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Sample records for activities evaluation techniques

  1. Evaluation of scheduling techniques for payload activity planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullington, Stanley F.

    1991-01-01

    Two tasks related to payload activity planning and scheduling were performed. The first task involved making a comparison of space mission activity scheduling problems with production scheduling problems. The second task consisted of a statistical analysis of the output of runs of the Experiment Scheduling Program (ESP). Details of the work which was performed on these two tasks are presented.

  2. Exploring Techniques for Vision Based Human Activity Recognition: Methods, Systems, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Tang, Jinshan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Qiu, Yimin

    2013-01-01

    With the wide applications of vision based intelligent systems, image and video analysis technologies have attracted the attention of researchers in the computer vision field. In image and video analysis, human activity recognition is an important research direction. By interpreting and understanding human activities, we can recognize and predict the occurrence of crimes and help the police or other agencies react immediately. In the past, a large number of papers have been published on human activity recognition in video and image sequences. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the recent development of the techniques, including methods, systems, and quantitative evaluation of the performance of human activity recognition. PMID:23353144

  3. Exploring techniques for vision based human activity recognition: methods, systems, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Tang, Jinshan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Qiu, Yimin

    2013-01-25

    With the wide applications of vision based intelligent systems, image and video analysis technologies have attracted the attention of researchers in the computer vision field. In image and video analysis, human activity recognition is an important research direction. By interpreting and understanding human activity, we can recognize and predict the occurrence of crimes and help the police or other agencies react immediately. In the past, a large number of papers have been published on human activity recognition in video and image sequences. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the recent development of the techniques, including methods, systems, and quantitative evaluation towards the performance of human activity recognition.

  4. Evaluation of radioisotope tracer and activation analysis techniques for contamination monitoring in space environment simulation chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smathers, J. B.; Kuykendall, W. E., Jr.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Marshall, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Radioisotope measurement techniques and neutron activation analysis are evaluated for use in identifying and locating contamination sources in space environment simulation chambers. The alpha range method allows the determination of total contaminant concentration in vapor state and condensate state. A Cf-252 neutron activation analysis system for detecting oils and greases tagged with stable elements is described. While neutron activation analysis of tagged contaminants offers specificity, an on-site system is extremely costly to implement and provides only marginal detection sensitivity under even the most favorable conditions.

  5. Comparative evaluation of passive, active, and passive-active distraction techniques on pain perception during local anesthesia administration in children.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoniem, Soad A; Mahmoud, Sara A

    2016-05-01

    Local anesthesia forms the backbone of pain control techniques and is necessary for a painless dental procedure. Nevertheless, administering a local anesthetic injection is among the most anxiety-provoking procedures to children. This study was performed to compare the efficacy of different distraction techniques (passive, active, and passive-active) on children's pain perception during local anesthesia administration. A total of 90 children aged four to nine years, requiring inferior alveolar nerve block for primary molar extraction, were included in this study and randomly divided into three groups according to the distraction technique employed during local anesthesia administration. Passive distraction group: the children were instructed to listen to a song on headphones; Active distraction group: the children were instructed to move their legs up and down alternatively; and Passive-active distraction group: this was a combination between both techniques. Pain perception during local anesthesia administration was evaluated by the Sounds, Eyes, and Motor (SEM) scale and Wong Baker FACES® Pain Rating Scale. There was an insignificant difference between the three groups for SEM scale and Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale at P = 0.743 and P = 0.112 respectively. The examined distraction techniques showed comparable results in reducing pain perception during local anesthesia administration.

  6. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  7. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  8. Evaluation of techniques for removal of spacecraft contaminants from activated carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, K. J.; Goldsmith, R. L.; Goldsmith, G. A.; Hoover, P. R.; Nwankwo, J. N.; Turk, A.

    1977-01-01

    Alternative techniques for the regeneration of carbon contaminated with various spacecraft contaminants were evaluated. Four different modes of regeneration were evaluated: (1) thermal desorption via vacuum, (2) thermal desorption via nitrogen purge, (3) in-situ catalytic oxidation of adsorbed contaminants, and (4) in-situ non-catalytic oxidation of adsorbed contaminants.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  10. Evaluation of active and passive near-millimeter-wave radiometric imaging techniques for detection of concealed objects

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, E.E.; Foote, F.B.; Schellenbaum, R.L.; Bradley, R.G.

    1981-07-01

    Active and passive radiometric imaging techniques have been used at 1.4- and 3-mm wavelengths (220 and 100 GHz) to evaluate their potential use in detecting concealed objects. An evaluation of the techniques includes a particular study of their potential in detecting shielded nuclear materials and explosives carried covertly by personnel. We have previously reported images of metal objects and nuclear shielding materials that were detected when concealed under clothing. These images appear with the human body as background. Detection of contraband by radiometric imaging techniques depends upon the differences in emissivity and reflectivity of the contraband relative to human tissue. Explosives, unlike metals and metal composites, generally have high emissivities and low reflectivities that closely approximate those of human tissue making explosives difficult to detect. Samples of several common types of explosives (TNT, Detasheet, C4, and several types of water gels) have been examined at the 1.4- and 3-mm wavelengths using active and passive radiometric techniques.

  11. Evaluation of data mining techniques for suspicious network activity classification using honeypots data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégio, André; Santos, Rafael; Montes, Antonio

    2007-04-01

    As the amount and types of remote network services increase, the analysis of their logs has become a very difficult and time consuming task. There are several ways to filter relevant information and provide a reduced log set for analysis, such as whitelisting and intrusion detection tools, but all of them require too much fine- tuning work and human expertise. Nowadays, researchers are evaluating data mining approaches for intrusion detection in network logs, using techniques such as genetic algorithms, neural networks, clustering algorithms, etc. Some of those techniques yield good results, yet requiring a very large number of attributes gathered by network traffic to detect useful information. In this work we apply and evaluate some data mining techniques (K-Nearest Neighbors, Artificial Neural Networks and Decision Trees) in a reduced number of attributes on some log data sets acquired from a real network and a honeypot, in order to classify traffic logs as normal or suspicious. The results obtained allow us to identify unlabeled logs and to describe which attributes were used for the decision. This approach provides a very reduced amount of logs to the network administrator, improving the analysis task and aiding in discovering new kinds of attacks against their networks.

  12. Evaluation of CO exposure in active smokers while smoking using breath analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Oh, Jung-Wook

    2003-10-01

    The current study evaluated the personal CO exposure of active smokers while smoking under controlled conditions, decay rate of CO in the body following active smoking, and CO accumulation in the body from repeated active smoking using a novel device for the direct measurement of alveolar breath CO. Prior to this evaluation, the proposed alveolar CO measurement device was successfully evaluated as regards the effect of humidity, CO recovery, carryover effect, and in comparison with the bag sampling method. The breath concentrations prior to and after a single cigarette were measured using a repeated measure design. Under the controlled conditions employed in the present study, active smoking was found to cause a significant body burden of CO. The post-exposure breath CO level was 1.6-2.0 times higher than the background breath level, depending on the subject and cigarette brand. In addition, the pre- and post-exposure breath concentrations were both significantly different among the subjects, yet the ratios of post-exposure to pre-exposure breath concentrations did not differ significantly between the different cigarette brands. The time-series alveolar breath concentrations measured following active smoking showed that the post-exposure alveolar CO concentrations decreased slowly even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a mono-compartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives estimated in the present study (301, 315, and 385 min) were longer than or comparable to those in previous studies. The breath measurements prior to and after repeated active smoking exhibited a significant increasing trend for both the pre- and post-exposure concentrations. The changes in the pre- and post-exposure breath CO concentrations with repeated smoking ranged from 7% to 23% and from 10% to 15%, respectively, with half-hour intervals between cigarettes, and from 4% to 11% and from 6% to 8%, respectively, with hour intervals between cigarettes

  13. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Evaluation of dry active waste monitoring instruments and techniques: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Young, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is costly, so most nuclear power stations have found or will find that it is cost-effective to dispose of dry active waste (DAW) with activity levels that are Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) at a sanitary landfill or incinerator. It appears that substantial volumes of DAW can be exempted from disposal as LLRW if the maximum exposure to an individual member of the public from BRC waste does not exceed a few mrem per year effective dose equivalent. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has requested that Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) evaluate instruments and methods that could be used to measure surface contamination (activity per unit area) and radioactivity concentrations (activity per unit mass or volume) in BRC waste. Instrumentation utilized in a DAW BRC monitoring program must be capable of satisfying performance objectives. This instrumentations must measure bulk concentrations of radioactivity in DAW to assure that annual inventory disposal limits are not exceeded at each disposal site; measure radionuclide concentrations in disposal containers (e.g., bags, boxes, etc.) to assure that maximum allowable concentration limits in the DAW are not exceeded; assure that discrete radioactive particles (DRPs), if present in DAW, do not exceed maximum permissible activity limits; and possess detection capability to allow utilities to set operational limits between the detection limit and the disposal limit at their option. Our evaluations indicate that bag monitors and barrel counters have the necessary sensitivity to meet all of these objectives. 20 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Comparative evaluation of features and techniques for identifying activity type and estimating energy cost from accelerometer data.

    PubMed

    Kate, Rohit J; Swartz, Ann M; Welch, Whitney A; Strath, Scott J

    2016-03-01

    Wearable accelerometers can be used to objectively assess physical activity. However, the accuracy of this assessment depends on the underlying method used to process the time series data obtained from accelerometers. Several methods have been proposed that use this data to identify the type of physical activity and estimate its energy cost. Most of the newer methods employ some machine learning technique along with suitable features to represent the time series data. This paper experimentally compares several of these techniques and features on a large dataset of 146 subjects doing eight different physical activities wearing an accelerometer on the hip. Besides features based on statistics, distance based features and simple discrete features straight from the time series were also evaluated. On the physical activity type identification task, the results show that using more features significantly improve results. Choice of machine learning technique was also found to be important. However, on the energy cost estimation task, choice of features and machine learning technique were found to be less influential. On that task, separate energy cost estimation models trained specifically for each type of physical activity were found to be more accurate than a single model trained for all types of physical activities.

  15. Comparative evaluation of features and techniques for identifying activity type and estimating energy cost from accelerometer data

    PubMed Central

    Kate, Rohit J.; Swartz, Ann M.; Welch, Whitney A.; Strath, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Wearable accelerometers can be used to objectively assess physical activity. However, the accuracy of this assessment depends on the underlying method used to process the time series data obtained from accelerometers. Several methods have been proposed that use this data to identify the type of physical activity and estimate its energy cost. Most of the newer methods employ some machine learning technique along with suitable features to represent the time series data. This paper experimentally compares several of these techniques and features on a large dataset of 146 subjects doing eight different physical activities wearing an accelerometer on the hip. Besides features based on statistics, distance based features and simple discrete features straight from the time series were also evaluated. On the physical activity type identification task, the results show that using more features significantly improve results. Choice of machine learning technique was also found to be important. However, on the energy cost estimation task, choice of features and machine learning technique were found to be less influential. On that task, separate energy cost estimation models trained specifically for each type of physical activity were found to be more accurate than a single model trained for all types of physical activities. PMID:26862679

  16. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  17. Evaluation of the sensitivity and intrusion of workload estimation techniques in piloting tasks emphasizing mediational activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahimi, M.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1982-01-01

    In this experiment, pilots flew an instrumented moving-base simulator. Mediational loading was elicited by having them solve a variety of navigational problems. The problems were sorted into low, medium, and high load conditions based on the number and complexity of arithmetic and geometric operations required to solve them. Workload estimation techniques based on opinion, spare mental capacity, primary task performance, and physiological measures were obtained and compared. This paper describes: (1) the ability of the techniques to discriminate statistically between the three levels of loading conditions, and (2) changes in primary task performance caused by introduction of the workload technique procedures and equipment.

