clinically expedient as it finished each interproximal surface within about 2.2 minutes. At the same time, it was demonstrated to be safe and comfortable for the patient, eliminating the need for lip or cheek protectors and making injuries unlikely.

  11. Development and evaluation of a technique for in vivo monitoring of 60Co in human lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, J. Q.; Lucena, E. A.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    60Co is a fission product of 235U and represents a risk of internal exposure of workers in nuclear power plants, especially those involved in the maintenance of potentially contaminated parts and equipment. The control of 60Co intake by inhalation can be performed through in vivo monitoring. This work describes the evaluation of a technique through the minimum detectable activity and the corresponding minimum detectable effective doses, based on biokinetic and dosimetric models of 60Co in the human body. The results allow to state that the technique is suitable either for monitoring of occupational exposures or evaluation of accidental intake.

  12. Incorporating Active Learning Techniques into a Genetics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, W. Theodore; Jabot, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    We revised a sophomore-level genetics class to more actively engage the students in their learning. The students worked in groups on quizzes using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and active-learning projects. The IF-AT quizzes allowed students to discuss key concepts in small groups and learn the correct answers in class. The…

  13. Infrared Contrast Analysis Technique for Flash Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the infrared flash thermography inspection to detect and analyze delamination-like anomalies in nonmetallic materials. It provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast verses time evolutions from the flash thermography infrared video data. The paper provides the analytical model used in the simulation of infrared image contrast. The contrast evolution simulation is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat bottom holes in the subject material. The paper also provides formulas to calculate values of the thermal measurement features from the measured contrast evolution curve. Many thermal measurement features of the contrast evolution that relate to the anomaly characteristics are calculated. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography inspection data in order to characterize the delamination-like anomalies. In addition, the contrast evolution prediction is matched to the measured anomaly contrast evolution to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width in terms of depth and diameter of the corresponding equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) or equivalent uniform gap (EUG). The paper provides anomaly edge detection technique called the half-max technique which is also used to estimate width of an indication. The EFBH/EUG and half-max width estimations are used to assess anomaly size. The paper also provides some information on the "IR Contrast" software application, half-max technique and IR Contrast feature imaging application, which are based on models provided in this paper.

  14. Satellite communication performance evaluation: Computational techniques based on moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1980-09-01

    Computational techniques that efficiently compute bit error probabilities when only moments of the various interference random variables are available are presented. The approach taken is a generalization of the well known Gauss-Quadrature rules used for numerically evaluating single or multiple integrals. In what follows, basic algorithms are developed. Some of its properties and generalizations are shown and its many potential applications are described. Some typical interference scenarios for which the results are particularly applicable include: intentional jamming, adjacent and cochannel interferences; radar pulses (RFI); multipath; and intersymbol interference. While the examples presented stress evaluation of bit error probilities in uncoded digital communication systems, the moment techniques can also be applied to the evaluation of other parameters, such as computational cutoff rate under both normal and mismatched receiver cases in coded systems. Another important application is the determination of the probability distributions of the output of a discrete time dynamical system. This type of model occurs widely in control systems, queueing systems, and synchronization systems (e.g., discrete phase locked loops).

  15. Satellite communication performance evaluation: Computational techniques based on moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    Computational techniques that efficiently compute bit error probabilities when only moments of the various interference random variables are available are presented. The approach taken is a generalization of the well known Gauss-Quadrature rules used for numerically evaluating single or multiple integrals. In what follows, basic algorithms are developed. Some of its properties and generalizations are shown and its many potential applications are described. Some typical interference scenarios for which the results are particularly applicable include: intentional jamming, adjacent and cochannel interferences; radar pulses (RFI); multipath; and intersymbol interference. While the examples presented stress evaluation of bit error probilities in uncoded digital communication systems, the moment techniques can also be applied to the evaluation of other parameters, such as computational cutoff rate under both normal and mismatched receiver cases in coded systems. Another important application is the determination of the probability distributions of the output of a discrete time dynamical system. This type of model occurs widely in control systems, queueing systems, and synchronization systems (e.g., discrete phase locked loops).

  16. Risk assessment for transboundary rivers using fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Subash P.; Sharma, Nayan; Lohani, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Large scale urbanization has resulted in greater withdrawals of shared waters and this withdrawal has been largely dependent on the hegemony of the riparian's. The last few decades has seen the upward surge of many countries in terms of development as well as hegemony. Existing structures of established water sharing framework typically evaluate only parameters related to historic water use such as historic water demand and supply, contribution to flow, and hydrology. Water conflicts and cooperation is affected by various issues related with development and hegemony. Characterization and quantification of development and hegemony parameters is a very complex process. This paper establishes a novel approach to predict river basins at risk; the approach addresses the issue of water conflict and cooperation within a methodologically more rigorous predictive framework. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique is used in this paper to undertake the risk assessment of international transboundary rivers. In this paper the fuzzy domain of risk consists of two fuzzy sets - hegemony and development, indices of which are developed with the help of fuzzy synthetic evaluation techniques. Then the compositional rule-base is framed to ascertain the fuzzy risk. This fuzzy risk can be further used to prioritize all the international river basins which can help in the identification of potentially high risk basins. Risk identification of international river basins is not only scientifically valuable, but also practically highly useful. Identifying those basins that are likely to be particularly prone to conflict or cooperation is of high interest to policy makers.

  17. Techniques to evaluate the quality of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Diaz, Marlen

    2014-11-01

    There is not a perfect agree in the definition of medical image quality from the physician and physicist point of view. The present conference analyzes the standard techniques used to grade image quality. In the first place, an analysis about how viewing conditions related to environment, monitor used or physician experience determines the subjective evaluation is done. After that, the physics point of view is analyzed including the advantage and disadvantage of the main published methods like: Quality Control Tests, Mathematical metrics, Modulation Transfer Function, Noise Power Spectrum, System Response Curve and Mathematical observers. Each method is exemplified with the results of updated papers. We concluded that the most successful methods up to the present have been those which include simulations of the Human Visual System. They have good correlation between the results of the objective metrics and the subjective evaluation made by the observers.

  18. Meat quality evaluation by hyperspectral imaging technique: an overview.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, Gamal; Barbin, Douglas F; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, a number of methods have been developed to objectively measure meat quality attributes. Hyperspectral imaging technique as one of these methods has been regarded as a smart and promising analytical tool for analyses conducted in research and industries. Recently there has been a renewed interest in using hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of different food products. The main inducement for developing the hyperspectral imaging system is to integrate both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system to make direct identification of different components and their spatial distribution in the tested product. By combining spatial and spectral details together, hyperspectral imaging has proved to be a promising technology for objective meat quality evaluation. The literature presented in this paper clearly reveals that hyperspectral imaging approaches have a huge potential for gaining rapid information about the chemical structure and related physical properties of all types of meat. In addition to its ability for effectively quantifying and characterizing quality attributes of some important visual features of meat such as color, quality grade, marbling, maturity, and texture, it is able to measure multiple chemical constituents simultaneously without monotonous sample preparation. Although this technology has not yet been sufficiently exploited in meat process and quality assessment, its potential is promising. Developing a quality evaluation system based on hyperspectral imaging technology to assess the meat quality parameters and to ensure its authentication would bring economical benefits to the meat industry by increasing consumer confidence in the quality of the meat products. This paper provides a detailed overview of the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts exerted in hyperspectral imaging technology developed for evaluating the quality of different meat products and the possibility of its widespread

  19. Comparison and evaluation of retrospective intermodality image registration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Jay B.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Wang, Matthew Y.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.; Kessler, Robert M.; Maciunas, Robert J.; Barillot, Christian; Lemoine, Didier; Collignon, Andre M. F.; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; van den Elsen, Petra A.; Hemler, Paul F.; Napel, Sandy; Sumanaweera, Thilaka S.; Harkness, Beth A.; Hill, Derek L.; Studholme, Colin; Malandain, Gregoire; Pennec, Xavier; Noz, Marilyn E.; Maguire, Gerald Q., Jr.; Pollack, Michael; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Robb, Richard A.; Hanson, Dennis P.; Woods, Roger P.

    1996-04-01

    All retrospective image registration methods have attached to them some intrinsic estimate of registration error. However, this estimate of accuracy may not always be a good indicator of the distance between actual and estimated positions of targets within the cranial cavity. This paper describes a project whose principal goal is to use a prospective method based on fiducial markers as a 'gold standard' to perform an objective, blinded evaluation of the accuracy of several retrospective image-to-image registration techniques. Image volumes of three modalities -- CT, MR, and PET -- were taken of patients undergoing neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. These volumes had all traces of the fiducial markers removed, and were provided to project collaborators outside Vanderbilt, who then performed retrospective registrations on the volumes, calculating transformations from CT to MR and/or from PET to MR, and communicated their transformations to Vanderbilt where the accuracy of each registration was evaluated. In this evaluation the accuracy is measured at multiple 'regions of interest,' i.e. areas in the brain which would commonly be areas of neurological interest. A region is defined in the MR image and its centroid C is determined. Then the prospective registration is used to obtain the corresponding point C' in CT or PET. To this point the retrospective registration is then applied, producing C' in MR. Statistics are gathered on the target registration error (TRE), which is the disparity between the original point C and its corresponding point C'. A second goal of the project is to evaluate the importance of correcting geometrical distortion in MR images, by comparing the retrospective TRE in the rectified images, i.e., those which have had the distortion correction applied, with that of the same images before rectification. This paper presents preliminary results of this study along with a brief description of each registration technique and an

  20. The conservative treatment of Trigger Thumb using Graston Techniques and Active Release Techniques®

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Scott; Wong, Jerome; Zabukovec, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detail the progress of a patient with unresolved symptoms of Trigger thumb who underwent a treatment plan featuring Active Release Technique (ART) and Graston Technique. Clinical Features The most important feature is painful snapping or restriction of movement, most notably in actively extending or flexing the digit. The cause of this flexor tendinopathy is believed to be multi-factorial including anatomical variations of the pulley system and biomechanical etiologies such as exposure to shear forces and unaccustomed activity. Conventional treatment aims at decreasing inflammation through corticosteroid injection or surgically removing imposing tissue. Intervention and Outcome The conservative treatment approach utilized in this case involved Active Release Technique (ART®) and Graston Technique (GT). An activity specific rehabilitation protocol was employed to re-establish thumb extensor strength and ice was used to control pain and any residual inflammation. Outcome measures included subjective pain ratings with range of motion and motion palpation of the first right phalangeal joint. Objective measures were made by assessing range of motion. Conclusion A patient with trigger thumb appeared to be relieved of his pain and disability after a treatment plan of GT and ART. PMID:17549185

  1. Evaluation of amorphous solid dispersion properties using thermal analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Baird, Jared A; Taylor, Lynne S

    2012-04-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions are an increasingly important formulation approach to improve the dissolution rate and apparent solubility of poorly water soluble compounds. Due to their complex physicochemical properties, there is a need for multi-faceted analytical methods to enable comprehensive characterization, and thermal techniques are widely employed for this purpose. Key parameters of interest that can influence product performance include the glass transition temperature (T(g)), molecular mobility of the drug, miscibility between the drug and excipients, and the rate and extent of drug crystallization. It is important to evaluate the type of information pertaining to the aforementioned properties that can be extracted from thermal analytical measurements, in addition to considering any inherent assumptions or limitations of the various analytical approaches. Although differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most widely used thermal analytical technique applied to the characterization of amorphous solid dispersions, there are many established and emerging techniques which have been shown to provide useful information. Comprehensive characterization of fundamental material descriptors will ultimately lead to the formulation of more robust solid dispersion products.

  2. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof.

    PubMed

    Kummer, M; Lischer, C; Ohlerth, S; Vargas, J; Auer, J

    2004-11-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PX, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually.

  3. Evaluation of flow capture techniques for measuring HVAC grilleairflows

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Wray, Craig P.

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the accuracy of commercially available flow hoods for residential applications. Results of laboratory and field tests indicate these hoods can be inadequate to measure airflows in residential systems, and there can be large measurement discrepancies between different flow hoods. The errors are due to poor calibrations, sensitivity of the hoods to grille airflow non-uniformities, and flow changes from added flow resistance. It is possible to obtain reasonable results using some flow hoods if the field tests are carefully done, the grilles are appropriate, and grille location does not restrict flow hood placement. We also evaluated several simple flow capture techniques for measuring grille airflows that could be adopted by the HVAC industry and homeowners as simple diagnostics. These simple techniques can be as accurate as commercially available devices. Our test results also show that current calibration procedures for flow hoods do not account for field application problems. As a result, agencies such as ASHRAE or ASTM need to develop a new standard for flow hood calibration, along with a new measurement standard to address field use of flow capture techniques.

  4. Evaluation of Analysis Techniques for Fluted-Core Sandwich Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    Buckling-critical launch-vehicle structures require structural concepts that have high bending stiffness and low mass. Fluted-core, also known as truss-core, sandwich construction is one such concept. In an effort to identify an analysis method appropriate for the preliminary design of fluted-core cylinders, the current paper presents and compares results from several analysis techniques applied to a specific composite fluted-core test article. The analysis techniques are evaluated in terms of their ease of use and for their appropriateness at certain stages throughout a design analysis cycle (DAC). Current analysis techniques that provide accurate determination of the global buckling load are not readily applicable early in the DAC, such as during preliminary design, because they are too costly to run. An analytical approach that neglects transverse-shear deformation is easily applied during preliminary design, but the lack of transverse-shear deformation results in global buckling load predictions that are significantly higher than those from more detailed analysis methods. The current state of the art is either too complex to be applied for preliminary design, or is incapable of the accuracy required to determine global buckling loads for fluted-core cylinders. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for calculating global buckling loads of fluted-core cylinders that includes transverse-shear deformations, and that can be easily incorporated in preliminary design.

  5. Sensory evaluation techniques - make "good for you" taste "good".

    PubMed

    Civille, Gail Vance; Oftedal, Katherine Nolen

    2012-11-05

    Sensory evaluation techniques are frequently used, however applied sensory is most often used within private industry. Basic sensory techniques can be an invaluable aid to research on nutritional or functional benefits of natural products such as whole fruits, nuts and vegetables (through varietal selection, breeding, etc.) in addition to clinical trials of botanicals. Products' sensory properties, including fruits and vegetables, must be tailored to ultimately appeal to the "consumer": no matter how healthy and nutritious a food is, if it does not appeal to its intended end user, it is unlikely to succeed in today's marketplace. This paper outlines the "5 S's" or basic principles of applied sensory testing; Subjects, Site, Samples, Statistics, and Sensory Methods. Two case studies are detailed where applied sensory is used to benefic academic research; one as a clinical trial of broccoli sprout extract, and the second as plant breeding research on strawberries. Finally, more in-depth techniques are discussed so that one can ensure that product sensory properties are aligned with consumer expectations, in other words, that sensory congruence is achieved.

  6. Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus

    2014-02-18

    The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R and D Roadmap for Concrete, 'Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap', focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

  7. Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R&D Roadmap for Concrete, "Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap", focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

  8. Moisture Management in an Active Sportswear: Techniques and Evaluation—A Review Article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Mani; Sampath, M. B.; Ramachandran, T.

    2013-07-01

    Moisture management property is an important aspect of any fabric meant for active sportswear, which decides the comfort level of that fabric. Every human being sweats during different kinds of activities. An important feature of any fabric is how it transports this water out of the body, so as to make the wearer feel comfortable. This paper reports the concept of moisture management, various production techniques and evaluation of the moisture management characteristics on fabrics for active sportswear.

  9. Evaluating Credit Applications: A Validation of Multiattribute Utility Techniques Against a Real World Criterion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    science research institute RESEARCH REPORT EVALUATING CREDIT APPLICATIONS: A Z’ VALIDATION OF MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY TECHNIQUES AGAINST A REAL WORLD...8217_, ", ’- .’.- .. .- ... . .. ,-*,. . .. EVALUATING CREDIT APPLICATIONS: A VALIDATION OF MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY TECHNIQUES AGAINST A REAL WORLD CRITERION...validation of multiattribute utility elicitation techniques. The techniques tested were the Holistic Orthogonal Parameter Estimation (HOPE) technique

  10. Robust control design techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozbay, Hitay; Bachmann, Glen R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, an active flutter suppression problem is studied for a thin airfoil in unsteady aerodynamics. The mathematical model of this system is infinite dimensional because of Theodorsen's function which is irrational. Several second order approximations of Theodorsen's function are compared. A finite dimensional model is obtained from such an approximation. We use H infinity control techniques to find a robustly stabilizing controller for active flutter suppression.

  11. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) design techniques and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jamil Yusuf; Yuce, Mehmet R; Bulger, Garrick; Harding, Benjamin

    2012-06-01

    In recent years interest in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) for patient monitoring applications has grown significantly. A WBAN can be used to develop patient monitoring systems which offer flexibility to medical staff and mobility to patients. Patients monitoring could involve a range of activities including data collection from various body sensors for storage and diagnosis, transmitting data to remote medical databases, and controlling medical appliances, etc. Also, WBANs could operate in an interconnected mode to enable remote patient monitoring using telehealth/e-health applications. A WBAN can also be used to monitor athletes' performance and assist them in training activities. For such applications it is very important that a WBAN collects and transmits data reliably, and in a timely manner to a monitoring entity. In order to address these issues, this paper presents WBAN design techniques for medical applications. We examine the WBAN design issues with particular emphasis on the design of MAC protocols and power consumption profiles of WBAN. Some simulation results are presented to further illustrate the performances of various WBAN design techniques.

  12. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, G.; Wassenhove, G. Van; Mlynar, J.; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Lutter, G.; Vermaercke, P.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.

    2012-10-15

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R and D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -{approx}6 times more - compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  13. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique.

    PubMed

    Bonheure, G; Mlynar, J; Van Wassenhove, G; Hult, M; González de Orduña, R; Lutter, G; Vermaercke, P; Huber, A; Schweer, B; Esser, G; Biel, W

    2012-10-01

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R&D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -~6 times more--compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  14. Innovative Perceptual Motor Activities: Programing Techniques That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrell, Howard M.

    1978-01-01

    A circuit approach and station techniques are used to depict perceptual motor games for handicapped and nonhandicapped children. Twenty activities are described in terms of objectives, materials, and procedures, and their focus on visual tracking, visual discrimination and copying of forms, spatial body perception, fine motor coordination, tactile…

  15. A three-dimensional muscle activity imaging technique for assessing pelvic muscle function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Dan; Timm, Gerald W.

    2010-11-01

    A novel multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG)-based three-dimensional muscle activity imaging (MAI) technique has been developed by combining the bioelectrical source reconstruction approach and subject-specific finite element modeling approach. Internal muscle activities are modeled by a current density distribution and estimated from the intra-vaginal surface EMG signals with the aid of a weighted minimum norm estimation algorithm. The MAI technique was employed to minimally invasively reconstruct electrical activity in the pelvic floor muscles and urethral sphincter from multi-channel intra-vaginal surface EMG recordings. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the present MAI technique. With appropriate numerical modeling and inverse estimation techniques, we have demonstrated the capability of the MAI technique to accurately reconstruct internal muscle activities from surface EMG recordings. This MAI technique combined with traditional EMG signal analysis techniques is being used to study etiologic factors associated with stress urinary incontinence in women by correlating functional status of muscles characterized from the intra-vaginal surface EMG measurements with the specific pelvic muscle groups that generated these signals. The developed MAI technique described herein holds promise for eliminating the need to place needle electrodes into muscles to obtain accurate EMG recordings in some clinical applications.

  16. Balance evaluation techniques and physical therapy in post-stroke patients: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Tamošauskaitė, Agnė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas

    A stroke (cerebrovascular accident - CVA) is a significant social-economic issue. Approximately 15-30% of all patients develop life-long disability, 20% require over 3 months of specialized care in healthcare institutions, and the majority of the patients never recover the ability to maintain a proper vertical position. Such CVA sequelae as balance disturbances not only negatively affect patients' daily physical activity, but also result in social isolation. A number of standardized clinical scales, tests, and instrumental examination techniques have been proposed for evaluating not only post-CVA balance function, but also any changes in this function following various interventions. Even though scientific literature lists numerous methods and instruments for the improvement of balance after a CVA, not all of them are equally effective, and there have been rather controversial evaluations of some techniques. Nevertheless, the application of the majority of the techniques as complementary or alternative measures to traditional physical therapy (PT) frequently yields better results.

  17. Evaluation of master cast techniques for multiple abutment implant prostheses.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, P; Millstein, P L

    1993-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of three techniques used to fabricate master casts for implant prostheses. A metal model with six implants and standard abutments and a matching template were fabricated. Impressions of the model were made in Impregum and cast in Die Keen. The casts were divided into three groups of 15 casts: group A--solid casts; group B--Pindex; and group C--Zeiser system. Each cast was visually evaluated for fit of the template. Positional accuracy of the abutments was numerically assessed using an optical comparator. Visual analysis showed that only casts sectioned with the Zeiser system allowed a passive fit of the template. Statistical analysis of numerical findings indicated that casts made with the Zeiser system were significantly more accurate than solid casts, which in turn were more accurate than those made with the Pindex system.

  18. Performance evaluation of different depth from defocus (DFD) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Tao; Subbarao, Murali

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, several binary mask based Depth From Defocus (DFD) algorithms are proposed to improve autofocusing performance and robustness. A binary mask is defined by thresholding image Laplacian to remove unreliable points with low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Three different DFD schemes-- with/without spatial integration and with/without squaring-- are investigated and evaluated, both through simulation and actual experiments. The actual experiments use a large variety of objects including very low contrast Ogata test charts. Experimental results show that autofocusing RMS step error is less than 2.6 lens steps, which corresponds to 1.73%. Although our discussion in this paper is mainly focused on a spatial domain method STM1, this technique should be of general value for different approaches such as STM2 and other spatial domain based algorithms.

  19. Histological evaluation of three techniques for caries removal.

    PubMed

    Medioni, Etienne; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    A number of concepts and devices have been proposed for caries removal. Among these, the Er:YAG laser is a potential alternative to conventional mechanical treatment. This study compared the effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser with that of low-speed rotary instruments for removal of carious tissue in 26 extracted human molars and premolars with severe decay (i.e., large occlusal or proximal decay but no pulpal contact). The teeth were divided into three groups of eight teeth, and two teeth were used as controls. After sectioning all the teeth through the center of the carious lesion before excavation, each group was randomly assigned to three groups-Er:YAG laser versus tungsten bur, Er:YAG laser versus polymer bur, and polymer bur versus tungsten bur-to evaluate the efficacy of the three techniques. The time required for carious treatment of each half was recorded, and samples were then histologically examined. Mean duration of caries removal did not significantly differ in relation to the technique used. Histological analysis of tooth halves treated with the Er:YAG laser revealed a regular 5-µm-thick stained layer that appeared to be denatured collagen. A smear layer was often detectable in halves treated with carbide burs. A superficial disorganized layer, which was found to be affected dentin, was observed in halves treated with polymer burs. The present findings indicate that the three techniques were clinically and histologically effective in removing the infected dentin layer.(J Oral Sci 58, 583-589, 2016).

  20. Corrosion Evaluation of Carbon Steels Using Nondestructive Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Sang Pill; Lee, Moon Hee; Lee, Joon Hyun; Park, Jun Young

    Primary water stress corrosion crack (PWSCC) in the piping used at the nuclear power plant has been one of the major issues for the safety of plant. The major objective in this paper is to clarify the corrosion degree and damage by the PWSCC using nondestructive technique. The instrument of the tube typed reactor with the internal conditions of the temperature of 473K under pressure of 10 MPa was designed for corrosion of the material. The tensile specimens of the same material with the reactor were corroded in the reactor for evaluation of mechanical properties according to the corrosion. The corrosion of the specimen was maintained over one year, and an acoustic emission technique was applied to inspect the corrosion damage of the specimen periodically. A tensile test was performed for the corroded specimen, and then the elastic waves caused the deformation of the corroded specimen were analyzed. With the increase of the corrosion time the elastic waves generated in the specimen due to the tensile load showed a little difference, and these differences of the waves work as a cause of the change of acoustic emission (AE) parameters. The number of AE events at the beginning of the load increased with the corrosion time. AE parameters of amplitude and energy decreased as the corrosion times increased, while the level of duration time and count were increased with the corrosion periods. The velocity and attenuation of the elastic wave were also analyzed for the specimen, and these factors showed a close relation with the corrosion times. In addition, SEM and XRD analysis were performed to evaluate the damage behavior of the carbon steel due to corrosion.

  1. An acoustic method of automatically evaluating patient inhaler technique.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Martin S; D'Arcy, Shona; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect millions of people worldwide. Inhalers are devices utilized to deliver medication in small doses directly to the airways in the treatment of asthma and COPD. Despite the proven effectiveness of inhaler medication in controlling symptoms, many patients suffer from technique errors leading to decreased levels of medication efficacy. This study employs a recording device attached to a commonly used dry powder inhaler (DPI) to obtain the acoustic signals of patients taking their inhaler medication. The audio files provide information on how a patient uses their inhaler over a period of one month. Manually listening to such a large quantity of audio files would be a time consuming and monotonous process and therefore an algorithm that could automatically carry out this task would be of great benefit. An algorithm was thus designed and developed to detect inhalation, exhalation and blister events in the audio signals, analyze the quantity of each event, the order in which the events took place and finally provide a score on the overall performance. The algorithm was tested on a dataset of 185 audio files obtained from five community dwelling asthmatic patients in real world environments. Evaluation of the algorithm on this dataset revealed that it had an accuracy of 92.8% in deciding the correct technique score compared to manual detection methods.

  2. Applied geophysical techniques to evaluate earth dams and foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llopis, Jose L.; Sharp, Michael K.; Butler, Dwain K.; Yule, Donald E.

    1995-05-01

    Mill Creek Dam, near Walla Walla, Washington has experienced anomalous seepage since its first filling in 1941. Various attempts to abate and control the seepage, including construction of a concrete wall, have not been completely successful. Construction of the cutoff wall reduced the seepage by about 30 percent, from 33 cubic feet per second to 22 cubic feet per second, and downstream saturated farmland was reduced by 56 percent. However, there are indications of increased seepage pressures in a conglomerate formation in the right abutment. A comprehensive, integrated geophysics investigation of the right abutment area of the dam was conducted to detect and map anomalous conditions and assist in the evaluation of remedial measures. The geophysics program consisted of microgravity, ground penetrating radar, seismic reflection, electromagnetic conductivity, and electrical resistivity surveying. Results of the program indicate anomalous conditions extending from the reservoir area through the right abutment. The aspects of the program planning leading to technique selection and field procedures are emphasized, as well as the role of different geophysical techniques in defining the nature of anomalous condition.

  3. Assessing voluntary muscle activation with the twitch interpolation technique.

    PubMed

    Shield, Anthony; Zhou, Shi

    2004-01-01

    The twitch interpolation technique is commonly employed to assess the completeness of skeletal muscle activation during voluntary contractions. Early applications of twitch interpolation suggested that healthy human subjects could fully activate most of the skeletal muscles to which the technique had been applied. More recently, however, highly sensitive twitch interpolation has revealed that even healthy adults routinely fail to fully activate a number of skeletal muscles despite apparently maximal effort. Unfortunately, some disagreement exists as to how the results of twitch interpolation should be employed to quantify voluntary activation. The negative linear relationship between evoked twitch force and voluntary force that has been observed by some researchers implies that voluntary activation can be quantified by scaling a single interpolated twitch to a control twitch evoked in relaxed muscle. Observations of non-linear evoked-voluntary force relationships have lead to the suggestion that the single interpolated twitch ratio can not accurately estimate voluntary activation. Instead, it has been proposed that muscle activation is better determined by extrapolating the relationship between evoked and voluntary force to provide an estimate of true maximum force. However, criticism of the single interpolated twitch ratio typically fails to take into account the reasons for the non-linearity of the evoked-voluntary force relationship. When these reasons are examined, it appears that most are even more challenging to the validity of extrapolation than they are to the linear equation. Furthermore, several factors that contribute to the observed non-linearity can be minimised or even eliminated with appropriate experimental technique. The detection of small activation deficits requires high resolution measurement of force and careful consideration of numerous experimental details such as the site of stimulation, stimulation intensity and the number of interpolated

  4. Factors Associated with Evaluating Public Relations Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    More than 150 public relations practitioners responded to a survey designed to identify and clarify factors associated with evaluative research in public relations. Responses indicated that (1) no more than half the practitioners formally evaluate their public relations activities on a regular basis; (2) the majority of evaluation is done…

  5. The Human Activity of Evaluation Theorizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Ellett, Frederick, Jr.

    Theorizing about evaluation should be conceptualized as a human activity governed by certain strategies and principles. The theories advanced by various evaluators have changed over the years, thus illustrating ten principles of evaluation. The starting point for theory development or modification is self-reflection and review of one's own…

  6. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W S

    1982-01-01

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of ..gamma.. rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed.

  7. Application of Active Learning Techniques to an Advanced Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knop, R. A.

    2004-05-01

    The New Faculty Workshop provided a wealth of techniques as well as an overriding philosophy for the teaching of undergraduate Physics and Astronomy courses. The focus of the workshop was active learning, summarized in ``Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching" by Slater & Adams: it's not what you do in class that matters, it's what the students do. Much of the specific focus of the New Faculty Workshop is on teaching the large, introductory Physics classes that many of the faculty present are sure to teach, both algebra-based and calculus-based. Many of these techniques apply directly and with little modification to introductory Astronomy courses. However, little direct attention is given to upper-division undergraduate, or even graduate, courses. In this presentation, I will share my experience in attempting to apply some of the techniques discussed at the New Faculty Workshop to an upper-division course in Galactic Astrophysics at Vanderbilt University during the Spring semester of 2004.

  8. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  9. A new polarimetric active radar calibrator and calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaojian

    2015-10-01

    Polarimetric active radar calibrator (PARC) is one of the most important calibrators with high radar cross section (RCS) for polarimetry measurement. In this paper, a new double-antenna polarimetric active radar calibrator (DPARC) is proposed, which consists of two rotatable antennas with wideband electromagnetic polarization filters (EMPF) to achieve lower cross-polarization for transmission and reception. With two antennas which are rotatable around the radar line of sight (LOS), the DPARC provides a variety of standard polarimetric scattering matrices (PSM) through the rotation combination of receiving and transmitting polarization, which are useful for polarimatric calibration in different applications. In addition, a technique based on Fourier analysis is proposed for calibration processing. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed DPARC and processing technique.

  10. Active vibration control techniques for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Jayasuriya, Suhada

    1990-01-01

    Two proposed control system design techniques for active vibration control in flexible space structures are detailed. Control issues relevant only to flexible-body dynamics are addressed, whereas no attempt was made to integrate the flexible and rigid-body spacecraft dynamics. Both of the proposed approaches revealed encouraging results; however, further investigation of the interaction of the flexible and rigid-body dynamics is warranted.

  11. Evaluation of the spline reconstruction technique for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kastis, George A. Kyriakopoulou, Dimitra; Gaitanis, Anastasios; Fernández, Yolanda; Hutton, Brian F.; Fokas, Athanasios S.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The spline reconstruction technique (SRT), based on the analytic formula for the inverse Radon transform, has been presented earlier in the literature. In this study, the authors present an improved formulation and numerical implementation of this algorithm and evaluate it in comparison to filtered backprojection (FBP). Methods: The SRT is based on the numerical evaluation of the Hilbert transform of the sinogram via an approximation in terms of “custom made” cubic splines. By restricting reconstruction only within object pixels and by utilizing certain mathematical symmetries, the authors achieve a reconstruction time comparable to that of FBP. The authors have implemented SRT in STIR and have evaluated this technique using simulated data from a clinical positron emission tomography (PET) system, as well as real data obtained from clinical and preclinical PET scanners. For the simulation studies, the authors have simulated sinograms of a point-source and three digital phantoms. Using these sinograms, the authors have created realizations of Poisson noise at five noise levels. In addition to visual comparisons of the reconstructed images, the authors have determined contrast and bias for different regions of the phantoms as a function of noise level. For the real-data studies, sinograms of an{sup 18}F-FDG injected mouse, a NEMA NU 4-2008 image quality phantom, and a Derenzo phantom have been acquired from a commercial PET system. The authors have determined: (a) coefficient of variations (COV) and contrast from the NEMA phantom, (b) contrast for the various sections of the Derenzo phantom, and (c) line profiles for the Derenzo phantom. Furthermore, the authors have acquired sinograms from a whole-body PET scan of an {sup 18}F-FDG injected cancer patient, using the GE Discovery ST PET/CT system. SRT and FBP reconstructions of the thorax have been visually evaluated. Results: The results indicate an improvement in FWHM and FWTM in both simulated and real

  12. Identification and evaluation of facilitation techniques for decommissioning light water power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Risley, J.F.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to identify practical techniques to facilitate the decommissioning of nuclear power generating facilities. The objective of these ''facilitation techniques'' is to reduce the radioactive exposures and/or volumes of waste generated during the decommissioning process. The report presents the possible facilitation techniques identified during the study and discusses the corresponding facilitation of the decommissioning process. Techniques are categorized by their applicability of being implemented during the three stages of power reactor life: design/construction, operation, or decommissioning. Detailed cost-benefit analyses were performed for each technique to determine the anticipated exposure and/or radioactive waste reduction; the estimated costs for implementing each technique were then calculated. Finally, these techniques were ranked by their effectiveness in facilitating the decommissioning process. This study is a part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's evaluation of decommissioning policy and its modification of regulations pertaining to the decommissioning process. The findings can be used by the utilities in the planning and establishment of activities to ensure that all objectives of decommissioning will be achieved.

  13. Combination of electrochemical, spectrometric and other analytical techniques for high throughput screening of pharmaceutically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Suzen, Sibel; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-08-01

    Recently, use of electrochemistry and combination of this method with spectroscopic and other analytical techniques are getting one of the important approaches in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, determination of physiological activity, measurement of neurotransmitters. Many fundamental physiological processes are depending on oxido-reduction reactions in the body. Therefore, it may be possible to find connections between electrochemical and biochemical reactions concerning electron transfer pathways. Applications of electrochemical techniques to redox-active drug development and studies are one of the recent interests in drug discovery. In this review, the latest developments related to the use of electrochemical techniques in drug research in order to evaluate possible combination spectrometric methods with electrochemical techniques.

  14. One-step multiple component isolation from the oil of Crinitaria tatarica (Less.) Sojak by preparative capillary gas chromatography with characterization by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques and evaluation of biological activity.

    PubMed

    Özek, Gulmira; Ishmuratova, Margarita; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Radwan, Mohammed M; Göger, Fatih; Özek, Temel; Wedge, David E; Becnel, James J; Cutler, Stephen J; Can Başer, Kemal H

    2012-03-01

    Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that the oil of Crinitaria tatarica was rich in sabinene (32.1%), β-pinene (8.8%), and two unknown (M+200) compounds (I) and (II) (21.4% and 3.4%). One-step multiple fractionation of the oil and separation of two unknown constituents were performed using preparative capillary gas chromatography connected to preparative fraction collector system. This combination allowed separation and recover of sufficient quantities of two unknown compounds with high purity from complex oil matrix. Separation conditions (column temperature, cooling temperature, flow rate, injection volume, cut time) were optimized to achieve the best isolation and successful collection. The target compounds were separated from the oil using a HP Innowax (Walt & Jennings Scientific, Wilmington, DE, USA) preparative capillary column in rapid one-step manner with 95.0% purity. Trapping of the isolated compounds in collector system was facilitated by cooling with liquid nitrogen. Structure determination was accomplished by spectral analysis including ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic rezonance, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Z- (I) and E-artemidin (II) were isolated for the first time from this species. Crinitaria tatarica oil and Z- (I) and E-artemidin (II) were evaluated for biological activity.

  15. Investigating Coincidence Techniques in Biomedical Applications of Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, P.; Gramer, R.; Tandel, S. K.; Reinhardt, C. J.

    2004-05-01

    While neutron activation analysis has been widely used in biomedical applications for some time, the use of non-radioactive tracer techniques, to monitor, for example, organ blood flow, is more recent. In these studies, pre-clinical animal models are injected with micro-spheres labeled with stable isotopes of elements that have a high neutron absorption cross-section. Subsequently, samples of blood and/or tissue from different locations in the body are subjected to neutron activation analysis to measure the propagation of the labeled micro-spheres through the body. Following irradiation, the counting (with high-resolution Ge detectors) is typically delayed by a few days to dissipate short-lived activity in the samples and improve signal-to-noise for the peaks of interest in the activation spectrum. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether coincidence techniques (for isotopes which decay via two-photon cascades) could improve signal-to-noise and turn-around times. The samples were irradiated at the 1 MW research reactor at the UMass Lowell Radiation Laboratory. The analysis of the multi-parameter coincidence data recorded in event-mode will be presented and compared with the standard method of recording singles spectra.

  16. Evaluating SPP/APR Improvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to assist State Education Agency (SEA) and Lead Agency (LA) staff and technical assistance providers in designing a meaningful evaluation for the State Performance Plan (SPP)/Annual Performance Report (APR) improvement activities. It provides: (1) information about the relevance of evaluation in the context of improvement…

  17. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  18. Ecological Insights from Pelagic Habitats Acquired Using Active Acoustic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.; Lawson, Gareth L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine pelagic ecosystems present fascinating opportunities for ecological investigation but pose important methodological challenges for sampling. Active acoustic techniques involve producing sound and receiving signals from organisms and other water column sources, offering the benefit of high spatial and temporal resolution and, via integration into different platforms, the ability to make measurements spanning a range of spatial and temporal scales. As a consequence, a variety of questions concerning the ecology of pelagic systems lend themselves to active acoustics, ranging from organism-level investigations and physiological responses to the environment to ecosystem-level studies and climate. As technologies and data analysis methods have matured, the use of acoustics in ecological studies has grown rapidly. We explore the continued role of active acoustics in addressing questions concerning life in the ocean, highlight creative applications to key ecological themes ranging from physiology and behavior to biogeography and climate, and discuss emerging avenues where acoustics can help determine how pelagic ecosystems function.

  19. Ecological Insights from Pelagic Habitats Acquired Using Active Acoustic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Lawson, Gareth L

    2016-01-01

    Marine pelagic ecosystems present fascinating opportunities for ecological investigation but pose important methodological challenges for sampling. Active acoustic techniques involve producing sound and receiving signals from organisms and other water column sources, offering the benefit of high spatial and temporal resolution and, via integration into different platforms, the ability to make measurements spanning a range of spatial and temporal scales. As a consequence, a variety of questions concerning the ecology of pelagic systems lend themselves to active acoustics, ranging from organism-level investigations and physiological responses to the environment to ecosystem-level studies and climate. As technologies and data analysis methods have matured, the use of acoustics in ecological studies has grown rapidly. We explore the continued role of active acoustics in addressing questions concerning life in the ocean, highlight creative applications to key ecological themes ranging from physiology and behavior to biogeography and climate, and discuss emerging avenues where acoustics can help determine how pelagic ecosystems function.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of conventional versus laser bleaching techniques on enamel microroughness.