  18. Evaluation Techniques that Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbrauer, Herman

    1987-01-01

    Suggests using Kirkpatrick's four-point framework to design evaluation of training programs. The points are (1) trainee reaction to the course, (2) trainee learning, (3) trainee behavior on the job, and (4) organizational results. (CH)

  19. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi.

    PubMed

    Suhr, K I; Nielsen, P V

    2003-01-01

    To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used. Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented with 100 and 250 microl l-1 essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 microl l-1 volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage and rosemary oils had very limited effects. Mustard and lemongrass were the most effective oils by the volatile method, and orange, sage and one rosemary showed some effects. Oil compositions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrography. Antifungal effects of the essential oils depended on the application method. Larger phenolic compounds such as thymol and eugenol (thyme, cinnamon and clove) had best effect applied directly to medium, whereas smaller compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate and citral (mustard and lemongrass) were most efficient when added as volatiles. This study proves that the method used for screening essential oils as potential antimicrobials should correspond with the application sought.

  20. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of Ln3+-TiO2 nanomaterial using fluorescence technique for real wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saif, M.; Aboul-Fotouh, S. M. K.; El-Molla, S. A.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Ismail, L. F. M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation the photocatalytic activity of different Ln3+ modified TiO2 nanomaterials using fluorescence based technique has rarely been reported. In the present work, x mol Ln3+ modified TiO2 nanomaterials (Ln = Nd3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Dy3+ and Er3+ ions; x = 0.005, 0.008, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized using different advanced techniques. The photocatalytic efficiency of the modified TiO2 expressed in the charge carrier separation and rad OH radicals formation were assigned using TiO2 fluorescence quenching and fluorescence probe methods, respectively. The obtained fluorescence measurements confirm that doping treatment significantly decreases the electron-hole recombination probability in the obtained Ln3+/TiO2. Moreover, the rate of rad OH radicals formation is increased by doping. The highly active nanoparticles (0.02Gd3+/TiO2 and 0.01Eu3+/TiO2) were applied for industrial wastewater treatment using solar radiation as a renewable energy source.

  1. Techniques for Project Evaluation. A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Guy D.

    This annotated bibliography of documents discussing program evaluation methodologies was compiled in order to help federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies improve their evaluation activities. The three major categories include: (1) techniques and methodology for evaluation of criminal justice projects, (2) evaluation methods and…

  2. Using respirometric techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization to evaluate the heterotrophic active biomass in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A; Wentzel, M C; Bux, F

    2007-10-15

    The separation and accurate quantification of active biomass components in activated sludge is of paramount importance in models, used for the management and design of waste water (WW) treatment plants. Accurate estimates of microbial population concentrations and the direct, in situ determination of kinetic parameters could improve the calibration and validation of existing models of biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems. The aim of this study was to obtain correlations between heterotrophic active biomass (Z(BH)) concentrations predicted by mathematical models and quantitative information obtained by Fluorescent in situ hybridizations (FISH). Respirometric batch test were applied to mixed liquors drawn from a well-defined parent anoxic/aerobic activated sludge system to quantify the Z(BH) concentrations. Similarly fluorescent labeled, 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes specific for ammonia and nitrite oxidizers were used in combination with DAPI staining to validate the Z(BH) active biomass component in activate sludge respirometric batch tests. For the direct enumeration and simultaneous in situ analysis of the distribution of nitrifying bacteria, in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes were used. Probes (NSO 1225, NSR 1156, and NIT3) were used to target the nitrifiers and the universal probe (EUB MIX) was used to target all Eubacteria. Deducting the lithoautotrophic population from the total bacteria population revealed the Z(BH) population. A conversion factor of 8.49 x 10(-11) mg VSS/cell was applied to express the Z(BH) in terms of COD concentration. Z(BH) values obtained by molecular probing correlated closely with values obtained from the modified batch test. However, the trend of consistently poor correspondence of measured and theoretical concentrations were evident. Therefore, the focus of this study was to investigate alternative technology, such as FISH to validate or replace kinetic parameters which are invariably

  3. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M; Monty, Chelsea N

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms.

  4. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M.; Monty, Chelsea N.

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms. PMID:26824529

  5. Evaluation of thermophosphor temperature technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. W.

    1987-10-01

    For the past year the Enrichment Technology Applications Center (ETAC) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems has performed research and development on the thermographic phosphor method. The effort had two objectives: to provide a detailed error analysis for the thermal phosphor method for envisioned turbine applications; and to evaluate the technique in a laboratory environment in the 400 F to 700 F range by comparison with standard methods. This technique has the potential for solving a number of aerodynamic thermometry needs at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). Results place the thermophosphor technique on a firmer practical base from which to launch into more advanced aerodynamic measurement applications.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Tayebi-Meigooni, Amin

    2015-06-11

    Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol) and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v) ethanol-water) extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the different extraction techniques upon comparison of phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM)), total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM), and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM), and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity). Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health.

  7. Techniques for active passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  8. Evaluation of standard watermarking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Enrico; Autrusseau, Florent; Le Callet, Patrick; Campisi, Patrizio

    2007-02-01

    In the last decade digital watermarking techniques have been devised to answer the ever-growing need to protect the intellectual property of digital still images, video sequences or audio from piracy attacks. Because of the proliferation of watermarking algorithms and their applications some benchmarks have been created in order to help watermarkers comparing their algorithms in terms of robustness against various attacks (i.e. Stirmark, Checkmark). However, no equal attention has been devoted to the proposition of benchmarks tailored to assess the watermark perceptual transparency. In this work, we study several watermarking techniques in terms of the mark invisibility through subjective experiments. Moreover, we test the ability of several objective metrics, used in the literature mainly to evaluate distortions due to the coding process, to be correlated with subjective scores. The conclusions drawn in the paper are supported by extensive experimentations using both several watermarking techniques and objective metrics.

  9. Apoptosis Evaluation by Electrochemical Techniques.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Miao, Peng

    2016-03-04

    Apoptosis has close relevance to pathology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Accurate and convenient detection of apoptosis would be beneficial for biological study, clinical diagnosis, and drug development. Based on distinct features of apoptotic cells, a diversity of analytical techniques have been exploited for sensitive analysis of apoptosis, such as surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical methods, flow cytometry, and some imaging assays. Among them, the features of simplicity, easy operation, low cost, and high sensitivity make electrochemical techniques powerful tools to investigate electron-transfer processes of in vitro biological systems. In this contribution, a general overview of current knowledge on various technical approaches for apoptosis evaluation is provided. Furthermore, recently developed electrochemical biosensors for detecting apoptotic cells and their advantages over traditional methods are summarized. One of the main considerations focuses on designing the recognition elements based on various biochemical events during apoptosis.

  10. Comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file for the removal of triple antibiotic paste from root canal (in vitro study)

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Deepa Ashoksingh; Patil, Sanjay; Gade, Vandana; Jogad, Nitin; Gangrade, Aparajita; Sinkar, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file (MAF) for the removal of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) from root canal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Twenty-two single rooted teeth were instrumented with ProTaper up to the size number F2 and dressed with TAP. TAP was removed with Canal Brush technique (Group I, n: 6), sonic (EndoActivator) (Group II, n: 6), and MAF (Group III, n: 6). Four teeth served as positive (n: 2) and negative (n: 2) controls. The roots were split in the buccolingual direction and prepared for SEM examination (×1000) at coronal, middle, and apical third. Three examiners evaluated the wall cleanliness. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal–Wallis test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Difference in cleanliness between three groups is statistically significant in cervical region only. Pairwise comparison in cervical region Canal Brush and sonic activation showed more removal of TAP than MAF. Conclusions: Canal Brush and sonic activation system showed better result than MAF in the cervical and middle third of canal. In the apical third, none of the techniques showed a better result. None of the techniques showed complete removal of TAP from the canal. PMID:26681858

  11. Feature-Free Activity Classification of Inertial Sensor Data With Machine Vision Techniques: Method, Development, and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dominguez Veiga, Jose Juan; O'Reilly, Martin; Whelan, Darragh; Caulfield, Brian; Ward, Tomas E

    2017-08-04

    Inertial sensors are one of the most commonly used sources of data for human activity recognition (HAR) and exercise detection (ED) tasks. The time series produced by these sensors are generally analyzed through numerical methods. Machine learning techniques such as random forests or support vector machines are popular in this field for classification efforts, but they need to be supported through the isolation of a potentially large number of additionally crafted features derived from the raw data. This feature preprocessing step can involve nontrivial digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. However, in many cases, the researchers interested in this type of activity recognition problems do not possess the necessary technical background for this feature-set development. The study aimed to present a novel application of established machine vision methods to provide interested researchers with an easier entry path into the HAR and ED fields. This can be achieved by removing the need for deep DSP skills through the use of transfer learning. This can be done by using a pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN) developed for machine vision purposes for exercise classification effort. The new method should simply require researchers to generate plots of the signals that they would like to build classifiers with, store them as images, and then place them in folders according to their training label before retraining the network. We applied a CNN, an established machine vision technique, to the task of ED. Tensorflow, a high-level framework for machine learning, was used to facilitate infrastructure needs. Simple time series plots generated directly from accelerometer and gyroscope signals are used to retrain an openly available neural network (Inception), originally developed for machine vision tasks. Data from 82 healthy volunteers, performing 5 different exercises while wearing a lumbar-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU), was collected. The ability of the

  12. Feature-Free Activity Classification of Inertial Sensor Data With Machine Vision Techniques: Method, Development, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Martin; Whelan, Darragh; Caulfield, Brian; Ward, Tomas E

    2017-01-01

    Background Inertial sensors are one of the most commonly used sources of data for human activity recognition (HAR) and exercise detection (ED) tasks. The time series produced by these sensors are generally analyzed through numerical methods. Machine learning techniques such as random forests or support vector machines are popular in this field for classification efforts, but they need to be supported through the isolation of a potentially large number of additionally crafted features derived from the raw data. This feature preprocessing step can involve nontrivial digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. However, in many cases, the researchers interested in this type of activity recognition problems do not possess the necessary technical background for this feature-set development. Objective The study aimed to present a novel application of established machine vision methods to provide interested researchers with an easier entry path into the HAR and ED fields. This can be achieved by removing the need for deep DSP skills through the use of transfer learning. This can be done by using a pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN) developed for machine vision purposes for exercise classification effort. The new method should simply require researchers to generate plots of the signals that they would like to build classifiers with, store them as images, and then place them in folders according to their training label before retraining the network. Methods We applied a CNN, an established machine vision technique, to the task of ED. Tensorflow, a high-level framework for machine learning, was used to facilitate infrastructure needs. Simple time series plots generated directly from accelerometer and gyroscope signals are used to retrain an openly available neural network (Inception), originally developed for machine vision tasks. Data from 82 healthy volunteers, performing 5 different exercises while wearing a lumbar-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU), was

  13. Evaluation of microscopic techniques (epifluorescence microscopy, CLSM, TPE-LSM) as a basis for the quantitative image analysis of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Lopez, C; Pons, M N; Morgenroth, E

    2005-01-01

    Microscopic techniques ranging from epifluorescence microscopy to confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and two photon excitation laser scanning microscopy (TPE-LSM) combined with fluorescent stains can help to evaluate complex microbial aggregates such as activated sludge flocs. To determine the application limits of these microscopic techniques, activated sludge samples from three different sources were evaluated after staining with a fluorescent viability indicator (Baclight Bacterial Viability Kit, Molecular Probes). Image analysis routines were developed to quantify overall amounts of red and green stained cells, location of stained cells within the flocs, and the spatial organization in clusters and filaments. It was found that the selection of the appropriate microscopic technique depends strongly on the type of microbial aggregates being analyzed. For flocs with high cell density, the use of TPE-LSM is preferred, since it provides a clearer image of the internal structure of the aggregate. Epifluorescence microscopy did not allow to reliably quantify red stained cells in dense aggregates. CLSM did not adequately image the internal filamentous structure and the location of stained cells within dense flocs. However, for typical activated sludge flocs epifluorescence and CLSM proved adequate.

  14. Evaluation of glymphatic system activity with the diffusion MR technique: diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) in Alzheimer's disease cases.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Naganawa, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    The activity of the glymphatic system is impaired in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the activity of the human glymphatic system in cases of AD with a diffusion-based technique called diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS). Diffusion tensor images were acquired to calculate diffusivities in the x, y, and z axes of the plane of the lateral ventricle body in 31 patients. We evaluated the diffusivity along the perivascular spaces as well as projection fibers and association fibers separately, to acquire an index for diffusivity along the perivascular space (ALPS-index) and correlated them with the mini mental state examinations (MMSE) score. We found a significant negative correlation between diffusivity along the projection fibers and association fibers. We also observed a significant positive correlation between diffusivity along perivascular spaces shown as ALPS-index and the MMSE score, indicating lower water diffusivity along the perivascular space in relation to AD severity. Activity of the glymphatic system may be evaluated with diffusion images. Lower diffusivity along the perivascular space on DTI-APLS seems to reflect impairment of the glymphatic system. This method may be useful for evaluating the activity of the glymphatic system.

  15. Satellite Moisture Retrieval Techniques. Volume 1. Technique Development and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    VOLUME 2: Atmospheric Sounding Bibliography — NAVENVPREDRSCHFAC CR 83-01( b ) — for listings developed by literature search in the subject area. 19...Contractor Report CR 83-01 (a): Satellite Moisture Retrieval Techniques, Vol 1, Technique Development and Evaluation (2) CR 83-01 ( b ): Vol 2...AND EVALUATION Prepared By: A. Rosenberg, D. B . Hogan, and C. K. Bowman V /, RCA Government Systems Division, Astro-Electronics, Princeton, New

  16. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of volatiles obtained by four different techniques from Salvia rosifolia Sm., and evaluation for biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ozek, Gulmira; Demirci, Fatih; Ozek, Temel; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Khan, Shabana I; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Duran, Ahmet; Hamzaoglu, Ergin

    2010-01-29

    Four different isolation techniques, conventional hydrodistillation (HD), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), microdistillation (MD) and micro-steam distillation-solid-phase microextraction (MSD-SPME), have been used to analyze the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Salvia rosifolia Sm. by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. HD and MWHD techniques produced quantitatively (yield, 0.39% and 0.40%) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar essential oils. alpha-Pinene (15.7-34.8%), 1,8-cineole (16.6-25.1%), beta-pinene (6.7-13.5%), beta-caryophyllene (1.4-5.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.4-4.4%) were identified as major constituents of this Turkish endemic species. Besides, the hydrodistilled oil of S. rosifolia was evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The hydrodistilled oil of S. rosifolia showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with a MIC value of 125microg/mL. Other human pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans) were also inhibited within a moderate range (MIC=125-1000microg/mL). Antifungal activity of the oil was also observed against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. No cytotoxicity was observed for S. rosifolia oil up to 25mg/mL against malignant melanoma, epidermal, ductal and ovary carcinoma.

  17. Test techniques for evaluating flight displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Newman, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid development of graphics technology allows for greater flexibility in aircraft displays, but display evaluation techniques have not kept pace. Historically, display evaluation has been based on subjective opinion and not on the actual aircraft/pilot performance. Existing electronic display specifications and evaluation techniques are reviewed. A display rating technique analogous to handling qualities ratings was developed and is recommended for future evaluations. The choice of evaluation pilots is also discussed and the use of a limited number of trained evaluators is recommended over the use of a large number of operational pilots.

  18. Protective activity of cedron (Aloysia triphylla) infusion over genetic damage induced by cisplatin evaluated by the comet assay technique.

    PubMed

    Zamorano-Ponce, Enrique; Fernández, Julia; Vargas, Gilda; Rivera, Pilar; Carballo, Marta A

    2004-08-30

    Using the comet assay technique, this paper examines the protection from the cisplatin-induced genetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells provided by cedron-leaf infusion. Animals were separated into six groups: (I) untreated, (II) negative control, (III) treated with cedron-leaf infusion (5%), (IV) treated with cisplatin (6 mg/kg b.w.), (V) pretreated with infusion and treated with cisplatin and (VI) positive control (cyclophosphamide, 20 mg/kg b.w.). Based on the tail moment values found, four types of comets were distinguished. No statistical differences (P<0.01) were found between untreated animals, negative control and infusion treated mice. As expected, treatment of mice with a single dose of cis-DDP-induced genetic damage and the pretreatment with infusion prior to cis-DDP injection inhibited the capacity of cisplatin to induce genetic damage. Cell viability was up to 90% in all cases. The results suggest that infusion could exert its in vivo antigenotoxic action by enhancing the antioxidant status of bone marrow cells. The found could be attributed to its scavenging potency towards free radicals.

  19. Effect of Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae Bacteria on Maize Photosynthetic Activity Evaluated Using the Photoacoustic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the photosynthetic process of maize plants ( Zea mays), which were grown using seeds inoculated with plant growth promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense and Burkholderia unamae, was monitored. Photothermal and photobaric signals obtained by a time-resolved photoacoustic measurement configuration were used for measuring the oxygen evolution rate in situ. A frequency-resolved configuration of the method was utilized to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of the maize leaves. The latter parameters, which can be used as indicators of the photosynthetic activity of maize, are found to vary according to the plant-microbe interaction. Treatment with plant growth promoting bacteria induced a decrease in the oxygen diffusion coefficient of about 20 %.

  20. Lightning Simulation Test Technique Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Example Resistive Response Measurement 94 43 Example dI/dt Response Measurement 95 44 Statistical Distribution of Swept CW Extrapolated Values - Nose...Aircraft 2 2 Prior Research and Development Tests on Full-Scale Air Vehicles 10 3 Summary of Simulation Technique Capabilities 14 4 Test Bed Resistance ...second L Inductance henrys R Resistance ohms V Potential difference volts STANDARD UNITS A amperes dB, dBm decibels Hz hertz kA kiloamps kV kilovolts

  1. Evaluation of Demand Prediction Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817 5886 JiZ A q C64 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Robert Arnberg of LMI deserves credit for assembling many files cf D041 data for...the best techniques of those we studied. • Use of a Poisson or constant variance-to-mean ratio (VMR) leads to poor allocation of resources. Treating...the program element is not in the D041 record or is zero for some quarters with positive demand, or has apparent errors that lead to a less stable

  2. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

    PubMed

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  3. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  4. Industrial R&D Program Evaluation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, David P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The history of research and development (R&D) and its evaluation within the 3M Company are traced as an example of the progression of the use of evaluation and evaluation techniques. Scoring methods, cost-benefit analysis, and risk analysis have been among the most frequently used program evaluation methods. (SLD)

  5. Industrial R&D Program Evaluation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, David P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The history of research and development (R&D) and its evaluation within the 3M Company are traced as an example of the progression of the use of evaluation and evaluation techniques. Scoring methods, cost-benefit analysis, and risk analysis have been among the most frequently used program evaluation methods. (SLD)

  6. MOSS, an evaluation of software engineering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, J. R.; Pruitt, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of the software engineering techniques used for the development of a Modular Operating System (MOSS) was described. MOSS is a general purpose real time operating system which was developed for the Concept Verification Test (CVT) program. Each of the software engineering techniques was described and evaluated based on the experience of the MOSS project. Recommendations for the use of these techniques on future software projects were also given.

  7. Evaluation of structure-reactivity descriptors and biological activity spectra of 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-butanone using spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Megha; Deval, Vipin; Gupta, Archana; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Prabhu, S. S.

    2016-10-01

    The structure and several spectroscopic features along with reactivity parameters of the compound 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-butanone (Nabumetone) have been studied using experimental techniques and tools derived from quantum chemical calculations. Structure optimization is followed by force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The vibrational spectra have been interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis. UV-visible spectrum and the effect of solvent have been discussed. The electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies have been determined by TD-DFT approach. In order to understand various aspects of pharmacological sciences several new chemical reactivity descriptors - chemical potential, global hardness and electrophilicity have been evaluated. Local reactivity descriptors - Fukui functions and local softnesses have also been calculated to find out the reactive sites within molecule. Aqueous solubility and lipophilicity have been calculated which are crucial for estimating transport properties of organic molecules in drug development. Estimation of biological effects, toxic/side effects has been made on the basis of prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) prediction results and their analysis by Pharma Expert software. Using the THz-TDS technique, the frequency-dependent absorptions of NBM have been measured in the frequency range up to 3 THz.

  8. Technique for Evaluating Multiple Probability Occurrences /TEMPO/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    Technique is described for adjustment of engineering response information by broadening the application of statistical subjective stimuli theory. The study is specifically concerned with a mathematical evaluation of the expected probability of relative occurrence which can be identified by comparison rating techniques.

  9. A systematic comparative evaluation of biclustering techniques.

    PubMed

    Padilha, Victor A; Campello, Ricardo J G B

    2017-01-23

    Biclustering techniques are capable of simultaneously clustering rows and columns of a data matrix. These techniques became very popular for the analysis of gene expression data, since a gene can take part of multiple biological pathways which in turn can be active only under specific experimental conditions. Several biclustering algorithms have been developed in the past recent years. In order to provide guidance regarding their choice, a few comparative studies were conducted and reported in the literature. In these studies, however, the performances of the methods were evaluated through external measures that have more recently been shown to have undesirable properties. Furthermore, they considered a limited number of algorithms and datasets. We conducted a broader comparative study involving seventeen algorithms, which were run on three synthetic data collections and two real data collections with a more representative number of datasets. For the experiments with synthetic data, five different experimental scenarios were studied: different levels of noise, different numbers of implanted biclusters, different levels of symmetric bicluster overlap, different levels of asymmetric bicluster overlap and different bicluster sizes, for which the results were assessed with more suitable external measures. For the experiments with real datasets, the results were assessed by gene set enrichment and clustering accuracy. We observed that each algorithm achieved satisfactory results in part of the biclustering tasks in which they were investigated. The choice of the best algorithm for some application thus depends on the task at hand and the types of patterns that one wants to detect.

  10. Techniques and Procedures for Formative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James R.; Cunningham, Donald J.

    After reviewing the literature, the authors defined a two dimensional framework comprising formative evaluation activity as one dimension and source of information as the other. Four types of formative evaluation activity were identified and defined. Three primary sources of information-internal, external, and contextual-were identified for…

  11. Statistical evaluation of vibration analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, G. Martin; Miller, Patrice S.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation methodology is presented for a selection of candidate vibration analysis techniques applicable to machinery representative of the environmental control and life support system of advanced spacecraft; illustrative results are given. Attention is given to the statistical analysis of small sample experiments, the quantification of detection performance for diverse techniques through the computation of probability of detection versus probability of false alarm, and the quantification of diagnostic performance.

  12. Evaluation of a native vegetation masking technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    A crop masking technique based on Ashburn's vegetative index (AVI) was used to evaluate native vegetation as an indicator of crop moisture condition. A mask of the range areas (native vegetation) was generated for each of thirteen Great Plains LANDSAT MSS sample segments. These masks were compared to the digitized ground truth and accuracies were computed. An analysis of the types of errors indicates a consistency in errors among the segments. The mask represents a simple quick-look technique for evaluating vegetative cover.