    PubMed

    Anaraki, Saeid Nemati; Shahabi, Sima; Chiniforush, Nasim; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Assadian, Hadi; Yousefi, Bahareh

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, bleaching of the teeth within the dental office is one of the most widespread techniques to correct tooth discoloration. Variability of the materials and techniques accompanied with the trend toward esthetic restorations with minimally invasive approaches are increasing. The use of laser in this regard has also been taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of in-office versus laser bleaching on surface roughness of enamel. Fifteen freshly extracted human molars were sectioned mesiodistally to produce 30 lingual and buccal enamel blocks. Samples were mounted in transparent acrylic resin blocks and polished before treatment. Samples were randomly assigned to laser bleaching (LB) and office bleaching (OB) groups (n = 15 each). Pretreatment evaluation of microroughness was carried out for all samples using profilometer. Samples were treated twice in the OB group with Opalescent Xtra Boost and in the LB group using a laser-activated gel. Microroughness was evaluated after bleaching in both groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA. Both methods increased enamel surface roughness. Microroughness changes were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05). Microroughness significantly increased in the OB group (p > 0.05), but there was no significant difference in pre- and post-treatment roughness evaluation in the LB group (p < 0.05). Laser was considered a safer technique because it demonstrated a less surface roughness increase in comparison with the conventional office bleaching procedure.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Performance evaluation and modeling techniques for parallel processors

    SciTech Connect

    Dimpsey, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of application performance under real operational conditions. A technique is introduced which accurately models the behavior of an application in real workloads. The methodology can evaluate the performance of the application as well as predict the effects on performance of certain system design changes. The constructed model is based on measurements obtained during normal machine operation and captures various performance issues including multiprogramming and system overheads, and contentions for resources. Methodologies to measure multiprogramming overhead (MPO) are introduced and illustrated on an Alliant FX/8, an Alliant Fx/80, and the Cedar parallel supercomputer. The measurements collected suggest that multiprogramming and system overheads can significantly impact application performance. The mean MPO incurred by PERFECT benchmarks executing in real workloads on an Alliant FX/80 is found to consume 16% of the processing power. Flor applications executing Cedar, between 10% and 60% of the application completion time is attributable to overhead caused by multiprogramming. Measurements also identify a Cedar FORTRAN construct (SDOALL) which is susceptible to performance degradation due to multiprogramming. Using the MPO measurements, the application performance model discussed above is constructed for computationally bound, parallel jobs executing on an Alliant FX/80. It is shown that the model can predict application completion time under real workloads. This is illustrated with several examples from the Perfect Benchmark suite. It is also shown that the model can predict the performance impact of system design changes. For example, the completion times of applications under a new scheduling policy are predicted. The model-building methodology is then validated with a number of empirical experiments.

  3. MAG4 Versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the "Present MAG4" technique and each of three alternative techniques, called "McIntosh Active-Region Class," "Total Magnetic Flux," and "Next MAG4." We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4).

  4. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  5. Pulsed neutron generator for use with pulsed neutron activation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-output, transportable, pulsed neutron generator has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for use with Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) techniques. The PNA neutron generator generates > 10/sup 10/ 14 MeV D-T neutrons in a 1.2 millisecond pulse. Each operation of the unit will produce a nominal total neutron output of 1.2 x 10/sup 10/ neutrons. The generator has been designed to be easily repaired and modified. The unit requires no additional equipment for operation or measurement of output.

  6. Experimental Study of Active Techniques for Blade/Vortex Interaction Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobiki, Noboru; Murashige, Atsushi; Tsuchihashi, Akihiko; Yamakawa, Eiichi

    This paper presents the experimental results of the effect of Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) and Active Flap on the Blade/Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. Wind tunnel tests were performed with a 1-bladed rotor system to evaluate the simplified BVI phenomenon avoiding the complicated aerodynamic interference which is characteristically and inevitably caused by a multi-bladed rotor. Another merit to use this 1-bladed rotor system is that the several objective active techniques can be evaluated under the same condition installed in the same rotor system. The effects of the active techniques on the BVI noise reduction were evaluated comprehensively by the sound pressure, the blade/vortex miss distance obtained by Laser light Sheet (LLS), the blade surface pressure distribution and the tip vortex structure by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The correlation among these quantities to describe the effect of the active techniques on the BVI conditions is well obtained. The experiments show that the blade/vortex miss distance is more dominant for BVI noise than the other two BVI governing factors, such as blade lift and vortex strength at the moment of BVI.

  7. Comparative evaluation of workload estimation techniques in piloting tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques to measure operator workload in a wide range of situations and tasks were examined. The sensitivity and intrusion of a wide variety of workload assessment techniques in simulated piloting tasks were investigated. Four different piloting tasks, psychomotor, perceptual, mediational, and communication aspects of piloting behavior were selected. Techniques to determine relative sensitivity and intrusion were applied. Sensitivity is the relative ability of a workload estimation technique to discriminate statistically significant differences in operator loading. High sensitivity requires discriminable changes in score means as a function of load level and low variation of the scores about the means. Intrusion is an undesirable change in the task for which workload is measured, resulting from the introduction of the workload estimation technique or apparatus.

  8. Comparative evaluation of radon measurement techniques for uranium exploration. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, R F; Pacer, J C; Freeman, R W

    1983-03-01

    The measurement of radon (Rn-222) in soil gas aids in uranium exploration by indicating indirectly the presence of buried ore bodies. Intrest in this exploration methodology has led to the development of various radon measurement techniques which detect the presence of soil-gas radon, both directly and/or indirectly. To establish the relative merit of these new radon measurement techniques, Bendix Field Engineering Corporation has tested a variety of them using existing uranium occurrences located in the Red Desert area of south-central Wyoming. The following soil-gas radon measurement techniques were tested: a prototype microprocessor-controlled emanometer; a commercially available emanometer; alpha-track detectors equipped with two types of detector material (carbonate and nitrate), and equipped with and without membranes for thoron separation; radon adsorption on activated charcoal; and partial extraction of lead-210 from soil samples. These techniques were compared for relative sensitivity, variability, signal-to-background contrast, and correlation. The radon measurements obtained were also correlated to the equivalent uranium in soil, as determined radiometrically. From approximately 34 replicate samples, the variability associated with a technique was lowest with the TSA emanometer (13%). The EDA emanometer showed 31% and Track Etch carbonate/open cup (C/O) 27%. The best signal-to-background ratio, 2.55, was obtained by the EDA emanometer; the Track Etch nitrate/members cup (N/M) was a close second with 2.45. All signal-to-background ratios were greater than 2.0 except for the TSA emanometer with 1.87. All the techniques measured a sufficient number of anomalous values to locate the subsurface ore body.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation technique using infrared thermography and terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Shiozawa, Daiki; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Iwama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques using pulse heating infrared thermography and terahertz (THz) imaging were developed for detecting deterioration of oil tank floor, such as blister and delamination of corrosion protection coating, or corrosion of the bottom steel plate under coating. Experimental studies were conducted to demonstrate the practicability of developed techniques. It was found that the pulse heating infrared thermography was utilized for effective screening inspection and THz-TDS imaging technique performed well for the detailed inspection of coating deterioration and steel corrosion.

  10. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  11. Electromagnetic Scattered Field Evaluation and Data Compression Using Imaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, I. J.; Burnside, W. D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report on Project #727625 between The Ohio State University and NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. Under this project, a data compression technique for scattered field data of electrically large targets is developed. The technique was applied to the scattered fields of two targets of interest. The backscattered fields of the scale models of these targets were measured in a ra compact range. For one of the targets, the backscattered fields were also calculated using XPATCH computer code. Using the technique all scattered field data sets were compressed successfully. A compression ratio of the order 40 was achieved. In this report, the technique is described briefly and some sample results are included.

  12. Module evaluation: a comparison of standard evaluation with nominal group technique.

    PubMed

    Ives, Jonathan; Skelton, John; Calvert, Melanie

    2013-02-01

    Teaching and learning practice in higher education (HE) should incorporate educational evaluation, both for the purpose of external and internal quality assurance and to monitor and improve the student experience. Methods used to evaluate education vary, but the majority of literature on course evaluation is based on quantitative surveys of the learner experience. One alternative to survey evaluation is 'nominal group technique' (NGT), which has been used with some success in curriculum development. This multi-method study aimed to (1) compare the nature and quality of data gathered using NGT with standard written questionnaires, (2) assess the usefulness of the feedback for an individual teacher and institution and (3) consider the appropriateness and feasibility of widespread use. Both the standard written questionnaire and NGT generated data on similar topics. The structured nature of the questionnaire tended to generate short answers which were similar to the results of the NGT ranking exercise. However, in contrast to the questionnaire data, the NGT discussion phase allowed in-depth exploration and interrogation of students' views. Whilst the specific data gathered via NGT are unlikely to be useful for quality assurance purposes within an institution, since they is not easily comparable, they can provide teachers with in-depth information on how to improve the learning experience and improve the efficacy of teaching. It is likely that NGT evaluation will be particularly useful when evaluating new courses, identifying problems in poorly performing courses, and identifying good practice in high-performing courses. Institutional investment in selective NGT evaluation may be more feasible than routine use.

  13. An evaluation of impression techniques for osseointegrated implants.

    PubMed

    Spector, M R; Donovan, T E; Nicholls, J I

    1990-04-01

    A passive fit between osseointegrated implants and the prosthesis they will support has been advocated. An experimental model was developed to test the accuracy of three impression techniques and the components used to make the transfer records. Statistically, no significant difference was found between the three methods tested. From this initial study, it appears that further work is needed to isolate techniques that will predictably provide accurate registration of the position of endosseous implants.

  14. Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

  15. [Evaluation of vector control techniques: an economic approach].

    PubMed

    Audibert, M

    2009-04-01

    Programs of disease control must be evaluated. Evaluation of these programs in terms of public health is straightforward but should be carried out in conjunction with economic evaluation to measure the cost effectiveness and cost-benefit ratio. The purpose of this report is to clarify the importance of economic evaluation by explaining why it is necessary, when it should be carried out, and what methods should be used. Program evaluation is a process with several steps. Each step is associated with specific indicators. Determining these indicators is a prerequisite for construction of the database needed for evaluation. Two methods are proposed for data analysis, i.e., a simple one for cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis and a more sophisticated one for impact analysis that must take into consideration treated and non-treated groups. Economic evaluation of disease control programs is as important as epidemiologic evaluation. However this evaluation cannot be carried out as a standalone procedure but only within a multidisciplinary framework.

  16. Performance and cost evaluation of bioremediation techniques for fuel spills. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.H.; Hutchins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Soils and ground water beneath the US Coast Guard Air Station at Traverse City, MI, have been contaminated with separate spills of aviation gasoline and JP-4 jet fuel. Contamination from both plumes has affected a shallow water table aquifer consisting of a medium grained sand. This site has been the location of a cooperative effort between the US Coast Guard and US EPA to extensively characterize the site to determine three dimensional extent of contamination, local hydrogeology, geochemistry of the solids and water, and nature of microbial activity. Evaluation concerning feasibility and cost of three innovative bioremediation techniques has also been completed at the Air Station. One evaluation demonstrated the use of hydrogen peroxide as the electron acceptor to enhance aerobic biodegradation in a portion of the aviation gasoline area. Nitrate was used as the electron acceptor for a portion of the JP-4 jet fuel contamination. Bioventing of a second portion of the aviation gasoline contamination was the third innovative technique evaluated. Each treatment reduced benzene levels to less than 5 micrograms/l, with 25% to 60% reduction in total fuel levels. For these evaluations, bioventing had the lowest capital and operating costs, followed by nitrate addition and finally hydrogen peroxide.

  17. An evaluation of techniques used in estimating snail populations

    PubMed Central

    Hairston, Nelson G.; Hubendick, Bengt; Watson, John M.; Olivier, Louis J.

    1958-01-01

    No uniform method, applicable to all situations, can be developed for the quantitative study of bilharziasis vector snail populations. The selection of survey technique and sampling device depends on the objectives of the study, the circumstances in which the work is carried out, the nature of the habitat and the resources available. The various techniques used in obtaining snail-population estimates are divided into two categories—direct methods and indirect methods. The former involve the collection of snails from a specified habitat or for a specified period of time, while the latter include techniques, such as snail marking and palm-leaf traps, in which the snails are not obtained through the efforts of a collector. Each method and device is described in detail, and its suitability under various conditions is discussed. PMID:13596889

  18. Focus Groups: An Important Research Technique for Internal Evaluation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara Poitras

    1993-01-01

    The use of focus groups by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a tool of internal evaluation is described. Focus groups are used in an environment where credibility is key to achieving meaningful cooperation. Issues for consideration by other evaluators interested in the approach are summarized. (SLD)

  19. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    HOFFMAN, ELIZABETH A.

    2001-01-01

    While the traditional lecture format may be a successful way to teach microbiology to both medical and nursing students, it was not an effective means of learning for many prenursing and preprofessional students enrolled in either of the introductory microbiology courses at Ashland Community College, an open enrollment institution. The structure of both Medical Microbiology and Principles of Microbiology was redesigned to allow students to address the material in an active manner. Daily quizzes, student group discussions, scrapbooks, lab project presentations and papers, and extra credit projects were all added in order to allow students maximum exposure to the course material in a manner compatible with various methods of learning. Student knowledge, course evaluations, and student success rates have all improved with the active learning format. PMID:23653538

  20. Concepts and techniques for ultrasonic evaluation of material mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrasonic methods that can be used for material strength are reviewed. Emergency technology involving advanced ultrasonic techniques and associated measurements is described. It is shown that ultrasonic NDE is particularly useful in this area because it involves mechanical elastic waves that are strongly modulated by morphological factors that govern mechanical strength and also dynamic failure modes. These aspects of ultrasonic NDE are described in conjunction with advanced approaches and theoretical concepts for signal acquisition and analysis for materials characterization. It is emphasized that the technology is in its infancy and that much effort is still required before the techniques and concepts can be transferred from laboratory to field conditions.

  1. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is strongly dependent on the amount and shape of the porosity in the coating. Current metallographic techniques do not provide polished surfaces that are adequate for a repeatable interpretation of the coating structures. A technique recently developed at NASA-Lewis for preparation of thermal barrier coating sections combines epoxy impregnation, careful sectioning and polishing, and interference layering to provide previously unobtainable information on processing-induced porosity. In fact, increased contrast and less ambiguous structure developed by the method make automatic quantitative metallography a viable option for characterizing thermal barrier coating structures.

  2. Activation studies of NEG coatings by surface techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. K.; Jagannath,; Bhushan, K. G.; Gadkari, S. C.; Mukund, R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2013-02-05

    NEG (Non Evaporable Getters)materials in the form of ternary alloy coatings have many benefits compare to traditional bare surfaces such as Extreme high vacuum(XHV), lower secondary electron yield(SEY), low photon desorption cofficient. The extreme high vacuum (pressure > 10{sup -10} mbar) is very useful to the study of surfaces of the material, for high energy particle accelerators(LHC, Photon Factories), synchrotrons (ESRF, Ellectra) etc. Low secondary electron yield leads to better beam life time. In LHC the pressure in the interaction region of the two beams is something of the order of 10{sup -12} mbar. In this paper preparation of the coatings and their characterization to get the Activation temperature by using the surface techniques XPS, SEM and SIMS has been shown.

  3. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  4. Applying DEA Technique to Library Evaluation in Academic Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Wonsik

    2003-01-01

    This study applied an analytical technique called Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to calculate the relative technical efficiency of 95 academic research libraries, all members of the Association of Research Libraries. DEA, with the proper model of library inputs and outputs, can reveal best practices in the peer groups, as well as the technical…

  5. Evaluation of optical reflectance techniques for imaging of alveolar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unglert, Carolin I.; Namati, Eman; Warger, William C.; Liu, Linbo; Yoo, Hongki; Kang, DongKyun; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the fine structures within the lung parenchyma could advance our understanding of alveolar physiology and pathophysiology. Current knowledge has been primarily based on histology, but it is a destructive two-dimensional (2-D) technique that is limited by tissue processing artifacts. Micro-CT provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging within a limited sample size, but is not applicable to intact lungs from larger animals or humans. Optical reflectance techniques offer the promise to visualize alveolar regions of the large animal or human lung with sub-cellular resolution in three dimensions. Here, we present the capabilities of three optical reflectance techniques, namely optical frequency domain imaging, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy, and full field optical coherence microscopy, to visualize both gross architecture as well as cellular detail in fixed, phosphate buffered saline-immersed rat lung tissue. Images from all techniques were correlated to each other and then to corresponding histology. Spatial and temporal resolution, imaging depth, and suitability for in vivo probe development were compared to highlight the merits and limitations of each technology for studying respiratory physiology at the alveolar level.

  6. Evaluation of Meterorite Amono Acid Analysis Data Using Multivariate Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, G.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Nealson, K.

    1999-01-01

    The amino acid distributions in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite, Mars meteorite ALH84001, and ice from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica are shown, using a multivariate technique known as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to be statistically distinct from the average amino acid compostion of 101 terrestrial protein superfamilies.

  7. Evaluation of macrozone dimensions by ultrasound and EBSD techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Andre; Toubal, Lotfi; Bocher, Philippe; Humbert, Michel; Uta, Elena; Gey, Nathalie

    2013-01-15

    Titanium alloys are known to have texture heterogeneities, i.e. regions much larger than the grain dimensions, where the local orientation distribution of the grains differs from one region to the next. The electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) technique is the method of choice to characterize these macro regions, which are called macrozones. Qualitatively, the images obtained by EBSD show that these macrozones may be larger or smaller, elongated or equiaxed. However, often no well-defined boundaries are observed between the macrozones and it is very hard to obtain objective and quantitative estimates of the macrozone dimensions from these data. In the present work, we present a novel, non-destructive ultrasonic technique that provides objective and quantitative characteristic dimensions of the macrozones. The obtained dimensions are based on the spatial autocorrelation function of fluctuations in the sound velocity. Thus, a pragmatic definition of macrozone dimensions naturally arises from the ultrasonic measurement. This paper has three objectives: 1) to disclose the novel, non-destructive ultrasonic technique to measure macrozone dimensions, 2) to propose a quantitative and objective definition of macrozone dimensions adapted to and arising from the ultrasonic measurement, and which is also applicable to the orientation data obtained by EBSD, and 3) to compare the macrozone dimensions obtained using the two techniques on two samples of the near-alpha titanium alloy IMI834. In addition, it was observed that macrozones may present a semi-periodical arrangement. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discloses a novel, ultrasonic NDT technique to measure macrozone dimensions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposes a quantitative and objective definition of macrozone dimensions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compares macrozone dimensions obtained using EBSD and ultrasonics on 2 Ti samples Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observes that macrozones may have a semi

  8. Measurement and evaluation techniques for automated demand response demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Sezgen, Osman; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    The recent electricity crisis in California and elsewhere has prompted new research to evaluate demand response strategies in large facilities. This paper describes an evaluation of fully automated demand response technologies (Auto-DR) in five large facilities. Auto-DR does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal. This paper summarizes the measurement and evaluation of the performance of demand response technologies and strategies in five large facilities. All the sites have data trending systems such as energy management and control systems (EMCS) and/or energy information systems (EIS). Additional sub-metering was applied where necessary to evaluate the facility's demand response performance. This paper reviews the control responses during the test period, and analyzes demand savings achieved at each site. Occupant comfort issues are investigated where data are available. This paper discusses methods to estimate demand savings and results from demand response strategies at five large facilities.

  9. Measurement techniques for evaluating encapsulant thermophysical properties during cure

    SciTech Connect

    Adolf, D.

    1996-06-01

    Sandia now has the capability to evaluate stresses during cure of epoxies with finite element codes. Numerous material parameters are needed as input to these codes. I present a relatively quick set of tests which enable evaluation of the required thermophysical properties. Ease and accuracy of the tests improve as the reaction rate of the thermoset slows. Material parameters for common encapsulants at Sandia are presented in tables.

  10. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures for detecting changes in Landsat multispectral scanning imagery of coastal zone environments are discussed. Four detection procedures are examined: a comparison of independently produced spectral classifications; a classification of a multispectral difference data set; a single analysis of a multidate data set; and a maximum likelihood classification using multistage decision logic. The relatively complex maximum likelihood classification technique was found to yield results closest to those obtained with the comparison of independently produced spectral classifications, the chosen standard.

  11. Comparison of three clinical techniques for evaluating joint sounds.

    PubMed

    Hardison, J D; Okeson, J P

    1990-10-01

    Two-hundred two consecutive adult patients presenting to the University of Kentucky for general dental care screening were examined for temporomandibular joint sounds by three techniques: (1) lateral pole surface palpation, (2) digital palpation in the external auditory canal, (3) auscultation by a stethoscope. Sixty-nine patients reported joint sounds, but only 32 had sounds diagnosed by auscultation resulting in a 54% false-negative reporting rate. Stethoscopic auscultation was used as the standard to which the other two techniques were compared. The false-negative rate for auditory canal digital palpation was 71% and 77% for lateral pole surface palpation. Surface palpation had only a 2% false-positive incidence while auditory canal digital palpation had a 51% false-positive rate. There was poor agreement between the patients' subjective reporting and clinical exam by any technique. Using stethoscopic auscultation as the standard, both auditory canal and surface palpation had a very high false-negative rate, but only the auditory canal palpation had a poor false-positive incidence. Auditory canal palpation often produces TMJ sounds that are not heard with a stethoscope during normal opening and closure.

  12. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  13. MAG4 versus alternative techniques for forecasting active region flare productivity

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free magnetic energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Key Points Quantitative comparison of performance of pairs of forecasting techniques Next MAG4 forecasts major flares more accurately than Present MAG4 Present MAG4 forecast outperforms McIntosh AR Class and total magnetic flux PMID:26213517

  14. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  15. Cost-Outcome Analysis: Streamlining Techniques. Evaluation Guide Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jana K.

    Streamlining involves the modification of cost-analysis methods to make them more appropriate for the limited time and resources, and immediate information needs, of local-level program evaluations. It can also enhance the reliability and validity of district-level studies. A review of existing texts of cost analysis and of studies of traditional…

  16. Comparative analysis of evaluation techniques for transport policies

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, David; Ryan, Lisa

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a number of policy evaluation tools, which can be used to measure the impact of transport policies and programmes as part of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) or sustainability appraisal. The evaluation tools that were examined include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). It was concluded that both CEA and CBA are useful for estimating the costs and/or benefits associated with transport policies but are constrained by the difficulty in quantifying non-market impacts and monetising total costs and benefits. Furthermore, CEA is limited to identifying the most 'cost-effective policy' for achieving a single, narrowly defined objective, usually greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and is, therefore, not suitable for evaluating policy options with ancillary costs or a variety of potential benefits. Thus, CBA or CEA evaluation should be complemented by a complete environmental and socio-economic impact assessment approach such as MCDA. This method allows for participatory analysis and qualitative assessment but is subject to caveats such as subjectivity and value-laden judgments.

  17. Energy Considerations in Home Mortgages: An Evaluation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth.

    This document, intended primarily for mortgage lenders, is designed to aid readers in evaluating solar heating technology in the aspects of its capital cost and potential for recovery of investment. Whether or not American consumers will fully exploit this alternative will depend upon interest rates, the allocation of capital to finance the higher…

  18. Promising quantitative nondestructive evaluation techniques for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    Some recent results in the area of the ultrasonic, acoustic emission, thermographic, and acousto-ultrasonic NDE of composites are reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the progress in the use of ultrasonic attenuation, acoustic emission (parameter) delay, liquid-crystal thermography, and the stress wave factor in structural integrity monitoring of composite materials. The importance of NDE flaw significance characterizations is emphasized since such characterizations can directly indicate the appropriate NDE technique sensitivity requirements. The role of the NDE of flawed composites with and without overt defects in establishing quantitative accept/reject criteria for structural integrity assessment is discussed.

  19. Evaluation of computational radiometric and spectral sensor calibration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakov, Alkhazur

    2016-04-01

    Radiometric and spectral calibration are essential for enabling the use of digital sensors for measurement purposes. Traditional optical calibration techniques require expensive equipment such as specialized light sources, monochromators, tunable filters, calibrated photo-diodes, etc. The trade-offs between computational and physics-based characterization schemes are, however, not well understood. In this paper we perform an analysis of existing computational calibration schemes and elucidate their weak points. We highlight the limitations by comparing against ground truth measurements performed in an optical characterization laboratory (EMVA 1288 standard). Based on our analysis, we present accurate and affordable methods for the radiometric and spectral calibration of a camera.

  20. Simulation Technique for Evaluating Containers (SIMTEC) Version 2.2. User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-26

    cycle cost and sensitivities. Procedure. The Simulation Technique for Evaluating Containers (SIMTEC), a computer simulation model, was developed to...Simulation Technique for Evaluating Containers (SIMTEC) is a computer program (model) developed to compare different types of packaging in terms of...and industrial organizations; environments involving conflict, such as military strategies and competi- tive market Ptrategies. Simulation provides a

  1. The Impact of Economic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution: Evaluation Techniques and Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Francois, Ed.; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A., Ed.

    This book, a collection of articles and papers, reviews techniques and tools that can be used to evaluate the poverty and distributional impact of economic policy choices. Following are its contents: "Evaluating the Poverty and Distributional Impact of Economic Policies: A Compendium of Existing Techniques" (Francois Bourguignon and Luiz A.…

  2. Overlapping double etch technique for evaluation of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Stewart, James C.

    1981-01-01

    A double overlapping etch zone technique for evaluation of the resistance of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking. The technique involves evaluating the metallic alloy along the line of demarcation between an overlapping double etch zone and single etch zone formed on the metallic alloy surface.

  3. Overlapping double etch technique for evaluation of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A double overlapping etch zone technique for evaluation of the resistance of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking is described. The technique involves evaluating the metallic alloy along the line of demarcation between an overlapping double etch zone and single etch zone formed on the metallic alloy surface.

  4. Active-passive correlation spectroscopy - A new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    A new active-passive airborne data correlation technique has been developed which allows the validation of existing in-water oceoan color algorithms and the rapid search, identification, and evaluation of new sensor band locations and algorithm wavelength intervals. Thus far, applied only in conjunction with the spectral curvature algorithm (SCA), the active-passive correlation spectroscopy (APCS) technique shows that (1) the usual 490-nm (center-band) chlorophyll SCA could satisfactorily be placed anywhere within the nominal 460-510-nm interval, and (2) two other spectral regions, 645-660 and 680-695 nm, show considerable promise for chlorophyll pigment measurement. Additionally, the APCS method reveals potentially useful wavelength regions (at 600 and about 670 nm) of very low chlorophyll-in-water spectral curvature into which accessory pigment algorithms for phycoerythrin might be carefully positioned. In combination, the APCS and SCA methods strongly suggest that significant information content resides within the seemingly featureless ocean color spectrum.

  5. [sEMG Time-frequency analysis techniques for evaluation of muscle fatigue and it's application in ergonomic studies].

    PubMed

    Wang, Du-ming; Wang, Jian; Ge, Lie-zhong

    2003-10-01

    As a non-invasive on-line measurement, sEMG can reflect the status of muscle activity and muscle function accurately and objectively. Some sEMG Time-frequency analysis techniques, especially the JASA (joint analysis of EMG spectrum and amplitude) analysis, for evaluation of muscle fatigue in ergonomics and occupational field studies are introduced and evaluated in this paper. The sEMG signal analysis and the necessity for developing sEMG analysis techniques for field use in ergonomics are also briefly discussed.

  6. Evaluation of color-embedded wavelet image compression techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Martha; Salama, Paul; Shen, Ke; Delp, Edward J., III

    1998-12-01

    Color embedded image compression is investigated by means of a set of core experiments that seek to evaluate the advantages of various color transformations, spatial orientation trees and the use of monochrome embedded coding schemes such as EZW and SPIHT. In order to take advantage of the interdependencies of the color components for a given color space, two new spatial orientation trees that relate frequency bands and color components are investigated.

  7. Evaluation of Analytical Techniques for the Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Waters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    capability of multielemental determination, and cost of analysis. The techniques are atomic absorption spectroscopy , neutron activation analysis, and x ray fluorescence analysis. (Modified author abstract)

  8. Active sampling technique to enhance chemical signature of buried explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, John S.; French, Patrick D.

    2004-09-01

    Deminers and dismounted countermine engineers commonly use metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and probes to locate mines. Many modern landmines have a very low metal content, which severely limits the effectiveness of metal detectors. Canines have also been used for landmine detection for decades. Experiments have shown that canines smell the explosives which are known to leak from most types of landmines. The fact that dogs can detect landmines indicates that vapor sensing is a viable approach to landmine detection. Several groups are currently developing systems to detect landmines by "sniffing" for the ultra-trace explosive vapors above the soil. The amount of material that is available to passive vapor sensing systems is limited to no more than the vapor in equilibrium with the explosive related chemicals (ERCs) distributed in the surface soils over and near the landmine. The low equilibrium vapor pressure of TNT in the soil/atmosphere boundary layer and the limited volume of the boundary layer air imply that passive chemical vapor sensing systems require sensitivities in the picogram range, or lower. ADA is working to overcome many of the limitations of passive sampling methods, by the use of an active sampling method that employs a high-powered (1,200+ joules) strobe lamp to create a highly amplified plume of vapor and/or ERC-bearing fine particulates. Initial investigations have demonstrated that this approach can amplify the detectability of TNT by two or three orders of magnitude. This new active sampling technique could be used with any suitable explosive sensor.

  9. Residual matrix from different separation techniques impacts exosome biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, Lucia; Zendrini, Andrea; Noto, Giuseppe Di; Busatto, Sara; Lottini, Elisabetta; Radeghieri, Annalisa; Dossi, Alessandra; Caneschi, Andrea; Ricotta, Doris; Bergese, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are gaining a prominent role in research due to their intriguing biology and several therapeutic opportunities. However, their accurate purification from body fluids and detailed physicochemical characterization remain open issues. We isolated exosomes from serum of patients with Multiple Myeloma by four of the most popular purification methods and assessed the presence of residual contaminants in the preparations through an ad hoc combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques - including Western Blot, colloidal nanoplasmonics, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning helium ion microscopy (HIM). The preparations obtained by iodixanol and sucrose gradients were highly pure. To the contrary, those achieved with limited processing (serial centrifugation or one step precipitation kit) resulted contaminated by a residual matrix, embedding the exosomes. The contaminated preparations showed lower ability to induce NfkB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells with respect to the pure ones, probably because the matrix prevents the interaction and fusion of the exosomes with the cell membrane. These findings suggest that exosome preparation purity must be carefully assessed since it may interfere with exosome biological activity. Contaminants can be reliably probed only by an integrated characterization approach aimed at both the molecular and the colloidal length scales. PMID:27009329

  10. Search for life on Mars: Evaluation of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    An important question for exobiology is, did life evolve on Mars? To answer this question, experiments must be conducted on the martian surface. Given current mission constraints on mass, power, and volume, these experiments can only be performed using proposed analytical techniques such as: electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, a-proton backscatter, g-ray spectrometry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, pyrolysis gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and specific element detectors. Using prepared test samples consisting of 1% organic matter (bovine serum albumin) in palagonite and a mixture of palagonite, clays, iron oxides, and evaporites, it was determined that a combination of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography provides the best insight into the chemistry, mineralogy, and geological history of the samples.

  11. Signature evaluation of natural targets using high spectral resolution techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chiu, H.-Y.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of 'spectral signature' identification has been applied to LANDSAT and other broad-band multi-spectral scanner data to classify various materials on the earth's surface. A large amount of the spectral information available is invisible, however, to the broad-band sensors. Although the natural targets of interest in remote sensing do not exhibit fine line features such as those associated with gaseous media, there is significant information to be extracted from smoothly varying spectral reflection functions of most natural targets. Subtle variations observed recently in the high resolution 'spectral signatures' of vegetation targets, in particular, promise to open new avenues of application using higher spectral and radiometric resolution techniques. This research was accomplished using a 500-band spectroradiometer system specially adapted to rapid airborne operations

  12. Peroxy bleaches Part 1. Background and techniques for hazard evaluation.

    PubMed

    Carson, P A; Fairclough, C S; Mauduit, C; Colsell, M

    2006-08-25

    Fabric laundering is now a sophisticated chemical process involving a variety of operations including bleaching. The chemistry of peroxy bleaches is described including the use of novel organic compounds to provide effective bleaching at the lower temperatures of modern wash cycles. The instability of peroxy compounds is illustrated using cameo case histories to relate theory and practice. Techniques available for determining their thermochemistry are summarised. A model is provided for hazard and risk assessment of development projects in general (particularly those involving new molecules, processes or formulations) from ideas phase through exploratory laboratory investigations to pilot plant scale-up and eventual manufacture and commercial exploitation. This paper is a prelude to Part 2, which describes the determination of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of peroxy bleaches and discusses the implication of the results in terms of precautions for their safe storage and incorporation into detergent formulations during processing.

  13. Search for life on Mars: evaluation of techniques.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, D E; Mancinelli, R L; White, M R

    1995-03-01

    An important question for exobiology is, did life evolve on Mars? To answer this question, experiments must be conducted on the martian surface. Given current mission constraints on mass, power, and volume, these experiments can only be performed using proposed analytical techniques such as: electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, alpha-proton backscatter, gamma-ray spectrometry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, pyrolysis gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and specific element detectors. Using prepared test samples consisting of 1% organic matter (bovine serum albumin) in palagonite and a mixture of palagonite, clays, iron oxides, and evaporites, it was determined that a combination of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography provides the best insight into the chemistry, mineralogy, and geological history of the samples.

  14. Evaluation of the uranium double spike technique for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hemberger, P.H.; Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.; Smith, D.H.; Turner, M.L.; Barshick, C.M.; Bayne, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Use of a uranium double spike in analysis of environmental samples showed that a {sup 235}U enrichment of 1% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00732) can be distinguished from natural ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00725). Experiments performed jointly at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used a carefully calibrated double spike of {sup 233}U and {sup 236}U to obtain much better precision than is possible using conventional analytical techniques. A variety of different sampling media (vegetation and swipes) showed that, provided sufficient care is exercised in choice of sample type, relative standard deviations of less than {+-} 0.5% can be routinely obtained. This ability, unavailable without use of the double spike, has enormous potential significance in the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities.

  15. Planning tools and techniques for production evaluation and disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; List, G.F.; Turnquist, M.A.; Jones, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a computerized model to support production planning in a specialized type of remanufacturing facility, the Pantex Plant operated for the US Department of Energy. The model integrates two different production processes (nuclear weapon dismantlement and stockpile evaluation) which use common facilities and personnel, and reflects the interactions of scheduling constraints, material flow constraints and resource availability. These two processes reflect characteristics of flow-shop and job-shop operations in a single facility. Operational results from using the model are also discussed.

  16. Photothermal Techniques Used to Evaluate Quality in Dairy Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Romero, E.; Balderas-López, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Photothermal systems were used to quantify thermal and optical properties of commercial and natural dairy products. Thermal diffusivity and light absorption coefficient were analyzed. It was found that water content easily alters thermal properties in samples of milk. In addition, all samples showed strong light absorptions at 405 nm, 980 nm and 488 nm, evidencing presence of proteins, fat and vitamins (riboflavin), respectively. Therefore, it was shown that thermo-physical properties measured in this work could be used as complementary parameters for quality evaluation of dairy products.

  17. Evaluation of spectral unfolding techniques for neutron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sunden, Erik Andersson; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.

    2008-03-12

    The precision of the JET installations of MAXED, GRAVEL and the L-curve version of MAXED has been evaluated by using synthetic neutron spectra. We have determined the number of counts needed for the detector systems NE213 and MPR to get an error below 10% of the MAXED unfolded neutron spectra is determined to be {approx}10{sup 6} and {approx}10{sup 4}, respectively. For GRAVEL the same number is {approx}10{sup 7} and {approx}3{center_dot}10{sup 4} for NE213 and MPR, respectively.

  18. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for nickel-cadmium aerospace battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haak, R.; Tench, D.

    1982-01-01

    The ac impedance characteristics of Ni-Cd cells as an in-situ, nondestructive means of determining cell lifetime, particularly with respect to the probability of premature failure were evaluated. Emphasis was on evaluating Ni-Cd cell impedance over a wide frequency range (10,000 to 0.0004 Hz) as the cells were subjected to charge/discharge cycle testing. The results indicate that cell degradation is reflected in the low frequency (Warburg) impedance characteristics associated with diffusion processes. The Warburg slope (W) was found to steadily increase as a function of cell aging for completely discharged cells. In addition, based on data for two cells, a high or rapidly increasing value for W signals imminent cell failure by one mechanism. Degradation by another mechanism is apparently reflected in a fall-off (roll-over) of W at lower frequencies. As a secondary result, the frequency dependence of the absolute cell impedance at low frequencies (5 - 500 mHz) was found to be a good indication of the cell state-of-charge.

  19. Evaluating techniques for metagenome annotation using simulated sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Randle-Boggis, Richard J.; Helgason, Thorunn; Sapp, Melanie; Ashton, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has allowed huge amounts of DNA sequence data to be produced, advancing the capabilities of microbial ecosystem studies. The current challenge is to identify from which microorganisms and genes the DNA originated. Several tools and databases are available for annotating DNA sequences. The tools, databases and parameters used can have a significant impact on the results: naïve choice of these factors can result in a false representation of community composition and function. We use a simulated metagenome to show how different parameters affect annotation accuracy by evaluating the sequence annotation performances of MEGAN, MG-RAST, One Codex and Megablast. This simulated metagenome allowed the recovery of known organism and function abundances to be quantitatively evaluated, which is not possible for environmental metagenomes. The performance of each program and database varied, e.g. One Codex correctly annotated many sequences at the genus level, whereas MG-RAST RefSeq produced many false positive annotations. This effect decreased as the taxonomic level investigated increased. Selecting more stringent parameters decreases the annotation sensitivity, but increases precision. Ultimately, there is a trade-off between taxonomic resolution and annotation accuracy. These results should be considered when annotating metagenomes and interpreting results from previous studies. PMID:27162180

  20. An evaluation of wind turbine blade cross section analysis techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Laird, Daniel L.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-03-01

    The blades of a modern wind turbine are critical components central to capturing and transmitting most of the load experienced by the system. They are complex structural items composed of many layers of fiber and resin composite material and typically, one or more shear webs. Large turbine blades being developed today are beyond the point of effective trial-and-error design of the past and design for reliability is always extremely important. Section analysis tools are used to reduce the three-dimensional continuum blade structure to a simpler beam representation for use in system response calculations to support full system design and certification. One model simplification approach is to analyze the two-dimensional blade cross sections to determine the properties for the beam. Another technique is to determine beam properties using static deflections of a full three-dimensional finite element model of a blade. This paper provides insight into discrepancies observed in outputs from each approach. Simple two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional blade models are analyzed in this investigation. Finally, a subset of computational and experimental section properties for a full turbine blade are compared.

  1. Nondestructive pavement evaluation technique using falling weight deflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Nageim, H.; Al-Hakim, B.; Lesley, L.