  13. Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

  14. Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Phenomenological Verification Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred

    2006-01-01

    Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group, 45th Weather Squadron, and National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL use mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output in creating their operational forecasts. These models aid in forecasting weather phenomena that could compromise the safety of launch, landing, and daily ground operations and must produce reasonable weather forecasts in order for their output to be useful in operations. Considering the importance of model forecasts to operations, their accuracy in forecasting critical weather phenomena must be verified to determine their usefulness. The currently-used traditional verification techniques involve an objective point-by-point comparison of model output and observations valid at the same time and location. The resulting statistics can unfairly penalize high-resolution models that make realistic forecasts of a certain phenomena, but are offset from the observations in small time and/or space increments. Manual subjective verification can provide a more valid representation of model performance, but is time-consuming and prone to personal biases. An objective technique that verifies specific meteorological phenomena, much in the way a human would in a subjective evaluation, would likely produce a more realistic assessment of model performance. Such techniques are being developed in the research community. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to conduct a literature search to identify phenomenological verification techniques being developed, determine if any are ready to use operationally, and outline the steps needed to implement any operationally-ready techniques into the Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The AMU conducted a search of all literature on the topic of phenomenological-based mesoscale model verification techniques and found 10 different techniques in various stages of development. Six of the techniques were developed to verify precipitation forecasts, one

  15. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  16. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-12-21

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  17. Evaluation of object level change detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Bergeron, Stuart; Hugo, Doug; O'Brien, Michael A.

    2007-04-01

    A variety of change detection (CD) methods have been developed and employed to support imagery analysis for applications including environmental monitoring, mapping, and support to military operations. Evaluation of these methods is necessary to assess technology maturity, identify areas for improvement, and support transition to operations. This paper presents a methodology for conducting this type of evaluation, discusses the challenges, and illustrates the techniques. The evaluation of object-level change detection methods is more complicated than for automated techniques for processing a single image. We explore algorithm performance assessments, emphasizing the definition of the operating conditions (sensor, target, and environmental factors) and the development of measures of performance. Specific challenges include image registration; occlusion due to foliage, cultural clutter and terrain masking; diurnal differences; and differences in viewing geometry. Careful planning, sound experimental design, and access to suitable imagery with image truth and metadata are critical.

  18. One-step Multiple Component Isolation from the Oil of Crinitaria tatarica (Less.) Sojak by Preparative Capillary Gas Chromatography with Characterization by Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Techniques and Evaluation of Biological Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    20] Adams, R. P., Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry, Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream... chromatography with characterization by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques and evaluation of biological activity Gas chromatographic analysis revealed...step multiple fractionation of the oil and separation of two unknown constituents were performed using preparative capillary gas chromatography

  19. Implementation and Evaluation of Elastographic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Salido, N.; Medina, L.; Cruza, J. F.; Camacho, J.

    Elastography is an ultrasound based imaging technique used to explore the elastic properties of tissues by detecting their mechanical response to an external or internal stimulus. Changes in elasticity are associated with some pathologies like cancer, and hence, elastography is an important tool for the diagnosis of these diseases. The present work addresses the implementation of an image compounding technique using one of these elastographic techniques and reports the results obtained with an elasticity tissue-mimic phantom. Our study includes Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI), which uses the acoustic radiation force (ARF) to produce the stimulus (internal force). The strain image is formed from longitudinal displacement calculation by means of a correlation algorithm. A spatial compounding image is generated by moving the array probe combining individual images, increasing the field of view and improving lesions evaluation. The final objective of this work is to integrate elastography in a multimodal imaging system aimed to the early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for thick concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight A.

    2017-04-01

    The use of concrete structures has made its long-term performance crucial for the safe operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), especially with license period extensions to sixty years and possibly beyond. Unlike most metallic materials, reinforced concrete used in NPPs is a heterogeneous material, a composite with a low-density matrix, a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate and water, and a high-density reinforcement, made up of steel rebar or tendons. This structural complexity makes nondestructive evaluation (NDE) a challenging task. While the standard Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) is adequate for many defects with shallow concrete cover, some defects that are located under deep concrete cover are not easily identified using the standard SAFT techniques. For many degradation mechanisms, particularly defects under deep cover, the use of advanced signal processing techniques is required. A variety of test specimens were evaluated using several advanced signal processing techniques ranging from a large specimen representative of a NPP containment wall (2.134 m x 2.134 m x 1.016 m) with twenty embedded defects, to specimens with accelerated alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and specimens with freeze-thaw damage. The first technique examined in this paper generates frequency banded SAFT reconstructions using wavelet packet decomposition and reconstruction. While the frequency banded SAFT reconstructions show a vast improvement over the standard SAFT for defects under deep cover, a second technique, Model Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR), has been initiated to address the limitations of the frequency banded SAFT (such as multiple reflections for a single defect).

  1. Monitoring by Control Technique - Activated Carbon Adsorber

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Activated Carbon Adsorber control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  2. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  3. PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE--APPLICATIONS IN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COOK, DESMOND L.

    THIS MONOGRAPH IS INTENDED TO DISSEMINATE TO THE EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY THE BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF A RECENTLY DEVELOPED PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ENTITLED PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT). PERT IS A METHODOLOGY FOR PLANNING THE DIVERSE ACTIVITIES IN EITHER LARGE OR SMALL PROJECTS. STEPS OF THE PERT TECHNIQUE…

  4. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for enhanced bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Benson, S.; Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.; Haskins, J.; Brown, A.; Schneberk, D.

    1993-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of bridges is a critical aspect in the US aging infrastructure problem. For example in California there are 26,000 bridges, 3000 are made of steel, and of the steel bridges, 1000 are fracture critical. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Federal Highway Administration, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are collaborating to develop and field NDE techniques to improve bridge inspections. We have demonstrated our NDE technologies on several bridge inspection applications. An early collaboration was to ultrasonically evaluate the steel pins in the E-9 pier on the San Francisco Bay Bridge. Following the Loma-Prieta earthquake in 1989 and the road way collapse at the E-9 pier, a complete nondestructive evaluation was conducted by Caltrans inspectors and several ultrasonic indications were noted. LLNL worked with Caltrans to help identify the source of these reflections. Another project was to digitally enhance high energy radiographs of bridge components such as cable end caps. We demonstrated our ability to improve the detection of corrosion and fiber breakage inside the end cap. An extension of this technology is limited view computer tomography (CT). We implemented our limited view CT software and produced cross-sectional views of bridge cables from digitized radiographic films. Most recently, we are developing dual band infrared imaging techniques to assess bridge decks for delaminations. We have demonstrated the potential of our NDE technology for enhancing the inspection of the country`s aging bridges.

  5. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. PMID:27706082

  6. Evaluation of Debridement Techniques for Endodontic Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-20

    Endodontic Practice . Philadelphia, 1970, Lea and Febiger, pp. 213-214. 9. Grossman, L. I.: Fate of endodontically treated teeth with fractured root...Cstf3 everse OFd neeO a 1 d IIeif by locLETEa WE~~ CLJANIATO OF TH)S PAITIE OFh~ Iat NOVnteSred) EVALUATION OF DEBRIDEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR ENDODONTIC ...INSTRUMENTS *RONALD 0. SEGALL, DMD **CARLOS E. del RIO, DDS ***JOHN M. BRADY, DDS, MSPH ****WILLIAM A. AYER, DDS, PhD :f*MAJ, DC Endodontic Resident, US

  7. an evaluation of techniques for root observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Awaz; Monnier, Yogan; Stokes, Alexia

    2015-04-01

    An evaluation of techniques for root observations Below-ground processes play an essential role in ecosystem nutrient cycling and the global carbon budget (C) cycle because they regulate storage of large quantities of carbon. Quantifying root dynamics, that is, production, longevity, mortality and decomposition, is crucial to the understanding of ecosystem structure and function, and in predicting how ecosystems respond to climate variability. The necessity for accumulating information about root system growth is thus clear. However, we have a relatively poor understanding of the best method of observation, especially in the natural soil environment. The objective of this study is to compare four techniques of root observation, that is, manual scanner, smartphone scanner, flatbed scanner and classical observations, for determining the best technique. Root growth dynamics were measured in Rhizotrons. The project involves several field-sites situated in agroforests comprising hybrid walnut trees and pasture/crops along a climatic gradient in France. The results of this project will provide data allowing researchers to facilitate the choice of the most suitable observation method for their research.

  8. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques were investigated in microgravity with specific application to planned medical capabilities for Space Station Freedom (SSF). A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed with the goal of evaluating and quantifying the efficacy of different types of microgravity CPR techniques. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. Three experiments were involved chosen for their clinical background, certification, and practical experience in prior KC-135 parabolic flight. The CPR evaluation was performed using a standard training mannequin (recording resusci-Annie) which was used in practice prior to the actual flight. Aboard the KC-135, the prototype medical restraint system (MRS) for the SSF Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) was used for part of the study. Standard patient and crew restraints were used for interface with the MRS. During the portion of study where CPR was performed without MRS, a set of straps for crew restraint similar to those currently employed for the Space Shuttle program were used. The entire study was recorded via still camera and video.

  9. Innovative Techniques for Evaluating Behavioral Nutrition Interventions.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Rachel E; Laugero, Kevin D; Graham, Dan J; Cunningham, Brian T; Jahns, Lisa; Lora, Karina R; Reicks, Marla; Mobley, Amy R

    2017-01-01

    Assessing outcomes and the impact from behavioral nutrition interventions has remained challenging because of the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With the current high global obesity and related chronic disease rates, novel methods to evaluate the impact of behavioral nutrition-based interventions are much needed. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and review the current status of knowledge as it relates to 4 different innovative methods or tools to assess behavioral nutrition interventions. Methods reviewed include 1) the assessment of stress and stress responsiveness to enhance the evaluation of nutrition interventions, 2) eye-tracking technology in nutritional interventions, 3) smartphone biosensors to assess nutrition and health-related outcomes, and 4) skin carotenoid measurements to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Specifically, the novel use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, by characterizing the brain's responsiveness to an intervention, can help researchers develop programs with greater efficacy. Similarly, if eye-tracking technology can enable researchers to get a better sense as to how participants view materials, the materials may be better tailored to create an optimal impact. The latter 2 techniques reviewed, smartphone biosensors and methods to detect skin carotenoids, can provide the research community with portable, effective, nonbiased ways to assess dietary intake and quality and more in the field. The information gained from using these types of methodologies can improve the efficacy and assessment of behavior-based nutrition interventions.

  10. Eigenspace design techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, W. L.; Liebst, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    The application of eigenspace design techniques to an active flutter suppression system for the DAST ARW-2 research drone is examined. Eigenspace design techniques allow the control system designer to determine feedback gains which place controllable eigenvalues in specified configurations and which shape eigenvectors to achieve desired dynamic response. Eigenspace techniques were applied to the control of lateral and longitudinal dynamic response of aircraft. However, little was published on the application of eigenspace techniques to aeroelastic control problems. This discussion will focus primarily on methodology for design of full-state and limited-state (output) feedback controllers. Most of the states in aeroelastic control problems are not directly measurable, and some type of dynamic compensator is necessary to convert sensor outputs to control inputs. Compensator design are accomplished by use of a Kalman filter modified if necessary by the Doyle-Stein procedure for full-state loop transfer function recovery, by some other type of observer, or by transfer function matching.

  11. Evaluation of the Trifecta obturating technique.

    PubMed

    Al-Dewani, N; Hayes, S J; Dummer, P M

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate and compare the radiographic quality and sealability of root fillings in extracted human teeth using lateral condensation of gutta-percha or the Trifecta obturating system. One hundred freshly extracted human mature, single-rooted teeth were divided into four identical groups of 25 teeth on the basis of root canal shape. The root canals of two groups were prepared in such a way as to produce a relatively parallel canal shape with little or no flare towards the coronal orifice. The root canals of the other two groups were prepared in such a way as to produce a canal shape that was deliberately more flared to ensure that they were wider at the orifice than at the endpoint of the preparation. All root canals were flushed with 17% EDTA solution and 2.5% NaOCl to remove the dentinal smear layer. The canals of one flared and one parallel group were obturated using cold lateral condensation and the canals of the other two groups were obturated using the Trifecta system. The sealability of each technique was assessed by a dye penetration method. The radiographic quality of obturation was determined for each canal using a 4-point scale. Canals filled with thermoplasticised gutta-percha had significantly less apical dye penetration than those obturated by lateral condensation (P < 0.001). Lateral condensation achieved significantly better scores for radiographic quality than thermoplasticised gutta-percha from both the bucco-lingual (P < 0.001) and the mesio-distal views (P < 0.001). Root canals obturated using the Trifecta technique showed significantly more apical extrusion of sealer than those obturated by lateral condensation (P < 0.001). Under laboratory conditions the Trifecta technique had better sealability but poorer radiographic quality than lateral condensation.