    1996-11-01

    An analytical method to predict the mechanical properties of a multi-layer pavement structure is presented. The development of the model is based on a modified back calculation model, using a finite circular plate resting on an elastic layered system. The deflection of the pavement under the dynamic action of the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is taken as a function of the load action and the characteristic strength of the layers comprising the system including the friction between the individual layers. The responses of the pavement during the impact loading of the falling weight are measured and analyzed to predict the stress, strain and coefficient of friction between the layers making the system. The results revealed that the model which incorporates the interface of friction coefficient in the back-analysis technique allows for a more accurate calculation of the mechanical properties of the pavements and thus can be used as a quality control to assess the state of adhesion between the pavement layer system.

  2. Evaluation of Her2 status using photoacoustic spectroscopic CT techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Michael; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Mendonca, Marc; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of using photacoustic CT spectroscopy(PCT-s) to track a near infrared dye conjugated with trastuzumab in vivo. Materials and Methods: An animal model was developed which contained both high and low Her2 expression tumor xenografts on the same mouse. The tumors were imaged at multiple wavelengths (680- 950nm) in the PCT scanner one day prior to injection of the near infrared conjugated probe. Baseline optical imaging data was acquired and the probe was then injected via the tail vein. Fluorescence data was acquired over the next week, PCT spectroscopic data was also acquired during this timeframe. The mice were sacrificed and tumors were extirpated and sent to pathology for IHC staining to verify Her2 expression levels. The optical fluorescence images were analyzed to determine probe uptake dynamics. Reconstructed PCT spectroscopic data was analyzed using IDL routines to deconvolve the probe signal from endogenous background signals, and to determine oxygen saturation. Results: The location of the NIR conjugate was able to be identified within the tumor utilizing IDL fitting routines, in addition oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentrations were discernible from the spectroscopic data. Conclusion: Photacoustic spectroscopy allows for the determination of in vivo tumor drug delivery at greater depths than can be determined from optical imaging techniques.

  3. A Methodology to Evaluate Agent Oriented Software Engineering Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chia-En; Kavi, Krishna M.; Sheldon, Frederick T; Daley, Kristopher M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Systems using software agents (or multi-agent systems, MAS) are becoming more popular within the development mainstream because, as the name suggests, an agent aims to handle tasks autonomously with intelligence. To benefit from autonomous control and reduced running costs, system functions are performed automatically. Agent-oriented considerations are being steadily accepted into the various software design paradigms. Agents may work alone, but most commonly, they cooperate toward achieving some application goal(s). MAS's are components in systems that are viewed as many individuals living in a society working together. From a SE perspective, solving a problem should encompass problem realization, requirements analysis, architecture design and implementation. These steps should be implemented within a life-cycle process including testing, verification, and reengineering to proving the built system is sound. In this paper, we explore the various applications of agent-based systems categorized into different application domains. A baseline is developed herein to help us focus on the core of agent concepts throughout the comparative study and to investigate both the object-oriented and agent-oriented techniques that are available for constructing agent-based systems. In each respect, we address the conceptual background associated with these methodologies and how available tools can be applied within specific domains.

  4. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, C.

    The application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. The technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses are compared. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality.

  5. In vitro haemocompatibility evaluation of PET surfaces using the quartz crystal microbalance technique.

    PubMed

    Doliška, Aleš; Strnad, Simona; Stana, Jan; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Ribitsch, Volker; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the complex influences of several experimental conditions on the in vitro alteration of blood, there is still a lack of viable in vitro tests and methods for blood compatibility evaluation of biomaterials. The aim of this research was to study a new approach for the haemocompatibility assessment of differently modified PET surfaces using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation unit (QCM-D) technique and measure the mass increase caused by clot formation under physiological conditions. For this purpose some of the most frequently applied in vitro methods for haemocompatibility determination, i.e., clotting time measurement and observation of red blood cells' mobility, were applied and their accuracy and sensitivity compared to the new QCM-D approach. Haemocompatibility was evaluated for non-modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surfaces and PET surfaces coated with dextran sulphate and heparin. The basic anti-coagulant properties of heparin and dextran sulphate were analysed by means of their activated partial thromboplastine time (APTT). PET, as well as different polysaccharides coatings were chosen for this study due to their promising biocompatible properties and numerous possibilities for biomedical applications. The results showed that the new QCM-D technique to study clot formation in contact with PET surfaces under physiological environment was the most informative and accurate for in vitro haemocompatibility assessment. Although the results achieved with the other two methods were in good correlation, they did not provide such a high level of sensitivity.

  6. Comparative techniques used to evaluate Thematic Mapper data for land cover classification in Logan County, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, J. O.; Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Several digital data processing techniques were evaluated in an effort to identify and map active/abandoned, partially reclaimed, and fully revegetated surface mine areas in the central portion of Logan County. The TM data were first subjected to various enhancement procedures, including a linear contrast stretch, principal components and canonical analysis transformations. At the same time, four general procedures were followed to produce six classifications as a means of comparing the techniques involved. Preliminary results show that various feature extraction/data reduction techniques provide classification results equal or superior to the more straightforward unsupervised clustering technique. Analyst interaction time for labelling clusters is reduced using the canonical analysis and principal components procedures, though the canonical technique has clearly produced better results to date.

  7. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhold steam generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generatjion, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generatjion are discussed. (JMT)

  8. Evaluation of Candidate In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    B. Fox; H. Ban; J. Daw; K. Condie; D. Knudson; J. Rempe

    2009-05-01

    Thermophysical properties of materials must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural properties in nuclear reactors. In the case of nuclear fuels during irradiation, the physical structure and chemical composition change as a function of time and position within the rod. Typically, thermal conductivity changes, as well as other thermophysical properties being evaluated during irradiation in a materials and test reactor, are measured out-of-pile in “hot-cells.” Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provide understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for the development of next generation reactors and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Having the capacity to effectively and quickly characterize fuels and material properties during irradiation has the potential to improve the fidelity of nuclear fuel data and reduce irradiation testing costs.

  9. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  10. Evaluating fusion techniques for multi-sensor satellite image data

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Benjamin W; Vatsavai, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Satellite image data fusion is a topic of interest in many areas including environmental monitoring, emergency response, and defense. Typically any single satellite sensor cannot provide all of the benefits offered by a combination of different sensors (e.g., high-spatial but low spectral resolution vs. low-spatial but high spectral, optical vs. SAR). Given the respective strengths and weaknesses of the different types of image data, it is beneficial to fuse many types of image data to extract as much information as possible from the data. Our work focuses on the fusion of multi-sensor image data into a unified representation that incorporates the potential strengths of a sensor in order to minimize classification error. Of particular interest is the fusion of optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images into a single, multispectral image of the best possible spatial resolution. We explore various methods to optimally fuse these images and evaluate the quality of the image fusion by using K-means clustering to categorize regions in the fused images and comparing the accuracies of the resulting categorization maps.

  11. Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Zieminski, Chris; Fuller, Todd K; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling costs, and the cost/sample for each method relative to species and study site, and performed simulations to determine the sampling intensity necessary to achieve abundance estimates with coefficients of variation (CV) of <10%. Scat sampling was effective for both coyotes and bears and hair snags effectively sampled bears in two of three study sites. Rub pads were ineffective in sampling coyotes and lynx. The precision of abundance estimates was dependent upon the number of captures/individual. Our simulations suggested that ~3.4 captures/individual will result in a < 10% CV for abundance estimates when populations are small (23-39), but fewer captures/individual may be sufficient for larger populations. We found scat sampling was more cost-effective for sampling multiple species, but suggest that hair sampling may be less expensive at study sites with limited road access for bears. Given the dependence of sampling scheme on species and study site, the optimal sampling scheme is likely to be study-specific warranting pilot studies in most circumstances.

  12. A New Active Cavitation Mapping Technique for Pulsed HIFU Applications – Bubble Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; Hwang, Joo Ha; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new active cavitation mapping technique for pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) applications termed bubble Doppler is proposed and its feasibility tested in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms. pHIFU therapy uses short pulses, delivered at low pulse repetition frequency, to cause transient bubble activity that has been shown to enhance drug and gene delivery to tissues. The current gold standard for detecting and monitoring cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments is passive cavitation detection (PCD), which provides minimal information on the spatial distribution of the bubbles. B-mode imaging can detect hyperecho formation, but has very limited sensitivity, especially to small, transient microbubbles. The bubble Doppler method proposed here is based on a fusion of the adaptations of three Doppler techniques that had been previously developed for imaging of ultrasound contrast agents – color Doppler, pulse inversion Doppler, and decorrelation Doppler. Doppler ensemble pulses were interleaved with therapeutic pHIFU pulses using three different pulse sequences and standard Doppler processing was applied to the received echoes. The information yielded by each of the techniques on the distribution and characteristics of pHIFU-induced cavitation bubbles was evaluated separately, and found to be complementary. The unified approach - bubble Doppler – was then proposed to both spatially map the presence of transient bubbles and to estimate their sizes and the degree of nonlinearity. PMID:25265178

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints by Acousto-Ultrasonic Technique and Acoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require an effective nondestructive evaluation technique for their bond strength prediction. To properly evaluate factors affecting bond strength, effects of defects such as voids and disbonds on stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. At the same time, in order to use acousto-ultrasonic (AU) technique to evaluate bond quality, the effect of these defects on dynamic response of single lap joints must be clear. The stress distribution in a single lap joint with and without defects (void or disbond) is analyzed. A bar-Theta parameter which contains adherend and adhesive thickness and properties is introduced. It is shown for bonded joints with bar-Theta greater than 10, that a symmetric void or disbond in the middle of overlap up to the 70 percent of overlap length has negligible effect on bond strength. In contrast frequency response analyses by a finite element technique showed that the dynamic response is affected significantly by the presence of voids or disbonds. These results have direct implication in the interpretations of AU results. Through transmission attenuation and a number of AU parameters for various specimens with and without defects are evaluated. It is found that although void and disbond have similar effects on bond strength (stress distribution), they have completely different effects on wave propagation characteristics. For steel-adhesive-steel specimens with voids, the attenuation changes are related to the bond strength. However, the attenuation changes for specimens with disbond are fairly constant over a disbond range. In order to incorporate the location of defects in AU parameters, a weighting function is introduced. Using an immersion system with focused transducers, a number of AU parameters are evaluated. It is found that by incorporating weighting functions in these parameters better sensitivities (AU parameters vs. bond strength) are achieved. Acoustic emission

  14. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.

    1982-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil-bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generation, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generation are discussed.

  15. A technique for measuring absolute toe pressures: evaluation of pressure-sensitive film techniques.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, A S; Werner, F W; Fortino, M D; Spadaro, J A

    1992-05-01

    Although a number of pathologies of the forefoot in ballet dancers on pointe have been described, pressures and deforming forces have not been adequately measured. To evaluate the possible use of pressure-sensitive film (PSF) in measuring the pressures on the external soft tissues in such a confined space as the dancer's toe shoe, it was tested and calibrated with 20 cadaver toes. Each cadaver toe was internally stabilized and loaded longitudinally against PSF on a flat surface. The resultant films were analyzed with a video imaging system and the pressures and total forces were determined. Results showed that the linearity of the PSF to pressure had a regression value of 0.98. By using two sensitivity ranges of films, the total force measured by the PSF was found to be within 10% of the known applied force on each toe. The PSF, therefore, may very well be a useful and accurate method of measuring external soft tissue pressures on the forefoot.

  16. Global SOFC activities and evaluation programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Noboru

    1994-04-01

    Perhaps there are a few hundred organizations worldwide at present such as universities, research institutes or companies where the research and development of SOFC is carried out, including basic research on materials for SOFCs. This paper, will not refer to the status of basic R&D materials similarities or on a single cell, but will observe developmental activities in Europe, USA and Japan, focusing on the development which has already the stage of fabrication and operation of a SOFC cell stack. Information will also include detailed operation and evaluation of the 25 kW class systems of Westinghouse.

  17. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 2--morphological and mineralogical features.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic emissions were studied at Mount Etna (Italy) by using moss-bags technique. Mosses were exposed around the volcano at different distances from the active vents to evaluate the impact of volcanic emissions in the atmosphere. Morphology and mineralogy of volcanic particulate intercepted by mosses were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Particles emitted during passive degassing activity from the two active vents, Bocca Nuova and North East Crater (BNC and NEC), were identified as silicates, sulfates and halide compounds. In addition to volcanic particles, we found evidences also of geogenic, anthropogenic and marine spray input. The study has shown the robustness of this active biomonitoring technique to collect particles, very useful in active volcanic areas characterized by continuous degassing and often not easily accessible to apply conventional sampling techniques.

  18. Development of a corrosion detection experiment to evaluate conventional and advanced NDI techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Aging Aircraft NDI Validation Center (AANC) was established by the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) at Sandia National Laboratories in August of 1991. The goal of the AANC is to provide independent validation of technologies intended to enhance the structural inspection of aging commuter and transport aircraft. The deliverables from the AANC`s validation activities are assessments of the reliability of existing and emerging inspection technologies as well as analyses of the cost benefits to be derived from their implementation. This paper describes the methodology developed by the AANC to assess the performance of NDI techniques. In particular, an experiment being developed to evaluate corrosion detection devices will be presented. The experiment uses engineered test specimens, as well as complete aircraft test beds to provide metrics for NDI validation.

  19. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  20. Functional evaluation of professional athletes treated with a mini-open technique for achilles tendon rupture

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Antonio; Lanzetti, Riccardo Maria; Ciompi, Alessandro; Rossi, Cristina; Lupariello, Domenico; Ferretti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction: in this study we report the functional results of 36 professional athletes treated with a combined percutaneous and mini-open technique. Methods: patients were evaluated with Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles questionnaire (VISA-A), the objective 100-points Hannover scale and the Ergo-jump Bosco System device. Results: at a mean 28- month follow-up no re-rupture cases were observed. Six patients had minor complications. The Ergo-jump Bosco System device showed no significant differences in the side-to-side evaluation in regard to strength (−0.94%) and elasticity (+2.44%), while a significant post-operative loss was detected in the endurance trials (−6.78%). The Hannover scale showed an average score of 94.5, while the VISA-A had an average of 93.1. Thirty-one patients resumed their pre-operative sports activity level within five months from surgery. Conclusions: our results showed that the combined mini-open and percutaneous repair is an effective treatment for professional athletes, with satisfactory clinical and functional results, lack of major complications and a quick return to professional sports activity. PMID:25332932

  1. Active and passive techniques for tiltrotor aeroelastic stability augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Eric L.

    Tiltrotors are susceptible to whirl flutter, an aeroelastic instability characterized by a coupling of rotor-generated aerodynamic forces and elastic wing modes in high speed airplane-mode flight. The conventional approach to ensuring adequate whirl flutter stability will not scale easily to larger tiltrotor designs. This study constitutes an investigation of several alternatives for improving tiltrotor aerolastic stability. A whirl flutter stability analysis is developed that does not rely on more complex models to determine the variations in crucial input parameters with flight condition. Variation of blade flap and lag frequency, and pitch-flap, pitch-lag, and flap-lag couplings, are calculated from physical parameters, such as blade structural flap and lag stiffness distribution (inboard or outboard of pitch bearing), collective pitch, and precone. The analysis is used to perform a study of the influence of various design parameters on whirl flutter stability. While previous studies have investigated the individual influence of various design parameters, the present investigation uses formal optimization techniques to determine a unique combination of parameters that maximizes whirl flutter stability. The optimal designs require only modest changes in the key rotor and wing design parameters to significantly increase flutter speed. When constraints on design parameters are relaxed, optimized configurations are obtained that allow large values of kinematic pitch-flap (delta3) coupling without degrading aeroelastic stability. Larger values of delta3 may be desirable for advanced tiltrotor configurations. An investigation of active control of wing flaperons for stability augmentation is also conducted. Both stiff- and soft-inplane tiltrotor configurations are examined. Control systems that increase flutter speed and wing mode sub-critical damping are designed while observing realistic limits on flaperon deflection. The flaperon is shown to be particularly

  2. Comparison of Penetration of Irrigant Activated by Traditional Methods with A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kanumuru, Pavan Kumar; Sooraparaju, Sujatha Gopal; Nujella, Surya Kumari; Reddy, Bala Kasi; Penigalapati, Siva Ram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effectiveness of irrigation depends upon various irrigation activation methods & devices used. Aim To compare and evaluate the penetration of irrigant upto working length and into simulated lateral canals using four different irrigation activation techniques. Materials and Methods The root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth were instrumented using the proTaper rotary system. After decalcification of each sample tooth, three simulated lateral canals were created at 2mm, 4mm and 6mm levels from the root apex using a 06-size C+ file. After clearing the samples they were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (n=15) and 1ml of Irrigating Contrast Solution (ICS) was delivered into all samples and then it is activated with 4 different methods Group I-Conventional syringe and needle, Group II - Sonic activation with Endo activator, Group III – Ultrasonic activation with ultrasonic tips and Group IV - Activation using reciprocation movement. All the samples were examined under a stereomicroscope and irrigant penetration was evaluated by means of penetration of ICS. Results Group III and Group IV resulted in better penetration of ICS into lateral canals at 2mm and 4mm depth (p<0.001), when compared with Group I and II. At lateral canals 6mm all the groups except Group I, had shown 100 % penetration. Conclusion The activation of irrigant using reciprocation was able to achieve penetration of irrigating contrast solution both up to the working length and into lateral canals. Hence the clinical significance of this method of irrigant activation is that it can be used for effective penetration of irrigants both upto working length and into lateral canals. PMID:26674879

  3. Is anterior cruciate ligament surgery technique important in rehabilitation and activity scores?

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Bekir Eray; Kara, Adnan; Celik, Haluk; Oc, Yunus; Camur, Savas

    2016-01-01

    To compare the two different anterior cruciate ligament surgery techniques’ effect in rehabilitation and activity performance. Fifty-five patients were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients with transtibial technique (TT), 28 with anatomic single-bundle technique (AT) included. Tegner Activity Scale (TAS) was performed at preoperation and follow-up. The returning time of the sport and work was evaluated at follow-up. Single-leg hop test was performed at follow-up. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. The determined length difference between the operated knee and the intact knee was compared between the two groups. Average age of TT and AT was 27.9±6.4 yr, 28.3±6 yr, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups in duration of returning to sport. TT group had higher duration to return to sport (P<0.01). No difference between the two groups in duration of returning to work (P>0.05). There was a significant difference between the two groups. TT group had significantly higher values than AT group (P<0.01). No difference in TAS between the two techniques at preoperation and at last follow-up (P>0.05). The increase of TAS in patients who had AT was higher than the patients who had TT (P>0.05). No difference in single-leg hop test at 55%–65%, 65%–75%, and 85%–95% level (P>0.05). In this test at 75%–85% TT group had higher values than AT group (P<0.05), AT group had higher values at 95%–105% level (P<0.05). Good short and long-term knee outcome scores depend on rehabilitation protocol after surgery. Surgery technique should provide the adequate stability in rehabilitation period. AT obtains better outcomes in rehabilitation. PMID:27419120

  4. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  5. Nondestructive evaluation/characterization of composite materials and structures using the acousto-ultrasonic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dos Reis, H. L. M.; Vary, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper introduces the nature and the underlying rational of the acousto-ultrasonic stress wave factor technique and some of its applications to composite materials and structures. Furthermore, two examples of successful application of the acousto-ultrasonic technique are presented in detail. In the first example, the acousto-ultrasonic technique is used to evaluate the adhesive bond strength between rubber layers and steel plates, and in the seocnd example the tehcnique is used to monitor progressive damage in wire rope.

  6. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  7. ANALYSIS OF EMERGING NDE TECHNIQUES: METHODS FOR EVALUATING AND IMPLEMENTING CONTINUOUS ONLINE MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Lupold, Timothy R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2009-08-05

    One of the goals of the program for the proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) is to manage proactively the in-service degradation of metallic components in aging NPPs. As some forms of degradation, such as stress corrosion cracking, are characterized by a long initiation time followed by a rapid growth phase, new inspection or monitoring technologies may be required. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that may be needed include techniques to find stress corrosion cracking (SCC) precursors, on-line monitoring techniques to detect cracks as they initiate and grow, as well as advances in NDE technologies. This paper reports on the first part of the development of a methodology to determine the effectiveness of these emerging NDE techniques for managing metallic degradation. This methodology will draw from experience derived from evaluating techniques that have "emerged" in the past. The methodology will follow five stages: a definition of inspection parameters, a technical evaluation, laboratory testing, round robin testing, and the design of a performance demonstration program. This methodology will formalize the path taken for previous techniques and set a predictable course for future NDE techniques. This paper then applies the expert review section of the methodology to the acoustic emission technique to evaluate the use of acoustic emission in performing continuous online monitoring of reactor components.

  8. Application of System Identification Techniques to Turbine Engine Post-Stall Test and Evaluation. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Application of System Identification Techniques to Turbine Engine Post-Stall Test and Evaluation was an Air Force funded study to investigate and...apply system identification techniques to post-stall engine models in a manner which allowed AEDC personnel to become proficient in the use of these

  9. FTIR Analysis of Alkali Activated Slag and Fly Ash Using Deconvolution Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madavarapu, Sateesh Babu

    The studies on aluminosilicate materials to replace traditional construction materials such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to reduce the effects caused has been an important research area for the past decades. Many properties like strength have already been studied and the primary focus is to learn about the reaction mechanism and the effect of the parameters on the formed products. The aim of this research was to explore the structural changes and reaction product analysis of geopolymers (Slag & Fly Ash) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and deconvolution techniques. Spectroscopic techniques give valuable information at a molecular level but not all methods are economic and simple. To understand the mechanisms of alkali activated aluminosilicate materials, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR has been used where the effect of the parameters on the reaction products have been analyzed. To analyze complex systems like geopolymers using FTIR, deconvolution techniques help to obtain the properties of a particular peak attributed to a certain molecular vibration. Time and temperature dependent analysis were done on slag pastes to understand the polymerization of reactive silica in the system with time and temperature variance. For time dependent analysis slag has been activated with sodium and potassium silicates using two different `n'values and three different silica modulus [Ms- (SiO2 /M2 O)] values. The temperature dependent analysis was done by curing the samples at 60°C and 80°C. Similarly fly ash has been studied by activating with alkali hydroxides and alkali silicates. Under the same curing conditions the fly ash samples were evaluated to analyze the effects of added silicates for alkali activation. The peak shifts in the FTIR explains the changes in the structural nature of the matrix and can be identified using the deconvolution technique. A strong correlation is found between the concentrations of silicate monomer in the

  10. Decontamination Techniques and Fixative Coatings Evaluated in the Building 235-F Legacy Source Term Removal Study

    SciTech Connect

    WAYNE, FARRELL

    2005-04-21

    Savannah River Site Building 235-F was being considered for future plutonium storage and stabilization missions but the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) noted that large quantities of Plutonium-238 left in cells and gloveboxes from previous operations posed a potential hazard to both the existing and future workforce. This material resulted from the manufacture of Pu-238 heat sources used by the NASA space program to generate electricity for deep space exploration satellites. A multi-disciplinary team was assembled to propose a cost- effective solution to mitigate this legacy source term which would facilitate future DOE plutonium storage activities in 235-F. One aspect of this study involved an evaluation of commercially available radiological decontamination techniques to remove the legacy Pu-238 and fixative coatings that could stabilize any residual Pu-238 following decontamination activities. Four chemical methods were identified as most likely to meet decontamination objectives for this project and are discussed in detail. Short and long term fixatives will be reviewed with particular attention to the potential radiation damage caused by Pu-238, which has a high specific activity and would be expected to cause significant radiation damage to any coating applied. Encapsulants that were considered to mitigate the legacy Pu-238 will also be reviewed.

  11. Spherical crystallization: A technique use to reform solubility and flow property of active pharmaceutical ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Arindam; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Srivastava, Birendra

    2017-01-01

    Tablets have been choice of manufacturers over the years due to their comparatively low cost of manufacturing, packaging, shipping, and ease of administration; also have better stability and can be considered virtually tamper proof. A major challenge in formulation development of the tablets extends from lower solubility of the active agent to the elaborated manufacturing procedures for obtaining a compressible granular material. Moreover, the validation and documentation increases, as the numbers of steps increases for an industrially acceptable granulation process. Spherical crystallization (SC) is a promising technique, which encompass the crystallization, agglomeration, and spheronization phenomenon in a single step. Initially, two methods, spherical agglomeration, and emulsion solvent diffusion, were suggested to get a desired result. Later on, the introduction of modified methods such as crystallo-co-agglomeration, ammonia diffusion system, and neutralization techniques overcame the limitations of the older techniques. Under controlled conditions such as solvent composition, mixing rate and temperature, spherical dense agglomerates cluster from particles. Application of the SC technique includes production of compacted spherical particles of drug having improved uniformity in shape and size of particles, good bulk density, better flow properties as well as better solubility so SC when used on commercial scale will bring down the production costs of pharmaceutical tablet and will increase revenue for the pharmaceutical industries in the competitive market. This review summarizes the technologies available for SC and also suggests the parameters for evaluation of a viable product.

  12. Evaluation of different preservation techniques on the storage potential of Kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Witthuhn, R Corli; Cilliers, Annamie; Britz, Trevor J

    2005-02-01

    Kefir is an acidic, mildly alcoholic dairy beverage produced by the fermentation of milk with a grain-like starter culture (Koroleva, 1988). These grains usually contain a relatively stable and specific balance of microbes that exist in a complex symbiotic relationship (Obermann & Libudzisz, 1998; Witthuhn et al. 2004). The different groups of microbes present in the grains are active at different stages of the fermentation (Koroleva, 1982). The lactococci, including Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris and Lc. lactis subsp. diacetilactis provide rapid acid development during the first hours of the fermentation (Litopoulou-Tzanetaki & Tzanetakis, 2000). As the acidity of the milk increases it provides favourable conditions for the growth of the lactobacilli (Rea et al. 1996). The yeasts, acetic acid bacteria and the aroma-producing microbes, mainly leuconostocs, have a much slower growth rate than the lactic acid producers, resulting in the slow production of the aroma compounds and the gradual increase in the concentration of these substances in the later stages of the fermentation (Koroleva, 1982). In the past the preservation of the microbial populations present in the traditional Kefir grains was achieved by methods including freezing (Garrote et al. 1997), lyophilisation (Oberman & Libudzisz, 1998), air-drying (Kroger, 1993) and refrigeration (Marshall, 1993). Research has shown that traditional Kefir grains preserved by air-drying and lyophilisation retain their activity for up to 12-18 months (Oberman & Libudzisz, 1998). Frozen grains stored at -20 degrees C were found to maintain the microbial activity for up to 7-8 months, whereas grains stored at refrigerated temperatures showed a decreased activity after about 10 d (Oberman & Libudzisz, 1998). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of four different preservation techniques on the activity of mass cultured Kefir grains (Schoevers & Britz, 2003). The activity of the grains

  13. Introducing Social Stratification and Inequality: An Active Learning Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Lucy

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes literature on techniques for teaching social stratification. Describes the three parts of an exercise that enables students to understand economic and political inequality: students are given a family scenario, create household budgets, and finally rework the national budget with their family scenario groups. Discusses student…

  14. Note: Flow mediated skin fluorescence—A novel technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, L.; Urbaniak, M.; Jedrzejczak, B.; Marcinek, A.; Gebicki, J.

    2016-03-01

    This note describes a newly developed technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation. The technique called Flow Mediated Skin Fluorescence (FMSF) is based on monitoring of NADH fluorescence intensity emitted from the skin tissue cells of a forearm. The changes in fluorescence intensity as a function of time in response to blocking and releasing of blood flow in a forearm are used as a measure of oxygen transport with blood to the tissue, which directly correlates with the skin microcirculation status. Preliminary results collected for healthy volunteers and patients experiencing serious cardiovascular problems indicated a usefulness of FMSF technique for evaluation of health related perturbations in cutaneous microcirculation.

  15. Note: Flow mediated skin fluorescence--A novel technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, L; Urbaniak, M; Jedrzejczak, B; Marcinek, A; Gebicki, J

    2016-03-01

    This note describes a newly developed technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation. The technique called Flow Mediated Skin Fluorescence (FMSF) is based on monitoring of NADH fluorescence intensity emitted from the skin tissue cells of a forearm. The changes in fluorescence intensity as a function of time in response to blocking and releasing of blood flow in a forearm are used as a measure of oxygen transport with blood to the tissue, which directly correlates with the skin microcirculation status. Preliminary results collected for healthy volunteers and patients experiencing serious cardiovascular problems indicated a usefulness of FMSF technique for evaluation of health related perturbations in cutaneous microcirculation.

  16. Technique for inferring sizes of stellar-active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson-Hockey, A.K.; Radick, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Inspection of spectroheliograms showing large, well-developed active regions generally show the sunspots to lead the associated plage, in the sense of the solar rotation. Measurements have been made from spectroheliograms of spot-plage offsets and compared with nearly contemporaneous integrated disk observations. Larger active regions generally show larger spot leads; however, information regarding active-region sizes and spot-plage offsets is not readily obtainable form stellar-type observations of the Sun.

  17. Study of the magnetospheres of active regions on the sun by radio astronomy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogod, V. M.; Kal'tman, T. I.; Peterova, N. G.; Yasnov, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the 1990s, based on detailed studies of the structure of active regions (AR), the concept of the magnetosphere of the active region was proposed. This includes almost all known structures presented in the active region, ranging from the radio granulation up to noise storms, the radiation of which manifests on the radio waves. The magnetosphere concept, which, from a common point of view, considers the manifestations of the radio emission of the active region as a single active complex, allows one to shed light on the relation between stable and active processes and their interrelations. It is especially important to identify the basic ways of transforming nonthermal energy into thermal energy. A dominant role in all processes is attributed to the magnetic field, the measurement of which on the coronal levels can be performed by radio-astronomical techniques. The extension of the wavelength range and the introduction of new tools and advanced modeling capabilities makes it possible to analyze the physical properties of plasma structures in the AR magnetosphere and to evaluate the coronal magnetic fields at the levels of the chromosphere-corona transition zone and the lower corona. The features and characteristics of the transition region from the S component to the B component have been estimated.

  18. Assessment and evaluation of ceramic filter cleaning techniques: Task Order 19

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Zaharchuk, R.; Harbaugh, L.B.; Klett, M.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and evaluate the effectiveness, appropriateness and economics of ceramic barrier filter cleaning techniques used for high-temperature and high-pressure particulate filtration. Three potential filter cleaning techniques were evaluated. These techniques include, conventional on-line pulse driven reverse gas filter cleaning, off-line reverse gas filter cleaning and a novel rapid pulse driven filter cleaning. These three ceramic filter cleaning techniques are either presently employed, or being considered for use, in the filtration of coal derived gas streams (combustion or gasification) under high-temperature high-pressure conditions. This study was divided into six subtasks: first principle analysis of ceramic barrier filter cleaning mechanisms; operational values for parameters identified with the filter cleaning mechanisms; evaluation and identification of potential ceramic filter cleaning techniques; development of conceptual designs for ceramic barrier filter systems and ceramic barrier filter cleaning systems for two DOE specified power plants; evaluation of ceramic barrier filter system cleaning techniques; and final report and presentation. Within individual sections of this report critical design and operational issues were evaluated and key findings were identified.

  19. [The value of selected imaging techniques in evaluation of bone regeneration during limb lengthening].

    PubMed

    Synder, M; Hussein, A A; Niedzielski, K; Grzegorzewski, A

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the value of different imaging techniques, including X-rays, ultrasonography, computed tomography and densitometry in the evaluation of bone regenerates during limb lengthening. Material consisted of 60 children, age ranging from 4 to 18 years who underwent surgery using the Ilizarov technique because of limb inequality. During of limb lengthening different imaging techniques were employed for monitoring regenerate growth and remodeling. The study showed that all the employed imaging techniques play an important role in monitoring bone regenerate remodeling at different stages of limb lengthening.

  20. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  1. Using projective techniques in the evaluation of groups for children of rehabilitating drug addicts.

    PubMed

    Levin-Rozalis, Miry

    2006-06-01

    Evaluators and researchers often have to deal with situations in which conventional research tools are impossible to use, either because of the characteristics of a population or unclear research variables. This paper presents a technique that succeeds in overcoming this kind of problem--a projective technique, but one that differs from the usual approach to projective techniques. The approach presented here is a hermeneutic one that assumes an interpretive process. By means of an example, this paper presents the process of working with projective techniques and concludes with a discussion of this approach.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of activation state in functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenghui; Ni, Pengyu; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng

    2012-10-01

    Neuronal activity can evoke the hemodynamic change that gives rise to the observed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal. These increases are also regulated by the resting blood volume fraction (V (0)) associated with regional vasculature. The activation locus detected by means of the change in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity thereby may deviate from the actual active site due to varied vascular density in the cortex. Furthermore, conventional detection techniques evaluate the statistical significance of the hemodynamic observations. In this sense, the significance level relies not only upon the intensity of the BOLD signal change, but also upon the spatially inhomogeneous fMRI noise distribution that complicates the expression of the results. In this paper, we propose a quantitative strategy for the calibration of activation states to address these challenging problems. The quantitative assessment is based on the estimated neuronal efficacy parameter [Formula: see text] of the hemodynamic model in a voxel-by-voxel way. It is partly immune to the inhomogeneous fMRI noise by virtue of the strength of the optimization strategy. Moreover, it is easy to incorporate regional vascular information into the activation detection procedure. By combining MR angiography images, this approach can remove large vessel contamination in fMRI signals, and provide more accurate functional localization than classical statistical techniques for clinical applications. It is also helpful to investigate the nonlinear nature of the coupling between synaptic activity and the evoked BOLD response. The proposed method might be considered as a potentially useful complement to existing statistical approaches.

  3. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  4. The influence of curricular and extracurricular learning activities on students' choice of chiropractic technique

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, David M.; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. Methods: We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Conclusions: Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences. PMID:26655282

  5. Biomagnetic Techniques for Assessing Gastric and Small Bowel Electrical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, L. Alan

    2004-09-01

    Recent advances in electrophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract have emphasized the need for methods of noninvasive assessment of gastric and small intestinal electrical activity (GEA and IEA). While the cutaneous electrogastrogram (EGG) may reveal the frequency dynamics of gastric electrical activity, other parameters important for characterizing the propagating electrical activity are not available from EGG recordings. Recent studies on the electroenterogram (EENG) are promising, but low-conductivity abdominal layers have complicated the identification of small intestinal electrical rhythms in cutaneous recordings. The magnetogastrogram (MGG) and magnetoenterogram (MENG) are able to characterize gastric and intestinal electrical activity noninvasively in terms of its frequency, power and characteristics of its propagation. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers are used to detect the minute magnetic fields associated with electrical activity of the gastrointestinal syncytium formed by interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle networks. Changes in GEA and IEA that occur in response to disease or abnormal conditions are reflected in MGG and MENG signals. Magnetic methods for assessing the electrical activity of the stomach and small bowel thus show great clinical promise.

  6. Comparison of Selective Culturing and Biochemical Techniques for Measuring Biological Activity in Geothermal Process Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, Peter Albert

    2000-09-01

    For the past three years, scientists at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have been conducting studies aimed at determining the presence and influence of bacteria found in geothermal plant cooling water systems. In particular, the efforts have been directed at understanding the conditions that lead to the growth and accumulation of biomass within these systems, reducing the operational and thermal efficiency. Initially, the methods selected were based upon the current practices used by the industry and included the collection of water quality parameters, the measurement of soluble carbon, and the use of selective medial for the determination of the number density of various types of organisms. This data has been collected on a seasonal basis at six different facilities located at the Geysers’ in Northern California. While this data is valuable in establishing biological growth trends in the facilities and providing an initial determination of upset or off-normal conditions, more detailed information about the biological activity is needed to determine what is triggering or sustaining the growth in these facilities in order to develop improved monitoring and treatment techniques. In recent years, new biochemical approaches, based upon the analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and DNA recovered from environmental samples, have been developed and commercialized. These techniques, in addition to allowing the determination of the quantity of biomass, also provide information on the community composition and the nutritional status of the organisms. During the past year, samples collected from the condenser effluents of four of the plants from The Geysers’ were analyzed using these methods and compared with the results obtained from selective culturing techniques. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing these techniques for tracking microbial activity in the plant study, in place of the selective culturing

  7. Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, M.D.; Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A.

    1990-12-31

    A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Assessment of platelet activation in myeloproliferative disorders with complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Emilse; Alberto, Maria F; Meschengieser, Susana S; Lazzari, Maria A

    2004-04-01

    Bleeding and thrombosis in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) are common events, sometimes both are present in the same patient during the course of the disease. Platelet activation in patients with MPD is often suggested. The present study analyses the presence of circulating activated platelets, using simultaneously flow cytometry and aggregometric studies in MPD. We studied 28 patients: 13 with polycythaemia vera, seven with essential thrombocythaemia, and eight chronic myeloid leukaemia. We performed functional tests, aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and flow cytometric assays (mepacrine staining and platelet activation markers CD62, CD63 and fibrinogen binding (B-FG)). Twenty-one MPD samples (75%) had reduced aggregation and ATP release. Acquired delta-SPD was detected in 11 of 28 MPD patients (39%), and we found no association between reduced mepacrine labelling and abnormal ATP release. High levels of activation markers were obtained: CD62 in 19 of 28 patients (68%), CD63 in 13 of 28 patients (46%) and B-FG in 19 of 28 patients (68%). The most prevalent abnormality was a reduced aggregation and ATP release. The lack of association between ATP release and mepacrine labelling suggests that other mechanisms, besides the deficit of intraplatelet ATP/adenosine diphosphate, might occur. High levels of activation markers were also observed. We conclude that both tests are complementary and necessary to understand the functional status of platelets in MPD.

  9. Imaging studies for evaluating impact of position sampling techniques in PET scanners

    PubMed Central

    Surti, Suleman; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Previously we have evaluated two crystal calibration techniques that can be applied to pixelated detector designs to improve system spatial resolution without detector motion. The inter-crystal positioning technique utilizes sub-sampling in the crystal flood map to better sample the Compton scatter events in the detector. The Compton scatter rejection technique, on the other hand, rejects those events that are located further from individual crystal centers in the flood map. Here we performed imaging studies with a Mini Deluxe hot rod phantom and a hot sphere phantom (sphere diameters of 4.95 and 7.86-mm with 6:1 uptake relative to background) using the standard crystal calibration technique, as well as the inter-crystal and Compton rejection calibration techniques. Our results show improved separation of 1.6-mm diameter hot rods with the two new crystal calibration techniques that is consistent with improved spatial resolution. For the hot sphere phantom the contrast recovery is improved with both the inter-crystal and Compton rejection calibration techniques over the standard calibration technique. The only drawback of the inter-crystal calibration technique is the increase in the number of possible lines-of-response (LORs) (factor of 16) that may slow image reconstruction. With the Compton rejection calibration technique, loss of counts leads to increased noise in the images. PMID:21547006

  10. Diametral tensile strength of composite resins submitted to different activation techniques.

    PubMed

    Casselli, Denise Sá Maia; Worschech, Claudia Cia; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Dias, Carlos Tadeu Dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) of composite resins submitted to different curing techniques. Four composite resins were tested in this study: Targis (Ivoclar), Solidex (Shofu), Charisma (Heraeus-Kulzer) and Filtek Z250 (3M Espe). Sixty-four cylindrical specimens were prepared and divided into eight groups according to each polymerization technique (n = 8). The indirect composite resins (Targis and Solidex) were polymerized with their respective curing systems (Targis Power and EDG-lux); Charisma and Filtek Z250 were light-cured with conventional polymerization (halogen light) and additionally, with post-curing systems. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for one week. DTS tests were performed in a Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm/min). The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan tests. The results were (MPa): Z250/EDG-lux: 69.04 feminine; Z250/Targis Power: 68.57 feminine; Z250/conventional polymerization: 60.75b; Charisma/Targis Power: 52.34c; Charisma/conventional polymerization: 49.17c; Charisma/EDG-lux: 47.98c; Solidex: 36.62d; Targis: 32.86d. The results reveal that the post-cured Z250 composite resin showed the highest DTS means. Charisma composite presented no significant differences when activation techniques were compared. Direct composite resins presented higher DTS values than indirect resins.