  12. Profiling of Compositions of Essential Oils and Volatiles of Salvia limbata Using Traditional and Advanced Techniques and Evaluation for Biological Activities of Their Extracts.

    PubMed

    Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Flamini, Guido

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, the essential oils and volatiles from flowers, leaves, and stems of Salvia limbata obtained using microwave-assisted hydrodistillation, solvent-free microwave extraction, headspace-assisted analysis, and headspace-solid phase microextraction have been characterized for the first time. The results have been also compared with those from traditional separation techniques involving hydrodistillation and steam distillation. Regardless of some common compounds in all of the profiles, some dissimilarities were noted due to the use of different extracting approaches. Taking into account the chemical categories, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were found as the most represented group of natural compounds contributing to the chemical profiles. It was also noted that the methanol extracts obtained from the flowers of Sal. limbata showed a desirable antioxidant activity, comparable to the standard antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Furthermore, using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods, all the tested bacteria demonstrated weak to moderate and moderate to strong sensibilities to the MeOH extracts obtained from different plant parts of Sal. limbata. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Bracket Slot Dimensions Evaluating Different Manufacturing Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    Dimensions Evaluating Different Manufacturing Techniques JS. A. DeMeo APPROVED: fk_ 4 ’__/ . .S, M.S., Supervising Professor ,....-------__ ’ - ~l!i...manuscript entitled : "Comparative Analysis of Bracket Slot Dimensions Evaluating Different Manufactur ing Techniques" is appropriately acknowledged and...Harm s Way TITLE Comparative Analysis of Bracket Slot Dimensions Evaluating Different Manufacturing Techniques A THESIS Presented to the

  14. Muscle Activation Patterns During Different Squat Techniques.

    PubMed

    Slater, Lindsay V; Hart, Joseph M

    2017-03-01

    Slater, LV, and Hart, JM. Muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 667-676, 2017-Bilateral squats are frequently used exercises in sport performance programs. Lower extremity muscle activation may change based on knee alignment during the performance of the exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. Twenty-eight healthy, uninjured subjects (19 women, 9 men, 21.5 ± 3 years, 170 ± 8.4 cm, 65.7 ± 11.8 kg) volunteered. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius of the dominant leg. Participants completed 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee anteriorly (AP malaligned), 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee medially (ML malaligned) and 5 squats with control alignment (control). Normalized EMG data (MVIC) were reduced to 100 points and represented as percentage of squat cycle with 50% representing peak knee flexion and 0 and 99% representing fully extended. Vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased in the medio-lateral (ML) malaligned squat compared with the control squat. In the antero-posterior (AP) malaligned squat, the vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased during initial descent and final ascent; however, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris activation increased during initial ascent compared with the control squat. The biceps femoris and gastrocnemius displayed increased activation during both malaligned squats compared with the control squat. In conclusion, participants had altered muscle activation patterns during squats with intentional frontal and sagittal malalignment as demonstrated by changes in quadriceps, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius activation during the squat cycle.

  15. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  16. Eigenspace techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Liebst, Bradley S.; Farm, Jerome A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of eigenspace techniques for the design of an active flutter suppression system for a hypothetical research drone is discussed. One leading edge and two trailing edge aerodynamic control surfaces and four sensors (accelerometers) are available for each wing. Full state control laws are designed by selecting feedback gains which place closed loop eigenvalues and shape closed loop eigenvectors so as to stabilize wing flutter and reduce gust loads at the wing root while yielding accepatable robustness and satisfying constrains on rms control surface activity. These controllers are realized by state estimators designed using an eigenvalue placement/eigenvector shaping technique which results in recovery of the full state loop transfer characteristics. The resulting feedback compensators are shown to perform almost as well as the full state designs. They also exhibit acceptable performance in situations in which the failure of an actuator is simulated.

  17. Diagnostics techniques and dosimetric evaluations for environmental radioactivity investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.; Gatto, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted about the investigation of the natural/anthropo-genic radioactivity of various environmental matrices. Different diagnostics techniques were employed: high resolution HpGe gamma spectrometry, to quantify the activity concentration of radionuclides that emit gamma photons; alpha spectrometry, for the determination of the specific activity of α -emitters radioisotopes; liquid scintillation, to measure the activity concentration of tritium, radon and total alpha/beta in liquid samples; alpha spectrometry through the Rad7 setup, to estimate the gas radon activity concentration in air, water and soil; total alpha/beta counter, for the activity concentration quantification of radionuclides, in solid samples, emitting alpha/beta particles. From the dosimetric point of view, knowledge of the radioactivity level in the environmental matrices allows to evaluate any possible radiological hazard for the population, through the calculation of the appropriate parameters of radioprotection and their comparison with the safety limits reported by the literature.

  18. Evaluation of two platelet-rich plasma processing methods and two platelet-activation techniques for use in llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Semevolos, Stacy A; Youngblood, Cori D; Grissom, Stephanie K; Gorman, M Elena; Larson, Maureen K

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2 processing methods (commercial kit vs conical tube centrifugation) for preparing platelet rich plasma (PRP) for use in llamas and alpacas. SAMPLES Blood samples (30 mL each) aseptically collected from 6 healthy llamas and 6 healthy alpacas. PROCEDURES PRP was prepared from blood samples by use of a commercial kit and by double-step conical tube centrifugation. A CBC was performed for blood and PRP samples. Platelets in PRP samples were activated by means of a freeze-thaw method with or without 23mM CaCl2, and concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 were measured. Values were compared between processing methods and camelid species. RESULTS Blood CBC values for llamas and alpacas were similar. The commercial kit yielded a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment (mean increase, 8.5 fold vs 2.8 fold) and WBC enrichment (mean increase, 3.7 fold vs 1.9 fold) than did conical tube centrifugation. Llamas had a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment than alpacas by either processing method. No difference in WBC enrichment was identified between species. Concentrations of both growth factors were significantly greater in PRP samples obtained by use of the commercial kit versus those obtained by conical tube centrifugation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For blood samples from camelids, the commercial kit yielded a PRP product with a higher platelet and WBC concentration than achieved by conical tube centrifugation. Optimal PRP platelet and WBC concentrations for various applications need to be determined for llamas and alpacas.

  19. Retrospective Evaluation of Anaesthetic Techniques for Caesarean

    PubMed Central

    Sarı, Melek Aksoy; Küçükgüçlü, Semih; Özbilgin, Şule; Günenç, Ferim Sakize; Mercan, Sümeyye; Esen, Ayşenur; Yetim, Büşra

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the maternal, foetal and neonatal effects of anaesthetic techniques used in caesarean sections (C/S) retrospectively over 6 years at the Hospital of Medical School of Dokuz Eylül University and to compare the results with the literature from Turkey and developed countries. Methods After obtaining approval from the ethics committee, anaesthetic and gestational data from all caesarean operations performed over a 6-year period between 2005 and 2010 was retrospectively obtained from hospital archives. Results During this period, a total of 10,819 labours was conducted and C/S ratio was 55% with 5953 patients. General anaesthesia was performed in 1479 patients (24.8%) and regional anaesthesia was performed in 4474 patients (75.2%) [Spinal anaesthesia for 1203 patients (26.9%), epidural anaesthesia for 830 patients (18.5%) and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for 2441 patients (54.6%)]. In 2010, regional anaesthesia ratio increased to 84.6%, whereas in 2005, it was 63.8%. Regional anaesthesia was used significantly more often in both elective and urgent patients (82% elective and 65.2% emergency). Because of failed regional anaesthesia or surgical complications, anaesthesia was changed to general anaesthesia in 215 patients (4.8%). APGAR scores in 1 and 5 min were significantly higher with regional anaesthesia when compared with general anaesthesia. Conclusion Regional anaesthesia rate for C/S patients in the Hospital of Medical School of Dokuz Eylül University is increased and is higher than Turkey’s average; but these figures are still lower than those in the developed countries. PMID:27366533

  20. Frozen Section Technique to Evaluate Early Burn Wound Biopsy: A comparison with the Rapid Section Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Lf Frozen Section Technique to Evaluate Early Burn Wound V Biopsy : A Comparison with the Rapid Section Technique SEUNG H. KIM, M.D., GENE B. HUBBARD...wound biopsies , most of which have been unsuccessful. A frozen section Just ificat i on- technique which facilitates quick, reliable evaluation of... biopsies was developed, and has been used in the evaluation of 169 biopsies over a period of 18 months. The frozen section technique takes 30 minutes

  1. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles Obtained by Four Different Techniques from Salvia rosifolia Sm. and Evaluation for Biological Activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Salvia rosifolia Sm. (Lamiaceae), endemic to Turkey, were obtained by four different isolation techniques and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Also in scope of the present work, the...

  2. Evaluating abdominal oedema during experimental sepsis using an isotope technique.

    PubMed

    Lattuada, Marco; Maripuu, Enn; Segerstad, Carl Hard af; Lundqvist, Hans; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2012-05-01

    Abdominal oedema is common in sepsis. A technique for the study of such oedema may guide in the fluid regime of these patients. We modified a double-isotope technique to evaluate abdominal organ oedema and fluid extravasation in 24 healthy or endotoxin-exposed ('septic') piglets. Two different markers were used: red blood cells (RBC) labelled with Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and Transferrin labelled with Indium111 ((111)In). Images were acquired on a dual-head gamma camera. Microscopic evaluation of tissue biopsies was performed to compare data with the isotope technique. No (99m)Tc activity was measured in the plasma fraction in blood sampled after labelling. Similarly, after molecular size gel chromatography, (111)In activity was exclusively found in the high molecular fraction of the plasma. Extravasation of transferrin, indicating the degree of abdominal oedema, was 4·06 times higher in the LPS group compared to the healthy controls (P<0·0001). Abdominal free fluid, studied in 3 animals, had as high (111)In activity as in plasma, but no (99m)Tc activity. Intestinal lymphatic vessel size was higher in LPS (3·7 ± 1·1 μm) compared to control animals (0·6 + 0·2 μm; P<0·001) and oedema correlated to villus diameter (R(2) = 0·918) and lymphatic diameter (R(2) = 0·758). A correlation between a normalized index of oedema formation (NI) and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was also found: NI = 0·46*IAP-3·3 (R(2) = 0·56). The technique enables almost continuous recording of abdominal oedema formation and may be a valuable tool in experimental research, with the potential to be applied in the clinic. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  3. Statistical Evaluation of Time Series Analysis Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benignus, V. A.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of a modified version of NASA's multivariate spectrum analysis program is discussed. A multiple regression model was used to make the revisions. Performance improvements were documented and compared to the standard fast Fourier transform by Monte Carlo techniques.

  4. An effective technique for denture border evaluation.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, R D; DeFreest, C F

    1997-09-01

    Proper extension and adjustment of denture borders is a critical component in successful removable prosthodontic treatment. Unfortunately, commonly marketed disclosing media may not provide appropriate viscosities for the accurate assessment of denture border extensions. This article provides a technique for the mixing, unit-dose packaging, and utilization of a disclosing medium that is extremely well-suited for denture border applications. The technique employs commonly available materials and compiles with current "unit-dose" guidelines.

  5. Momentum--"Evaluating Your Marketing Program: Measuring and Tracking Techniques."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meservey, Lynne D.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests 10 tracking techniques for evaluating marketing performance. Techniques involve utilization rate, inquiry and source of inquiry tracking, appointment and interview tracking, enrollment conversion, cost per inquiry and per enrollment, retention rate, survey results, and "mystery shopper." (RJC)

  6. Economic evaluation techniques for the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.A.; Hufschmidt, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the methods of evaluating seven case studies. Three chapters are introductory discussing a hypothetical case. The following seven chapters discuss respectively: Economic Evaluation of Tongonan Geothermal Power Plant Project in Leyte, Philippines; Evaluation of Losses of Marine Product Resources Caused by Coastal Development of Tokyo, Bay; Evaluation of Lumpinee Public Park in Bangkok, Thailand; The Pam Pong Water Resources Project in Thailand; Selected Policy Options for the Fuelwood Production and Use in the Philippines; and Systematic Analysis of Water Pollution Control Options in a Suburban Region of Beijing, China.