  11. The Protest as a Teaching Technique for Promoting Feminist Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Suzanna

    An assignment about protesting was given to students in an upper-level undergraduate women's studies course to provide them with experience and skills in political protesting and to promote feminist activism. The students selected for their assignments: (1) a letter writing campaign against Robert Bork's Supreme Court nomination; (2) a picket…

  12. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  13. Techniques for active embodiment of participants in virtual environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, R.; Stansfield, S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary work in the development of an avatar driver. An avatar is the graphical embodiment of a user in a virtual world. In applications such as small team, close quarters training and mission planning and rehearsal, it is important that the user`s avatar reproduce his or her motions naturally and with high fidelity. This paper presents a set of special purpose algorithms for driving the motion of the avatar with minimal information about the posture and position of the user. These algorithms utilize information about natural human motion and posture to produce solutions quickly and accurately without the need for complex general-purpose kinematics algorithms. Several examples illustrating the successful applications of these techniques are included.

  14. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  15. Figure Analysis: A Teaching Technique to Promote Visual Literacy and Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based…

  16. Evaluation of examination techniques for ferritic stainless steel feedwater heater tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, M.J.; Catapano, M.C.

    1995-12-01

    Ferritic stainless steel has been finding increased application in utility plant feedwater heaters due to good strength and corrosion resistance and absence of potential copper contamination of feedwater system. Ferritic stainless steel is highly magnetic and is generally not inspectable using conventional eddy current testing techniques. A variety of techniques have been developed for inspection of this tubing material used in typical heat exchanger applications. Through a project funded by the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO), the evaluation of data generated by four present state of the art NDE testing techniques were evaluated on a controlled mock-up of the heater tubing with service related defects. The primary objective was to determine the strengths and limitations of each method. The testing of two in service feedwater heaters at the Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison`s) Arthur Kill Generating Station also allowed further evaluations based on actual field conditions.

  17. Evaluating the sources of water to wells: Three techniques for metamodeling of a groundwater flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    For decision support, the insights and predictive power of numerical process models can be hampered by insufficient expertise and computational resources required to evaluate system response to new stresses. An alternative is to emulate the process model with a statistical “metamodel.” Built on a dataset of collocated numerical model input and output, a groundwater flow model was emulated using a Bayesian Network, an Artificial neural network, and a Gradient Boosted Regression Tree. The response of interest was surface water depletion expressed as the source of water-to-wells. The results have application for managing allocation of groundwater. Each technique was tuned using cross validation and further evaluated using a held-out dataset. A numerical MODFLOW-USG model of the Lake Michigan Basin, USA, was used for the evaluation. The performance and interpretability of each technique was compared pointing to advantages of each technique. The metamodel can extend to unmodeled areas.

  18. Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

  19. Down and up with PERT at Goddard. [computer graphics applications for Program Evaluation and Review Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerega, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    During the 1960s NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) used the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) as its principal schedule planning and control tool in flight projects. After a temporary replacement of PERT by other techniques, PERT has been reinstituted on all but one of GSFC's flight projects. PERT has been combined with a computer graphics program which makes it possible to produce PERT drawings in only a few hours' time.

  20. Evaluation of the 'mean frequency' technique. [sum approximation in perturbation theory for atomic transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.; Reiss, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    The 'mean frequency' technique, a simple procedure introduced by Bebb and Gold for the approximate evaluation of sums occurring in high-order perturbation theory, represents a useful approximation method. Its predictions compare favorably to exact results obtained by Gontier and Trahin for multiphoton bound-bound transitions in hydrogen. However, the technique can be in error if the 'mean frequency' lies near certain integers.

  1. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. Methods The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff’s alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Results Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were “provide instruction” (83% of the apps), “set graded tasks” (70%), and “prompt self-monitoring” (60%). Techniques such as “teach to use prompts/cues”, “agree on behavioural contract”, “relapse prevention” and “time management” were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Conclusions Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps. PMID:24965805

  2. How to Activate Teachers through Teacher Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert

    2014-01-01

    There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…

  3. Comparative evaluation of ensemble Kalman filter, particle filter and variational techniques for river discharge forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirpa, F. A.; Gebremichael, M.; LEE, H.; Hopson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrologic data assimilation techniques provide a means to improve river discharge forecasts through updating hydrologic model states and correcting the atmospheric forcing data via optimally combining model outputs with observations. The performance of the assimilation procedure, however, depends on the data assimilation techniques used and the amount of uncertainty in the data sets. To investigate the effects of these, we comparatively evaluate three data assimilation techniques, including ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), particle filter (PF) and variational (VAR) technique, which assimilate discharge and synthetic soil moisture data at various uncertainty levels into the Sacramento Soil Moisture accounting (SAC-SMA) model used by the National Weather Service (NWS) for river forecasting in The United States. The study basin is Greens Bayou watershed with area of 178 km2 in eastern Texas. In the presentation, we summarize the results of the comparisons, and discuss the challenges of applying each technique for hydrologic applications.

  4. Data analysis techniques used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant flywheel evaluation laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the more advanced data analysis techniques applied to the problem of experimentally evaluating the performance of high performance composite flywheels are presented. Real time applications include polar plots of runout with interruptions relating to balance and relative motions between parts, radial growth measurements, and temperature of the spinning part. The technique used to measure torque applied to a containment housing during flywheel failure is also presented. The discussion of pre and post test analysis techniques includes resonant frequency determination with modal analysis, waterfall charts, and runout signals at failure.

  5. Characterization of Deep Tunneling Activity through Remote-Sensing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    R. G. Best, P. J. Etzler, and J. D. Bloom

    1997-10-01

    This work is a case study demonstrating the uses of multispectral and multi-temporal imagery to characterize deep tunneling activity. A drainage tunnel excavation in Quincy, MA is the case locality. Data used are aerial photographs (digitized) and Daedalus 3600 MSS image data that were collected in July and October of 1994. Analysis of the data includes thermal characterization, spectral characterization, multi-temporal analysis, and volume estimation using digital DEM generation. The results demonstrate the type of information that could be generated by multispectral, multi-temporal data if the study locality were a clandestine excavation site with restricted surface access.

  6. Smart actuators: a novel technique for active damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muth, Michael; Moldovan, Klaus; Goetz, Bernt

    1995-05-01

    Sensors are important components for any automatic process. Their function is to measure physical variables, and thus to allow automatic actions in a technical process, for example in a manufacturing sequence or a measurement. Selecting a sensor for a process, it is mostly overlooked that actuators used in a process also have sensory properties. The reactions of actuators to the state of a process give the possibility to extract relevant information out of the process with actuators. In using the sensory properties of actuators the costs for additional sensors can be saved. Even more important, under some circumstances it may not even be possible to place a special sensor directly at the location of interest: In that case the information about the physical variable is only accessible by analyzing the return signal of the actuator. An example of such a smart actuator combining active and sensory properties is demonstrated in a simple experiment. This experiment shows a steel ball supported as a pendulum. The steel ball can be pushed off, and on swinging back it can be caught in a single pass without any bounce. The actuator uses the piezoelectric effect which shows the underlying principle most clearly: Application of the reversibility of physical effects. In this case mechanical energy can either be produced or absorbed. This experiment is means as a demonstration model for students. It is also used for preliminary investigations developing a fast, actively damped tipping mechanism (optical scanner).

  7. Active Flow Control: Instrumentation Automation and Experimental Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gimbert, N. Wes

    1995-01-01

    In investigating the potential of a new actuator for use in an active flow control system, several objectives had to be accomplished, the largest of which was the experimental setup. The work was conducted at the NASA Langley 20x28 Shear Flow Control Tunnel. The actuator named Thunder, is a high deflection piezo device recently developed at Langley Research Center. This research involved setting up the instrumentation, the lighting, the smoke, and the recording devices. The instrumentation was automated by means of a Power Macintosh running LabVIEW, a graphical instrumentation package developed by National Instruments. Routines were written to allow the tunnel conditions to be determined at a given instant at the push of a button. This included determination of tunnel pressures, speed, density, temperature, and viscosity. Other aspects of the experimental equipment included the set up of a CCD video camera with a video frame grabber, monitor, and VCR to capture the motion. A strobe light was used to highlight the smoke that was used to visualize the flow. Additional effort was put into creating a scale drawing of another tunnel on site and a limited literature search in the area of active flow control.

  8. Experimental techniques for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Swaha; Patra, Arjun; Ahirwar, Bharti

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a silent epidemic, has become a major health hazard, afflicting about 50% of postmenopausal women worldwide and is thought to be a disease with one of the highest incidences in senile people. It is a chronic, progressive condition associated with micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue that results in low bone mass, decreased bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone formation and increase in bone resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. In this review article we have made an attempt to collate the various methods and parameters most frequently used for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pertaining to ovariectomized animal model, this is the most appropriate model for studying the efficacy of different drugs to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Models, measures, and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems were developed. By "effectiveness" in this context we mean the extent to which the user, i.e., a commercial air carrier, may expect to benefit from the computational tasks accomplished by a computing system in the environment of an advanced commercial aircraft. Thus, the concept of effectiveness involves aspects of system performance, reliability, and worth (value, benefit) which are appropriately integrated in the process of evaluating system effectiveness. Specifically, the primary objectives are: the development of system models that provide a basis for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness, the formulation of quantitative measures of system effectiveness, and the development of analytic and simulation techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of a proposed or existing aircraft computer.

  10. 38 CFR 1.489 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audit and evaluation... GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.489 Audit and evaluation activities. Subject to... part may be disclosed outside VA for the purposes of conducting audit and evaluation activities....

  11. One-flap Palatoplasty: A Cohort Study to Evaluate a Technique for Unilateral Cleft Palate Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cotrinal-Rabanal, Omar; Caceres-Nano, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 2-flap palatoplasty technique is actually the approach most commonly used in the United States for cleft palate repair. This is a one-time surgery that enables closure under minimal tension, lowering rates of subsequent fistula development. However, its primary disadvantage is potential detriment to maxillary growth (due to extent of dissection on both sides of the cleft and raw lateral surfaces). Since 2007, a surgical technique using only one mucoperiosteal flap from the noncleft side has been performed by us, reducing the extent of the surgery and its potential nondesirable effects over the palate. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of this technique for unilateral cleft palate repair. Methods: This is a retrospective, simple-blinded cohort study between 2 groups of 120 patients each with unilateral cleft palate who were operated on using the 2-flap and 1-flap techniques by the Outreach Surgical Center Program Lima from 2007 to 2012. Data collection was accomplished by physical examination to evaluate the presence or absence of a fistula and to evaluate the presence of hypernasality. Postoperative bleeding was also studied. Results: We have observed no increase in the rate of fistulas and velopharyngeal insufficiency between these 2 studied groups (P = 0.801 and P = 1.000). Conclusions: Use of a 1-flap technique for unilateral cleft palate repair allowed us to achieve results comparable to those of a 2-flap technique in terms of postoperative fistula development and hypernasal speech. Additional studies are required to evaluate the effect of this technique on palatal growth. PMID:25973351

  12. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    DOEpatents

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  13. Activated mechanisms in proteins: a multiple-temperature activation-relaxation technique study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Rachid; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2001-03-01

    The low-temperature dynamics of proteins is controlled by a complex activated dynamics taking place over long time-scales compared with the period of thermal oscillations. In view of the range of relevant time scales, the numerical study of these processes remains a challenge and numerous methods have been introduced to address this problem. We introduce here a mixture of two algorithms, the activation-relaxation technique (ART)^1,2 coupled with the parallel tempering method, and use it to study the structure of the energy landscape around the native state of a 38-residue polypeptide. While ART samples rapidly the local energy landscape, the parallel tempering, which sets up exchanges of configuration between simultaneous runs at multiple temperatures, generates a very efficient sampling of energy basins separated by high barriers^(3). Results show the nature of the barriers and local minima surrounding the native state of this 38-residue peptide, modeled with off-lattice OPEP-like interactions^4. (1) G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, PRL 77, 4358 (1996) (2) N. Mousseau and G.T. Barkema, PRE 57, 2419 (1998) (3) E. Marinari and G. Parisi, Europhys. Lett., 19 (6), 451 (1992) (4) Ph. Derreumaux, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2301 (1999); PRB 85, 206 (2000)

  14. An Investigation into Techniques for the Determination of Moisture Content on Activated Carbon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Activated carbon (or charcoal ) is a universal adsorbent for the removal of a variety of organic/inorganic contaminants, in both gaseous and aqueous phase...AD-A245 938 i * *~fl Nadoni Waren AN INVESTIGATION INTO TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETERMNATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON ACTIVATED CARBON (U) by L.E. Cameron...INVESTIGATION INTO TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON ACTIVATED CARBON (U) by L.E. Cameron and S.H.C. Liang Chemical Protecti

  15. Evaluation of acoustic emission technique for crack growth measurement in aeronautical structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted concerning the possibility to use the acoustic emission technique for the measurement of fatigue crack growth in aluminum alloy specimens. Two types of aluminum alloys were tested in the investigation. It was found that the acoustic emission technique provides a reliable indication of changes in the crack dimensions over relatively short periods of time. The level of acoustic activity serves as an indicator of the size of the cracks.

  16. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  17. Evaluating the dynamic response of in-flight thrust calculation techniques during throttle transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    New flight test maneuvers and analysis techniques for evaluating the dynamic response of in-flight thrust models during throttle transients have been developed and validated. The approach is based on the aircraft and engine performance relationship between thrust and drag. Two flight test maneuvers, a throttle step and a throttle frequency sweep, were developed and used in the study. Graphical analysis techniques, including a frequency domain analysis method, were also developed and evaluated. They provide quantitative and qualitative results. Four thrust calculation methods were used to demonstrate and validate the test technique. Flight test applications on two high-performance aircraft confirmed the test methods as valid and accurate. These maneuvers and analysis techniques were easy to implement and use. Flight test results indicate the analysis techniques can identify the combined effects of model error and instrumentation response limitations on the calculated thrust value. The methods developed in this report provide an accurate approach for evaluating, validating, or comparing thrust calculation methods for dynamic flight applications.

  18. The range of replications technique for assessing the external validity of road safety evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2012-03-01

    This paper introduces a simple statistical technique that can be used to assess the external validity of road safety evaluation studies. External validity refers to the possibility of generalising the results of research to other contexts than those in which it was made. There are several aspects of external validity. Two aspects that are often of interest concern the applicability of the results of road safety evaluation studies across countries and time. Can the results of studies made in one or more countries be applied in countries where studies have not been made? Can the results of studies made many years ago still be applied? The technique introduced in this paper is designed to provide support in answering these questions. The technique evaluates the stability of research results in time and space. The technique is based on cumulative meta-analysis and produces statistics that show the consistency of study results in time and space (across countries). The range of replications denotes the span of time and countries in which studies have been made. The idea is that if the results of studies are stable throughout the range of replications, one may have greater confidence in their external validity than if the results of research vary in time and between countries. The technique is illustrated by means of numerical examples.

  19. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benkiran, Imane; El Ouazzani, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i) passive irrigation, (ii) manually activated irrigation, and (iii) passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682 ± 0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876 ± 0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910 ± 0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α = 5%). Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system. PMID:27433162

  20. Innovative techniques to analyze time series of geomagnetic activity indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Potirakis, Stelios M.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic storms are undoubtedly among the most important phenomena in space physics and also a central subject of space weather. The non-extensive Tsallis entropy has been recently introduced, as an effective complexity measure for the analysis of the geomagnetic activity Dst index. The Tsallis entropy sensitively shows the complexity dissimilarity among different "physiological" (normal) and "pathological" states (intense magnetic storms). More precisely, the Tsallis entropy implies the emergence of two distinct patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a higher degree of organization, and (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a lower degree of organization. Other entropy measures such as Block Entropy, T-Complexity, Approximate Entropy, Sample Entropy and Fuzzy Entropy verify the above mentioned result. Importantly, the wavelet spectral analysis in terms of Hurst exponent, H, also shows the existence of two different patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian persistent behavior (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian anti-persistent behavior. Finally, we observe universality in the magnetic storm and earthquake dynamics, on a basis of a modified form of the Gutenberg-Richter law for the Tsallis statistics. This finding suggests a common approach to the interpretation of both phenomena in terms of the same driving physical mechanism. Signatures of discrete scale invariance in Dst time series further supports the aforementioned proposal.

  1. Best Estimate Method vs Evaluation Method: a comparison of two techniques in evaluating seismic analysis and design

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, S.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Smith, P.D.

    1980-05-01

    The concept of how two techniques, Best Estimate Method and Evaluation Method, may be applied to the traditional seismic analysis and design of a nuclear power plant is introduced. Only the four links of the seismic analysis and design methodology chain (SMC) - seismic input, soil-structure interaction, major structural response, and subsystem response - are considered. The objective is to evaluate the compounding of conservatisms in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear power plants, to provide guidance for judgments in the SMC, and to concentrate the evaluation on that part of the seismic analysis and design which is familiar to the engineering community. An example applies the effects of three-dimensional excitations on a model of a nuclear power plant structure. The example demonstrates how conservatisms accrue by coupling two links in the SMC and comparing those results to the effects of one link alone. The utility of employing the Best Estimate Method vs the Evaluation Method is also demonstrated.

  2. Evaluating bruise susceptibility of ’Golden Delicious’ apples using hyperspectral scattering technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research evaluated the potential of hyperspectral scattering technique for predicting the bruise susceptibility of apples. Spectral scattering images between 500 and 1,000 nm were acquired for 300 ‘Golden Delicious’ apples over a time period of three weeks after harvest, using a hyperspectral i...

  3. Assessment of Techniques for Evaluating Computer Systems for Federal Agency Procurements. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letmanyi, Helen

    Developed to identify and qualitatively assess computer system evaluation techniques for use during acquisition of general purpose computer systems, this document presents several criteria for comparison and selection. An introduction discusses the automatic data processing (ADP) acquisition process and the need to plan for uncertainty through…

  4. Non-destructive evaluation techniques, high temperature ceramic component parts for gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, H.; Hirsekorn, S.; Lottermoser, J.; Goebbels, K.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns studies conducted on various tests undertaken on material without destroying the material. Tests included: microradiographic techniques, vibration analysis, high-frequency ultrasonic tests with the addition of evaluation of defects and structure through analysis of ultrasonic scattering data, microwave tests and analysis of sound emission.

  5. Development of an invitro technique to use mouse embryonic stem cell in evaluating effects of xenobiotics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal has been to develop a high-throughput, in vitro technique for evaluating the effects of xenobiotics using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We began with the Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST), which is used to predict the embryotoxic potential of a test compound by combin...

  6. An Accountability Technique in Higher Education: The Role of Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Evaluation System (PPBES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Zdzislaw P.

    In response to the demand for accountability in higher education, colleges have adopted business techniques of planning and management systems in the form of Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Evaluation System (PPBES). The system approach to educational administration consists of three interrelated concepts: (1) input, (2) process, and (3)…

  7. A new technique for the evaluation of shale stability in the presence of polymeric drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.F.

    1988-08-01

    A quantitative evaluation technique for shale stability in a polymeric medium has been developed with a rheological method. The storage modulus of a shale pellet immersed in a drilling fluid is used to predict the shale-inhibitive properties of the fluid. Polymer concentration, molecular weight, carboxyl substitution, and KCl concentration are important parameters affecting shale stability.

  8. Evaluation of Hemagglutination Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L−1. The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH. PMID:25759815

  9. Evaluation of hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Jefferson Muniz; Sarmento, Ronaldo Rodrigues; de Souza, Joelma Rodrigues; Brayner, Fábio André; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; Padilha, Rafael; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Porto, Isaque Jerônimo; Batista, Roberta Ferreti Bonan Dantas; de Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; de Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4) D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L(-1). The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS) collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH.

  10. Getting the Most Out of Dual-Listed Courses: Involving Undergraduate Students in Discussion Through Active Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasich, C. M.; Duncan, L. L.; Duncan, B. R.; Burkhardt, B. L.; Benneyworth, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dual-listed courses will persist in higher education because of resource limitations. The pedagogical differences between undergraduate and graduate STEM student groups and the underlying distinction in intellectual development levels between the two student groups complicate the inclusion of undergraduates in these courses. Active learning techniques are a possible remedy to the hardships undergraduate students experience in graduate-level courses. Through an analysis of both undergraduate and graduate student experiences while enrolled in a dual-listed course, we implemented a variety of learning techniques used to complement the learning of both student groups and enhance deep discussion. Here, we provide details concerning the implementation of four active learning techniques - role play, game, debate, and small group - that were used to help undergraduate students critically discuss primary literature. Student perceptions were gauged through an anonymous, end-of-course evaluation that contained basic questions comparing the course to other courses at the university and other salient aspects of the course. These were given as a Likert scale on which students rated a variety of statements (1 = strongly disagree, 3 = no opinion, and 5 = strongly agree). Undergraduates found active learning techniques to be preferable to traditional techniques with small-group discussions being rated the highest in both enjoyment and enhanced learning. The graduate student discussion leaders also found active learning techniques to improve discussion. In hindsight, students of all cultures may be better able to take advantage of such approaches and to critically read and discuss primary literature when written assignments are used to guide their reading. Applications of active learning techniques can not only address the gap between differing levels of students, but also serve as a complement to student engagement in any science course design.

  11. Evaluation of NDE techniques for type 439 stainless steel feedwater heater tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, M.J.; Catapano, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Ferritic stainless steel has been finding increased application in utility plant feedwater heaters due to good strength and corrosion resistance and absence of potential copper contamination of feedwater system. Ferritic stainless steel is highly magnetic and is generally not inspectable using conventional eddy current testing techniques. A variety of techniques have been developed for inspection of this tubing material used in typical heat exchanger applications. Through a project completely funded by the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO), the data generated by four present state of the art NDE testing techniques was evaluated on a controlled mock-up of the heater tubing with service related defects. The primary objective was to determine the strengths and limitations of each method. The testing of two (2) in service feedwater heaters at the Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison`s) Arthur Kill Generating Station also allowed further evaluations based on actual field conditions.

  12. The Application of a Residual Risk Evaluation Technique Used for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, John A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provides a Residual Risk Evaluation Technique (RRET) developed by Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Launch Services Division. This technique is one of many procedures used by S&MA at KSC to evaluate residual risks for each Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) mission. RRET is a straight forward technique that incorporates the proven methodology of risk management, fault tree analysis, and reliability prediction. RRET derives a system reliability impact indicator from the system baseline reliability and the system residual risk reliability values. The system reliability impact indicator provides a quantitative measure of the reduction in the system baseline reliability due to the identified residual risks associated with the designated ELV mission. An example is discussed to provide insight into the application of RRET.

  13. AN EVALUATION OF CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR LOW-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC CABLES

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.J.; GROVE,E.; SOO,P.

    2000-07-23

    Aging of systems and components in nuclear power plants is a well known occurrence that must be managed to ensure the continued safe operation of these plants. Much of the degradation due to aging is controlled through periodic maintenance and/or component replacement. However, there are components that do not receive periodic maintenance or monitoring once they are installed; electric cables are such a component. To provide a means of monitoring the condition of electric cables, research is ongoing to evaluate promising condition monitoring (CM) techniques that can be used in situ to monitor cable condition and predict remaining life. While several techniques are promising, each has limitations that must be considered in its application. This paper discusses the theory behind several of the promising cable CM techniques being studied, along with their effectiveness for monitoring aging degradation in typical cable insulation materials, such as cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber. Successes and limitations of each technique are also presented.

  14. A new microtomographic technique for non-invasive evaluation of the bone structure around implants.

    PubMed

    Sennerby, L; Wennerberg, A; Pasop, F

    2001-02-01

    A new X-ray microtomographic technique for non-invasive assessment of the structure of bone surrounding implants was tested. Three titanium microimplants retrieved directly (n = 2) or 6 months (n = 1) after insertion in 3 patients were used as test samples. Two samples were used dry and one was embedded in plastic resin prior to microtomography. The technique provided high-resolution consecutive cross-sectional X-ray images of the specimens with a slice-to-slice distance of 4.4 to 11.0 microns. The pictures could be imported into an image analysing software with which semiautomatic quantitative measurement of the bone area and three-dimensional images of the specimens could be made. It is suggested that the technique may be used for non-invasive assessment of the bone structure around implants. Further studies are needed to evaluate the accuracy of the technique, for instance by comparing tomographic sections with histologic ones.

  15. Evaluation of nondestructive testing techniques for the space shuttle nonmetallic thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiede, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate nondestructive analysis techniques for the detection of defects in rigidized surface insulation (a candidate material for the Space Shuttle thermal protection system). Uncoated, coated, and coated and bonded samples with internal defects (voids, cracks, delaminations, density variations, and moisture content), coating defects (holes, cracks, thickness variations, and loss of adhesion), and bondline defects (voids and unbonds) were inspected by X-ray radiography, acoustic, microwave, high-frequency ultrasonic, beta backscatter, thermal, holographic, and visual techniques. The detectability of each type of defect was determined for each technique (when applicable). A possible relationship between microwave reflection measurements (or X-ray-radiography density measurements) and the tensile strength was established. A possible approach for in-process inspection using a combination of X-ray radiography, acoustic, microwave, and holographic techniques was recommended.

  16. A Load-Based Multiple-Partial Unloading Micro-Indentation Technique for Mechanical Property Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    C. Feng; J.M. Tannenbaum; B.S. Kang; M.A. Alvin

    2009-07-23

    A load-based multiple-partial unloading microindentation technique has been developed for evaluating mechanical properties of materials. Comparing to the current prevailing nano/micro-indentation methods, which require precise measurements of the indentation depth and load, the proposed technique only measures indentation load and the overall indentation displacement (i.e. including displacement of the loading apparatus). Coupled with a multiple-partial unloading procedure during the indentation process, this technique results in a load-depth sensing indentation system capable of determining Young’s modulus of metallic alloys with flat, tubular, or curved architectures. Test results show consistent and correct elastic modulus values when performing indentation tests on standard alloys such as steel, aluminum, bronze, and single crystal superalloys. The proposed micro-indentation technique has led to the development of a portable loaddepth sensing indentation system capable of on-site, in-situ material property measurement.

  17. A Review of Emerging Analytical Techniques for Objective Physical Activity Measurement in Humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cain C T; Barnes, Claire M; Stratton, Gareth; McNarry, Melitta A; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Summers, Huw D

    2017-03-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the world. A fundamental barrier to enhancing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary behavior is limited by our understanding of associated measurement and analytical techniques. The number of analytical techniques for physical activity measurement has grown significantly, and although emerging techniques may advance analyses, little consensus is presently available and further synthesis is therefore required. The objective of this review was to identify the accuracy of emerging analytical techniques used for physical activity measurement in humans. We conducted a search of electronic databases using Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. This review included studies written in English and published between January 2010 and December 2014 that assessed physical activity using emerging analytical techniques and reported technique accuracy. A total of 2064 papers were initially retrieved from three databases. After duplicates were removed and remaining articles screened, 50 full-text articles were reviewed, resulting in the inclusion of 11 articles that met the eligibility criteria. Despite the diverse nature and the range in accuracy associated with some of the analytic techniques, the rapid development of analytics has demonstrated that more sensitive information about physical activity may be attained. However, further refinement of these techniques is needed.

  18. Nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage on low-alloy steel by magnetic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasawa, T.; Komura, I.; Chujow, N.

    1994-12-31

    In the nuclear power plant, fatigue damage is one of the most significant degradation behavior which is expected that the structural components is received during long term operation. In order to estimate the plant life and to ensure the reliability of the plants, nondestructive detection and evaluation of fatigue damage of the components are a key technology. Magneto mechanical acoustic emission (MAE) method was applied to the evaluation of fatigue damage of reactor pressure vessel steel. Several MAE parameters which were obtained from the signal processing and waveform analysis on fatigue specimens, were measured and investigated as a function of cumulative fatigue damage factor. Consequently, these MAE parameters were compared to the results by X-ray diffraction technique, hardness testing and microstructural observation. The usefulness of MAE method as the nondestructive evaluation technique of fatigue damage was discussed.

  19. Evaluation of lung tumor response to therapy: Current and emerging techniques.

    PubMed

    Coche, E

    2016-10-01

    Lung tumor response to therapy may be evaluated in most instances by morphological criteria such as RECIST 1.1 on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, those criteria are limited because they are based on tumoral dimensional changes and do not take into account other morphologic criteria such as density evaluation, functional or metabolic changes that may occur following conventional or targeted chemotherapy. New techniques such as dual-energy CT, PET-CT, MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI has to be considered into the new technical armamentarium for tumor response evaluation. Integration of all informations provided by the different imaging modalities has to be integrated and represents probably the future goal of tumor response evaluation. The aim of the present paper is to review the current and emerging imaging criteria used to evaluate the response of therapy in the field of lung cancer.

  20. Restoration of active gully systems following the implementation of bioengineering techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Pablo; Vanacker, Veerle; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Intensive land use in the central parts of the Andean basin has led to widespread land degradation. The formation of badlands dates back from the 1950s and 1960s. Several studies indicate that human activities have accelerated mountain erosion rates by up to 100 times. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of bio-engineering works aiming to stabilize degraded catchments. Five micro-catchments (0.2 up to 5 ha) have been selected within a 3 km2 area in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). The five micro-catchments differ in vegetation cover and implementation of bio-engineering works. The experimental design consisted of three micro-catchments: (1) DI with conservation works, (2) DF with reforestation by Eucalyptus sp and (3) DT with no conservation works. Two micro-catchments have been monitored in an agricultural area: with (AI) and without (AT) bio-engineering works in the active gullies. Small checkdams were constructed in the gully floors of two of the micro-catchments in the badland area (DI) and the agricultural area (AI). The checkdams are made of wood and tires. Water flow has been measured in every micro-catchment, while sediment traps were constructed to monitor sediment transport. Results show that bio-engineering techniques are effective to stabilize active gullies. Deposition of sediments in manmade dams is strongly dependent on previous rainfall events, as well as gully channel slope, and its vegetation cover. From the experimental data, an I30 max threshold value was determined. Above this threshold value, all micro-catchments are actively contributing sediment to the main river system. The checkdams built with wood and tires have an efficiency of 70%, and were shown to be very effective to stabilize active gullies in bad lands through significant reduction (about 62%) of the amount of sediment exported from the micro-catchments. Key words: degraded soils, erosion, sediment, restoration, reforestation

  1. Dilatometric technique for evaluation of the kinetics of solid-state transformation of maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, U.K.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Ganguly, C.

    1993-12-01

    Solid-state transformation kinetics of a 350 grad commercial maraging steel were investigated using a nonisothermal dilatometric technique. Two solid-state reactions -- namely, precipitation of intermetallic phases from supersaturated martensite and reversion of martensite to austenite -- were identified. Determination was made of the temperatures at which the rates of these reactions reached a maximum at different heating rates. The kinetics of the individual reactions in terms of activation energy were analyzed by simplified procedures based on the Kissinger equation. An estimated activation energy of 145 {+-} 4 kJ/mol for the precipitation of intermetallic phase was in good agreement with reported results based on the isothermal hardness measurement technique. Martensite to austenite reversion was associated with an activation energy of 224 {+-} 4 kJ/mol, which is very close to the activation energy for diffusion of substitutional elements in ferrite. Results were supplemented with microstructural analysis.

  2. Active spectral sensor evaluation under varying conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant stress has been estimated by spectral signature using both passive and active sensors. As optical sensors measure reflected light from a target, changes in illumination characteristics critically affect sensor response. Active sensors are of benefit in minimizing uncontrolled illumination effe...

  3. Neural Detection of Malicious Network Activities Using a New Direct Parsing and Feature Extraction Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NETWORK ACTIVITIES USING A NEW DIRECT PARSING AND FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE by Cheng Hong Low September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Phillip Pace Co...FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Low, Cheng Hong 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Center for...FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE Cheng Hong Low Civlian, ST Aerospace, Singapore M.Sc., National University of Singapore, 2012 Submitted in

  4. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of finishing techniques on IRM and EBA retrofillings.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, E L; Steiman, H R

    1997-07-01

    Various techniques have been advocated for finishing retrofilling materials. This study evaluated marginal interfaces between tooth structure and the retrofilling material following three techniques of finishing IRM and EBA. This interface was evaluated for the presence of flash and for adaptation to the prepared canal walls. Thirty-one teeth were divided into six groups of five and one control. The teeth were instrumented to a minimum of a 35 K-file, obturated with gutta-percha, resected perpendicular to their long axes and ultrasonically prepared to receive a retrofilling. The teeth were filled with either IRM or EBA cement and finished by ball burnishing, burnishing with a moistened cotton pellet, or with a carbide finishing bur in a high-speed handpiece with air/water spray. Photomicrographs were made and examined by four evaluators. Retrofillings finished with a finishing bur displayed significantly better marginal adaptation and little evidence of flash when compared to the other techniques (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between ball burnished or moistened cotton pellet techniques or between retrofilling materials used in this study (p < 0.05).

  5. Imaging techniques in the evaluation of post-infarction function and scar.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Eduardo; Sanz, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Imaging techniques are essential in the clinical evaluation of patients with a myocardial infarction. They are of value for both initial assessment of the ischemic injury and for detection of the subgroup of patients at higher risk of developing cardiovascular events during follow-up. Echocardiography remains the technique of choice for the initial evaluation, owing to its bedside capability to determine strong predictors, such as ventricular volumes, global and regional systolic function, and valvular regurgitation. New techniques for evaluating ventricular mechanics, mainly assessment of ventricular deformation, are revealing important aspects of post-infarction ventricular adaptation. The main alternative to echocardiography is cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. This technique is highly accurate for determining ventricular volumes and ventricular function and has the additional advantage of being able to characterize the myocardium and demonstrate changes associated with the ischemic insult such as necrosis/fibrosis, edema, microvascular obstruction, and intramyocardial hemorrhage. These features not only allow detection and quantification of the infarct size, but also reveal additional characteristics of the scar tissue with prognostic value.

  6. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  7. ARTHROSCOPIC RELEASE OF THE SUPRASCAPULAR NERVE: SURGICAL TECHNIQUE AND EVALUATION OF CLINICAL CASES

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Júnior, José Carlos; Paccola, Ana Maria Ferreira; Tonoli, Cristiane; Zabeu, José Luis Amin; Garcia, Jesely Pereira Myrrha

    2015-01-01

    To describe a specific surgical technique for arthroscopic decompression of the suprascapular nerve (SSN) and evaluate its preliminary results. Methods: Ten shoulders of nine patients were operated using a technique with portals differing from the already-known techniques, which did not use traction and made use of materials available within the public healthcare system. Results: Among the ten shoulders of nine patients, eight were right shoulders and two were left shoulders. The mean age was 69.5 years. The UCLA score increased from 11.7 to 26.1 points over the postoperative follow-up of 16.6 months. The SF-36 questionnaire score was 122.9 and the raw pain scale value was 88%. Conclusion: Arthroscopic decompression of the SSN in accordance with the described technique is reproducible and less traumatic than the open techniques. The patients achieved improvements in many of the parameters evaluated, particularly with regard to pain. Arthroscopic decompression of the SSN may be a therapeutic option for pathological compression of the SSN. PMID:27027028

  8. Evaluation of analysis techniques for low frequency interior noise and vibration of commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landmann, A. E.; Tillema, H. F.; Marshall, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of selected analysis techniques to low frequency cabin noise associated with advanced propeller engine installations is evaluated. Three design analysis techniques were chosen for evaluation including finite element analysis, statistical energy analysis (SEA), and a power flow method using element of SEA (computer program Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise). An overview of the three procedures is provided. Data from tests of a 727 airplane (modified to accept a propeller engine) were used to compare with predictions. Comparisons of predicted and measured levels at the end of the first year's effort showed reasonable agreement leading to the conclusion that each technique had value for propeller engine noise predictions on large commercial transports. However, variations in agreement were large enough to remain cautious and to lead to recommendations for further work with each technique. Assessment of the second year's results leads to the conclusion that the selected techniques can accurately predict trends and can be useful to a designer, but that absolute level predictions remain unreliable due to complexity of the aircraft structure and low modal densities.

  9. Imported malaria in United Arab Emirates: evaluation of a new DNA extraction technique using nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Doaa M; Khalil, Marwa M; Abdouh, Ahmed S; Doleh, Wafaa F; Al Muthanna, Abdul Aziz M

    2009-09-01

    Local malaria transmission in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) came to an end in 1997. Nevertheless, UAE has been subjected to substantial importation of malaria cases from abroad, concerning both UAE nationals and immigrants from malarious countries with a total number of 2,119 cases in 2007. To evaluate a new DNA extraction technique using nested PCR, blood samples were collected from 132 individuals who presented to Infectious Diseases Department in Rashid Hospital, Dubai, and Central Department of Malaria Control with fever and persistent headache. Giemsa-stained blood films and ELISA test for malaria antibodies were carried out for detection of Plasmodium infection. Plasmodium infections were identified with the genus-specific primer set and species differentiation using nested PCR. A rapid procedure for diagnosis of malaria infections directly from dried blood spots using for the first time DNA extract from FTA Elute cards was evaluated in contrast to extraction techniques using FTA classic cards and rapid boiling technique. Our new simple technique for DNA extraction using FTA Elute cards was very sensitive giving a sensitivity of 100% compared to 94% using FTA classic cards and 62% in the rapid boiling technique. No complex preparation of blood samples was required prior to the amplification. The production cost of DNA isolation in our PCR assay was much less in comparable to that of other DNA extraction protocols. The nested PCR detected plasmodial infection and could differentiate P. falciparum from P. vivax, and also detected the mixed infection.

  10. Best available techniques (BATs) for oil spill response in the Mediterranean Sea: calm sea and presence of economic activities.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Giambattista; Sliskovic, Merica; Violante, Anna Carmela; Vukic, Luka

    2016-01-01

    An oil spill is the accidental or intentional discharge of petroleum products into the environment due to human activities. Although oil spills are actually just a little percent of the total world oil pollution problem, they represent the most visible form of it. The impact on the ecosystems can be severe as well as the impact on economic activities. Oil spill cleanup is a very difficult and expensive activity, and many techniques are available for it. In previous works, a methodology based on different kinds of criteria in order to come to the most satisfactory technique was proposed and the relative importance of each impact criterion on the basis of the Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was also evaluated. After a review of the best available techniques (BATs) available for oil spill response, this work suggests criteria for BATs' selection when oil spills occur in the Mediterranean Sea under well-defined circumstances: calm sea and presence of economic activities in the affected area. A group of experts with different specializations evaluated the alternative BATs by means of AHP method taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Evaluation of three instrumentation techniques at the precision of apical stop and apical sealing of obturation

    PubMed Central

    GENÇ, Özgür; ALAÇAM, Tayfun; KAYAOGLU, Guven

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of two NiTi rotary apical preparation techniques used with an electronic apex locator-integrated endodontic motor and a manual technique to create an apical stop at a predetermined level (0.5 mm short of the apical foramen) in teeth with disrupted apical constriction, and to evaluate microleakage following obturation in such prepared teeth. Material and Methods: 85 intact human mandibular permanent incisors with single root canal were accessed and the apical constriction was disrupted using a #25 K-file. The teeth were embedded in alginate and instrumented to #40 using rotary Lightspeed or S-Apex techniques or stainless-steel K-files. Distance between the apical foramen and the created apical stop was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. In another set of instrumented teeth, root canals were obturated using gutta-percha and sealer, and leakage was tested at 1 week and 3 months using a fluid filtration device. Results All techniques performed slightly short of the predetermined level. Closest preparation to the predetermined level was with the manual technique and the farthest was with S-Apex. A significant difference was found between the performances of these two techniques (p<0.05). Lightspeed ranked in between. Leakage was similar for all techniques at either period. However, all groups leaked significantly more at 3 months compared to 1 week (p<0.05). Conclusions Despite statistically significant differences found among the techniques, deviations from the predetermined level were small and clinically acceptable for all techniques. Leakage following obturation was comparable in all groups. PMID:21655774

  12. Development of nondestructive non-contact acousto-thermal evaluation technique for damage detection in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, Shamachary; Welter, John T.; Jata, Kumar V.; Schehl, Norman; Boehnlein, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a new non-contact acousto-thermal signature (NCATS) nondestructive evaluation technique. The physical basis of the method is the measurement of the efficiency of the material to convert acoustic energy into heat, and a theoretical model has been used to evaluate this. The increase in temperature due to conversion of acoustic energy injected into the material without direct contact was found to depend on the thermal and elastic properties of the material. In addition, it depends on the experimental parameters of the acoustic source power, the distance between sample and acoustic source, and the period of acoustic excitation. Systematic experimental approaches to optimize each of the experimental variables to maximize the observed temperature changes are described. The potential of the NCATS technique to detect microstructural-level changes in materials is demonstrated by evaluating accumulated damage due to plasticity in Ti-6Al-4V and low level thermal damage in polymer matrix composites. The ability of the technique for macroscopic applications in nondestructive evaluation is demonstrated by imaging a crack in an aluminum test sample.

  13. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Nuclear Materials Using Non-Destructive Ball Indentation Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, M.D.; Linga Murty, K.

    2002-07-01

    Integrity of structural components depends on the deformation and fracture behavior of materials. For evaluating the material condition in-service, it is generally not feasible or practical or advisable to cut samples from operating structures. Non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques are required to evaluate the mechanical properties. Although several NDT techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic strength, Barkhausen noise, microhardness etc., are employed for estimating the mechanical property degradation, these methodologies are generally empirical and indirect. Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) is a non-destructive testing technique for direct measurement of mechanical and fracture properties of metallic engineering materials. Because of the small area over which the test is carried out, it is possible to determine point to point variations in the mechanical and fracture properties, such as those that exist in weldments. Although ABI technique is non-intrusive, it is a state-of-the-art mechanical test that measures directly the current/local deformation behavior of the material. In this paper, we present results from studies on the application of ABI technique to determine tensile and fracture properties of ferritic steels, an austenitic stainless steel, a nickel base superalloy and Zircaloy in different thermo-mechanical conditions. The effects of aging and cold work on these properties were determined from the ABI tests. Gradients in mechanical properties of ferritic steel welds, particularly in the narrow heat-affected zone, were clearly established. ABI technique was found to be useful in determining the anisotropy in the tensile properties of Zircaloy cladding tubes. The technique has potential as a non-destructive method for assessing structural integrity of aged components. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of a Single-Isocenter Technique for Axillary Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beek, Suzanne van Jaeger, Katrien de; Mijnheer, Ben |; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for axillary radiotherapy that minimizes the risk of radiation-induced damage to the surrounding normal tissue (i.e., arm, shoulder, lung, esophagus, and spinal cord) while keeping the risk of a nodal recurrence to a minimum. A planning study was performed in 20 breast cancer patients. The target volume of the axillary treatment encompassed the periclavicular and axillary lymph node areas. The 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) information in this study was used to outline the lymph node areas and the organs at risk (i.e., the esophagus, spinal cord, brachial plexus, and lung). A conventional AP-PA technique (with a transmission plate placed in the AP beam) was evaluated. In addition, a new single-isocenter technique consisting of AP/PA fields using a gantry rotation of {+-}20 deg. and a medial AP segment was developed. Both techniques were compared by evaluation of the calculated dose distributions and the dose-volume histograms of the target volume and surrounding organs at risk. The field borders and humeral shielding were redefined based on the 3D anatomical references. Adapting the humeral shielding reduced the irradiated volume by 19% and might contribute to a reduction of the incidence of arm edema and impairment of shoulder function. The maximum radiation dose in the esophagus and spinal cord was reduced by more than 50% using the single-isocenter technique. The difference between both techniques with respect to the mean doses in the target volume and lung, and the maximum dose in brachial plexus, was not statistically significant. Moreover, the single-isocenter technique allowed a fast and easy treatment preparation and reduced the execution time considerably (with approximately 10 minutes per fraction)

  15. Applications of emerging imaging techniques for meat quality and safety detection and evaluation: A review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhenjie; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Gao, Wenhong; Dai, Qiong

    2017-03-04

    With improvement in people's living standards, many people nowadays pay more attention to quality and safety of meat. However, traditional methods for meat quality and safety detection and evaluation, such as manual inspection, mechanical methods, and chemical methods, are tedious, time-consuming, and destructive, which cannot meet the requirements of modern meat industry. Therefore, seeking out rapid, non-destructive, and accurate inspection techniques is important for the meat industry. In recent years, a number of novel and noninvasive imaging techniques, such as optical imaging, ultrasound imaging, tomographic imaging, thermal imaging, and odor imaging, have emerged and shown great potential in quality and safety assessment. In this paper, a detailed overview of advanced applications of these emerging imaging techniques for quality and safety assessment of different types of meat (pork, beef, lamb, chicken, and fish) is presented. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of each imaging technique are also summarized. Finally, future trends for these emerging imaging techniques are discussed, including integration of multiple imaging techniques, cost reduction, and developing powerful image-processing algorithms.

  16. Three-dimensional helical computed tomographic evaluation of three obturation techniques: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chokkalingam, M; Ramaprabha; Kandaswamy, D

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of three obturation techniques namely lateral condensation, EQ Fil (backfill obturation) and thermafil (core carrier obturation) techniques using three-dimensional (3D) helical computed tomography (CT) by volume rendering method. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 10 teeth each. Biomechanical preparation was done in all the teeth using rotary instruments. All three sets of teeth were placed in helical CT slice scanner and were imaged before obturation. The three sets were then obturated by following methods: Group I: lateral condensation, Group II: EQ Fil (backfill) and Group III: thermafil (core carrier obturation).Volume of the pulp chamber and gutta-percha after obturation were calculated using volume rendering technique and adequacy of the obturation techniques were calculated. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Multiple-Range Tukey Test by Tukey-HSD procedure Results: Mean change in lateral condensation (0.005±0.002) was significantly higher than that of thermafil obturation (0.002±0.001) [P<0.05]. Conclusions: Conventional lateral condensation technique showed maximal inadequacy of obturation and thermafil obturation technique showed the least inadequacy of obturation when the volume of the specimens were calculated and reconstructed PMID:22025832

  17. 76 FR 31683 - Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Eligibility... to determine their eligibility for burial in a National Cemetery prior to the actual time of...

  18. Microleakage Evaluation Around Retrograde Filling Materials Prepared Using Conventional and Ultrasonic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, Nagesh; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Vemuri, Sayesh; Chukka, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of the retrograde cavity preparation and the material used to restore is of utmost importance to achieve successful surgical endodontics. Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the apical micro-leakage of root end cavities filled with Mineral trioxide aggregate, Biodentine and light cure GIC using two different cavity preparation techniques that is conventional bur preparation and ultrasonic tip preparation. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted single rooted human teeth (except mandibular incisors) with one canal, fully developed apices and without any major carious lesion are collected for the study. The teeth were sectioned at CEJ to standardize the length. Roots are instrumented upto master apical file 40 K size and obturated with gutta percha and AH plus sealer in lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then resected apically at 90° angle axis to the long axis of the root removing 3 mm of the apex. The teeth were divided in to four groups of 20 each- • Group I- samples restored with MTA. • Group II- samples restored with Biodentine. • Group III- (Positive control group)- samples restored with Light activated GIC. • Group IV - (negative control group)- no filling material. Each group is divided into two subgroups (a, b) of ten teeth each 1. Retropreparation done with ultrasonic retrotip. 2. Retropreparation done with conventional bur. The teeth were then immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B dye for 48 h. The teeth were split longitudinally and the interface between the restored material and the canal wall is observed under Confocal laser scanning microscope. Depth of dye penetration was examined under stereomicroscope. Results: The statistical analysis was performed by One way ANOVA, t test. Pair wise comparision was done by Newman – Keuls multiple post hoc test. The mean values of Dye penetration for Group Ia (321.23), Group Ib (490.11), Group IIa (1065.14), Group IIb (1170.96), Group IIIa (1888.90), Group

  19. Evaluation of the treatment of human Schistosoma mansoni infection by the quantitative oogram technique*

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, J. Romeu; da Cunha, A. Sales; de Carvalho, D. Garcia; Cambraia, J. N. Santos

    1965-01-01

    Egg output is the only measure available for quantitative assessment of the activity of chemotherapeutic agents in Schistosoma mansoni infection. In the light of eight years' experience in the preparations of oograms, the authors suggest a simplified classification of S. mansoni eggs and certain improvements in the oogram technique by which quantitative data are obtained for comparison before and after treatment. Ten cases, taken from clinical trials on a variety of schistosomicidal compounds, are presented to illustrate the use of the quantitative oogram and the types of result obtained with active, partially active and inactive drugs. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 2FIG. 1 PMID:5323117

  20. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

  1. Evaluation of Field-in-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Cem; Sonmez, Aydan; Arslan, Gungor; Sonmez, Serhat; Efe, Esma; Oymak, Ezgi

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a field-in-field (FIF) technique for total body irradiation (TBI) using a treatment-planning system (TPS) and to verify TPS results with in vivo dose measurements using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors. Methods and Materials: Clinical and dosimetric data of 10 patients treated with TBI were assessed. Certain radiation parameters were measured using homogenous and regular phantoms at an extended distance of 380 cm, and the results were compared with data from a conventional standard distance of 100 cm. Additionally, dosimetric validation of TPS doses was performed with a Rando phantom using manual calculations. A three-dimensional computed tomography plan was generated involving 18-MV photon beams with a TPS for both open-field and FIF techniques. The midline doses were measured at the head, neck, lung, umbilicus, and pelvis for both open-field and FIF techniques. Results: All patients received planned TBI using the FIF technique with 18-MV photon energies and 2 Gy b.i.d. on 3 consecutive days. The difference in tissue maximum ratios between the extended and conventional distances was <2%. The mean deviation of manual calculations compared with TPS data was +1.6% (range, 0.1-2.4%). A homogenous dose distribution was obtained with 18-MV photon beams using the FIF technique. The mean lung dose for the FIF technique was 79.2% (9.2 Gy; range, 8.8-9.7 Gy) of the prescribed dose. The MOSFET readings and TPS doses in the body were similar (percentage difference range, -0.5% to 2.5%) and slightly higher in the shoulder and lung (percentage difference range, 4.0-5.5%). Conclusion: The FIF technique used for TBI provides homogenous dose distribution and is feasible, simple, and spares time compared with more-complex techniques. The TPS doses were similar to the midline doses obtained from MOSFET readings.

  2. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure activities evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-04-11

    This report evaluates the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements and closure plan requirements. The report concludes that the areas identified in the closure plan can be clean closed. This report summarizes and evaluates the closure activities performed in support of partial closure of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF). This evaluation will be used in assessing the condition of the 105-DR LSFF for the purpose of meeting the partial clean closure conditions described in the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1995). Based on the evaluation of the decontamination activities, sampling activities, and sample data, it is has been determined that the partial clean closure conditions for the 105-DR LSFF have been met.

  3. Application of internal friction damping as a nondestructive evaluation technique for wire rope

    SciTech Connect

    Hochrein, A.A.; Sherrard, J.R.; Thiruvengadam, A.P.

    1983-05-01

    This paper discusses the technical feasibility of applying internal friction damping (IFD) as a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique to wire rope. The paper addresses the technical feasibility, laboratory testing on wire rope, and the associated test results on various samples of wire rope. These tests were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments by measuring the internal friction damping during which several test parameters were changed. The test parameters including the tensile load, frequency of test load, exposure time of rope to load and variations in rope construction are discussed from the standpoint of IFD-NDE measurements.

  4. A systems approach of the nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to Scout solid rocket motors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oaks, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    Review and appraisal of the status of the nondestructive tests applied to Scout solid-propellant rocket motors, using analytical techniques to evaluate radiography for detecting internal discontinuities such as voids and unbonds. Information relating to selecting, performing, controlling, and evaluating the results of NDE tests was reduced to a common simplified format. With these data and the results of the analytical studies performed, it was possible to make the basic appraisals of the ability of a test to meet all pertinent acceptance criteria and, where necessary, provide suggestions to improve the situation.

  5. Segmentation techniques evaluation based on a single compact breast mass classification scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheus, Bruno R. N.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Schiabel, Homero

    2016-03-01

    In this work some segmentation techniques are evaluated by using a simple centroid-based classification system regarding breast mass delineation in digital mammography images. The aim is to determine the best one for future CADx developments. Six techniques were tested: Otsu, SOM, EICAMM, Fuzzy C-Means, K-Means and Level-Set. All of them were applied to segment 317 mammography images from DDSM database. A single compact set of attributes was extracted and two centroids were defined, one for malignant and another for benign cases. The final classification was based on proximity with a given centroid and the best results were presented by the Level-Set technique with a 68.1% of Accuracy, which indicates this method as the most promising for breast masses segmentation aiming a more precise interpretation in schemes CADx.

  6. The development of in situ fracture toughness evaluation techniques in hydrogen environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei; Tan, Ting; Liu, Ken C

    2014-01-01

    Fracture behavior and fracture toughness are of great interest regarding reliability of hydrogen pipelines and storage tanks, however, many conventional fracture testing techniques are difficult to be realized under the presence of hydrogen, in addition to the inherited specimen size effect. Thus it is desired to develop novel in situ fracture toughness evaluation techniques to study the fracture behavior of structural materials in hydrogen environments. In this study, a torsional fixture was developed to utilize an emerging fracture testing technique, Spiral Notch Torsion Test (SNTT). The in situ testing results indicated that the exposure to H2 significantly reduces the fracture toughness of 4340 high strength steels by up to 50 percent. Furthermore, SNTT tests conducted in air demonstrated a significant fracture toughness reduction in samples subject to simulated welding heat treatment using Gleeble, which illustrated the effect of welding on the fracture toughness of this material.

  7. In vivo evaluation of drug delivery after ultrasound application: A new use for the photoacoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barja, P. R.; Acosta-Avalos, D.; Rompe, P. C. B.; Dos Anjos, F. H.; Marciano, F. R.; da Silva, M. D.

    2005-06-01

    Ultrasound application is a therapeutical resource widely employed in physiotherapy. One of its applications is the phonophoresis, a technique in which the ultrasound radiation is utilized to deliver drugs through the skin to soft tissues. The proposal of our study was to employ the Photoacoustic Technique to evaluate the efficacy of such treatment, analyzing if phonophoresis could enhance drug delivery through skin when compared to the more traditional method of manual massage. The configuration of the system employed was such that it was possible to perform in vivo measurements, which is a pre-requisite for this kind of study. The changes observed in the photoacoustic signal amplitude after each form of drug application were attributed to changes in the thermal effusivity of the system, due to penetration of the drug. The technique was able to detect differences in drug delivery between the specified physiotherapy treatments, indicating that phonophoresis enhances drug absorption by tissue.

  8. Application of internal friction nondestructive evaluation technique for wire ropes used in mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Olver, L.; Brasfield, R.G.; Yeager, L.L.; Thiruvengadam, A.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report discusses the work done, and results obtained, in a program conducted to determine the feasibility of applying the Internal Friction Damping - Nondestructive Evaluation (IFD-NDE) technique to wire rope. Samples of wire rope were evaluated in laboratory experiments by measuring the internal friction damping while varying several test parameters. These parameters included tensile load, frequency of test, time under load and others. The report includes discussion of wire rope mechanics and application history of NDE. Also included are sections detailing IFD-NDE theory, experimental apparatus, and test technique. The data obtained in the program work is reviewed with several results and conclusions drawn. The report closes with recommendations for further work.

  9. Evaluation of an aeroelastic model technique for predicting airplane buffet loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    A wind-tunnel technique which makes use of a dynamically scaled aeroelastic model to predict full-scale airplane buffet loads during buffet boundary penetration is evaluated. A 1/8-scale flutter model of a fighter airplane with remotely controllable variable-sweep wings and trimming surfaces was used for the evaluation. The model was flown on a cable-mount system which permitted high lift forces comparable to those in maneuvering flight. Bending moments and accelerations due to buffet were measured on the flutter model and compared with those measured on the full-scale airplane in an independent flight buffet research study. It is concluded that the technique can provide valuable information on airplane buffet load characteristics not available from any other source except flight test.

  10. Evaluation of Cooperative Diversity Techniques Using STC for Future S-DMB Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Park, Unhee; Kim, Hee-Wook; Ahn, Do-Seob

    This paper presents an evaluation of various cooperative diversity techniques applied to future satellite digital multimedia broadcasting (S-DMB) systems. The increasing importance of hybrid and/or integrated satellite and terrestrial networks is associated with the utilization of spatial diversity techniques such as antenna diversity using space-time coding. The space-time coding schemes can be expected to result in more diversity gain as the number of transmit antennas are increased. However, we cannot design a rate-1 scheme that achieves full diversity for more than two transmit antennas. To overcome this limitation, quasi-orthogonal schemes were proposed, at the expense of the decoder complexity and diversity gain. In this paper, we introduce an efficient quasi-orthogonal space time coding scheme, and evaluate various aspects associated with the application of the proposed scheme to satellite systems. The proposed scheme in this paper provides the full rate as well as maximum-likelihood decoding via simple linear detection.

  11. Evaluation of Eurasian Watermilfoil Control Techniques Using Aquatic Herbicides in Fort Peck Lake, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    most likely to support spring growth of Eurasian watermilfoil and other invasive aquatic ERDC/EL TR-15-6 38 plants and to target areas that are...river that could support year-round or year-season growth of Eurasian watermilfoil or other invasive aquatic plants . • Increase boater awareness...ER D C/ EL T R- 15 -6 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Evaluation of Eurasian Watermilfoil Control Techniques Using Aquatic

  12. Techniques for Isolation and Evaluation of Fungal Parasites of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. G.; Riggs, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    A facultative fungal parasite, Arkansas Fungus 18 (ARF18), was isolated from at least 10 different sources of Heterodera glycines in different areas in the United States. Techniques used for isolation and in vitro evaluation of fungal parasites of H. glycines were described. Successful isolation of probable egg parasites depends on isolation from individual eggs. Selective isolation and a simple, yet definitive, screening system can increase the possibility of identifying effective biocontrol agents. PMID:19279930

  13. Non-Destructive and rapid evaluation of staple foods quality by using spectroscopic techniques: A review.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Hao; He, Hong-Ju; Sun, Da-Wen

    2017-03-24

    Staple foods, including cereals, legumes, and root/tuber crops, dominate the daily diet of humans by providing valuable proteins, starch, oils, minerals, and vitamins. Quality evaluation of staple foods is primarily carried out on sensory (e.g. external defect, color), adulteration (e.g. species, origin), chemical (e.g. starch, proteins), mycotoxin (e.g. Fusarium toxin, aflatoxin), parasitic infection (e.g. weevil, beetle), and internal physiological (e.g. hollow heart, black heart) aspects. Conventional methods for the quality assessment of staple foods are always laborious, destructive, and time-consuming. Requirements for online monitoring of staple foods have been proposed to encourage the development of rapid, reagentless, and noninvasive techniques. Spectroscopic techniques, such as visible-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and spectral imaging, have been introduced as promising analytical tools and applied for the quality evaluation of staple foods. This review summarizes the recent applications and progress of such spectroscopic techniques in determining various qualities of staple foods. Besides, challenges and future trends of these spectroscopic techniques are also presented.

  14. Evaluation of a solvent-softened gutta-percha obturation technique in curved canals.

    PubMed

    Moyer, P W; Osetek, E M; Ashkenaz, P; Gilbert, J L

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three obturation techniques in curved canals. Twenty-four sets of three (triplets) morphologically similar molars having root curvatures of 45 to 90+ degrees were assembled. Following canal preparation, one sample from each group was obturated by either a halothane-dipped, a chloroform-dipped, or an untreated lateral condensation technique. Twenty triplets were cleared, evaluated, and graded for homogeneity of fill, canal wall adaptation, and replication of internal anatomy. Four triplets had windows prepared to expose the apical 6 mm of filling and were viewed with scanning electron microscopy. Kruskal-Wallis test of cleared teeth indicated a significant difference in favor of the solvent-softened techniques (p = 0.01). There was no difference between chloroform- and halothane-dipped groups (p = 0.03). Scanning electron microscope evaluations of halothane-dipped samples revealed more homogeneous fills with greater canal replication than untreated gutta-percha. In addition, halothane-treated samples had appreciably less surface porosity than chloroform. Lateral condensation of halothane-treated gutta-percha was judged to be a viable obturation technique.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation of neutron irradiation embrittlement for reactor vessel steel by magnetomechanical acoustic emission technique

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Noriyoshi; Yamaguchi, Atsunori; Saito, Kiyoshi; Hirasawa, Taiji; Komura, Ichiroh; Chujou, Noriyuki

    1999-10-01

    A modified magnetomechanical acoustic emission (MAE) technique denoted Pulse MAE, in which the magnetizing current has a rectangular wave form, was developed as an NDE technique. Its applicability to the radiation damage for reactor pressure vessel steel was evaluated. The reactor pressure vessel steel A533B base metal and weld metal were irradiated to the two fluence levels: 5 {times} 10{sup 22} and 3 {times} 10{sup 23} n/m{sup 2} at 288 C. One side of the specimen was electropolished after irradiation. Pulse MAE signals were measured with a 350 kHz resonance frequency AE sensor at the moment when the magnetizing voltage is applied from zero to the set-up value abruptly. The AE signals were analyzed and the peak voltage Vp was determined for the measuring parameter. The peak voltage Vp showed the tendency to increase monotonically with increasing neutron fluence. The relationship between the Vp and mechanical properties such as yield stress, tensile strength and Charpy transition temperature were also obtained. The Pulse MAE technique proved to have the possibility to detect and evaluate the neutron irradiation embrittlement. The potential of the Pulse MAE as an effective NDE technique and applicability to the actual components are discussed.

  16. Nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage on low alloy steel by magnetomechanical acoustic emission technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraasawa, T.; Saito, K.; Komura, I.

    1995-08-01

    A modified magnetomechanical acoustic emission (MAE) technique, denoted Pulse-MAE, in which the magnetization by current pulse was adopted, was newly developed and its applicability was assessed for the nondestructive detection and evaluation of fatigue damage in reactor pressure vessel steel SFVV2 and SA508 class2. MAE signals were measured with both conventional MAE and Pulse-MAE technique for fatigue damaged specimens having several damage fractions, and peak voltage ratio Vp/Vo, where Vp and Vo were the peak voltage for damaged and undamaged specimen respectively, was chosen as a measure. Vp/Vo was found to increase monotonously at the early stage of fatigue process and the rate of increase in Vp/Vo during the fatigue process was larger in Pulse-MAE than conventional MAE. Therefore, Pulse-MAE technique proved to have higher sensitivity for the detection of fatigue damage compared with the conventional MAE and to have the potential of a practical technique for nondestructive detection and evaluation of fatigue damage in actual components.

  17. Evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of clayey soils using electrical resistivity imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibria, Golam

    Resistivity imaging (RI) is a promising approach to obtaining continuous profile of soil subsurface. This method offers simple technique to identify moisture variation and heterogeneity of the investigated area. However, at present, only qualitative information of subsurface can be obtained using RI. A study on the quantification of geotechnical properties has become important for rigorous use of this method in the evaluation of geohazard potential and construction quality control of landfill liner system. Several studies have been performed to describe electrical resistivity of soil as a function of pore fluid conductivity and surface conductance. However, characterization tests on pore water and surface charge are not typically performed in a conventional geotechnical investigation. The overall objective of this study is to develop correlations between geotechnical parameters and electrical resistivity of soil, which would provide a mean to estimate geotechnical properties from RI. As a part of the study, multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop practically applicable models correlating resistivity with influential geotechnical parameters. The soil samples considered in this study were classified as highly plastic clay (CH) and low plasticity clay (CL) according to Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Based on the physical tests, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, kaolinite was identified as the dominant mineral with some traces of magnesium, calcium, potassium, and iron. Electrical resistivity tests were conducted on compacted clays and undisturbed samples under varied geotechnical conditions. The experimental results indicated that the degree of saturation substantially influenced electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity decreased as much as 11 times from initial value for the increase of degree of saturation from 23 to 100% in the laboratory tests on compacted clays. In case of

  18. Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging techniques for quality evaluation and assessment of fish and fish products.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Ju; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, people have increasingly realized the importance of acquiring high quality and nutritional values of fish and fish products in their daily diet. Quality evaluation and assessment are always expected and conducted by using rapid and nondestructive methods in order to satisfy both producers and consumers. During the past two decades, spectroscopic and imaging techniques have been developed to nondestructively estimate and measure quality attributes of fish and fish products. Among these noninvasive methods, visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy, computer/machine vision, and hyperspectral imaging have been regarded as powerful and effective analytical tools for fish quality analysis and control. VIS/NIR spectroscopy has been widely applied to determine intrinsic quality characteristics of fish samples, such as moisture, protein, fat, and salt. Computer/machine vision on the other hand mainly focuses on the estimation of external features like color, weight, size, and surface defects. Recently, by incorporating both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system, hyperspectral imaging cannot only measure the contents of different quality attributes simultaneously, but also obtain the spatial distribution of such attributes when the quality of fish samples are evaluated and measured. This paper systematically reviews the research advances of these three nondestructive optical techniques in the application of fish quality evaluation and determination and discuss future trends in the developments of nondestructive technologies for further quality characterization in fish and fish products.

  19. Evaluation of clipping based iterative PAPR reduction techniques for FBMC systems.

    PubMed

    Kollár, Zsolt; Varga, Lajos; Horváth, Bálint; Bakki, Péter; Bitó, János

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates filter bankmulticarrier (FBMC), a multicarrier modulation technique exhibiting an extremely low adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) compared to conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique. The low ACLR of the transmitted FBMC signal makes it especially favorable in cognitive radio applications, where strict requirements are posed on out-of-band radiation. Large dynamic range resulting in high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is characteristic of all sorts of multicarrier signals. The advantageous spectral properties of the high-PAPR FBMC signal are significantly degraded if nonlinearities are present in the transceiver chain. Spectral regrowth may appear, causing harmful interference in the neighboring frequency bands. This paper presents novel clipping based PAPR reduction techniques, evaluated and compared by simulations and measurements, with an emphasis on spectral aspects. The paper gives an overall comparison of PAPR reduction techniques, focusing on the reduction of the dynamic range of FBMC signals without increasing out-of-band radiation. An overview is presented on transmitter oriented techniques employing baseband clipping, which can maintain the system performance with a desired bit error rate (BER).

  20. Evaluation of Clipping Based Iterative PAPR Reduction Techniques for FBMC Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kollár, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates filter bankmulticarrier (FBMC), a multicarrier modulation technique exhibiting an extremely low adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) compared to conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique. The low ACLR of the transmitted FBMC signal makes it especially favorable in cognitive radio applications, where strict requirements are posed on out-of-band radiation. Large dynamic range resulting in high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is characteristic of all sorts of multicarrier signals. The advantageous spectral properties of the high-PAPR FBMC signal are significantly degraded if nonlinearities are present in the transceiver chain. Spectral regrowth may appear, causing harmful interference in the neighboring frequency bands. This paper presents novel clipping based PAPR reduction techniques, evaluated and compared by simulations and measurements, with an emphasis on spectral aspects. The paper gives an overall comparison of PAPR reduction techniques, focusing on the reduction of the dynamic range of FBMC signals without increasing out-of-band radiation. An overview is presented on transmitter oriented techniques employing baseband clipping, which can maintain the system performance with a desired bit error rate (BER). PMID:24558338

  1. Theatre Techniques for Language Learning: Assumptions and Suggested Progression of Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Martha L.

    A discussion of the use of drama activities in Second Language instruction looks at the rationale for using such techniques in the language classroom, describes a progression of drama activities used for an intensive course in intermediate English as a Second Language, and examines other considerations in the use of drama in language teaching.…

  2. Teaching Tip: Using Activity Diagrams to Model Systems Analysis Techniques: Teaching What We Preach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lending, Diane; May, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Activity diagrams are used in Systems Analysis and Design classes as a visual tool to model the business processes of "as-is" and "to-be" systems. This paper presents the idea of using these same activity diagrams in the classroom to model the actual processes (practices and techniques) of Systems Analysis and Design. This tip…

  3. Evaluation of continuous arch and segmented arch leveling techniques in adult patients--a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Weiland, F J; Bantleon, H P; Droschl, H

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of overbite correction achieved by a conventional continuous arch wire technique and the segmented arch technique as recommended by Burstone. The sample comprised 50 adult patients (age 18 to 40 years) with deep bites. Twenty-five patients were treated with a continuous arch wire technique (CAW); in the second half of the sample, the segmented arch technique (Burstone) was used for correction of the vertical malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms and plaster cast models taken before and immediately after treatment were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed on the collected data. The results showed that both techniques produced a highly significant overbite reduction (CAW: -3.17 mm, p < 0.001; Burstone: -3.56 mm, p < 0.001). The CAW group showed an extrusion in the molar area with subsequent posterior rotation of the mandible (6occl-ML: +1.30 mm; 6occl-NSL: +1.63 mm; ML/NSL: +1.94 degrees, all p < 0.001). The Burstone group, however, showed overbite reduction by incisor intrusion without any substantial extrusion of posterior teeth (upper 1-NSL: -1.50 mm; lower 1-ML: -1.72 mm; both p < 0.001). As a consequence, no significant posterior rotation of the mandible took place (ML/NSL: +0.52 degrees, n.s.). It is concluded that in adult patients the segmented arch technique (Burstone) can be considered as being superior to a conventional continuous arch wire technique if arch leveling by incisor intrusion is indicated.

  4. Evaluation of pharmacological activity of Hibiscus tiliaceus.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Awal, S M; Nazmir, Sonia; Nasrin, Sonia; Nurunnabi, Tauhidur Rahman; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus tiliaceus, locally known as Bhola was examined for phytochemical properties and its cytotoxic, antibacterial, analgesic and neuropharmacological activities using the ethanol extract of leaf and bark. The phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract indicated the presence of tannins, whereas bark extract indicated the presence of alkaloid, reducing sugar and tannins. A preliminary cytotoxicity of these extracts was determined by a simple and low cost assay using brine shrimp lethality. The leaf extract of the plant exhibited moderate cytotoxic effect (LC50: 20 µg/ml, LC90: 40 µg/ml) whereas the bark extract exhibited low cytotoxic effect (LC50: 50 µg/ml). In the analgesic test, the leaf extract showed comparatively high analgesic action than bark extract. There was no activity found in the leaf extract against the test bacterial strains, however bark extract exhibited a very little inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In the neuropharmacological test, the leaf and bark extract produced a decrease in both the time of onset of sleeping and the total sleeping time. The present study showed evidence that both leaf and bark extract of H. tiliaceus contain medicinally important bioactive compounds, thereby used as traditional medicine.

  5. Activity analysis: measurement of the effectiveness of surgical training and operative technique.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J P; Brickley, M

    1992-11-01

    All surgical procedures are characterised by a sequence of steps and instrument changes. Although surgical efficiency and training in operative technique closely relate to this process, few studies have attempted to analyse it quantitatively. Because efficiency is particularly important in day surgery and lower third molar removal is a high-volume procedure, the need for which is responsible for particularly long waiting-lists in almost all UK health regions, this operation was selected for evaluation. A series of 80 consecutive procedures, carried out for 43 day-stay patients under general anaesthesia by seven junior staff (senior house officers and registrars: 39 procedures) and four senior staff (senior registrars and consultants: 41 procedures) were analysed. Median operating time for procedures which required retraction of periosteum was 9.5 min (range 2.7-23.3 min). Where these steps were necessary, median time for incision was 25 s (range 10-90 s); for retraction of periosteum, 79 s (range 5-340 s); for bone removal, 118 s (range 10-380 s); for tooth excision, 131 s (range 10-900 s); for debridement, 74 s (range 5-270 s); and for suture, 144 s (range 25-320 s). Junior surgeons could be differentiated from senior surgeons on the basis of omission, repetition and duration of these steps. Juniors omitted retraction of periosteum in 10% of procedures (seniors 23%) and suture in 13% (seniors 32%). Juniors repeated steps in 47% of operations; seniors, 14%. Junior surgeons took significantly more time than senior surgeons for incision, bone removal and tooth excision. No significant differences between junior and senior surgeons were found in relation to the incidence of altered lingual and labial sensation at 7 days. It was concluded that activity analysis may be a useful measure of the effectiveness of surgical training and the efficiency of operative technique.

  6. Evaluation of different drying techniques on the nutritional and biofunctional properties of a traditional fermented sheep milk product.

    PubMed

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Al-Ismail, Khaild; Althnaibat, Rami M; Kubow, Stan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of solar and freeze drying techniques on the physicochemical, nutritional and biofunctional properties of salted or unsalted Jameed from fermented sheep milk product. The highest yield of Jameed was obtained via the salted-solar drying process. As measured by colorimetry, salted freeze-dried Jameed showed improved consumer characteristics in terms of increased lightness and decreased red and yellow color components. When unsalted Jameed was prepared by solar or freeze drying, additional major peptide bands were detected by SDS-PAGE treatments as compared to the solar or freeze drying of the salted Jameed. Use of salt in the preparation of solar dried Jameed also led to the highest ACE inhibitory activities whereas antioxidant activity was lowest in unsalted solar dried Jameed. The study findings indicate that both greater yield and better overall nutritional and biofunctional properties were associated with solar dried salted Jameed.

  7. Evaluation of three new laser spectrometer techniques for in-situ carbon monoxide measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellweger, C.; Steinbacher, M.; Buchmann, B.

    2012-07-01

    Long-term time series of the atmospheric composition are essential for environmental research and thus require compatible, multi-decadal monitoring activities. However, the current data quality objectives of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere are very challenging to meet with the measurement techniques that have been used until recently. During the past few years, new spectroscopic techniques came on the market with promising properties for trace gas analytics. The current study compares three instruments that are recently commercially available (since 2011) with the up to now best available technique (vacuum UV fluorescence) and provides a link to previous comparison studies. The instruments were investigated for their performance regarding repeatability, reproducibility, drift, temperature dependence, water vapour interference and linearity. Finally, all instruments were examined during a short measurement campaign to assess their applicability for long-term field measurements. It could be shown that the new techniques provide a considerably better performance compared to previous techniques, although some issues such as temperature influence and cross sensitivities need further attention.

  8. Evaluation of new laser spectrometer techniques for in-situ carbon monoxide measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellweger, C.; Steinbacher, M.; Buchmann, B.

    2012-10-01

    Long-term time series of the atmospheric composition are essential for environmental research and thus require compatible, multi-decadal monitoring activities. The current data quality objectives of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere are very challenging to meet with the measurement techniques that have been used until recently. During the past few years, new spectroscopic techniques came to market with promising properties for trace gas analytics. The current study compares three instruments that have recently become commercially available (since 2011) with the best currently available technique (Vacuum UV Fluorescence) and provides a link to previous comparison studies. The instruments were investigated for their performance regarding repeatability, reproducibility, drift, temperature dependence, water vapour interference and linearity. Finally, all instruments were examined during a short measurement campaign to assess their applicability for long-term field measurements. It could be shown that the new techniques perform considerably better compared to previous techniques, although some issues, such as temperature influence and cross sensitivities, need further attention.

  9. Collection analysis techniques used to evaluate a graduate-level toxicology collection.

    PubMed

    Crawley-Low, Jill V

    2002-07-01

    Collections librarians from academic libraries are often asked, on short notice, to evaluate whether their collections are able to support changes in their institutions' curricula, such as new programs or courses or revisions to existing programs or courses. With insufficient time to perform an exhaustive critique of the collection and a need to prepare a report for faculty external to the library, a selection of reliable but brief qualitative and quantitative tests is needed. In this study, materials-centered and use-centered methods were chosen to evaluate the toxicology collection of the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) Library. Strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are reviewed, along with examples of their use in evaluating the toxicology collection. The monograph portion of the collection was evaluated using list checking, citation analysis, and classified profile methods. Cost-effectiveness and impact factor data were compiled to rank journals from the collection. Use-centered methods such as circulation and interlibrary loan data identified highly used items that should be added to the collection. Finally, although the data were insufficient to evaluate the toxicology electronic journals at the U of S, a brief discussion of three initiatives that aim to assist librarians as they evaluate the use of networked electronic resources in their collections is presented.

  10. Collection analysis techniques used to evaluate a graduate-level toxicology collection*

    PubMed Central

    Crawley-Low, Jill V.

    2002-01-01

    Collections librarians from academic libraries are often asked, on short notice, to evaluate whether their collections are able to support changes in their institutions' curricula, such as new programs or courses or revisions to existing programs or courses. With insufficient time to perform an exhaustive critique of the collection and a need to prepare a report for faculty external to the library, a selection of reliable but brief qualitative and quantitative tests is needed. In this study, materials-centered and use-centered methods were chosen to evaluate the toxicology collection of the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) Library. Strengths and weaknesses of the techniques are reviewed, along with examples of their use in evaluating the toxicology collection. The monograph portion of the collection was evaluated using list checking, citation analysis, and classified profile methods. Cost-effectiveness and impact factor data were compiled to rank journals from the collection. Use-centered methods such as circulation and interlibrary loan data identified highly used items that should be added to the collection. Finally, although the data were insufficient to evaluate the toxicology electronic journals at the U of S, a brief discussion of three initiatives that aim to assist librarians as they evaluate the use of networked electronic resources in their collections is presented. PMID:12113516

  11. Experimental Evaluation of the IP Address Space Randomisation (IASR) Technique and Its Disruption to Selected Network Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Experimental evaluation of the IP address space randomisation (IASR) technique and its disruption to selected network services Maxwell Dondo DRDC...secu- rity approach. MTD is a set of network defence techniques such as randomisation, deception, etc., that significantly increases the attacker’s work...effort. One randomi- sation technique , called internet protocol (IP) address space randomisation (IASR), periodically or aperiodically makes random

  12. [Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of indol alkaloids].