  7. Innovative techniques for evaluating behavioral nutrition interventions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessing outcomes and impact from behavioral nutrition interventions in the community has remained challenging for a variety of reasons. One main reason is the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With current global obesity and related chronic dis...

  8. A Systematic Evaluation of Glasser's Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Frances C.; Dolly, John

    1980-01-01

    Determined the influence of inservice training in Glasser's reality therapy and class meeting techniques on teacher affective behaviors, student on-task behaviors, discipline, referrals, and student absences. No significant changes in teacher and/or student behavior resulted from the inservice training. (Author)

  9. Classroom Techniques to Evaluate Advertising in Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel J.

    Teachers should understand how the persuasive process employed by advertisers affects consumers' cognitive responses. They should also be aware of the purposes and techniques employed by the American consumer movement, which is attempting to augment the rights and power of buyers in relation to sellers. Since a review of the current rights of…

  10. A Systematic Evaluation of Glasser's Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Frances C.; Dolly, John

    1980-01-01

    Determined the influence of inservice training in Glasser's reality therapy and class meeting techniques on teacher affective behaviors, student on-task behaviors, discipline, referrals, and student absences. No significant changes in teacher and/or student behavior resulted from the inservice training. (Author)

  11. A novel technique for active fibre production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner-Erny, Ruth; Di Labio, Loredana; Lüthy, Willy

    2007-04-01

    Active fibre devices are conventionally manufactured using MCVD technique. Recently it has been shown that nearly equivalent results can also be obtained with sol-gel technology. Now we present a novel technique allowing simplification of the manufacturing process even more. The required constituents are mixed in the form of dry micro- and nano-sized particles. A silica glass tube forming the future core region of a fibre preform is filled with a powder mix of SiO 2, 1% Nd (as Nd 2O 3) and 10% Al (as Al 2O 3). This tube is mounted in the centre of a larger tube forming the future cladding. The empty space between the two tubes is filled with SiO 2 powder. After preheating, the evacuated preform is drawn to a fibre. A length of 45 cm, cladding-pumped with a diode laser at 808 nm as well as a core-pumped fibre of 5.1 cm length showed laser action between 1.05 and 1.1 μm.

  12. Techniques for evaluating optimum data center operation

    DOEpatents

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Rodriguez, Sergio Adolfo Bermudez; Wehle, Hans-Dieter

    2017-06-14

    Techniques for modeling a data center are provided. In one aspect, a method for determining data center efficiency is provided. The method includes the following steps. Target parameters for the data center are obtained. Technology pre-requisite parameters for the data center are obtained. An optimum data center efficiency is determined given the target parameters for the data center and the technology pre-requisite parameters for the data center.

  13. Evaluation of a Temperature Remote Sensing Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    concnional Raman for the technique is to monitor temperature in a super- spectroscopy , shich rCqttircs the ncastrement of rela- somio acrod,,namic test...where atomic col- spread of the absorption line. It is normalized such that lisions are infrequent, the Doppler effect determines the width of the...ex- Note: Only the intense modes were recorded cellent tool for high-resolution spectroscopy . at each temperature Coarse frequency tuning of the laser

  14. Multiple Activities Program: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omaha Public Schools, NE.

    This is an evaluation report of the Multiple Activities Program, an ESEA Title I Program conducted in the Omaha Public Schools from September 1969 to September 1970. The report is designed as an adaptation of the C.I.P.P. evaluation model (context, input, process, and product). The needs, objectives, activities, and success of each strand within…

  15. Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

    1999-02-16

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

  16. Instructional Evaluation Techniques: Ends Dictate the Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrock, Sharon A.; And Others

    This paper discusses two separate studies undertaken in the same academic department to ascertain consistency in student evaluation ratings. Each study used Frey's Endeavor Instrument, a 7-item form that is specifically designed to solicit student input for administrative decision making, and the Southern Illinois University Instructor & Course…

  17. Evaluation of Jigsaw, a Cooperative Learning Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Eleven fifth-grade teachers received Jigsaw training and conducted Jigsaw in their classes for one year. Process evaluation revealed the quality and frequency of Jigsaw implementation varied greatly. Jigsaw had no positive effect on the outcome variables (student attitudes, achievement, attendance, behavior), even in proficiently implemented…

  18. Reefs and Learning: Education Evaluation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepath, Carl M.

    2006-01-01

    Marine education research designs are discussed, and student learning outcomes while monitoring a coral reef is evaluated. Changes in environmental knowledge and attitudes, ecological intention to act, and direct reef experience were investigated. Differences between student pre-test and the post-test responses were observed, and analysis is…

  19. [Techniques for the functional evaluation of neurodevelopmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, M C; Mulas, F; Gandia, R; Abad-Mas, L; Moreno, F; Díaz-Lucero, A

    2006-02-13

    To review the evaluation of neuropsychological functions by using non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods. Non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods can be sorted into two broad categories: the first includes those that make use of electromagnetic techniques, such as event-related potentials and magnetoencephalography (MEG), and the second consists of those involving haemodynamic techniques, such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. These methods have been employed in particular to evaluate the following functions: attention, perception, imagination, language, working memory, semantic retrieval, episodic memory, episodic memory retrieval, priming and procedural memory. The capacity of MEG, both for analysis and for organising the information it receives, is so large that it takes only a few milliseconds to evaluate brain activity and to create functional maps of the brain in which the brain structure is set out in blocks of cubic centimetres or even millimetres. This makes it possible to generate functional maps of brain activity that are capable of being organised and represented in terms of both time and space. It also enables us to obtain images that result from the signalling activity of sets of nerve cells (especially from the dendritic currents) and the electromagnetic signal that carries this information to the outer surface of the head, where the magnetic flow can be recorded. With the findings from these studies it has become possible to establish a topographic correlation between the functions and the basic brain processes involved in each paradigm. A growing body of clinical evidence proves the value of using them (especially MEG) with cases of epilepsy, language, dyslexia, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  20. Method for automatically evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique

    DOEpatents

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    A method for automatically evaluating a manufacturing technique comprises the steps of: receiving from a user manufacturing process step parameters characterizing a manufacturing process; accepting from the user a selection for an analysis of a particular lean manufacturing technique; automatically compiling process step data for each process step in the manufacturing process; automatically calculating process metrics from a summation of the compiled process step data for each process step; and, presenting the automatically calculated process metrics to the user. A method for evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique can comprise the steps of: collecting manufacturing process step characterization parameters; selecting a lean manufacturing technique for analysis; communicating the selected lean manufacturing technique and the manufacturing process step characterization parameters to an automatic manufacturing technique evaluation engine having a mathematical model for generating manufacturing technique evaluation data; and, using the lean manufacturing technique evaluation data to determine whether to transition from an existing manufacturing technique to the selected lean manufacturing technique.

  1. Program Instrumentation: A Technique for Evaluating Educational Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Bryan P.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of educational software evaluation highlights an evaluation based on program instrumentation of a medical school simulation program. Evaluation strategies are discussed; evaluation techniques, including interviews, questionnaires, and observation are described; and implications of the results of the program instrumentation for the…

  2. Evaluation of Extended Period Forecasting Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    34low" sunspot years he also found that the departures before FULL MOON were greater during the years with low sunspot activity than during the years...of the changes increased. The highest frequency of cyclonic weather patterns occurred during the FULL MOON phases when preceeded by large positive...the NEW MOON Phases and a time interval of 90 days during the FULL MOON phases. For anyticyclonic weather patterns the highest frequency occurred

  3. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  4. Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-16

    Due to Test Results 3-9 3.5 Representative Data 3-11 3.6 Control Model 3-21 4.0 Simulation 4-1 5.0 HAC/LAC 5-1 5.1 Theory 5-1...5.1.1 HAC Theory 5-1 5.1.2 LAC Theory 5-4 5.1.3 HAC/LAC Combined Control 5-6 5.1.4 HAC/LAC Applied to ACES 5-7 5.2 Model Selection and...5-39 5-50 6.0 Positivity 6-1 6-1 6-9 6-9 6-17 6-31 5.4 Observation 5.5 Test Results 5.6 Conclusions 6.1 Theory 6.2 Model

  5. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2017-09-01

    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  6. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2016-06-01

    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  7. Evolving techniques to evaluate ejaculatory function.

    PubMed

    Vaucher, Laurent; Bolyakov, Alexander; Paduch, Darius A

    2009-11-01

    Recent findings in the physiology and neurobiology of ejaculation have expanded our understanding of male sexual function and have allowed the development of new instruments to investigate ejaculatory and orgasmic disorders. The evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation has set a model in the evaluation and treatment outcome of sexual dysfunction. New instruments to objectively assess arousal, orgasm and the expulsion phase of ejaculation such as functional MRI, dynamic pelvic ultrasound, PET scans and validated questionnaires have lead to a better understanding of sexual dysfunction in men. Animal models, developments in neurobiology and clinical experience have transformed a purely psychoanalytical approach to ejaculatory and orgasmic function into a novel multidisciplinary, scientifically sound and evidence-based discipline of medicine. Ejaculation is an integral part of normal sexual function. Ejaculatory dysfunction is common and may cause substantial disruption to the quality of a patient's life. A better understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, neuroscience and genetics of ejaculatory and orgasmic function will eventually lead to the development of new, effective methods of treatment of disorders of ejaculation and orgasm in men.

  8. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. The post classification comparison technique reliably identified areas of change and was used as the standard for qualitatively evaluating the other three techniques. The layered spectral/temporal change classification and the delta data change detection results generally agreed with the post classification comparison technique results; however, many small areas of change were not identified. Major discrepancies existed between the post classification comparison and spectral/temporal change detection results.

  9. Evaluating Permeability Enchancement Using Electrical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Pritchett

    2008-09-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) development projects involve the artificial stimulation of relatively impermeable high-temperature underground regions (at depths of 2-4 kilometers or more) to create sufficient permeability to permit underground fluid circulation, so that hot water can be withdrawn from production wells and used to generate electric power. Several major research projects of this general type have been undertaken in the past in New Mexico (Fenton Hill), Europe, Japan and Australia. Recent U.S. activities along these lines focus mainly on stimulating peripheral areas of existing operating hydrothermal fields rather than on fresh 'greenfield' sites, but the long-term objective of the Department of Energy's EGS program is the development of large-scale power projects based on EGS technology (MIT, 2006; NREL, 2008). Usually, stimulation is accomplished by injecting water into a well at high pressure, enhancing permeability by the creation and propagation of fractures in the surrounding rock (a process known as 'hydrofracturing'). Beyond just a motivation, low initial system permeability is also an essential prerequisite to hydrofracturing. If the formation permeability is too high, excessive fluid losses will preclude the buildup of sufficient pressure to fracture rock. In practical situations, the actual result of injection is frequently to re-open pre-existing hydrothermally-mineralized fractures, rather than to create completely new fractures by rupturing intact rock. Pre-existing fractures can often be opened using injection pressures in the range 5-20 MPa. Creation of completely new fractures will usually require pressures that are several times higher. It is preferable to undertake development projects of this type in regions where tectonic conditions are conducive to shear failure, so that when pre-existing fractures are pressurized they will fail by shearing laterally. If this happens, the fracture will often stay open afterwards even if

  10. Evaluation of gravimetric techniques to estimate the microvascular filtration coefficient.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2011-06-01

    Microvascular permeability to water is characterized by the microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)). Conventional gravimetric techniques to estimate K(f) rely on data obtained from either transient or steady-state increases in organ weight in response to increases in microvascular pressure. Both techniques result in considerably different estimates and neither account for interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. We therefore developed a theoretical framework to evaluate K(f) estimation techniques by 1) comparing conventional techniques to a novel technique that includes effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return, 2) evaluating the ability of conventional techniques to reproduce K(f) from simulated gravimetric data generated by a realistic interstitial fluid balance model, 3) analyzing new data collected from rat intestine, and 4) analyzing previously reported data. These approaches revealed that the steady-state gravimetric technique yields estimates that are not directly related to K(f) and are in some cases directly proportional to interstitial compliance. However, the transient gravimetric technique yields accurate estimates in some organs, because the typical experimental duration minimizes the effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. Furthermore, our analytical framework reveals that the supposed requirement of tying off all draining lymphatic vessels for the transient technique is unnecessary. Finally, our numerical simulations indicate that our comprehensive technique accurately reproduces the value of K(f) in all organs, is not confounded by interstitial storage and lymphatic return, and provides corroboration of the estimate from the transient technique.