    PubMed

    Rojas Hernández, N M

    1979-01-01

    In pursuing the study of the antimicrobial properties of alkaloids prepared from Cuban plants the activity of 10 indol alkaloids and 4 semisynthetic variables obtained from three plants--Catharanthus roseus G. Don., Vallesia antillana Wood and Ervatamia coronaria Staph, of the family Apocynaceae--growing in Cuba was assessed in vitro. The alkaloids and the variables used were catharantine, vindoline, vindolinine, perivine, reserpine, tabernaemontanine, tetrahydroalstonine, aparicine, vindolinic acid, reserpic acid and vindolininol. These were faced to 40 bacterial strains from the genera Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium as well as to fungi and yeasts from the genera Aspergillus, kCunnighamella, kCandida and Saccharomyces. The method involving cylindric sections in a double agar layer was applied and lectures were obtained at 24-48 hours of incubation at 25 degrees C for fungi and yeasts and 37 degrees C for bacteria. Inhibition zones are reported in millimeters.

  13. Fish erythrocytes are bicarbonate permeable: problems with determining carbonic anhydrase activity using the modified boat technique.

    PubMed

    Heming, T A; Randall, D J

    1982-01-10

    Effects of foaming agents (blood plasma, bovine serum albumin, polyvinyl-pyrrolidinone) and defoaming agents (octanol, n-foam) on manometric determination of carbonic anhydrase activity in intact erythrocytes of fish were examined. Foaming agents abolished the activity of red cells. Defoaming agents increased the activity and negated any differences in carbonic anhydrase activity between whole blood (red cells in plasma) and "Cortland" blood (red cells in saline). It is concluded that effects of plasma on the carbonic anhydrase activity of intact erythrocytes of fish measured using the modified boat technique are largely nonspecific and related to reagent foaming during mixing, rather than to the action of a specific enzyme inhibitor.

  14. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of internal fixation techniques on the canine lumbosacral junction

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Stacy; Roe, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Few biomechanical studies have evaluated the effect of internal stabilization techniques after decompressive surgery on the stability of the canine lumbosacral junction. The purpose of this canine cadaver study is to evaluate the stability of the canine lumbosacral (LS) spine in flexion and extension following laminectomy and discectomy and then stabilization with each of the three techniques: pins and polymethylmethacrylate (P/PMMA), two dorsal locking plates (SOP) or bilateral transarticular facet screws (FACET).Using a cantilever biomechanical system, bending moments were applied to the LS and range of motion (ROM) was recorded via a rotational potentiometer. With 3 Nm, the ROM (n = 4 in each group) for P/PMMA, SOP and FACET were 1.92 ± 0.96°, 2.56 ± 0.55°and 3.18 ± 1.14°, respectively. With moments up to 35 Nm, the P/PMMA specimens appeared stable. Sacroiliac motion in the SOP and FACET groups invalidated further comparisons. Each of the stabilization techniques (P/PMMA, SOP, and FACET) significantly decreased the range of motion in flexion and extension for low bending moments. PMID:26312169

  15. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of internal fixation techniques on the canine lumbosacral junction.

    PubMed

    Early, Peter; Mente, Peter; Dillard, Stacy; Roe, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Few biomechanical studies have evaluated the effect of internal stabilization techniques after decompressive surgery on the stability of the canine lumbosacral junction. The purpose of this canine cadaver study is to evaluate the stability of the canine lumbosacral (LS) spine in flexion and extension following laminectomy and discectomy and then stabilization with each of the three techniques: pins and polymethylmethacrylate (P/PMMA), two dorsal locking plates (SOP) or bilateral transarticular facet screws (FACET).Using a cantilever biomechanical system, bending moments were applied to the LS and range of motion (ROM) was recorded via a rotational potentiometer. With 3 Nm, the ROM (n = 4 in each group) for P/PMMA, SOP and FACET were 1.92 ± 0.96°, 2.56 ± 0.55°and 3.18 ± 1.14°, respectively. With moments up to 35 Nm, the P/PMMA specimens appeared stable. Sacroiliac motion in the SOP and FACET groups invalidated further comparisons. Each of the stabilization techniques (P/PMMA, SOP, and FACET) significantly decreased the range of motion in flexion and extension for low bending moments.

  16. Comparative evaluation of aerospace composites using thermography and ultrasonic NDT techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakeas, P.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Hatziioannidis, I.; Cheilakou, E.; Marini, R.; Koui, M.

    2015-05-01

    In the present research work a study was carried out evaluating the applicability of two NDT techniques, this of Transient Thermography (TT) and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) for the inspection of different types of composite materials (i.e. laminated CFRPs, laminated hybrid FRPs and sandwiched panels). The composite structures were consisted of a variety of artificial defects, while inspection was performed through different testing configurations. In particular, transient thermography was implemented through the monitoring of the surface transient cooling after flash heating the samples and ultrasonic testing was applied using both a conventional single element probe (immersion technique) and a linear phased array transducer consisted of 128 elements. The main objective of this work was to compare the applicability and effectiveness of the two techniques in aerospace composites inspection as well as to evaluate the accuracy produced regarding the quantitative characterisation of the detected features. The obtained results showed that all the defects were revealed by either transient thermography or ultrasonic testing, whilst thermographic inspection can display the acquired results in a more rapid manner. On the other hand UT testing can provide efficient results for deeper probing requiring however longer inspection times. In other words, the acquired data and the respective analyses highlighted the different capability of each testing configuration, to detect defects and to gain knowledge for the interior of the structures.

  17. Tumour response evaluation with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: research technique or clinical tool?

    PubMed

    Anderson, H; Singh, N; Miles, K

    2010-10-04

    The evaluation of treatment response is an established role for imaging in oncologic research and clinical practice. In early phase trials, imaging response criteria are used to determine the presence and magnitude of the drug effect on tumour to aid decisions concerning progress to late phase trials, and to inform dose selection and scheduling. In late phase trials and clinical practice, the imaging response is used as a surrogate for clinical outcome. Due to the limitations of current anatomic response criteria, there is growing interest in the use of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) to assess treatment response. The technique is beginning to be adopted within mainstream approaches for evaluation of response in solid tumours and lymphoma. Difficulties with standardisation across PET centres and tumour types combined with uncertainty concerning the timing of assessment relative to treatment, have limited the use of quantitative measurements of FDG uptake to research applications. However, with a growing body of evidence that qualitative criteria such as the development of new PET lesions or complete metabolic response following treatment can provide surrogates marker for clinical outcome, [(18)F]FDG-PET is becoming established as a clinical technique for assessing tumour response, especially for FDG-avid lymphoma subtypes. Multimodality imaging using perfusion computed tomography/PET is an exciting novel technique with the potential to define treatment response in a new way.

  18. Modeling and Evaluating Tutors' Function Using Data Mining and Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendjebar, Safia; Lafifi, Yacine; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In e-learning systems, the tutors play many roles and carry out several tasks that differ from one system to another. The activity of tutoring is influenced by many factors. One factor among them is the assignment of the appropriate profile to the tutor. For this reason, the authors propose a new approach for modeling and evaluating the function…

  19. Optimized energy landscape exploration using the ab initio based activation-relaxation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Béland, Laurent Karim; Caliste, Damien; Genovese, Luigi; Deutsch, Thierry; Mousseau, Normand; Pochet, Pascal

    2011-07-01

    Unbiased open-ended methods for finding transition states are powerful tools to understand diffusion and relaxation mechanisms associated with defect diffusion, growth processes, and catalysis. They have been little used, however, in conjunction with ab initio packages as these algorithms demanded large computational effort to generate even a single event. Here, we revisit the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and introduce a two-step convergence to the saddle point, combining the previously used Lanczós algorithm with the direct inversion in interactive subspace scheme. This combination makes it possible to generate events (from an initial minimum through a saddle point up to a final minimum) in a systematic fashion with a net 300-700 force evaluations per successful event. ART nouveau is coupled with BigDFT, a Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure code using a wavelet basis set with excellent efficiency on parallel computation, and applied to study the potential energy surface of C20 clusters, vacancy diffusion in bulk silicon, and reconstruction of the 4H-SiC surface.

  20. High-contrast active cavitation imaging technique based on multiple bubble wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shukuan; Xu, Shanshan; Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a unique method that combines the ultrafast active cavitation imaging technique with multiple bubble wavelet transform (MBWT) for improving cavitation detection contrast was presented. The bubble wavelet was constructed by the modified Keller-Miksis equation that considered the mutual effect among bubbles. A three-dimensional spatial model was applied to simulate the spatial distribution of multiple bubbles. The effects of four parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cavitation images were evaluated, including the following: initial radii of bubbles, scale factor in the wavelet transform, number of bubbles, and the minimum inter-bubble distance. And the other two spatial models and cavitation bubble size distributions were introduced in the MBWT method. The results suggested that in the free-field experiments, the averaged SNR of images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 7.16 ± 0.09 dB and 3.14 ± 0.14 dB compared with the values of images acquired by the B-mode and single bubble wavelet transform (SBWT) methods. In addition, in the tissue experiments, the averaged cavitation-to-tissue ratio of cavitation images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 4.69 ± 0.25 dB and 1.74± 0.29 dB compared with that of images acquired by B-mode and SBWT methods.

  1. Optimized energy landscape exploration using the ab initio based activation-relaxation technique.

    PubMed

    Machado-Charry, Eduardo; Béland, Laurent Karim; Caliste, Damien; Genovese, Luigi; Deutsch, Thierry; Mousseau, Normand; Pochet, Pascal

    2011-07-21

    Unbiased open-ended methods for finding transition states are powerful tools to understand diffusion and relaxation mechanisms associated with defect diffusion, growth processes, and catalysis. They have been little used, however, in conjunction with ab initio packages as these algorithms demanded large computational effort to generate even a single event. Here, we revisit the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) and introduce a two-step convergence to the saddle point, combining the previously used Lanczós algorithm with the direct inversion in interactive subspace scheme. This combination makes it possible to generate events (from an initial minimum through a saddle point up to a final minimum) in a systematic fashion with a net 300-700 force evaluations per successful event. ART nouveau is coupled with BigDFT, a Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure code using a wavelet basis set with excellent efficiency on parallel computation, and applied to study the potential energy surface of C(20) clusters, vacancy diffusion in bulk silicon, and reconstruction of the 4H-SiC surface.

  2. Gravel-pack field examples of a new pulsed-neutron-activation logging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Caroll, J.F.; Smith, B.C. )

    1991-12-01

    Gravel packs traditionally have been evaluated with gamma/gamma density and neutron logging tools. These logging tools, particularly the density tools, do an acceptable job in most logging environments but have some limitations that affect their measurement resolution in attempts to define gravel-pack quality. The presence of high-density completion fluids significantly reduces the dynamic range of the conventional measurements. Low-contrast logging resolution is also encountered with the new matched-density gravel-pack systems that use matrix materials with densities near those of the completion fluids. This paper presents an alternative measurement of gravel-pack quality that is unaffected by the type of completion fluid present. The authors also present six field examples that demonstrate this new technique. Each example presents a different logging condition, e.g., heavy borehole fluid in a conventional gravel pack, gravel pack with sintered bauxite, two completions with Isopac gravel of different screen sizes, and multiple gravel-pack logs recorded before and after wireline repair work. Several of these examples show that neutron activation can be a useful method of gravel-pack analysis in some logging environments.

  3. Changes in Quality of Life in 7 Older Adult Patients Receiving Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434

  4. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA): Technique of choice for nondestructive bulk analysis of returned comet samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, David J.; Lindstrom, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a well-developed analytical technique. The technique involves irradiation of samples in an external neutron beam from a nuclear reactor, with simultaneous counting of gamma rays produced in the sample by neutron capture. Capture of neutrons leads to excited nuclei which decay immediately with the emission of energetic gamma rays to the ground state. PGAA has several advantages over other techniques for the analysis of cometary materials: (1) It is nondestructive; (2) It can be used to determine abundances of a wide variety of elements, including most major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), volatiles (H, C, N, F, Cl, S), and some trace elements (those with high neutron capture cross sections, including B, Cd, Nd, Sm, and Gd); and (3) It is a true bulk analysis technique. Recent developments should improve the technique's sensitivity and accuracy considerably.

  5. Evaluation of the sporicidal activity of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Rickloff, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of sterilizing surfaces with ozone-saturated water by the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Initially, it was determined that there was no apparent difference in ozone resistance between spores of Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium sporogenes when they are suspended in water. Both species were inactivated by a 10-min exposure at ambient temperature. Resistance was increased when the spores were dried on AOAC carriers. Viable organisms were recovered after an exposure of 40 min at ambient temperature. An increase in the reactor water temperature to 60/sup 0/C did not improve the effectiveness of the ozone in sterilizing AOAC carriers. Dried spores of C. sporogenes were more resistant than B. subtilis spores because of a greater accumulation of organic matter on the carriers. No significant sporicidal activity was demonstrated after 40 min for spores of either species when they were inoculated on silk suture loops. The data suggest that organic loading and poor ozone penetrability are key factors in effecting the ability of ozone to sterilize surfaces rapidly.

  6. Data Collection and Analysis Techniques for Evaluating the Perceptual Qualities of Auditory Stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Bonebright, T.L.; Caudell, T.P.; Goldsmith, T.E.; Miner, N.E.

    1998-11-17

    This paper describes a general methodological framework for evaluating the perceptual properties of auditory stimuli. The framework provides analysis techniques that can ensure the effective use of sound for a variety of applications including virtual reality and data sonification systems. Specifically, we discuss data collection techniques for the perceptual qualities of single auditory stimuli including identification tasks, context-based ratings, and attribute ratings. In addition, we present methods for comparing auditory stimuli, such as discrimination tasks, similarity ratings, and sorting tasks. Finally, we discuss statistical techniques that focus on the perceptual relations among stimuli, such as Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Pathfinder Analysis. These methods are presented as a starting point for an organized and systematic approach for non-experts in perceptual experimental methods, rather than as a complete manual for performing the statistical techniques and data collection methods. It is our hope that this paper will help foster further interdisciplinary collaboration among perceptual researchers, designers, engineers, and others in the development of effective auditory displays.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of pulmonary hydatid cyst location on the surgical technique approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sadrizadeh, Ali; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Masuom, Seyed Hossein Fattahi; Bagheri, Reza; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A hydatid cyst is the most common lung parasitic disease and is endemic in Iran. A hydatid cyst is more common in the right lung and lower lobes. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess surgical treatment of pulmonary hydatid cysts and whether the location of cyst affects surgical technique approaches. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 87 patients with a pulmonary hydatid cyst who were referred to Qaem Hospital from 2010 to 2012. Selection of surgical technique was according to size, location, and the number of cysts. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) surgery with preserving lung parenchyma and (2) lobectomy. Afterward, the relationship between the location of cyst and surgical technique approaches was evaluated. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: In this study, no significant relation was found between the size (P = 0.682) and number (P = 0.344) of cysts and lobectomy necessity. But, there was a significant relation between the occurrence of cyst in middle lobe and lobectomy necessity (P = 0.016). Conclusions: According to the results, type of surgical technique does not depend on the size and number of cysts, but it may be related to the location of the cyst and the ratio of lung destruction. PMID:25378844

  8. An Analysis of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Polymer Matrix Composite Sandwich Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Roberts, Gary D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Zheng, Diahua; Averbeck, Timothy; Roth, Donald J.; Jeanneau, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Structural sandwich materials composed of triaxially braided polymer matrix composite material face sheets sandwiching a foam core are being utilized for applications including aerospace components and recreational equipment. Since full scale components are being made from these sandwich materials, it is necessary to develop proper inspection practices for their manufacture and in-field use. Specifically, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques need to be investigated for analysis of components made from these materials. Hockey blades made from sandwich materials and a flat sandwich sample were examined with multiple NDE techniques including thermographic, radiographic, and shearographic methods to investigate damage induced in the blades and flat panel components. Hockey blades used during actual play and a flat polymer matrix composite sandwich sample with damage inserted into the foam core were investigated with each technique. NDE images from the samples were presented and discussed. Structural elements within each blade were observed with radiographic imaging. Damaged regions and some structural elements of the hockey blades were identified with thermographic imaging. Structural elements, damaged regions, and other material variations were detected in the hockey blades with shearography. Each technique s advantages and disadvantages were considered in making recommendations for inspection of components made from these types of materials.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Depigmentation using Tetrafluoroethane Cryosurgery and Gingival Abrasion Technique: Two Years Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santhosh; Bhat, G. Subraya; Bhat, K. Mahalinga

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A comparative evaluation of the gingival depigmentation by using Tetrafluoroethane cryosurgery and the gingival abrasion technique – 2 years of follow up. Material and Methods: Ten systemically healthy patients who were aged 18 to 36 years were selected for the study. Tetrafluoroethane was used for the cryosurgical depigmentation and the gingival abrasion technique used a coarse flame shaped bur. The presence or absence of pigmentation was tabulated, based on the GPI (Gingival Pigmentation Index). For the statistical analysis, Freidman’s test was used. Results: The keratinization was completed within a week after the application of the cryogen and about 10 days after the gingival abrasion technique was done. The statistical analysis which was done after 90th, 180th days and 2 years. The p-value which was obtained (p<.001) showed the superiority of cryosurgery over the gingival abrasion. During the follow up period, no side effects were seen for both the techniques and the improved aesthetics was maintained upto 2 years. Conclusion: The use of cryogen Tetrafluoroethane is easy, practical and inexpensive as compared to gingival abrasion, due to its high rate of recurrence. Hence, it is more acceptable to the patients and the operator. Further studies are needed to assess the long term effectiveness of the cryosurgical method of depigmentation. PMID:23543863

  10. Total combining power: Technique for the evaluation of the quality control process of clostridiosis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Igor Viana; Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; Carvalho, Bruna Mara Aparecida de; Durães, Carla Adriana Ferreira; Farias, Paula Karoline Soares; Sari, Roger Shoji; Cangussu, Alex Sander Rodrigues; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2016-11-01

    An efficient technique for evaluation of the quality control of vaccines against clostridiosis is described in this study. This technique is capable of quantifying the toxoid of the bacterium Clostridium perfringens Type D, which is commonly found within these vaccines. The described method is performed in vivo to quantify the toxoid, replacing the current predominant approaches that use the titration of toxins before the inactivation process. This method is based on the partial neutralization of a determined dose of antitoxin by testing different doses of the toxoid. In order to guarantee its reliability, it is essential for the technique to be validated. Thus, the technique was tested using the following validation parameters: specificity and selectivity, detection limit, linear correlation, precision and robustness, in agreement with the requirements of regulatory agencies and international committees from around the world. The method was found to be specific, selective, robust, precise, and linear inside a specific concentration range. Therefore, it could be applied to the quality control of clostridiosis vaccines with satisfactory results.

  11. [Techniques for assaying the activity of transcription factor NF-κB].

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiao-Qian; Wang, Jin-Ke

    2013-05-01

    NF-κB is a stimulatory transcription factor that is ubiquitous in almost all kinds of cells. When cells are under various stimuli, NF-κB is activated and regulates large numbers of target genes, and thus controls important cellular processes, ranging from cell growth and differentiation to apoptosis and cancer. Therefore, NF-κB is a forefront hotspot transcription factor that is intensively studied in virtually all fields of biomedical sciences, and becomes a promising target for disease therapy and drug screening. The activity detection is the first and inevitable step for the studies of NF-κB activation and function.Therefore, the techniques for detection of NF-κB activity have always been paid more attention and continuously developed. Especially in recent year, along with the development of each disciplines, various new techniques have been developed, including ELISA-like assays based on dsDNA-coupled plate, filter binding assays, FRET assays, fluorescence reporting and nucleic acids amplification assays based on exonuclease and endonuclease, MS and flow cytometry assays based on immunomicrobeads, and other biophysical and electrochemical assays. Some of these techniques have already played important roles in NF-κB studies. This paper reviewed new techniques developed in recent years by classification, in order to provide an overview of NF-κB activity assays, which may be helpful for researchers to select appropriate techniques used in their studies. Moreover, the learning and understanding of these techniques may inspire researchers to improve currently existing techniques and develop novel methods for the studies of NF-κB.

  12. Error Evaluation of Planetary Atmospheric Motion Vectors by Statistical Presumption Technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MURACHI, T.; IMAMURA, T.; HIGUCHI, T.; NAKAMURA, M.

    2002-05-01

    AMVs. I think that the error of AMVs depends on the image spatial resolution and the change of cloud shape largely not on the spatial and time fluctuation of AMVs. By the change of cloud shape we can_ft track the cloud motion precisely. By the image spatial resolution the error of 1 pixel is attached to the AMVs. In this study, by statistical presumption technique I evaluate the error of AMVs, which reflects influence of the image spatial resolution and the change of cloud shape upon AMVs. In order to verify this method, I make test patterns, and calculate the AMVs and the error with error evaluation by statistical presumption technique using these patterns. This result is that the error of AMVs by this method is almost equivalent to the expected error of the change of cloud shape, and relies on the change rate of cloud shape. In addition, using Venus' cloud images I calculate the AMVs and the error with error evaluation by statistical presumption technique and the error with past error evaluation, which calculate the standard deviation of neighboring AMVs. The result is that the error by statistical presumption technique is smaller than the error of past. In this study, by statistical presumption technique the error evaluation of AMVs that reflects influence of the image spatial resolution and the change of cloud shape upon AMVs is established.

  13. Semi-automated identification of white blood cell using active contour technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Nurhanis Izzati Binti Che; Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin; Razak, Mohd Azhar Bin Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Manual and automated diagnosis can be used to identify the morphology of blood cells. However, the manual diagnosis of the blood cells is time consuming and need hematologist and pathologist experts in order to diagnose diseases. Recently, the automated diagnosis which is require image processing technique are often been used in this area. This paper focuses on image processing technique to do segmentation on the nucleus of white blood cells (WBC). To identify the nucleus region, there are several image processing techniques applied besides the active contour method. The results obtained show that the detection on the edge of the nucleus is almost same as the original image of the nucleus.

  14. Comparison of Two Techniques for Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Along of a Glass Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Sadighpour, L.; Rezaei, S.; Geramipanah, F.; Mohammadi, M.; Choubchian, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contradictory results have been reported over microleakage studies of restorative materials and methods. Despite the number of publications on leakage there are few evidences comparing the different microleakage evaluation methods. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning in the evaluation of dye penetration along a glass fiber post. Materials and Methods: Fifteen single-rooted human teeth were endontically prepared and obturated with gutta percha points and a resin based sealer (AH26). A glass fiber post (Glassix) was cemented into each post space with a dual polymerizing resin cement (Varilink II) and the composite core (Tetric Ceram) was fabricated. Specimens were immersed in Indian ink solution for 72 hours after completion of 1500 cycles of thermal cycling. Then demineralized, cleared and evaluated for the deepest length of dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. Specimens were then cut longitudinally and the length of penetration was measured again by the same instrument. The mean difference of the penetrated length was analyzed by two methods using the paired t test and an analysis of correlation (α = 0.05). Results: No significant difference was found in the mean microleakage measured by the two methods (P= 0.07). Significant correlation was found between them (P=0.0001, r= 0.9) Conclusion: The clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning showed the same results in microleakage of Glassix post and composite core within the limitation of the present study. PMID:21998786

  15. Three-dimensional evaluation of surgical techniques in neonates with orofacial cleft

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Cleide Felício Carvalho; Ambrosio, Eloá Cristina Passucci; Mello, Bianca Zeponi Fernandes; Jorge, Paula Karine; Soares, Simone; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Individuals with cleft lip and palate have many anatomic and functional alterations compromising esthetics, hearing, speech, occlusion, and development/craniofacial growth. The rehabilitative treatment of these patients is very challenging and starts at birth aiming at the best treatment for all functional demands. This study aimed to evaluate the dimensional alterations of the dental arches of neonates with cleft lip and palate after two different primary surgical techniques. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 114 digital models of children aged from 3 to 36 months, with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate divided into two groups. Two different phases were evaluated: precheiloplasty and 1 year after palatoplasty. The evaluation was performed through the digital models of each child obtained by scanning digitalization (3D Scanner). Dental arches measurements were accomplished through Appliance Designer software. The following measurements were assessed: dental arch area, anterior amplitude of the cleft, total length of dental arch, intercanine distance, and intertuberosity distance. t-test was applied to compare differences between groups. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between groups at precheiloplasty phase. At 1 year after palatoplasty, the groups differed in the total length of dental arch (P = 0.002), with greater values for Group I. Conclusion: This study suggests that the results of the different surgical techniques may alter the growth and development of the dental arches of neonates with cleft lip and palate. PMID:28299266

  16. Monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; McKenna, Mary L; Butler, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    Given the increase in the number of Canadian jurisdictions with school nutrition and/or physical activity policies, there is a need to assess the effectiveness of such policies. The objectives of this paper are to 1) provide an overview of key issues in monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies in Canada and 2) identify areas for further research needed to strengthen the evidence base and inform the development of effective approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Evaluation indicators, data sources and existing tools for evaluating nutrition and physical activity are reviewed. This paper has underscored the importance of identifying common indicators and approaches, using a comprehensive approach based on the WHO framework and ensuring that research capacity and funding is in place to facilitate high-quality evaluation efforts in the future.

  17. Interference Mitigation Technique Using Active Spaceborne Sensor Antenna in EESS (Active) and Space Research Service (Active) for Use in 500 MHz Bandwidth Near 9.6 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.

    2005-01-01

    This document presents an interference mitigation technique using the active spaceborne sensor SAR3 antenna in the Earth Exploration-Satellite Service (active) and Space Research Service (active) for use in a 500 MHz bandwidth near 9.6 GHz. The purpose of the document is present antenna designs which offer lower sidelobes and faster rolloff in the sidelobes which in turn mitigates the interference to other services from the EESS (active) and SRS (active) sensors.

  18. Application of Semi Active Control Techniques to the Damping Suppression Problem of Solar Sail Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adetona, O.; Keel, L. H.; Whorton, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Solar sails provide a propellant free form for space propulsion. These are large flat surfaces that generate thrust when they are impacted by light. When attached to a space vehicle, the thrust generated can propel the space vehicle to great distances at significant speeds. For optimal performance the sail must be kept from excessive vibration. Active control techniques can provide the best performance. However, they require an external power-source that may create significant parasitic mass to the solar sail. However, solar sails require low mass for optimal performance. Secondly, active control techniques typically require a good system model to ensure stability and performance. However, the accuracy of solar sail models validated on earth for a space environment is questionable. An alternative approach is passive vibration techniques. These do not require an external power supply, and do not destabilize the system. A third alternative is referred to as semi-active control. This approach tries to get the best of both active and passive control, while avoiding their pitfalls. In semi-active control, an active control law is designed for the system, and passive control techniques are used to implement it. As a result, no external power supply is needed so the system is not destabilize-able. Though it typically underperforms active control techniques, it has been shown to out-perform passive control approaches and can be unobtrusively installed on a solar sail boom. Motivated by this, the objective of this research is to study the suitability of a Piezoelectric (PZT) patch actuator/sensor based semi-active control system for the vibration suppression problem of solar sail booms. Accordingly, we develop a suitable mathematical and computer model for such studies and demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach with computer simulations.

  19. Correlation-based imaging technique using ultrasonic transmit-receive array for Non-Destructive Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Quaegebeur, Nicolas; Masson, Patrice

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a novel array post-processing method for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) using phased-array ultrasonic probes. The approach uses the capture and processing of the full matrix of all transmit-receive time-domain signals from a transducer array as in the case of the Total Focusing Method (TFM), referred as the standard of imaging algorithms. The proposed technique is based on correlation of measured signals with theoretical propagated signals computed over a given grid of points. In that case, real-time imaging can be simply implemented using discrete signal product. The advantage of the present technique is to take into account transducer directivity, dynamics and complex propagation patterns, such that the number of required array elements for a given imaging performance can be greatly reduced. Numerical and experimental application to contact inspection of isotropic structure is presented and real-time implementation issues are discussed.

  20. An evaluation of the accuracy of some radar wind profiling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscielny, A. J.; Doviak, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Major advances in Doppler radar measurement in optically clear air have made it feasible to monitor radial velocities in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. For most applications the three dimensional wind vector is monitored rather than the radial velocity. Measurement of the wind vector with a single radar can be made assuming a spatially linear, time invariant wind field. The components and derivatives of the wind are estimated by the parameters of a linear regression of the radial velocities on functions of their spatial locations. The accuracy of the wind measurement thus depends on the locations of the radial velocities. The suitability is evaluated of some of the common retrieval techniques for simultaneous measurement of both the vertical and horizontal wind components. The techniques considered for study are fixed beam, azimuthal scanning (VAD) and elevation scanning (VED).

  1. Evaluation of non-intrusive flow measurement techniques for a re-entry flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. B.; Santavicca, D. A.; Zimmermann, M.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates various non-intrusive techniques for the measurement of the flow field on the windward side of the Space Shuttle orbiter or a similar reentry vehicle. Included are linear (Rayleigh, Raman, Mie, Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Resonant Doppler Velocimetry) and nonlinear (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman, Laser-Induced Fluorescence) light scattering, electron-beam fluorescence, thermal emission, and mass spectroscopy. Flow-field properties were taken from a nonequilibrium flow model by Shinn, Moss, and Simmonds at the NASA Langley Research Center. Conclusions are, when possible, based on quantitative scaling of known laboratory results to the conditions projected. Detailed discussion with researchers in the field contributed further to these conclusions and provided valuable insights regarding the experimental feasibility of each of the techniques.

  2. Development of small punch testing technique and its application to evaluation of mechanical properties degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kameda, J.

    1993-10-01

    The present paper summarizes a small punch (SP) testing technique developed and its application to mechanical properties characterization. It has been clearly shown on ferritic alloys that the SP test was evaluate the intergranular embrittling potency of segregated solute, such as P, Sn and Sb causing temper embrittlement, and the effects of neutron irradiation and post-irradiation annealing, giving rise to changes in the hardness and intergranular solute segregation, on the fracture properties in terms of the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). A linear relation of the DBTT determined by the SP test to that by Charpy V-notched tests has been theoretically and experimentally established. In Al alloy substrates coated with amorphous and overlaying ceramics, moreover, the global and local fracture properties were well characterized by the SP test together with acoustic emission techniques.

  3. Evaluation of a technique for satellite-derived area estimation of forest fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Chung, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), has been found useful for the location and monitoring of both smoke and fires because of the daily observations, the large geographical coverage of the imagery, the spectral characteristics of the instrument, and the spatial resolution of the instrument. This paper will discuss the application of AVHRR data to assess the geographical extent of burning. Methods have been developed to estimate the surface area of burning by analyzing the surface area effected by fire with AVHRR imagery. Characteristics of the AVHRR instrument, its orbit, field of view, and archived data sets are discussed relative to the unique surface area of each pixel. The errors associated with this surface area estimation technique are determined using AVHRR-derived area estimates of target regions with known sizes. This technique is used to evaluate the area burned during the Yellowstone fires of 1988.

  4. Evaluation of transmitter attachment techniques on growth of wild turkey poults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Tsao, L.-L.C.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, M.; Jackson, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    We compared the effects on growth of backpack-mounted and surgically implanted radiotransmitters used as marking techniques in studies of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) poult survival. We applied repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bayesian analysis to evaluate the null hypothesis that marking technique did not affect growth. Growth in body mass was similar among treatment groups. We did, however, find differences in wing-growth rates among treatment groups. The control group had the highest wing-growth rate, the backpack group had the lowest growth rate, and the surgical implant group was intermediate. Latex backpack harnesses also caused physical developmental problems that would have negatively biased wild poult survival estimates in the field. Surgically implanted transmitters affected wing growth less than the backpack harnesses and are therefore recommended for attaching transmitters to wild turkey poults.

  5. Evaluation of a satellite laser ranging technique using pseudonoise code modulated laser diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Carolyn Kay

    1987-01-01

    Several types of Satellite Laser Ranging systems exist, operating with pulsed, high-energy lasers. The distance between a ground point and an orbiting satellite can be determined to within a few centimeters. A new technique substitutes pseudonoise code modulated laser diodes, which are much more compact, reliable and less costly, for the lasers now used. Since laser diode technology is only now achieving sufficiently powerful lasers, the capabilities of the new technique are investigated. Also examined are the effects of using an avalanche photodiode detector instead of a photomultiplier tube. The influence of noise terms (including background radiation, detector dark and thermal noise and speckle) that limit the system range and performance is evaluated.

  6. Laser photoacoustic technique for ultrasonic surface acoustic wave velocity evaluation on porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, K.; Tu, S. J.; Gao, L.; Xu, J.; Li, S. D.; Yu, W. C.; Liao, H. H.

    2016-10-01

    A laser photoacoustic technique has been developed to evaluate the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity of porcelain. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm was focused by a cylindrical lens to initiate broadband SAW impulses, which were detected by an optical fiber interferometer with high spatial resolution. Multiple near-field surface acoustic waves were observed on the sample surface at various locations along the axis perpendicular to the laser line source as the detector moved away from the source in the same increments. The frequency spectrum and dispersion curves were obtained by operating on the recorded waveforms with cross-correlation and FFT. The SAW phase velocities of the porcelain of the same source are similar while they are different from those of different sources. The marked differences of Rayleigh phase velocities in our experiment suggest that this technique has the potential for porcelain identification.

  7. Evaluation of convergence behavior of metamodeling techniques for bridging scales in multi-scale multimaterial simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Oishik; Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H.S.

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of several metamodeling techniques, viz. the Polynomial Stochastic Collocation method, Adaptive Stochastic Collocation method, a Radial Basis Function Neural Network, a Kriging Method and a Dynamic Kriging Method is evaluated. This is done with the express purpose of using metamodels to bridge scales between micro- and macro-scale models in a multi-scale multimaterial simulation. The rate of convergence of the error when used to reconstruct hypersurfaces of known functions is studied. For sufficiently large number of training points, Stochastic Collocation methods generally converge faster than the other metamodeling techniques, while the DKG method converges faster when the number of input points is less than 100 in a two-dimensional parameter space. Because the input points correspond to computationally expensive micro/meso-scale computations, the DKG is favored for bridging scales in a multi-scale solver.

  8. Evaluation of remote sensing and automatic data techniques for characterization of wetlands. [Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartmill, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation has been conducted in the Atchafalaya River Basin of South Central Louisiana. This is a humid area of heavily forested swamps with a large volume of flow mostly from a diversion of the lower Mississippi River. Techniques to obtain enlarged imagery from computer compatible tapes of ERTS data without photographic enlargement is explained and illustrated. Techniques of extraction of environmental information from single bands and multiband pattern recognition procedures are explained and evaluated. A comparison of pattern recognition classifications of the Atchafalaya Basin by aircraft multispectral scanner and ERTS MSS data is made. Data for this comparison were gathered within three weeks of each other in the winter of 1973. Scorecards of the accuracy of the classifications are presented. Recommendations are made concerning the utilization of each sensor platform to perform specific tasks of wetlands characterization.

  9. Direct evaluation of fault trees using object-oriented programming techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1989-01-01

    Object-oriented programming techniques are used in an algorithm for the direct evaluation of fault trees. The algorithm combines a simple bottom-up procedure for trees without repeated events with a top-down recursive procedure for trees with repeated events. The object-oriented approach results in a dynamic modularization of the tree at each step in the reduction process. The algorithm reduces the number of recursive calls required to solve trees with repeated events and calculates intermediate results as well as the solution of the top event. The intermediate results can be reused if part of the tree is modified. An example is presented in which the results of the algorithm implemented with conventional techniques are compared to those of the object-oriented approach.

  10. USE OF AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO EVALUATE YOUNG CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking a young child's activity pattern data with the environmental, biological, and personal samples that are collected during an exposure assessment is important in evaluating potential exposures and dose associated with environmental contaminants. A number of different appro...

  11. Evaluation of Control Parameters for the Activated Sludge Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, T. Ray; Sherrard, Josephy H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of the parameters currently being used to design and operate the activated sludge process is presented. The advantages and disadvantages for the use of each parameter are discussed. (MR)

  12. Best estimate method versus evaluation method: a comparison of two techniques in evaluating seismic analysis and design. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, S.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Smith, P.D.

    1980-07-01

    The concept of how two techniques, Best Estimate Method and Evaluation Method, may be applied to the tradditional seismic analysis and design of a nuclear power plant is introduced. Only the four links of the seismic analysis and design methodology chain (SMC)--seismic input, soil-structure interaction, major structural response, and subsystem response--are considered. The objective is to evaluate the compounding of conservatisms in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear power plants, to provide guidance for judgments in the SMC, and to concentrate the evaluation on that part of the seismic analysis and design which is familiar to the engineering community. An example applies the effects of three-dimensional excitations on the model of a nuclear power plant structure. The example demonstrates how conservatisms accrue by coupling two links in the SMC and comparing those results to the effects of one link alone. The utility of employing the Best Estimate Method vs the Evauation Method is also demonstrated.

  13. Status report: Data management program algorithm evaluation activity at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm evaluation activity was initiated to study the problems associated with image processing by assessing the independent and interdependent effects of registration, compression, and classification techniques on LANDSAT data for several discipline applications. The objective of the activity was to make recommendations on selected applicable image processing algorithms in terms of accuracy, cost, and timeliness or to propose alternative ways of processing the data. As a means of accomplishing this objective, an Image Coding Panel was established. The conduct of the algorithm evaluation is described.

  14. A technique for estimating activity in whole nerve trunks applied to the cervical sympathetic trunk, in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hellström, F; Roatta, S; Johansson, H; Passatore, M

    1999-12-24

    The changes in sympathetic outflow may be evaluated from the amplitude of the antidromic compound action potential (ACAP) according to the collision technique described by Douglas and Ritchie (Douglas, W.W. and Ritchie J.M., A technique for recording functional activity in specific groups of medullated and non-medullated fibers in whole nerve trunks. J. Physiol., 138(1957) 19-30). This technique was revised, taking into account the depressant action exerted by antidromic stimulation on sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs). Cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) of rabbits was used as experimental model. Stimulation frequencies of 0.2-0.5 Hz were found to be sufficiently low to avoid depressant actions on CSN spontaneous activity; they were employed to test the sensitivity of the technique during different experimental manoeuvres, such as changes in pulmonary-ventilation, baroreceptor unloading and arousal stimuli. In addition a procedure was devised to calibrate the ACAP amplitude: high frequency antidromic stimulation was used to induce a complete and transient inhibition of SPNs which allows to record the ACAP maximum amplitude. ACAPs recorded in various experimental conditions can then be expressed as percentage of this value.

  15. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  16. Evaluation of finishing and polishing techniques on surface roughness of chromium-cobalt castings.

    PubMed

    Aydin, A K

    1991-06-01

    The effect of finishing and polishing techniques on surface roughness of a chromium-cobalt alloy was evaluated by means of a stylus profile instrumentation and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron micrographs, surface profile tracings, surface roughness recordings, and statistical analysis of data support the finding that the best surface finish is obtained when sandblasting, hard stone, medium abrasive disk, second sandblasting, electropolishing, hard rubber point, hard felt disk with pumice slurry, and felt disk and soft brush with polishing paste are used progressively. The results of this study indicate that the finishing procedure should be carried out in a logical, systematic sequence of steps.

  17. Evaluating Acoustic Emission Signals as an in situ process monitoring technique for Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Karl A.; Candy, Jim V.; Guss, Gabe; Mathews, M. J.

    2016-10-14

    In situ real-time monitoring of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process has significant implications for the AM community. The ability to adjust the SLM process parameters during a build (in real-time) can save time, money and eliminate expensive material waste. Having a feedback loop in the process would allow the system to potentially ‘fix’ problem regions before a next powder layer is added. In this study we have investigated acoustic emission (AE) phenomena generated during the SLM process, and evaluated the results in terms of a single process parameter, of an in situ process monitoring technique.

  18. Evaluation of High Dynamic Range Photography as a Luminance Mapping Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Inanici, Mehlika; Galvin, Jim

    2004-12-30

    The potential, limitations, and applicability of the High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography technique is evaluated as a luminance mapping tool. Multiple exposure photographs of static scenes are taken with a Nikon 5400 digital camera to capture the wide luminance variation within the scenes. The camera response function is computationally derived using the Photosphere software, and is used to fuse the multiple photographs into HDR images. The vignetting effect and point spread function of the camera and lens system is determined. Laboratory and field studies have shown that the pixel values in the HDR photographs can correspond to the physical quantity of luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability.

  19. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Guillermo; Zurita, Jorge L; Roncel, Mercedes; Ortega, José M

    2015-01-01

    Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of a chemical in photosynthetic organisms of aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Evaluation of the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia catappa.

    PubMed

    Lin, C C; Chen, Y L; Lin, J M; Ujiie, T

    1997-01-01

    The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Terminalia catappa was studied. Treatment with T. catappa water extracts showed antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4-induced toxicity in the rat liver that was tested. The crude drug also exhibited anti-oxidant effects in FeCl2-Ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver homogenate. Moreover, the superoxide radical scavenger effect of T. catappa was demonstrated using electron spin resonance (ESR) and spintrapping technique. The results indicate that T. catappa possesses good antihepatotoxic activity and superoxide radical scavenger activity.

  1. Radiation Hardening by Software Techniques on FPGAs: Flight Experiment Evaluation and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Andrew G.; Flatley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present our work on implementing Radiation Hardening by Software (RHBSW) techniques on the Xilinx Virtex5 FPGAs PowerPC 440 processors on the SpaceCube 2.0 platform. The techniques have been matured and tested through simulation modeling, fault emulation, laser fault injection and now in a flight experiment, as part of the Space Test Program- Houston 4-ISS SpaceCube Experiment 2.0 (STP-H4-ISE 2.0). This work leverages concepts such as heartbeat monitoring, control flow assertions, and checkpointing, commonly used in the High Performance Computing industry, and adapts them for use in remote sensing embedded systems. These techniques are extremely low overhead (typically <1.3%), enabling a 3.3x gain in processing performance as compared to the equivalent traditionally radiation hardened processor. The recently concluded STP-H4 flight experiment was an opportunity to upgrade the RHBSW techniques for the Virtex5 FPGA and demonstrate them on-board the ISS to achieve TRL 7. This work details the implementation of the RHBSW techniques, that were previously developed for the Virtex4-based SpaceCube 1.0 platform, on the Virtex5-based SpaceCube 2.0 flight platform. The evaluation spans the development and integration with flight software, remotely uploading the new experiment to the ISS SpaceCube 2.0 platform, and conducting the experiment continuously for 16 days before the platform was decommissioned. The experiment was conducted on two PowerPCs embedded within the Virtex5 FPGA devices and the experiment collected 19,400 checkpoints, processed 253,482 status messages, and incurred 0 faults. These results are highly encouraging and future work is looking into longer duration testing as part of the STP-H5 flight experiment.

  2. Plant-Damage Assessment Technique for Evaluating Military Vehicular Impacts to Vegetation in the Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2001-09-01

    A new plant damage assessment technique was developed by plant ecologists from Bechtel Nevada at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration Nevada Operations Office and funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Project CS-1131 in cooperation with the U.S. Army's National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California. The technique establishes linear transects the width of vehicle tracts from evidence of vehicle tracks in the soil (usually during a prior training rotation period of 30 days or since the last rain or wind storm), and measures vegetation within the tracks to determine the area of plant parts being run over, the percent of the impacted parts damaged, and the percent of impacted parts expected to recover. It documents prior-damage classes based on estimated of damage that plants have apparently experienced previously (as assessed from field indicators of damage such as plant shape and height). The technique was used to evaluate different vehicle types (rubber-tire wheels vs. tracks) in six area at the NTC with different soils and training intensity levels. The technique provides tabular data that can be sorted and queried to show a variety of trends related to military vehicular impacts. The technique also appears suitable for assessing other non-military off-road traffic impacts. Findings report: (1) differences in plant sensitivity of different vehicular impacts, (2) plant cover and density by species and training area, (3) the degree to which wheels have less impact than tracks, and (4) the mean percent survival is inversely proportional to the degree of prior damage received by the vegetation (i.e., plants previously impacted have lower survival than plants not previously impacted).

  3. A comparative analysis between active and passive techniques for underwater 3D reconstruction of close-range objects.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-08-20

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms.

  4. A Comparative Analysis between Active and Passive Techniques for Underwater 3D Reconstruction of Close-Range Objects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms. PMID:23966193

  5. A comparison of maximal bioenergetic enzyme activities obtained with commonly used homogenization techniques.

    PubMed

    Grace, M; Fletcher, L; Powers, S K; Hughes, M; Coombes, J

    1996-12-01

    Homogenization of tissue for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activities is a common practice in studies examining metabolic properties of skeletal muscle adaptation to disease, aging, inactivity or exercise. While numerous homogenization techniques are in use today, limited information exists concerning the efficacy of specific homogenization protocols. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of four commonly used approaches to homogenizing skeletal muscle for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activity. The maximal enzyme activity (Vmax) of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured from homogenous muscle samples (N = 48 per homogenization technique) and used as indicators to determine which protocol had the highest efficacy. The homogenization techniques were: (1) glass-on-glass pestle; (2) a combination of a mechanical blender and a teflon pestle (Potter-Elvehjem); (3) a combination of the mechanical blender and a biological detergent; and (4) the combined use of a mechanical blender and a sonicator. The glass-on-glass pestle homogenization protocol produced significantly higher (P < 0.05) enzyme activities compared to all other protocols for both enzymes. Of the four protocols examined, the data demonstrate that the glass-on-glass pestle homogenization protocol is the technique of choice for studying bioenergetic enzyme activity in skeletal muscle.

  6. Clinical evaluation of a two-incision fistula technique for the treatment of oral ranulas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoyi; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Oral ranulas are caused by extravasation of mucus from the sublingual glands, and the preferred treatment varies. We have developed a two-incision fistula operation for their treatment, and in this clinical study we have evaluated the efficacy and safety of this approach. Twelve patients with oral ranulas confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology were enrolled and gave their consent to be treated by our new technique. The clinical outcomes and complications were evaluated during a period that ranged from 8-24 months. Nine ranulas became smaller and gradually disappeared, and there were no complications or injury to Wharton's duct. Three ranulas recurred, but disappeared after a second operation. The two-incision fistula operation can be effective and safe as an initial treatment for oral ranulas, and the method may become the preferred management for retention cysts.

  7. A study of the stress wave factor technique for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafzadeh-Khoee, A.; Kiernan, M. T.; Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II

    1986-01-01

    The acousto-ultrasonic method of nondestructive evaluation is an extremely sensitive means of assessing material response. Efforts continue to complete the understanding of this method. In order to achieve the full sensitivity of the technique, extreme care must be taken in its performance. This report provides an update of the efforts to advance the understanding of this method and to increase its application to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials. Included are descriptions of a novel optical system that is capable of measuring in-plane and out-of-plane displacements, an IBM PC-based data acquisition system, an extensive data analysis software package, the azimuthal variation of acousto-ultrasonic behavior in graphite/epoxy laminates, and preliminary examination of processing variation in graphite-aluminum tubes.

  8. Development and evaluation of on-line detection techniques for polar organics in ultrapure water

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, G.C.; Blair, D.S.; Schneider, T.W.; Mowry, C.D.; Colburn, C.W.; Donovan, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    An on-line monitor that can perform rapid, trace detection of polar organics such as acetone and isopropanol in ultrapure water (UPW) is necessary to efficiently recycle water in semiconductor manufacturing facilities. The detection of these analytes is problematic due to their high solubility in water, resulting in low partitioning into sensor coatings for direct water analysis or into the vapor phase for detection by vapor phase analyzers. After considering various options, we have evaluated two conventional laboratory techniques: gas chromatography and ion mobility spectroscopy. In addition, optimizations of sensor coating materials and sample preconditioning systems were performed with the goal of a low cost, chemical sensor system for this application. Results from these evaluations, including recommendations for meeting the needs of this application, are reported.

  9. Fluorescence measurements for evaluating the application of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Jones, Howland D. T.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2010-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of cuvette-contained laser dye mixtures are made for evaluation of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments. Nine mixtures of Coumarin 500 and Rhodamine 610 are analyzed, as well as the pure dyes. For each sample, the cuvette is positioned on a two-axis translation stage to allow the interrogation at different spatial locations, allowing the examination of both primary (absorption of the laser light) and secondary (absorption of the fluorescence) inner filter effects. In addition to these expected inner filter effects, we find evidence that a portion of the absorbed fluorescence is re-emitted. A total of 688 spectra are acquired for the evaluation of multivariate analysis approaches to account for nonlinear effects.

  10. Evaluation of Possible Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Diagnostic Techniques for Tokamak Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Zweben; T.W. Kornack; D. Majeski; G. Schilling; C.H. Skinner; R. Wilson

    2002-08-05

    Potential applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diagnostic techniques to tokamak experiments are evaluated. NMR frequencies for hydrogen isotopes and low-Z nuclei in such experiments are in the frequency range approximately equal to 20-200 MHz, so existing RF [radio-frequency] antennas could be used to rotate the spin polarization and to make the NMR measurements. Our tentative conclusion is that such measurements are possible if highly spin polarized H or (superscript)3He gas sources (which exist) are used to fuel these plasmas. In addition, NMR measurements of the surface layers of the first wall (without plasma) may also be possible, e.g., to evaluate the inventory of tritium inside the vessel.

  11. Development of evaluation techniques for electrochemical energy storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L H; Nazimek, K

    1980-03-15

    The development of standardized techniques for the comparative evaluation of electric vehicle battery technologies is summarized. The methodology considers both the traditional measures of battery performance (energy density, energy storage costs, and cycle life) and the equally important usage related battery characteristics (probability of technical success, operating and maintenance parameters, and safety/environmental impact). This comparative rationale is supplemented by the ability to generate battery test programs normalized to specific technologies and electric vehicle mission specifications. These test programs allow the evaluation of different battery technologies at comparable levels of electric vehicle performance. It was found that cost optimized electric passenger vehicles will have range specifications of 100 to 110 KM, depending on the specific performance of the battery. Longer range vehicles are penalized by higher first costs while shorter range vehicles suffer from reduced battery life and the need for more frequent alternative car rentals (presumably petroleum fueled) for trips which exceed the EV's range capability.

  12. Highly time-resolved evaluation technique of instantaneous amplitude and phase difference using analytic signals for multi-channel diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshima, S. Kobayashi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kado, S.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Shi, N.; Konoshima, S.; Sano, F.; Lee, H. Y.; Zang, L.; Kenmochi, N.; Kasajima, K.; Ohtani, Y.; Nagae, Y.

    2014-11-15

    A fluctuation analysis technique using analytic signals is proposed. Analytic signals are suitable to characterize a single mode with time-dependent amplitude and frequency, such as an MHD mode observed in fusion plasmas since the technique can evaluate amplitude and frequency at a specific moment without limitations of temporal and frequency resolutions, which is problematic in Fourier-based analyses. Moreover, a concept of instantaneous phase difference is newly introduced, and error of the evaluated phase difference and its error reduction techniques using conditional/ensemble averaging are discussed. These techniques are applied to experimental data of the beam emission spectroscopic measurement in the Heliotron J device, which demonstrates that the technique can describe nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities. This technique is widely applicable to other diagnostics having necessity to evaluate phase difference.

  13. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  14. A cosmetic evaluation of breast cancer treatment: A randomized study of radiotherapy boost technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Sylvie . E-mail: sylvie.vass@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; Bairati, Isabelle

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To compare cosmetic results of two different radiotherapy (RT) boost techniques used in the treatment of breast cancer after whole breast radiotherapy and to identify factors affecting cosmetic outcomes. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 1998, 142 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer were treated with breast conservative surgery and adjuvant RT. Patients were then randomly assigned to receive a boost dose of 15 Gy delivered to the tumor bed either by iridium 192, or a combination of photons and electrons. Cosmetic evaluations were done on a 6-month basis, with a final evaluation at 36 months after RT. The evaluations were done using a panel of global and specific subjective scores, a digitized scoring system using the breast retraction assessment (BRA) measurement, and a patient's self-assessment evaluation. As cosmetic results were graded according to severity, the comparison of boost techniques was done using the ordinal logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Results: At 36 months of follow-up, there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the global subjective cosmetic outcome (OR = 1.40; 95%CI = 0.69-2.85, p = 0.35). Good to excellent scores were observed in 65% of implant patients and 62% of photon/electron patients. At 24 months and beyond, telangiectasia was more severe in the implant group with an OR of 9.64 (95%CI = 4.05-22.92, p < 0.0001) at 36 months. The only variable associated with a worse global cosmetic outcome was the presence of concomitant chemotherapy (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 1.74-8.62). The BRA value once adjusted for age, concomitant chemotherapy, and boost volume showed a positive association with the boost technique. The BRA value was significantly greater in the implant group (p 0.03). There was no difference in the patient's final self-assessment score between the two groups. Three variables were statistically associated with

  15. Assessment of Patient Satisfaction With Evaluation Methods in Open Technique Septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Başer, Engin; Kocagöz, Gamze Didem; Çalim, Ömer Faruk; Verim, Ayşegül; Yilmaz, Fahrettin; Özturan, Orhan

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the postoperative satisfaction of patients who underwent open technique septorhinoplasty (SRP) using Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation (NOSE), Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE) and visual analog scale (VAS), and to assess the reliability and usability of these forms in the outcome of SRP.Forty-five patients who underwent primary open technique SRP were included in the study. The levels of patient satisfaction were assessed before the surgery and in the long-term using NOSE, ROE, and VAS.Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation scores were found to be decreased significantly after surgery, whereas ROE scores were increased postoperatively (P < 0.01). Patients' either functional (VAS) and aesthetic (VAS) increased significantly in the long-term after surgery (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between preoperative and postoperative measurements of NOSE, ROE, functional VAS, and aesthetic VAS by sex (P > 0.05).There was a statistically significant positive relationship between ROE difference before and after surgery, and functional VAS difference (r = 0.544, P = 0.001).There was a positive correlation between pre-postoperative ROE difference, and aesthetic VAS difference (r = 0.766, P = 0.001). The relationship between the pre-postoperative NOSE score difference and functional VAS difference was found to be significantly negative (r = -0.833, P = 0.001). The relationship between pre-postoperative NOSE difference and aesthetic VAS difference was also significantly negative (r = -0.475, P = 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between ROE difference between before and after surgery, and NOSE difference (r = -0.640, P = 0.00).The disease-specific quality of life assessment forms used to evaluate patient esthetic and functional satisfaction correlate significantly with nasal obstruction and ROE.

  16. Evaluation of a projection-domain lung nodule insertion technique in thoracic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chi; Chen, Baiyu; Koo, Chi Wan; Takahashi, Edwin A.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Levin, David L.; Kuzo, Ronald S.; Viers, Lyndsay D.; Vincent Sheldon, Stephanie A.; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng

    2016-04-01

    Task-based assessment of computed tomography (CT) image quality requires a large number of cases with ground truth. Inserting lesions into existing cases to simulate positive cases is a promising alternative approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently-developed raw-data based lesion insertion technique in thoracic CT. Lung lesions were segmented from patient CT images, forward projected, and reinserted into the same patient CT projection data. In total, 32 nodules of various attenuations were segmented from 21 CT cases. Two experienced radiologists and 2 residents blinded to the process independently evaluated these inserted nodules in two sub-studies. First, the 32 inserted and the 32 original nodules were presented in a randomized order and each received a rating score from 1 to 10 (1=absolutely artificial to 10=absolutely realistic). Second, the inserted and the corresponding original lesions were presented side-by-side to each reader, who identified the inserted lesion and provided a confidence score (1=no confidence to 5=completely certain). For the randomized evaluation, discrimination of real versus artificial nodules was poor with areas under the receiver operative characteristic curves being 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58-0.78), 0.57 (95% CI: 0.46-0.68), and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54-0.69) for the 2 radiologists, 2 residents, and all 4 readers, respectively. For the side-by-side evaluation, although all 4 readers correctly identified inserted lesions in 103/128 pairs, the confidence score was moderate (2.6). Our projection-domain based lung nodule insertion technique provides a robust method to artificially generate clinical cases that prove to be difficult to differentiate from real cases.

  17. Evaluation of a projection-domain lung nodule insertion technique in thoracic CT

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chi; Chen, Baiyu; Koo, Chi Wan; Takahashi, Edwin A; Fletcher, Joel G; McCollough, Cynthia H; Levin, David L; Kuzo, Ronald S; Viers, Lyndsay D; Sheldon, Stephanie A Vincent; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    Task-based assessment of computed tomography (CT) image quality requires a large number of cases with ground truth. Inserting lesions into existing cases to simulate positive cases is a promising alternative approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate a recently-developed raw-data based lesion insertion technique in thoracic CT. Lung lesions were segmented from patient CT images, forward projected, and reinserted into the same patient CT projection data. In total, 32 nodules of various attenuations were segmented from 21 CT cases. Two experienced radiologists and 2 residents blinded to the process independently evaluated these inserted nodules in two sub-studies. First, the 32 inserted and the 32 original nodules were presented in a randomized order and each received a rating score from 1 to 10 (1=absolutely artificial to 10=absolutely realistic). Second, the inserted and the corresponding original lesions were presented side-by-side to each reader, who identified the inserted lesion and provided a confidence score (1=no confidence to 5=completely certain). For the randomized evaluation, discrimination of real versus artificial nodules was poor with areas under the receiver operative characteristic curves being 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58–0.78), 0.57 (95% CI: 0.46–0.68), and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54–0.69) for the 2 radiologists, 2 residents, and all 4 readers, respectively. For the side-by-side evaluation, although all 4 readers correctly identified inserted lesions in 103/128 pairs, the confidence score was moderate (2.6). Our projection-domain based lung nodule insertion technique provides a robust method to artificially generate clinical cases that prove to be difficult to differentiate from real cases. PMID:27695156

  18. Two Active Learning Techniques Promoted Student Learning of Introductory Earth Science Concepts but Failed to Improve Metacognitive Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, G.

    2010-12-01

    A consensus exists about the necessity to implement active learning instructional techniques in science classes to improve overall student learning, and in response to this need a number of instructional techniques have been developed. Some of these active learning methodologies have been implemented successfully, but no direct comparison between different instructional techniques exists to date. For that reason, the purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness in student learning of two active learning methods: peer instruction and lecture tutorials. Evaluation of their effectiveness was measured through the Geoscience Concept Inventory, which was administered at the beginning (pre-test) and at the end (post-test) of each course. Both methods provided statistically significant cognitive knowledge and understanding gains, and both methods were equally effective. Despite these overall gains, about 15% of the students showed no significant gains as measured both by their GCI scores and course grades. A survey about how students study for the course revealed that whereas low performing students employed superficial strategies for learning, high performing students used deep and domain-specific strategies. Curiously, low performing students recommended the use of deeper approaches for learning, yet they themselves failed to employ them.

  19. 76 FR 9849 - Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Article 3 of Annex I to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty requires the preparation of a CEE for any proposed Antarctic activity likely to have more than a... Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations for Antarctic Activities SUMMARY: The Department of State gives...

  20. Evaluation of Emotional Literacy Activities: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oksuz, Yucel

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate impact of the emotional literacy activities through participant student's experiences. Emotional literacy activities, including social-emotional skills Goleman's emotional intelligence and Fapuel's emotional literacy model designed and conducted for 2 months on primary school students, who study in 4th grade. The…

  1. Evaluation des programmes de techniques d'education en services de garde (Evaluation of Programs of Educational Methods in Child Care Services. 2410-0521.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigneau, Paul, Comp.

    In March 1994, Quebec's Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching initiated an evaluation of "Techniques d'education en services de garde" (TESG) programs, or educational methods in child care services. This report presents results from the evaluation in three parts. The first section describes the following four stages of the…

  2. Evaluation of soil gas sampling and analysis techniques at a former petrochemical plant site.

    PubMed

    Hers, I; Li, L; Hannam, S

    2004-07-01

    Methods for soil gas sampling and analysis are evaluated as part of a research study on soil vapour intrusion into buildings, conducted at a former petro-chemical plant site ("Chatterton site"). The evaluation process was designed to provide information on reliability and selection of appropriate methods for soil gas sampling and analysis, and was based on a literature review of data and methods, and experiments completed as part of the research study. The broader context of this work is that soil gas characterization is increasingly being used for input into risk assessment of contaminated sites, particularly when evaluating the potential intrusion of soil vapour into buildings. There are only a limited number of research studies and protocols addressing soil gas sampling and analysis. There is significant variability in soil gas probe design and sample collection and analysis methods used by practitioners. The experimental studies conducted to evaluate soil gas methods address the permeation or leakage of gases from Tedlar bags, time-dependent sorption of volatile organic compound (VOC)-vapours onto probe surfaces and sampling devices, and analytical and quality control issues for light gas and VOC analyses. Through this work, common techniques for soil gas collection and analysis are described together with implications for data quality arising from the different methods used. Some of the potential pitfalls that can affect soil gas testing are identified, and recommendations and guidance for improved protocols are provided.

  3. Recognition of human activity characteristics based on state transitions modeling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2012-06-01

    Human Activity Discovery & Recognition (HADR) is a complex, diverse and challenging task but yet an active area of ongoing research in the Department of Defense. By detecting, tracking, and characterizing cohesive Human interactional activity patterns, potential threats can be identified which can significantly improve situation awareness, particularly, in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS). Understanding the nature of such dynamic activities, inevitably involves interpretation of a collection of spatiotemporally correlated activities with respect to a known context. In this paper, we present a State Transition model for recognizing the characteristics of human activities with a link to a prior contextbased ontology. Modeling the state transitions between successive evidential events determines the activities' temperament. The proposed state transition model poses six categories of state transitions including: Human state transitions of Object handling, Visibility, Entity-entity relation, Human Postures, Human Kinematics and Distance to Target. The proposed state transition model generates semantic annotations describing the human interactional activities via a technique called Casual Event State Inference (CESI). The proposed approach uses a low cost kinect depth camera for indoor and normal optical camera for outdoor monitoring activities. Experimental results are presented here to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed technique.

  4. Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series are presented. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical invariants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), given a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.

  5. Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical in variants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), give a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.

  6. Modified Class II open sandwich restorations: evaluation of interfacial adaptation and influence of different restorative techniques.

    PubMed

    Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid E; van Dijken, Jan W V; Hörstedt, Per

    2002-06-01

    The sandwich technique with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) has been proposed to relieve the contraction stresses of direct resin composite (RC) restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfacial adaptation to enamel and dentin of modified Class II open RMGIC/RC sandwich restorations and the influence of different light curing techniques and matrix bands. Forty box-shaped Class II fillings were placed in vivo in premolars scheduled for extraction after one month. In groups I and II, a metal matrix was used; RC was inserted with horizontal (group I) and diagonal (group II) increments and cured with indirect/direct light. Group III was performed as group II, but a transparent matrix was used. Group IV was as group II, but with a separating liner between RMGIC and RC. Group V was a closed sandwich restoration. Interfacial quality was studied using SEM replica technique. Gap-free interfacial adaptation to enamel was observed for RMGIC in 70%, for RC in 70% and to dentin for RMGIC in 81%, for RC in 56%. No significant differences were seen between the experimental groups. At the cervical margins, RMGIC showed significantly better adaptation to enamel than RC, 74% and 42%, respectively. In conclusion, the investigated restorations showed a high percentage of gap-free interfacial adaptation in vivo. Interfacial adaptation to dentin and to cervical enamel was significantly better for RMGIC than for RC.

  7. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  8. Evaluation of thresholding techniques for segmenting scaffold images in tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2004-05-01

    Tissue engineering attempts to address the ever widening gap between the demand and supply of organ and tissue transplants using natural and biomimetic scaffolds. The regeneration of specific tissues aided by synthetic materials is dependent on the structural and morphometric properties of the scaffold. These properties can be derived non-destructively using quantitative analysis of high resolution microCT scans of scaffolds. Thresholding of the scanned images into polymeric and porous phase is central to the outcome of the subsequent structural and morphometric analysis. Visual thresholding of scaffolds produced using stochastic processes is inaccurate. Depending on the algorithmic assumptions made, automatic thresholding might also be inaccurate. Hence there is a need to analyze the performance of different techniques and propose alternate ones, if needed. This paper provides a quantitative comparison of different thresholding techniques for segmenting scaffold images. The thresholding algorithms examined include those that exploit spatial information, locally adaptive characteristics, histogram entropy information, histogram shape information, and clustering of gray-level information. The performance of different techniques was evaluated using established criteria, including misclassification error, edge mismatch, relative foreground error, and region non-uniformity. Algorithms that exploit local image characteristics seem to perform much better than those using global information.

  9. Cine EPID evaluation of two non-commercial techniques for DIBH

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Christopher; Urribarri, Jaime; Cail, Daniel; Rottmann, Joerg; Mishra, Pankaj; Lingos, Tatiana; Niedermayr, Thomas; Berbeco, Ross

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of two noncommercial techniques for deep inspiration breathhold (DIBH) treatment of left-sided breast cancer (LSBC) usingcine electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images. Methods: 23 875 EPID images of 65 patients treated for LSBC at two different cancer treatment centers were retrieved. At the Milford Regional Cancer Center, DIBH stability was maintained by visual alignment of inroom lasers and patient skin tattoos (TAT). At the South Shore Hospital, a distance-measuring laser device (RTSSD) was implemented. For both centers,cine EPID images were acquired at least once per week during beam-on. Chest wall position relative to image boundary was measured and tracked over the course of treatment for every patient and treatment fraction for which data were acquired. Results: Median intrabeam chest motion was 0.31 mm for the TAT method and 0.37 mm for the RTSSD method. The maximum excursions exceeded our treatment protocol threshold of 3 mm in 0.3% of cases (TAT) and 1.2% of cases (RTSSD). The authors did not observe a clinically significant difference between the two datasets. Conclusions: Both noncommercial techniques for monitoring the DIBH location provided DIBH stability within the predetermined treatment protocol parameters (<3 mm). The intreatment imaging offered by the EPID operating incine mode facilitates retrospective analysis and validation of both techniques.

  10. In vitro evaluation of prosthodontic impression on natural dentition: a comparison between traditional and digital techniques

    PubMed Central

    MALAGUTI, G.; ROSSI, R.; MARZIALI, B.; ESPOSITO, A.; BRUNO, G.; DARIOL, C.; DI FIORE, A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of zirconia core crowns manufactured following different digital and traditional workflows. Methods A 6° taper shoulder prepared abutment tooth was used to produce 20 zirconia core crowns using four different scanning techniques: scanned directly with the extraoral lab scanner, scanned with intraoral scanner, dental impressions using individual dental tray and polyether, dental casts from a polyether impressions. Marginal and internal fits were evaluated with digital photography and the silicone replica method. Results Medium marginal gaps were 76,00 μm ± 28.9 for extraoral lab scanner, 80.50 μm ± 36,2 for intraoral scanner, 88.10 μm ± 34,8 for dental impression scan and 112,4 μm ± 37,2 for dental cast scan. Medium internal gaps were 23.20 μm ± 10,3 for extraoral lab scanner, 16.20 μm ± 8.3 for intraoral scanner, 27.20 μm ± 16.7 for dental impression scan and 30.20 μm ± 12.7 for dental cast scan. Conclusion Internal gap were extensively lower than 70 μm described in literature. Marginal fit was higher than ideal values for all the techniques but within the limit of clinical success. Intraoral scanners obtained the best results for internal gap. PMID:28280529

  11. Evaluation of frost damage in cement-based materials by a nonlinear elastic wave technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Soriano, L.; Payá, J.

    2014-03-01

    Frost resistance of concrete is a major concern in cold regions. RILEM (International union of laboratories and experts in construction materials, systems and structures) recommendations provide two alternatives for evaluating frost damage by nondestructive evaluation methods for concrete like materials. The first method is based on the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement, while the second alternative technique is based on the resonant vibration test. In this study, we monitor the frost damage in Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5 and aggregate to cement ratio of 3. The samples are completely saturated by water and are frozen for 24 hours at -25°C. The frost damage is monitored after 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 freezing-thawing cycles by nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy (NIRAS). The results obtained are compared with those obtained by resonant vibration tests, the second alternative technique recommended by RILEM. The obtained results show that NIRAS is more sensitive to early stages of damage than the standard resonant vibration tests.

  12. An In vitro evaluation of the reliability of QR code denture labeling technique

    PubMed Central

    Poovannan, Sindhu; Jain, Ashish R.; Krishnan, Cakku Jalliah Venkata; Chandran, Chitraa R.

    2016-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Positive identification of the dead after accidents and disasters through labeled dentures plays a key role in forensic scenario. A number of denture labeling methods are available, and studies evaluating their reliability under drastic conditions are vital. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of QR (Quick Response) Code labeled at various depths in heat-cured acrylic blocks after acid treatment, heat treatment (burns), and fracture in forensics. It was an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: This study included 160 specimens of heat-cured acrylic blocks (1.8 cm × 1.8 cm) and these were divided into 4 groups (40 samples per group). QR Codes were incorporated in the samples using clear acrylic sheet and they were assessed for reliability under various depths, acid, heat, and fracture. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, test of proportion. Results: The QR Code inclusion technique was reliable under various depths of acrylic sheet, acid (sulfuric acid 99%, hydrochloric acid 40%) and heat (up to 370°C). Results were variable with fracture of QR Code labeled acrylic blocks. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, by analyzing the results, it was clearly indicated that the QR Code technique was reliable under various depths of acrylic sheet, acid, and heat (370°C). Effectiveness varied in fracture and depended on the level of distortion. This study thus suggests that QR Code is an effective and simpler denture labeling method. PMID:28123284

  13. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Fiber Structure Extraction Technique Using Autopsy Specimens of Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hirai, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebara, Masaaki; Hachiya, Hiroyuki

    2005-06-01

    It is very important to diagnose liver cirrhosis noninvasively and correctly. In our previous studies, we proposed a processing technique to detect changes in liver tissue in vivo. In this paper, we propose the evaluation of the relationship between liver disease and echo information using autopsy specimens of a human liver in vitro. It is possible to verify the function of a processing parameter clearly and to compare the processing result and the actual human liver tissue structure by in vitro experiment. In the results of our processing technique, information that did not obey a Rayleigh distribution from the echo signal of the autopsy liver specimens was extracted depending on changes in a particular processing parameter. The fiber tissue structure of the same specimen was extracted from a number of histological images of stained tissue. We constructed 3D structures using the information extracted from the echo signal and the fiber structure of the stained tissue and compared the two. By comparing the 3D structures, it is possible to evaluate the relationship between the information that does not obey a Rayleigh distribution of the echo signal and the fibrosis structure.

  14. Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

  15. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Methods Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. Results The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Conclusions Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults. PMID:27122452

  16. An Active Self-Determination Technique: Involving Students in Effective Career Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Grace L.

    This paper discusses creating story boards to help students with disabilities to develop effective career plans. It describes storyboarding as a technique for project planning which requires active involvement of both hemispheres of the brain. A group of 6-8 people, including students, teachers, counselors, and vocational rehabilitation…

  17. RADON REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR EXISTING DETACHED HOUSES - TECHNICAL GUIDANCE (THIRD EDITION) FOR ACTIVE SOIL DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical guidance document is designed to aid in the selection, design, installation and operation of indoor radon reduction techniques using soil depressurization in existing houses. Its emphasis is on active soil depressurization; i.e., on systems that use a fan to depre...

  18. Status of the Usage of Active Learning and Teaching Method and Techniques by Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…

  19. Batch technique to evaluate the efficiency of different natural adsorbents for defluoridation from groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Saraswat, Chitresh; Mishra, Binaya Kumar; Avtar, Ram; Patel, Hiral; Patel, Asha; Sharma, Tejal; Patel, Roshni

    2016-09-01

    Fluoride pollution (with concentration >1.0 mg/L) in groundwater has become a global threat in the recent past due to the lesser availability of potable groundwater resource. In between several defluoridation techniques discovered so far, the adsorption process proved to be most economic and efficient. This study is an effort to evaluate defluoridation efficiency of powdered rice husk, fine chopped rice husk and sawdust by the batch adsorption process. Optimum defluoridation capacity is achieved by optimizing various parameters, viz. dose of adsorbent, pH, contact time and initial concentration. It was found that all three materials can be employed for the defluoridation technique, but powdered rice husk is the best adsorbent in the midst of all three. Powdered rice husk showed fluoride removal efficiency ranging between 85 and 90 % in the contact period of 7 h only in conditions of all optimized parameter. Following this parameter optimization, adsorption efficiency was also evaluated at natural pH of groundwater to minimize the cost of defluoridation. No significant difference was found between fluoride adsorption at optimized pH (pH = 4) and natural one (pH = 7), which concludes that powdered rice husk can be efficiently used for the defluoridation technique at field scale. The adsorption isotherm using this adsorbent perfectly followed Langmuir isotherms. The value of calculated separation factor also suggests the favourable adsorption of fluoride onto this adsorbent under the conditions used for the experiments. The field application for defluoridation of groundwater using this adsorbent (based on pH of natural groundwater there and seasonal variation of temperature) showed the high success rate.

  20. Non-destructive high-resolution thermal imaging techniques to evaluate wildlife and delicate biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, C.; Franklin, P.; Franklin, P.; Plowman, A.; Sayers, G.; Bol, J.; Shepard, D.; Fields, D.

    2009-07-01

    Thermal imaging cameras now allows routine monitoring of dangerous yet endangered wildlife in captivity. This study looks at the potential applications of radiometrically calibrated thermal data to wildlife, as well as providing parameters for future materials applications. We present a non-destructive active testing technique suitable for enhancing imagery contrast of thin or delicate biological specimens yielding improved thermal contrast at room temperature, for analysis of sample thermal properties. A broad spectrum of animals is studied with different textured surfaces, reflective and emissive properties in the infra red part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some surface features offer biomimetic materials design opportunities.

  1. Further Evaluation of the Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) Technique for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2011-09-01

    This is an end-of-year report (Fiscal Year (FY) 2011) for the second year of effort on a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The second-year goals for this project included: (1) assessing the neutron source strength needed for the NRTA technique, (2) estimating count times, (3) assessing the effect of temperature on the transmitted signal, (4) estimating plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly, (5) providing a preliminary assessment of the neutron detectors, and (6) documenting this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes work performed over a nine month period from January-September 2011 and is to be considered a follow-on or add-on report to our previous published summary report from December 2010 (INL/EXT-10-20620).

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Three Water Management Techniques on Tomato Crop

    PubMed Central

    Elnesr, Mohammad Nabil; Alazba, Abdurrahman Ali; Zein El-Abedein, Assem Ibrahim; El-Adl, Mahmoud Maher

    2015-01-01

    The effects of three water management techniques were evaluated on subsurface drip irrigated tomatoes. The three techniques were the intermittent flow (3 pulses), the dual-lateral drip system (two lateral lines per row, at 15 and 25cm below soil surface), and the physical barrier (buried at 30 cm below soil surface). Field experiments were established for two successive seasons. Water movement in soil was monitored using continuously logging capacitance probes up to 60 cm depth. The results showed that the dual lateral technique positively increased the yield up to 50%, water use efficiency up to 54%, while the intermittent application improved some of the quality measures (fruit size, TSS, and Vitamin C), not the quantity of the yield that decreased in one season, and not affected in the other. The physical barrier has no significant effect on any of the important growth measures. The soil water patterns showed that the dual lateral method lead to uniform wetting pattern with depth up to 45 cm, the physical barrier appeared to increase lateral and upward water movement, while the intermittent application kept the wetting pattern at higher moisture level for longer time. The cost analysis showed also that the economic treatments were the dual lateral followed by the intermittent technique, while the physical barrier is not economical. The study recommends researching the effect of the dual lateral method on the root growth and performance. The intermittent application may be recommended to improve tomato quality but not quantity. The physical barrier is not recommended unless in high permeable soils. PMID:26057380

  3. Evaluating the Effect of Three Water Management Techniques on Tomato Crop.

    PubMed

    Elnesr, Mohammad Nabil; Alazba, Abdurrahman Ali; Zein El-Abedein, Assem Ibrahim; El-Adl, Mahmoud Maher

    2015-01-01

    The effects of three water management techniques were evaluated on subsurface drip irrigated tomatoes. The three techniques were the intermittent flow (3 pulses), the dual-lateral drip system (two lateral lines per row, at 15 and 25 cm below soil surface), and the physical barrier (buried at 30 cm below soil surface). Field experiments were established for two successive seasons. Water movement in soil was monitored using continuously logging capacitance probes up to 60 cm depth. The results showed that the dual lateral technique positively increased the yield up to 50%, water use efficiency up to 54%, while the intermittent application improved some of the quality measures (fruit size, TSS, and Vitamin C), not the quantity of the yield that decreased in one season, and not affected in the other. The physical barrier has no significant effect on any of the important growth measures. The soil water patterns showed that the dual lateral method lead to uniform wetting pattern with depth up to 45 cm, the physical barrier appeared to increase lateral and upward water movement, while the intermittent application kept the wetting pattern at higher moisture level for longer time. The cost analysis showed also that the economic treatments were the dual lateral followed by the intermittent technique, while the physical barrier is not economical. The study recommends researching the effect of the dual lateral method on the root growth and performance. The intermittent application may be recommended to improve tomato quality but not quantity. The physical barrier is not recommended unless in high permeable soils.