  11. Evaluation of gravimetric techniques to estimate the microvascular filtration coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Dongaonkar, R. M.; Laine, G. A.; Stewart, R. H.

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular permeability to water is characterized by the microvascular filtration coefficient (Kf). Conventional gravimetric techniques to estimate Kf rely on data obtained from either transient or steady-state increases in organ weight in response to increases in microvascular pressure. Both techniques result in considerably different estimates and neither account for interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. We therefore developed a theoretical framework to evaluate Kf estimation techniques by 1) comparing conventional techniques to a novel technique that includes effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return, 2) evaluating the ability of conventional techniques to reproduce Kf from simulated gravimetric data generated by a realistic interstitial fluid balance model, 3) analyzing new data collected from rat intestine, and 4) analyzing previously reported data. These approaches revealed that the steady-state gravimetric technique yields estimates that are not directly related to Kf and are in some cases directly proportional to interstitial compliance. However, the transient gravimetric technique yields accurate estimates in some organs, because the typical experimental duration minimizes the effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. Furthermore, our analytical framework reveals that the supposed requirement of tying off all draining lymphatic vessels for the transient technique is unnecessary. Finally, our numerical simulations indicate that our comprehensive technique accurately reproduces the value of Kf in all organs, is not confounded by interstitial storage and lymphatic return, and provides corroboration of the estimate from the transient technique. PMID:21346245

  12. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  13. Vibrothermography: Investigation and Development of a New Nondestructive Evaluation Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    8217! _"t _U1 IV~ V I Vibrothermography: Investigation and Development of a New Nondestructive Evaluation Technique FINAL REPORT Edmund G. Henneke, I Kenneth...understanding of the mechanisms involved in this process. Vibrothermography is a nondestructive inspection technique based upon the utilization of this...phenomenon. It has been found that this technique has DD W,.13 COMMN OF I NOV 651 IS 9METE SECUmFTY CLASSIFICATION OP TIMIS PAGE (When Date 61ard 20

  14. Evaluation of Advanced Retrieval Techniques in an Experimental Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ray R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses subject searching problems in online library catalogs; explains advanced information retrieval (IR) techniques; and describes experiments conducted on a test collection database, CHESHIRE (California Hybrid Extended SMART for Hypertext and Information Retrieval Experimentation), which was created to evaluate IR techniques in online…

  15. Evaluating winds aloft by a simplified field technique

    Treesearch

    Melvin K. Hull

    1966-01-01

    A field technique for evaluating winds aloft is described. It can be used at remote places--even at the site of a wildfire. It has proved accurate as any known single theodolite technique, and is time-saving because the winds aloft are evaluated in miles per hour from direct readout. The tools required are much lower in cost, more portable, and more multi-purpose than...

  16. Evaluation Techniques for Individualized Instruction: Revision and Summative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englert, DuWayne C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the collection and analysis of summative data for a slide/tape self-instruction program on an introductory zoology course. Points of concern regarding curricular changes, teaching assistant training, student use, student performance evaluation, development, and revision are discussed from their unique perspectives within the summative…

  17. Evaluation Techniques for Individualized Instruction: Revision and Summative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englert, DuWayne C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the collection and analysis of summative data for a slide/tape self-instruction program on an introductory zoology course. Points of concern regarding curricular changes, teaching assistant training, student use, student performance evaluation, development, and revision are discussed from their unique perspectives within the summative…

  18. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. Methods These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV), RMS values, variance values (VAR) and difference absolute mean value (DAMV). EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation), abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Results Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively) the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Conclusions Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology. PMID:21073705

  19. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Fernando D; Politti, Julio C; Felice, Carmelo J

    2010-11-12

    Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV), RMS values, variance values (VAR) and difference absolute mean value (DAMV). EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation), abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively) the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology.

  20. Evaluation of elite table tennis players' technique effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Hu, Jin-Ju; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study constructed a technique effectiveness evaluation formula for table tennis players based on the relationship between the scoring rate and usage rate of techniques and established evaluation criteria through the examination of 224 matches of the world's top 35 players. It also built a competition performance formula with the score difference theory for the exploration of the correlation between player technique effectiveness and competition performance. The results showed the three indices - the technique effectiveness of the first and third strokes (TE₁,₃), the second and fourth strokes (TE₂,₄) and the after fourth strokes (TE>₄) - could help better evaluate the technique effectiveness of elite players. The comparative analysis of Chinese elite table tennis players and players from other countries and regions revealed that Chinese players as a whole were 'excellent' in all the examined techniques except in the male's 'first and third strokes'; while players from other countries and regions were overall 'general'. The case analysis of two of the world's top players further indicated that correlation analysis of technique effectiveness and competition performance could help identify the technique indices highly correlated with player competition performance.

  1. Evaluation of elite table tennis players' technique effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Hu, Jin-Ju; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    This study constructed a technique effectiveness evaluation formula for table tennis players based on the relationship between the scoring rate and usage rate of techniques and established the evaluation criteria through the examination of 224 matches of the world's top 35 players. It also built a competition performance formula with the score difference theory for the exploration of the correlation between player technique effectiveness and competition performance. The results showed the three indices--the technique effectiveness of the first and third strokes (TE₁,₃), the second and fourth strokes (TE₂,₄) and the after fourth strokes (TE(>₄))--could help better evaluate the technique effectiveness of elite players. The comparative analysis of Chinese elite table tennis players and players from other countries and regions revealed that Chinese players as a whole were "excellent" in all the examined techniques except in the male's "first and third strokes"; while players from other countries and regions were overall "general". The case analysis of two world top players further indicated that correlation analysis of technique effectiveness and competition performance could help identify the technique indices highly correlated with player competition performance.

  2. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy.

    PubMed

    Abullais, Shahabe Saquib; Dani, Nitin; Ningappa, Priyanka; Golvankar, Kapil; Chavan, Amit; Malgaonkar, Nikhil; Gore, Anup

    2016-01-01

    High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patients were divided into two groups according to the technique used. Each group contained ten patients. One group was treated by "conventional scalpel technique" and other group by "new paralleling technique". To evaluate patients response, visual analogue scale for pain and speech were taken at first postoperative day, 1-week and 1-month. In other part of the study the oral hygiene maintenance was evaluated by using plaque and gingival bleeding index at baseline before frenectomy, 1-week and 1-month after frenectomy. Results showed that new paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less postoperative discomfort and also there was significant improvement in the oral hygiene maintenance by the patient after frenectomy. High maxillary frenum causes hindrance in oral hygiene maintenance. Paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less discomfort to the patient during healing phase when compared with the conventional technique.

  3. Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) Technique for Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1996-01-01

    The Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) technique is applied to a generalized frequency domain electromagnetic problem. Most of the frequency domain techniques in computational electromagnetics result in a matrix equation, which is solved at a single frequency. In the AWE technique, the Taylor series expansion around that frequency is applied to the matrix equation. The coefficients of the Taylor's series are obtained in terms of the frequency derivatives of the matrices evaluated at the expansion frequency. The coefficients hence obtained will be used to predict the frequency response of the system over a frequency range. The detailed derivation of the coefficients (called 'moments') is given along with an illustration for electric field integral equation (or Method of Moments) technique. The radar cross section (RCS) frequency response of a square plate is presented using the AWE technique and is compared with the exact solution at various frequencies.

  4. A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Trees by DaHan Liao Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings...for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees by DaHan Liao Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  5. Evaluation Techniques for Individualized Instruction: Development and Formative Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedient, Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Steps used in the formative evaluation of a project designed to incorporate self-instructional materials in an introductory zoology course included techniques which: (1) involved colleagues in the material development; (2) assessed relevant student characteristics, expectations, and evaluations; and (3) were used in the examinations. (MBR)

  6. Evaluation Techniques for Individualized Instruction: Development and Formative Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedient, Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Steps used in the formative evaluation of a project designed to incorporate self-instructional materials in an introductory zoology course included techniques which: (1) involved colleagues in the material development; (2) assessed relevant student characteristics, expectations, and evaluations; and (3) were used in the examinations. (MBR)

  7. A Colloquial Approach: An Active Learning Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Pedro

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the effectiveness of teaching methodologies on fundamental engineering courses such as transport phenomena. Recommends the colloquial approach, an active learning strategy, to increase student involvement in the learning process. (ZWH)

  8. Learning by Doing: An Empirical Study of Active Teaching Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Kate L.; Tennial, Rachel E.; Garczynski, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the effectiveness of four teaching techniques (lecture, demonstrations, discussions, and in-class activities) in the classroom. As each technique offers different benefits to the instructor and students, each technique was expected to aid in a different depth of learning. The current findings indicated that each…

  9. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of satisfactory techniques for detecting change in coastal zone environments is required before operational monitoring procedures can be established. In an effort to meet this need a study was directed toward developing and evaluating different types of change detection techniques, based upon computer aided analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data, to monitor these environments. The Matagorda Bay estuarine system along the Texas coast was selected as the study area. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. Each of the four techniques was used to analyze a LANDSAT MSS temporal data set to detect areas of change of the Matagorda Bay region.

  10. Evaluating venous pool technique for blood sampling in neonatal ICU.

    PubMed

    Hatler, Carol; Dalton, Beverly; Day, Susan; Sharfner, Andrea; Hauffe, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate venous pool technique (VPT) for obtaining neonatal blood samples as compared with the needlestick technique. An experimental design was used with subjects enrolled in two phases: an equivalence phase (N = 10) and a comparison phase (N = 64). In the equivalence phase, subjects weighing 1,500 g or more had two needlesticks. In the comparison phase, subjects weighing 800 g or more were randomized to receive blood drawn by either needlestick method or VPT. Comparative results suggest that infant and maternal demographic factors, sampling attempts, and sampling failures were similar. However, for the outcome of hematoma development, the standard technique was significantly worse (t = 2.25 ; p = .029). Results suggest that the VPT method is safe and accurate for use in critically ill neonates. This study demonstrated that the VPT process is easily learned and may provide advantages over standard blood sampling methods. Nurses can use this information to evaluate this VPT technique in their institutions.

  11. Handwashing Technique. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on handwashing. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to…

  12. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abullais, Shahabe Saquib; Dani, Nitin; Ningappa, Priyanka; Golvankar, Kapil; Chavan, Amit; Malgaonkar, Nikhil; Gore, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Background: High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patients were divided into two groups according to the technique used. Each group contained ten patients. One group was treated by “conventional scalpel technique” and other group by “new paralleling technique”. To evaluate patients response, visual analogue scale for pain and speech were taken at first postoperative day, 1-week and 1-month. In other part of the study the oral hygiene maintenance was evaluated by using plaque and gingival bleeding index at baseline before frenectomy, 1-week and 1-month after frenectomy. Results: Results showed that new paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less postoperative discomfort and also there was significant improvement in the oral hygiene maintenance by the patient after frenectomy. Conclusion: High maxillary frenum causes hindrance in oral hygiene maintenance. Paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less discomfort to the patient during healing phase when compared with the conventional technique. PMID:27041834

  13. Evaluation of Techniques for Power Regulation on Nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Llorente, Jesus; Hurtado, Ronald; Sanchez-Sanjuan, Sergio; Ortiz-Rivera, Eduardo I.