  4. Selecting statistical or machine learning techniques for regional landslide susceptibility modelling by evaluating spatial prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Jason; Brenning, Alexander; Petschko, Helene; Leopold, Philip

    2015-04-01

    With so many techniques now available for landslide susceptibility modelling, it can be challenging to decide on which technique to apply. Generally speaking, the criteria for model selection should be tied closely to end users' purpose, which could be spatial prediction, spatial analysis or both. In our research, we focus on comparing the spatial predictive abilities of landslide susceptibility models. We illustrate how spatial cross-validation, a statistical approach for assessing spatial prediction performance, can be applied with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) as a prediction measure for model comparison. Several machine learning and statistical techniques are evaluated for prediction in Lower Austria: support vector machine, random forest, bundling with penalized linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, weights of evidence, and the generalized additive model. In addition to predictive performance, the importance of predictor variables in each model was estimated using spatial cross-validation by calculating the change in AUROC performance when variables are randomly permuted. The susceptibility modelling techniques were tested in three areas of interest in Lower Austria, which have unique geologic conditions associated with landslide occurrence. Overall, we found for the majority of comparisons that there were little practical or even statistically significant differences in AUROCs. That is the models' prediction performances were very similar. Therefore, in addition to prediction, the ability to interpret models for spatial analysis and the qualitative qualities of the prediction surface (map) are considered and discussed. The measure of variable importance provided some insight into the model behaviour for prediction, in particular for "black-box" models. However, there were no clear patterns in all areas of interest to why certain variables were given more importance over others.

  5. Functional and radiographic evaluation of the treatment of traumatic bone loss of the hand using the Masquelet technique.

    PubMed

    Moris, V; Loisel, F; Cheval, D; See, L A; Tchurukdichian, A; Pluvy, I; Gindraux, F; Pauchot, J; Zwetyenga, N; Obert, L

    2016-04-01

    This study was a retrospective evaluation of 18 patients with traumatic bone loss affecting the fingers, hand and wrist who were treated using the induced-membrane technique. Sixteen men and two women, mean age 54years (27-74) presented a hand injury including bone loss. Sixteen patients were treated on an emergency basis and two following nonunion of their fractures. There were 13 cases of open fracture of the phalanx and 5 cases of metacarpal fractures. These patients were treated with debridement and the injuries were covered when necessary. To address the bone loss, the first step of the induced-membrane technique involved placing a cement spacer (polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]) without antibiotics in the defect. During the second step, the cement spacer was removed and replaced by autologous cancellous bone graft. The graft was placed within the biological tube left empty after removal of the cement. For each patient, bone union was assessed with radiographs and/or CT scan. Failure was defined as nonunion at 1year. In 16 patients, the fractures had healed after 4months (1.5-12months) on average. Two failures were noted (one nonunion treated using a PIP prosthesis and one case of delayed union). Mobility of the fingers, evaluated using the Total Active Motion (TAM) was 145° (75°-270°). The Kapandji score reached 8 for the thumb. Grip strength reached 21kg/F and pinch strength was 5kg/F; these values were 50% of those in the healthy hand. The induced-membrane technique is simple and can be used to treat traumatic bone loss in an emergency, thus avoiding amputation and limb shortening, while preserving limb function. It provides immediate stability and allows early mobilization.

  6. Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

  7. Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2011-05-01

    As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.

  8. Improvements to Rapfish: a rapid evaluation technique for fisheries integrating ecological and human dimensions.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, T J; Lam, M E; Ainsworth, C; Martindale, A; Nakamura, K; Perry, R I; Ward, T

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports recent developments in Rapfish, a normative, scalable and flexible rapid appraisal technique that integrates both ecological and human dimensions to evaluate the status of fisheries in reference to a norm or goal. Appraisal status targets may be sustainability, compliance with a standard (such as the UN code of conduct for responsible fisheries) or the degree of progress in meeting some other goal or target. The method combines semi-quantitative (e.g. ecological) and qualitative (e.g. social) data via multiple evaluation fields, each of which is assessed through scores assigned to six to 12 attributes or indicators: the scoring method allows user flexibility to adopt a wide range of utility relationships. For assessing sustainability, six evaluation fields have been developed: ecological, technological, economic, social, ethical and institutional. Each field can be assessed directly with a set of scored attributes, or several of the fields can be dealt with in greater detail using nested subfields that themselves comprise multidimensional Rapfish assessments (e.g. the hierarchical institutional field encompasses both governance and management, including a detailed analysis of legality). The user has the choice of including all or only some of the available sustainability fields. For the attributes themselves, there will rarely be quantitative data, but scoring allows these items to be estimated. Indeed, within a normative framework, one important advantage with Rapfish is transparency of the rigour, quality and replicability of the scores. The Rapfish technique employs a constrained multidimensional ordination that is scaled to situate data points within evaluation space. Within each evaluation field, results may be presented as a two-dimensional plot or in a one-dimensional rank order. Uncertainty is expressed through the probability distribution of Monte-Carlo simulations that use the C.L. on each original observation. Overall results of the

  9. The use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques can predict health goal attainment in adults: an explorative study

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verloigne, Maite; Crombez, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation tools are not always used optimally, and implementation intention plans often lack quality. Therefore, this study explored participants’ use and evaluation of self-regulation techniques and their impact on goal attainment. Methods. Data were obtained from 452 adults in a proof of concept (POC) intervention of ‘MyPlan’, an eHealth intervention using self-regulation techniques to promote three healthy behaviours (physical activity (PA), fruit intake, or vegetable intake). Participants applied self-regulation techniques to a self-selected health behaviour, and evaluated the self-regulation techniques. The quality of implementation intentions was rated by the authors as a function of instrumentality (instrumental and non-instrumental) and specificity (non-specific and medium to highly specific). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict goal attainment. Results. Goal attainment was significantly predicted by the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:1.86), by the specificity of the implementation intentions (OR:3.5), by the motivational value of the action plan (OR:1.86), and by making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:4.10). Interaction-effects with behaviour showed that the specificity score of the implementation intention plans (OR:4.59), the motivational value of the personal advice (OR:2.38), selecting hindering factors and solutions(OR:2.00) and making a new action plan at follow-up (OR:7.54) were predictive of goal attainment only for fruit or vegetable intake. Also, when participants in the fruit and vegetable group made more than three plans, they were more likely to attain their goal (OR:1.73), whereas the reverse was the case in the PA group (OR:0.34). Discussion. The chance that adults reach fruit and vegetable goals can be increased by including motivating personal advice, self-formulated action plans, and instructions/strategies to make specific implementation intentions into eHealth interventions

  10. Evaluation and analysis of non-intrusive techniques for detecting illicit substances

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Roche, C.T.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.; Demirgian, J.C.; Kunz, T.D.; Ulvick, S.J.; Cui, J.

    1995-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) have been tasked by the Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center of the Office of National Drug Control Policy to conduct evaluations and analyses of technologies for the non-intrusive inspection of containers for illicit substances. These technologies span the range of nuclear, X-ray, and chemical techniques used in nondestructive sample analysis. ANL has performed assessments of nuclear and X-ray inspection concepts and undertaken site visits with developers to understand the capabilities and the range of applicability of candidate systems. ANL and HARC have provided support to law enforcement agencies (LEAs), including participation in numerous field studies. Both labs have provided staff to assist in the Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program for evaluating drug detection systems. Also, the two labs are performing studies of drug contamination of currency. HARC has directed technical evaluations of automated ballistics imaging and identification systems under consideration by law enforcement agencies. ANL and HARC have sponsored workshops and a symposium, and are participating in a Non-Intrusive Inspection Study being led by Dynamics Technology, Incorporated.

  11. Evaluating machine learning and statistical prediction techniques for landslide susceptibility modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, J. N.; Brenning, A.; Petschko, H.; Leopold, P.

    2015-08-01

    Statistical and now machine learning prediction methods have been gaining popularity in the field of landslide susceptibility modeling. Particularly, these data driven approaches show promise when tackling the challenge of mapping landslide prone areas for large regions, which may not have sufficient geotechnical data to conduct physically-based methods. Currently, there is no best method for empirical susceptibility modeling. Therefore, this study presents a comparison of traditional statistical and novel machine learning models applied for regional scale landslide susceptibility modeling. These methods were evaluated by spatial k-fold cross-validation estimation of the predictive performance, assessment of variable importance for gaining insights into model behavior and by the appearance of the prediction (i.e. susceptibility) map. The modeling techniques applied were logistic regression (GLM), generalized additive models (GAM), weights of evidence (WOE), the support vector machine (SVM), random forest classification (RF), and bootstrap aggregated classification trees (bundling) with penalized discriminant analysis (BPLDA). These modeling methods were tested for three areas in the province of Lower Austria, Austria. The areas are characterized by different geological and morphological settings. Random forest and bundling classification techniques had the overall best predictive performances. However, the performances of all modeling techniques were for the majority not significantly different from each other; depending on the areas of interest, the overall median estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) differences ranged from 2.9 to 8.9 percentage points. The overall median estimated true positive rate (TPR) measured at a 10% false positive rate (FPR) differences ranged from 11 to 15pp. The relative importance of each predictor was generally different between the modeling methods. However, slope angle, surface roughness and plan

  12. Evaluation of biolistic gene transfer methods in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene therapy continues to hold great potential for treating many different types of disease and dysfunction. Safe and efficient techniques for gene transfer and expression in vivo are needed to enable gene therapeutic strategies to be effective in patients. Currently, the most commonly used methods employ replication-defective viral vectors for gene transfer, while physical gene transfer methods such as biolistic-mediated ("gene-gun") delivery to target tissues have not been as extensively explored. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of biolistic gene transfer techniques in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging (BLI) methods. Results Plasmid DNA carrying the firefly luciferase (LUC) reporter gene under the control of the human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter/enhancer was transfected into mouse skin and liver using biolistic methods. The plasmids were coupled to gold microspheres (1 μm diameter) using different DNA Loading Ratios (DLRs), and "shot" into target tissues using a helium-driven gene gun. The optimal DLR was found to be in the range of 4-10. Bioluminescence was measured using an In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS-50) at various time-points following transfer. Biolistic gene transfer to mouse skin produced peak reporter gene expression one day after transfer. Expression remained detectable through four days, but declined to undetectable levels by six days following gene transfer. Maximum depth of tissue penetration following biolistic transfer to abdominal skin was 200-300 μm. Similarly, biolistic gene transfer to mouse liver in vivo also produced peak early expression followed by a decline over time. In contrast to skin, however, liver expression of the reporter gene was relatively stable 4-8 days post-biolistic gene transfer, and remained detectable for nearly two weeks. Conclusions The use of bioluminescence imaging techniques enabled efficient evaluation of reporter gene expression in vivo. Our results demonstrate that

  13. Evaluation of three techniques for classifying urban land cover patterns using LANDSAT MSS data. [New Orleans, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Three computer quantitative techniques for determining urban land cover patterns are evaluated. The techniques examined deal with the selection of training samples by an automated process, the overlaying of two scenes from different seasons of the year, and the use of individual pixels as training points. Evaluation is based on the number and type of land cover classes generated and the marks obtained from an accuracy test. New Orleans, Louisiana and its environs form the study area.

  14. Performance in physiology evaluation: possible improvement by active learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Montrezor, Luís H

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them.

  15. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  16. Evaluation and analysis of polished fused silica subsurface quality by the nanoindenter technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Bin; Shen Zhengxiang; He Pengfei; Sha Fei; Wang Chunliang; Wang Bin; Ji Yiqin; Liu Huasong; Li Weihao; Wang Zhanshan

    2011-03-20

    We evaluate the subsurface quality of polished fused silica samples using the nanoindenter technique. Two kinds of samples, consisting of hundreds of nanometers and micrometers of subsurface damage layers, are fabricated by controlling the grinding and polishing processes, and the subsurface quality has been verified by the chemical etching method. Then several nanoindentation experiments are performed using the Berkovich tip to investigate the subsurface quality. Some differences are found by relative measurements in terms of the relationship between the total penetration and the peak load on the surfaces, the modulus calculated over the defined depths and from unload, and the indented morphology at a constant load near the surface collapse threshold. Finally, the capabilities of such a mechanical method for detecting subsurface flaws are discussed and analyzed.

  17. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for development and characterization of carbon nanotube based superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wainwright, Elliot; Williams, Phillip; Siochi, Emile J.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, multiple commercial vendors have developed capability for the production of large-scale quantities of high-quality carbon nanotube sheets and yarns [1]. While the materials have found use in electrical shielding applications, development of structural systems composed of a high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes is still lacking [2]. A recent NASA program seeks to address this by prototyping a structural nanotube composite with strength-to-weight ratio exceeding current state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites. Commercially available carbon nanotube sheets, tapes, and yarns are being processed into high volume fraction carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites. Nondestructive evaluation techniques have been applied throughout this development effort for material characterization and process control. This paper will report on the progress of these efforts, including magnetic characterization of residual catalyst content, Raman scattering characterization of nanotube diameter and nanotube strain, and polarized Raman scattering for characterization of nanotube alignment.

  18. Ground evaluation of seeding an in-flight wingtip vortex using infrared imaging flow visualization technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akinyanju, Ted

    1989-01-01

    An experimental simulation of an in-flight wingtip vortical flow visualization technique uses infrared imaging to observe strong and concentrated vortices. This experiment is phase 1 of a two-phase infrared evaluation program. The system includes a vortex generator (model 320 Vortec Vortex Tube) which generates the required vortex. The mouth of the unit is mounted close to the free end of a half-inch diameter, sixteen and a half foot long stainless steel tubing (sized after tubing currently installed in the wings of an experimental Beechcraft Sundowner 180 aircraft). Dichloro difluoromethane (Freon-12) is entrained into the generated vortex. A breakdown of the vortices is indicated by the rapid diffusion and the resulting pattern is tracked using the infrared imager and video systems. Flow rates (volume and mass) are estimated at the laboratory and proposed flight conditions. The nominal flight altitude is expected to be 2500 feet.

  19. Dose audit and evaluation of work practices during barium procedures using digital radiography techniques.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Augustine, Philomina; Aparna, I; Raj, D Victor

    2004-10-01

    Effective dose and organ doses during barium procedures performed using digital radiography machines were estimated and the related work practices were evaluated. Measured values of dose area product (DAP) were used for the calculation of effective doses. One hundred and thirty eight patients undergoing barium procedures were included in the study. The use of additional 0.2 mm copper filter during barium procedures effectively reduced patient doses. The effective dose during barium swallow procedure varied from 0.03 mSv to 3.5 mSv; during barium meal it varied from 0.18 mSv to 2.62 mSv; and during barium enema it varied from 0.56 mSv to 4.24 mSv. Dose auditing was done on the basis of patient doses, imaging techniques and image quality. Selection of optimized exposure factors imparted lower dose to patients during barium procedures.

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Development and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Based Superstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wainwright, Elliot; Williams, Phillip; Siochi, Emile J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, multiple commercial vendors have developed capability for the production of large-scale quantities of high-quality carbon nanotube sheets and yarns. While the materials have found use in electrical shielding applications, development of structural systems composed of a high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes is still lacking. A recent NASA program seeks to address this by prototyping a structural nanotube composite with strength-toweight ratio exceeding current state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites. Commercially available carbon nanotube sheets, tapes, and yarns are being processed into high volume fraction carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites. Nondestructive evaluation techniques have been applied throughout this development effort for material characterization and process control. This paper will report on the progress of these efforts, including magnetic characterization of residual catalyst content, Raman scattering characterization of nanotube diameter, defect ratio, and nanotube strain, and polarized Raman scattering for characterization of nanotube alignment.

  1. Formulation and evaluation of bilayer tablet by using melt granulation technique for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhruvita; Patel, Ankita; Solanki, Trupti

    2012-03-01

    The objective of present study was to prepare and characterize Bilayer tablet formulation containing Metformin HCl in extended release matrix form and Pioglitazone HCl in immediate release form for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Different formulations containing Metformin HCl were manufactured using 3(2) factorial designs. Influence of hydrophilic carrier, hydrophobic polymer on drug release was studied. Immediate release layer of Pioglitazone was optimized using different super disintegrants. All formulations were evaluated for percentage drug release. Optimization results indicated that release rate of Metformin is directly proportional to the levels of Eudragit S 100 and PEG 6000. Results confirmed that Bilayer tablet formulation containing extended release of Metformin HCl and immediate release of Pioglitazone HCl could be developed by using melt granulation technique.

  2. Experimental techniques for evaluating steady-state jet engine performance in an altitude facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Young, C. Y.; Antl, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Jet engine calibration tests were conducted in an altitude facility using a contoured bellmouth inlet duct, four fixed-area water-cooled exhaust nozzles, and an accurately calibrated thrust measuring system. Accurate determination of the airflow measuring station flow coefficient, the flow and thrust coefficients of the exhaust nozzles, and the experimental and theoretical terms in the nozzle gross thrust equation were some of the objectives of the tests. A primary objective was to develop a technique to determine gross thrust for the turbojet engine used in this test that could also be used for future engine and nozzle evaluation tests. The probable error in airflow measurement was found to be approximately 0.6 percent at the bellmouth throat design Mach number of 0.6. The probable error in nozzle gross thrust measurement was approximated 0.6 percent at the load cell full-scale reading.

  3. EVALUATION OF ALGINATE MICROSPHERES WITH METRONIDAZOLE OBTAINED BY THE SPRAY DRYING TECHNIQUE.

    PubMed

    Szekalska, Marta; Winnicka, Katarzyna; Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Amelian, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, nine formulations (F1-F9) of alginate microspheres with metronidazole were prepared by the spray drying technique with using different drug:polymer ratio (1:2, 1:1, 2:1) and different sodium alginate concentration (1, 2, 3%). The obtained microspheres were characterized for size, morphology, drug loading, (potential and swelling degree. Mucoadhesive properties were examined using texture analyzer and three different models of adhesive layers--gelatin discs, mucin gel and porcine vaginal mucosa. In vitro drug release, mathematical release profile and physical state of microspheres were also evaluated. The obtained results indicate that sodium alginate is a suitable polymer for developing mucoadhesive dosage forms of metronidazole. The optimal formulation F3 (drug:polymer ratio 1:2 and 1% alginate solution) was characterized by the highest metronidazole loading and sustained drug release. The results of this study indicate promising potential of ALG microspheres as alternative dosage forms for metronidazole delivery.

  4. Diffusion of point defects in crystalline silicon using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique method

    DOE PAGES

    Trochet, Mickaël; Béland, Laurent Karim; Joly, Jean -François; ...

    2015-06-16

    We study point-defect diffusion in crystalline silicon using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building capabilities based on the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau), coupled to the standard Stillinger-Weber potential. We focus more particularly on the evolution of crystalline cells with one to four vacancies and one to four interstitials in order to provide a detailed picture of both the atomistic diffusion mechanisms and overall kinetics. We show formation energies, activation barriers for the ground state of all eight systems, and migration barriers for those systems that diffuse. Additionally, we characterize diffusion pathsmore » and special configurations such as dumbbell complex, di-interstitial (IV-pair+2I) superdiffuser, tetrahedral vacancy complex, and more. In conclusion, this study points to an unsuspected dynamical richness even for this apparently simple system that can only be uncovered by exhaustive and systematic approaches such as the kinetic activation-relaxation technique.« less

  5. Diffusion of point defects in crystalline silicon using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique method

    SciTech Connect

    Trochet, Mickaël; Béland, Laurent Karim; Joly, Jean -François; Brommer, Peter; Mousseau, Normand

    2015-06-16

    We study point-defect diffusion in crystalline silicon using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building capabilities based on the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau), coupled to the standard Stillinger-Weber potential. We focus more particularly on the evolution of crystalline cells with one to four vacancies and one to four interstitials in order to provide a detailed picture of both the atomistic diffusion mechanisms and overall kinetics. We show formation energies, activation barriers for the ground state of all eight systems, and migration barriers for those systems that diffuse. Additionally, we characterize diffusion paths and special configurations such as dumbbell complex, di-interstitial (IV-pair+2I) superdiffuser, tetrahedral vacancy complex, and more. In conclusion, this study points to an unsuspected dynamical richness even for this apparently simple system that can only be uncovered by exhaustive and systematic approaches such as the kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

  6. Diffusion of point defects in crystalline silicon using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochet, Mickaël; Béland, Laurent Karim; Joly, Jean-François; Brommer, Peter; Mousseau, Normand

    2015-06-01

    We study point-defect diffusion in crystalline silicon using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building capabilities based on the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau), coupled to the standard Stillinger-Weber potential. We focus more particularly on the evolution of crystalline cells with one to four vacancies and one to four interstitials in order to provide a detailed picture of both the atomistic diffusion mechanisms and overall kinetics. We show formation energies, activation barriers for the ground state of all eight systems, and migration barriers for those systems that diffuse. Additionally, we characterize diffusion paths and special configurations such as dumbbell complex, di-interstitial (IV-pair+2I) superdiffuser, tetrahedral vacancy complex, and more. This study points to an unsuspected dynamical richness even for this apparently simple system that can only be uncovered by exhaustive and systematic approaches such as the kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

  7. Evaluation of Larynx-Sparing Techniques With IMRT When Treating the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Gareth J. Rowbottom, Carl G.; Ho, Kean F.; Slevin, Nick J.; Mackay, Ranald I.

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: Concern exists that widespread implementation of whole-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer has resulted in increased levels of dysphagia relative to those seen with conventional planning. Other investigators have suggested an alternative junctioned-IMRT (J-IMRT) method, which matches an IMRT plan to a centrally blocked neck field to restrict the laryngeal dose and reduce dysphagia. The effect on target coverage and sparing of organs at risk, including laryngeal sparing, in the optimization was evaluated and compared with that achieved using a J-IMRT technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 13 oropharyngeal cancer whole-field IMRT plans were planned with and without including laryngeal sparing in the optimization. A comparison of the target coverage and sparing of organs at risk was made using the resulting dose-volume histograms and dose distribution. The nine plans with disease located superior to the level of the larynx were replanned using a series of J-IMRT techniques to compare the two laryngeal-sparing techniques. Results: An average mean larynx dose of 29.1 Gy was achieved if disease did not extend to the level of the larynx, with 38.8 Gy for disease extending inferiorly and close to the larynx (reduced from 46.2 and 47.7 Gy, respectively, without laryngeal sparing). Additional laryngeal sparing could be achieved with J-IMRT (mean dose 24.4 Gy), although often at the expense of significantly reduced coverage of the target volume and with no improvement to other areas of the IMRT plan. Conclusion: The benefits of J-IMRT can be achieved with whole-field IMRT if laryngeal sparing is incorporated into the class solution. Inclusion of laryngeal sparing had no effect on other parameters in the plan.

  8. Evaluation of Landslide Mapping Techniques and LiDAR-based Conditioning Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalingam, R.; Olsen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides are a major geohazard, which result in significant human, infrastructure, and economic losses. Landslide susceptibility mapping can help communities to plan and prepare for these damaging events. Mapping landslide susceptible locations using GIS and remote sensing techniques is gaining popularity in the past three decades. These efforts use a wide variety of procedures and consider a wide range of factors. Unfortunately, each study is often completed differently and independently of others. Further, the quality of the datasets used varies in terms of source, data collection, and generation, which can propagate errors or inconsistencies into the resulting output maps. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has proved to have higher accuracy in representing the continuous topographic surface, which can help minimize this uncertainty. The primary objectives of this paper are to investigate the applicability and performance of terrain factors in landslide hazard mapping, determine if LiDAR-derived datasets (slope, slope roughness, terrain roughness, stream power index and compound topographic index) can be used for predictive mapping without data representing other common landslide conditioning factors, and evaluate the differences in landslide susceptibility mapping using widely-used statistical approaches. The aforementioned factors were used to produce landslide susceptibility maps for a 140 km2 study area in northwest Oregon using six representative techniques: frequency ratio, weights of evidence, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, artificial neural network, and support vector machine. Most notably, the research showed an advantage in selecting fewer critical conditioning factors. The most reliable factors all could be derived from a single LiDAR DEM, reducing the need for laborious and costly data gathering. Most of the six techniques showed similar statistical results; however, ANN showed less accuracy for predictive mapping. Keywords : Li

  9. Evaluation of Characterization Techniques for Iron Pipe Corrosion Products and Iron Oxide Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Borch, Thomas; Camper, Anne K.; Biederman, Joel A.; Butterfield, Phillip; Gerlach, Robin; Amonette, James E.

    2008-10-01

    A common problem faced by drinking water studies is that of properly characterizing the corrosion products (CP) in iron pipescor synthetic Fe (hydr)oxides used to simulate the iron pipe used in municipal drinking-water systems. The present work compares the relative applicability of a suite of imaging and analytical techniques for the characterization of CPs and synthetic Fe oxide thin films and provide an overview of the type of data that each instrument can provide as well as their limitations to help researchers and consultants choose the best technique for a given task. Crushed CP from a water distribution system and synthetic Fe oxide thin films formed on glass surfaces were chosen as test samples for this evaluation. The CP and synthetic Fe oxide thin films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), grazing incident diffractometry (GID), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller N2 adsorption and Fe concentration was determined by the ferrozine method. XRD and GID were found to be the most suitable techniques for identification of the mineralogical composition of CP and synthetic Fe oxide thin films, respectively. AFM and a combined ToF-SIMS-AFM approach proved excellent for roughness and depth profiling analysis of synthetic Fe oxide thin films, respectively. Corrosion products were difficult to study by AFM due to their surface roughness, while synthetic Fe oxide thin films resisted most spectroscopic methods due to their limited thickness (118 nm). XPS analysis is not recommended for mixtures of Fe (hydr)oxides due to their spectral similarities. SEM and TEM provided great detail on mineralogical morphology.

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of metal and composite targets using an infrared line-scanning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher; Rowley, Matthew; Dvonch, Curt; Fulton, Mary

    2005-03-01

    A thermal, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique has been employed by ThermTech Services, Inc. in cooperation with NASA Langley Research Center that allows for quantitative measurements of wall thickness in steam boilers. By determining the thickness of the walls, one can easily determine how much thinning has occurred due to corrosion. This type of NDE can be applied to the inspection of wings and fuselages on aircraft and spaceflight vehicles including the shuttle. The NDE technique employs the linear movement of a heat source (lamp) and an infrared imager that is situated at a fixed distance behind the heat source. The instruments are aligned on a platform that moves up and down across the outer surface of a test sample. By analyzing the induced surface temperature variations, and processing images collected with the infrared imager, it can be determined where material loss of the tubes has occurred. After an image sequence has been collected, a line-by-line subtraction methodology is utilized to discard irrelevant information so that defects are displayed in a re-created image. The overall goal of this project is to provide a proof of concept for a portable, hand-operated thermographic line scanner that would provide an alternative to the existing mass- and power-intensive instrument that utilizes a cooled infrared imager. In this project, two different microbolometers are first analyzed using different metal- and carbon epoxy-based targets to determine which provides better resolution for detection of subsurface, manufactured defects. The feasibility of using uncooled bolometer technology to support the development of a portable instrument to conduct this type of NDE technique was proven.

  11. Evaluating climate field reconstruction techniques using improved emulations of real-world conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.; Smerdon, J. E.; Rajaratnam, B.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoproxy experiments (PPEs) have become an important framework for evaluating paleoclimate reconstruction methods. Most existing PPE studies assume constant proxy availability through time and uniform proxy quality across the pseudoproxy network. Real multiproxy networks are, however, marked by pronounced disparities in proxy quality, and a steep decline in proxy availability back in time, either of which may have large effects on reconstruction skill. A suite of PPEs constructed from a millennium-length general circulation model (GCM) simulation is thus designed to mimic these various real-world characteristics. The new pseudoproxy network is used to evaluate four climate field reconstruction (CFR) techniques: truncated total least squares embedded within the regularized EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm (RegEM-TTLS), the Mann et al. (2009) implementation of RegEM-TTLS (M09), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and Gaussian graphical models embedded within RegEM (GraphEM). Each method's risk properties are also assessed via a 100-member noise ensemble. Contrary to expectation, it is found that reconstruction skill does not vary monotonically with proxy availability, but also is a function of the type and amplitude of climate variability (forced events vs. internal variability). The use of realistic spatiotemporal pseudoproxy characteristics also exposes large inter-method differences. Despite the comparable fidelity in reconstructing the global mean temperature, spatial skill varies considerably between CFR techniques. Both GraphEM and CCA efficiently exploit teleconnections, and produce consistent reconstructions across the ensemble. RegEM-TTLS and M09 appear advantageous for reconstructions on highly noisy data, but are subject to larger stochastic variations across different realizations of pseudoproxy noise. Results collectively highlight the importance of designing realistic pseudoproxy networks and implementing multiple noise realizations of PPEs

  12. Use of advanced neuroimaging techniques in the evaluation of pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ashwal, Stephen; Holshouser, Barbara A; Tong, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging techniques are now used to expand our knowledge of traumatic brain injury, and increasingly, they are being applied to children. This review will examine four of these methods as they apply to children who present acutely after injury. (1) Susceptibility weighted imaging is a 3-dimensional high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging technique that is more sensitive than conventional imaging in detecting hemorrhagic lesions that are often associated with diffuse axonal injury. (2) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquires metabolite information reflecting neuronal integrity and function from multiple brain regions and provides sensitive, noninvasive assessment of neurochemical alterations that offers early prognostic information regarding the outcome. (3) Diffusion weighted imaging is based on differences in diffusion of water molecules within the brain and has been shown to be very sensitive in the early detection of ischemic injury. It is now being used to study the direct effects of traumatic injury as well as those due to secondary ischemia. (4) Diffusion tensor imaging is a form of diffusion weighted imaging and allows better evaluation of white matter fiber tracts by taking advantage of the intrinsic directionality (anisotropy) of water diffusion in human brain. It has been shown to be useful in identifying white matter abnormalities after diffuse axonal injury when conventional imaging appears normal. An important aspect of these advanced methods is that they demonstrate that 'normal-appearing' brain in many instances is not normal, i.e. there is evidence of significant undetected injury that may underlie a child's clinical status. Availability and integration of these advanced imaging methods will lead to better treatment and change the standard of care for use of neuroimaging to evaluate children with traumatic brain injury.

  13. Evaluation of the accuracy of different transfer impression techniques for multiple implants.

    PubMed

    Faria, Júlio César Brigolini de; Silva-Concílio, Laís Regiane; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Miranda, Milton Edson; Teixeira, Marcelo Lucchesi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three implant transfer impression techniques. Four groups (n = 5) were defined, according to the technique: TC - tapered copings without splint; SC - square copings without splint; SCS - square copings splinted with dental floss and acrylic resin, and CG (control group) - master model with four external hexagonal implants and a superstructure. Individual trays and polyether were used for the impression. All casts were checked for their fit into the master superstructure; for this, all four screws were placed in the implants. Digital photos were taken and images were analyzed using UTHSCSA ImageTool software. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's t test (p < 0.05). The means and standard deviation were (µm): CG = 2.03 ± 0.00, TC = 14.74 ± 3.41, SC = 12.08 ± 2.56, and SCS = 6.51 ± 0.09. The control group was found to be statistically different from the TC and SC groups. Within the limitations of this study, all groups presented clinically acceptable standard gap values, and the SCS group showed no statistical difference in relation to the CG (control group), demonstrating more accuracy and fidelity to transfer implants.

  14. Evaluation of various thrust calculation techniques on an F404 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    In support of performance testing of the X-29A aircraft at the NASA-Ames, various thrust calculation techniques were developed and evaluated for use on the F404-GE-400 engine. The engine was thrust calibrated at NASA-Lewis. Results from these tests were used to correct the manufacturer's in-flight thrust program to more accurately calculate thrust for the specific test engine. Data from these tests were also used to develop an independent, simplified thrust calculation technique for real-time thrust calculation. Comparisons were also made to thrust values predicted by the engine specification model. Results indicate uninstalled gross thrust accuracies on the order of 1 to 4 percent for the various in-flight thrust methods. The various thrust calculations are described and their usage, uncertainty, and measured accuracies are explained. In addition, the advantages of a real-time thrust algorithm for flight test use and the importance of an accurate thrust calculation to the aircraft performance analysis are described. Finally, actual data obtained from flight test are presented.

  15. Evaluation of visualization techniques for image-guided navigation in liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Marcus; Hassenpflug, Peter; Thorn, Matthias; Cárdenas, Carlos; Richter, Götz Martin; Lamadé, Wolfram; Herfarth, Christian; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2002-01-01

    A substantial component of an image-guided surgery system (IGSS) is the kind of three-dimensional (3D) presentation to the surgeon because the visual depth perception of the complex anatomy is of significant relevance for orientation. Therefore, we examined in this contribution four different visualization techniques, which were evaluated by eight surgeons. The IGSS developed by our group supports the intraoperative orientation of the surgeon by depicting a visualization of the spatially tracked surgical instruments with respect to intrahepatic vessels that have to be conserved vitally, the tumor, and preoperatively calculated resection planes. In the prelimenary trial presented here we examined the human ability to percept an intraoperative virtual scene and to solve given navigation tasks. The focus of the experiments was to measure the ability of eight surgeons to orientate intrahepaticaly and to transfer the percepted spatial relation to movements in real space. An autostereoscopic visualization with a prism-based display yielded that the navigation can be performed faster and more accurately than with the other visualization techniques.

  16. Advanced MRI Techniques in the Evaluation of Complex Cystic Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Popli, Manju Bala; Gupta, Pranav; Arse, Devraj; Kumar, Pawan; Kaur, Prabhjot

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this research work was to evaluate complex cystic breast lesions by advanced MRI techniques and correlating imaging with histologic findings. METHODS AND MATERIALS In a cross-sectional design from September 2013 to August 2015, 50 patients having sonographically detected complex cystic lesions of the breast were included in the study. Morphological characteristics were assessed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI along with diffusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy were used to further classify lesions into benign and malignant categories. All the findings were correlated with histopathology. RESULTS Of the 50 complex cystic lesions, 32 proved to be benign and 18 were malignant on histopathology. MRI features of heterogeneous enhancement on CE-MRI (13/18), Type III kinetic curve (13/18), reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (18/18), and tall choline peak (17/18) were strong predictors of malignancy. Thirteen of the 18 lesions showed a combination of Type III curve, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient value, and tall choline peak. CONCLUSIONS Advanced MRI techniques like dynamic imaging, diffusion-weighted sequences, and MR spectroscopy provide a high level of diagnostic confidence in the characterization of complex cystic breast lesion, thus allowing early diagnosis and significantly reducing patient morbidity and mortality. From our study, lesions showing heterogeneous contrast enhancement, Type III kinetic curve, diffusion restriction, and tall choline peak were significantly associated with malignant complex cystic lesions of the breast. PMID:27330299

  17. Research on the key techniques of form and position evaluation based on the genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Changcai; Li, Bing

    2006-11-01

    The Evolutionary Algorithm (EA)-Genetic Algorithm (GA) was improved to evaluate the form and position errors that were summarized as nonlinear optimization problems. The key techniques in the implementation of the GA have been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the fitness functions of the GA concerned with the concrete problem so that they were proposed first. Second the expression of the desired solutions was discussed in the continual space optimization problem. Because different expression was suitable for different problem, here the real numbers were used to express the solutions to find which were called as chromosomes in the GA. Third the improved evolutionary strategies of GA were described respectively on emphasis. They were the selection operation of Odd Number Selection plus Roulette Wheel Selection, the crossover operation of Arithmetic Crossover Between Near Relatives and Far Relatives, and the mutation operation of Adaptive Gaussian mutation. The evolutionary strategies determined the update of the whole population and the terminal solution. After operations from generation to generation, the initial stochastic population on the basis of the least squared solutions would be improved until the best chromosome/individual appeared. Finally some examples were computed to verify the devised method. The experimental results show that the GA-based method can find the desired solutions that are superior to the least squared solutions and almost equal to those given by other optimization techniques except a few examples give a similar result.

  18. A assessment of the plastic Thermafil obturation technique. Part 1. Radiographic evaluation of adaptation and placement.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, J L; Saunders, W P; Saunders, E M; Nguyen, L

    1993-05-01

    Adaptation and placement of alpha-phase gutta-percha delivered with a plastic core-carrier, Thermafil, was compared to the lateral condensation of gutta-percha in a specific tooth model. Fifty-one mandibular molar roots with separate canals, patent canal orifices and curvatures greater than 15 degrees were cleaned and shaped with K-files and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite to a size 30 at the apex, and flared with Hedstrom files to create a continuously tapering funnel preparation. Canals were randomly obturated with Sealapex root canal sealer and either alpha-phase gutta-percha on a plastic Thermafil carrier, or standard beta-phase gutta-percha with lateral condensation. Roots were radiographed from the proximal and evaluated by three examiners, based on established criteria for overall material adaptation, apical adaptation, and filling material extrusion. Thermafil provided a statistically significant better overall canal obturation (P < 0.001), while, in the apical third, both techniques were not significantly different (P > 0.05). When the apical orifice was patent there was a significant propensity for the extrusion of filling materials beyond the apex (P < 0.001) with the Thermafil technique.

  19. Evaluation of agave fiber delignification by means of microscopy techniques and image analysis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Hilda M; Chanona-Pérez, Jorge J; Calderón-Domínguez, Georgina; Perea-Flores, María J; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A; Vega, Alberto; Ligero, Pablo; Palacios-González, Eduardo; Farrera-Rebollo, Reynold R

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the use of different types of natural fibers to produce paper and textiles from agave plants has been proposed. Agave atrovirens can be a good source of cellulose and lignin; nevertheless, the microstructural changes that happen during delignification have scarcely been studied. The aim of this work was to study the microstructural changes that occur during the delignification of agave fibers by means of microscopy techniques and image analysis. The fibers of A. atrovirens were obtained from leaves using convective drying, milling, and sieving. Fibers were processed using the Acetosolv pulping method at different concentrations of acetic acid; increasing acid concentration promoted higher levels of delignification, structural damage, and the breakdown of fiber clumps. Delignification followed by spectrometric analysis and microstructural studies were carried out by light, confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy and showed that the delignification process follows three stages: initial, bulk, and residual. Microscopy techniques and image analysis were efficient tools for microstructural characterization during delignification of agave fibers, allowing quantitative evaluation of the process and the development of linear prediction models. The data obtained integrated numerical and microstructural information that could be valuable for the study of pulping of lignocellulosic materials.

  20. Performance evaluation of spectral analysis and Werner deconvolution interpretation techniques in magnetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, M.; Gebissa, Fekadu Tamiru

    2017-03-01

    Determining the depth of anomalous geological subsurface structure is an important parameter in any of geophysical methods. Though, numerous magnetic interpretation techniques are available in literature for locating depth to the causative source, no specific information is found on the performance of any of the techniques. Werner deconvolution and Spectral methods are widely used to determine the approximate depth to the causative sources, which are then used in modeling methods. An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the performance of Werner and spectral methods. Synthetic magnetic anomalies are generated over sheet, dyke and fault models for different combinations of geometric dimensions of the bodies and magnetization angles. These anomalies were interpreted with the two methods: Werner deconvolution and Spectral analysis. The error percentages are calculated as the difference between the theoretical and interpreted values. In addition, the results are discussed for their performance. It is observed that Werner method yields more reasonable values for depth compared to spectral methods particularly when body widths are more and deep seated or faulting is deep. In case of dyke model, the Werner method determines width also reliably.