    2014-08-01

    We evaluate two power regulation techniques to find which is more efficient in a 3U CubeSat nanosatellite. The comparison is between maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique and direct energy transfer (DET). Previous work showed the effectiveness of MPPT techniques; however, the efficiency of the power converter topology must be considered, especially at low power as nanosatellites. We employ mathematical models that describe the electrical behavior of solar cells and power converters. By using the space environment characteristics, we obtain the delivered power to the load in order to determine which one is the best technique for the given conditions. Simulation results show that both techniques have similar performance for nadir aligned 3U CubeSat. Therefore, DET should be used since it is easier to implement than MPPT.

  14. Non-destructive evaluation of anchorage zones by ultrasonics techniques.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Gaillet, L

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for damage assessment in bridges' anchorages. The Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technique is compared to classical Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in terms of defect detection and structural health classification. The AU technique is firstly used on single seven-wire strands damaged by artificial defects. The effect of growing defects on the waves traveling through the strands is evaluated. Thereafter, three specimens of anchorages with unknown defects are inspected by the AU and UT techniques. Damage assessment results from both techniques are then compared. The structural health conditions of the specimens can be then classified by a damage severity criterion. Finally, a damaged anchorage socket with mastered defects is controlled by the same techniques. The UT allows the detection and localization of damaged wires. The AU technique is used to bring out the effect of defects on acoustic features by comparing a healthy and damaged anchorage sockets. It is concluded that the UT method is suitable for local and crack-like defects, whereas the AU technique enables the assessment of the global structural health of the anchorage zones.

  15. Opportunities to Create Active Learning Techniques in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Danielle J.; Legare, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the growing body of research that focuses on active learning techniques. Active learning techniques require students to consider a given set of information, analyze, process, and prepare to restate what has been learned--all strategies are confirmed to improve higher order thinking skills. Active…

  16. Flow cytometric allergy diagnosis: basophil activation techniques.

    PubMed

    Bridts, Chris H; Sabato, Vito; Mertens, Christel; Hagendorens, Margo M; De Clerck, Luc S; Ebo, Didier G

    2014-01-01

    The basis of flow cytometric allergy diagnosis is quantification of changes in expression of basophilic surface membrane markers (Ebo et al., Clin Exp Allergy 34: 332-339, 2004). Upon encountering specific allergens recognized by surface receptor FcεRI-bound IgE, basophils not only secrete and generate quantifiable bioactive mediators but also up-regulate the expression of different markers (e.g., CD63, CD203c) which can be detected by multicolor flow cytometry using specific monoclonal antibodies (Ebo et al., Cytometry B Clin Cytom 74: 201-210, 2008). Here, we describe two flow cytometry-based protocols which allow detection of surface marker activation (Method 1) and changes in intragranular histamine (Method 2), both reflecting different facets of basophil activation.

  17. Technique for surface oxidation of activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Golden, T.C.

    1987-10-27

    A method of activating a carbon adsorbent is described, which comprises oxidizing the surface of the carbon adsorbent with a mild oxidizing acid in the presence of a metal oxidation catalyst at an elevated temperature and boiling the mixture of the carbon adsorbent, mild oxidizing acid and metal oxidation catalyst to dryness. Then rinse the surface oxidizing carbon adsorbent with water; and dry the rinsed surface oxidized carbon adsorbent. In a process for the removal of water or carbon dioxide from a gas stream containing water or carbon dioxide of the type wherein the gas stream containing water or carbon dioxide is contacted with a solid phase adsorbent under pressure-swing adsorption or thermal-swing adsorption processing conditions, the improvement is described comprising utilizing an adsorbent produced by the activation of a carbon adsorbent. The activation comprises oxidizing the surface of the carbon adsorbent with a mold oxidizing acid in the presence of a metal oxidation catalyst at an elevated temperature and boiling the mixture of the carbon adsorbent, mild oxidizing acid and metal oxidation catalyst to dryness. Then rinse the surface oxidized carbon adsorbent with water; and dry the rinsed surface oxidized carbon adsorbent.

  18. Evaluation of oesophageal transit velocity using the improved Demons technique.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Michele N; Xavier, Fernando E B; Secaf, Marie; Troncon, Luiz E A; de Oliveira, Ricardo B; Moraes, Eder R

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to compute oesophageal transit velocity in a direct and automatized manner by the registration of scintigraphy images. A total of 36 images from nine healthy volunteers were processed. Four dynamic image series per volunteer were acquired after a minimum 8 h fast. Each acquisition was made following the ingestion of 5 ml saline labelled with about 26 MBq (700 µCi) technetium-99m phytate in a single swallow. Between the acquisitions, another two swallows of 5 ml saline were performed to clear the oesophagus. The composite acquired files were made of 240 frames of anterior and posterior views. Each frame is the accumulate count for 250 ms.At the end of acquisitions, the images were corrected for radioactive decay, the geometric mean was computed between the anterior and posterior views and the registration of a set of subsequent images was performed. Utilizing the improved Demons technique, we obtained from the deformation field the regional resultant velocity, which is directly related to the oesophagus transit velocity. The mean regional resulting velocities decreases progressively from the proximal to the distal oesophageal portions and, at the proximal portion, is virtually identical to the primary peristaltic pump typical velocity. Comparison between this parameter and 'time-activity' curves reveals consistency in velocities obtained using both methods, for the proximal portion. Application of the improved Demons technique, as an easy and automated method to evaluate velocities of oesophageal bolus transit, is feasible and seems to yield consistent data, particularly for the proximal oesophagus.

  19. Development of evaluation method for software hazard identification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shih, C.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C. T.; Wang, L. H.; Yu, Y. C.; Chen, C. W.

    2006-07-01

    This research evaluated the applicable software hazard identification techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flow-graph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various software hazard identification combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (with transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and simulation-based model-analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantages are the completeness complexity and implementation cost. This evaluation method can be a platform to reach common consensus for the stakeholders. Following the evolution of software hazard identification techniques, the evaluation results could be changed. However, the insight of software hazard identification techniques is much more important than the numbers obtained by the evaluation. (authors)

  20. Evaluating the impact of MEDLINE using the Critical Incident Technique.

    PubMed

    Siegel, E R; Rapp, B A; Lindberg, D A

    1991-01-01

    An adaptation of the Critical Incident Technique for the evaluation of an online information system is described. 552 users of the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, interviewed by telephone and responding to a highly structured set of open-ended questions, reported 1,158 incidents in which the results of a MEDLINE search was especially helpful (or not helpful) in carrying out professional activities. Systematic analysis of these "critical incidents" produced three comprehensive and detailed views of the purposes and outcomes of MEDLINE searches: (1) why information is sought from MEDLINE; (2) the impact of MEDLINE-derived information on medical decision-making; and (3) the ultimate outcome of having (or not having) the desired information on medical situations prompting a MEDLINE search. Results revealed that MEDLINE is used to satisfy a diversity of medical needs concerning patient care, the progress of biomedical research, the quality of education received by health professionals in training, the safety and effectiveness of health care institutions, the operation of the system of third-party reimbursement, for legal decisions, and for the knowledge of the public.

  1. Evaluation of various techniques for microalgal biomass quantification.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad H; La, Hyun-Joon; Seo, Seong-Hyun; Asgharnejad, Hashem; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2015-12-20

    Biomass concentration is one of the most important parameters in the biotechnology processes. Its measurement relies on the physical, chemical or biological properties of the cells. Several techniques were applied in this work to measure the cell concentration of four microalgae: Botryococcussp., Botryococcusbraunii, Chlorella vulgaris, and Ettlia sp. The experiments were performed using samples taken from a chemostat for each strain to provide microalgal cell suspensions in a stable physiological state and concentration. The dry cell weight (DCW) was used as the reference method for the evaluation of other methods. The two commercial sensors used to determine optical density and dielectric permittivity showed a broad effective measurement range up to more than 20gl(-1). A Red-Green-Blue model analysis of microalgal digital images in combination with Fourier equation significantly extended the measurements range up to 6gl(-1). Cell count using a flow cytometer showed a broad range of linearity to DCW in washed samples, but other counting methods using hemocytometer and microscopic automated count were limited. Finally, the oxygen production rate, representing the photosynthetic activity, showed a linear regression with DCW at cell concentrations lower than 1gl(-1).

  2. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Kunerth, Dennis C.

    2014-09-01

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing

  3. New Techniques to Evaluate the Incendiary Behavior of Insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Trigwell, Steve; Ritz, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    New techniques for evaluating the incendiary behavior of insulators is presented. The onset of incendive brush discharges in air is evaluated using standard spark probe techniques for the case simulating approaches of an electrically grounded sphere to a charged insulator in the presence of a flammable atmosphere. However, this standard technique is unsuitable for the case of brush discharges that may occur during the charging-separation process for two insulator materials. We present experimental techniques to evaluate this hazard in the presence of a flammable atmosphere which is ideally suited to measure the incendiary nature of micro-discharges upon separation, a measurement never before performed. Other measurement techniques unique to this study include; surface potential measurements of insulators before, during and after contact and separation, as well as methods to verify fieldmeter calibrations using a charge insulator surface opposed to standard high voltage plates. Key words: Kapton polyimide film, incendiary discharges, brush discharges, contact and frictional electrification, ignition hazards, insulators, contact angle, surface potential measurements.

  4. GINFEST: Geodetic Intercomparison Network for Evaluating Space Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazi, Vidal

    Details are given of a geodetic network connecting the major radio telescopes and SLR facilities in Western and Central Europe, which is to be used in a co-location exercise involving VLBI, CERI, SLR and GPS observations, with the aim of evaluating the relative accuracies and system biases of these geodetic space observation techniques.

  5. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF RISK MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often, the performance of risk management techniques is evaluated by measuring the concentrations of the chemials of concern before and after risk management effoprts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust understanding of the effectiveness of risk man...

  6. Teacher Evaluation in Foreign Language Education: Behavior Alteration Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    A study examined the relationship between French teachers' use of behavior alteration techniques in the classroom, and the perceptions of individuals evaluating the teacher (students, peers, administrators) on the quality of instructional performance. Junior and community college French students, language teachers, and administrators responded to…

  7. Kontrolltechniken im Englischunterricht. (Evaluation Techniques in Teaching English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrand, Heinrich

    1978-01-01

    Describes five techniques to be used in the evaluation of writing and as exercises in foreign language teaching: the so-called free response to problems presented, fill-in blanks, construction form, alternative form, and association form. (IFS/WGA)

  8. Evaluating ITV Production Techniques: Community of Living Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Lawrence E.

    Effective production techniques for an ITV series, "Community of Living Things," are evaluated in this paper. The program is part of a junior high life science series. Five basic practices, chosen for their student interest and instructional value, were utilized: (1) rapidity of visualization, (2) few teacher appearances, (3) repetitive film…

  9. Development and evaluation of the photoload sampling technique

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane; Laura J. Dickinson

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire managers need better estimates of fuel loading so they can accurately predict potential fire behavior and effects of alternative fuel and ecosystem restoration treatments. This report presents the development and evaluation of a new fuel sampling method, called the photoload sampling technique, to quickly and accurately estimate loadings for six common...

  10. Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J.; Yuen, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Air Force goal is to develop vibration control techniques for large flexible spacecraft by addressing sensor, actuator, and control hardware and dynamic testing. The Active Control Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) program will address the Air Force goal by looking at two leading control techniques and implementing them on a structural model of a flexible spacecraft under laboratory testing. The first phase in the ACES program is to review and to assess the High Authority Control/Low Authority Control (HAC/LAC) and Filter accomodated Model Error Sensitivity Suppression (FAMESS) control techniques for testing on the modified VCOSS structure. Appropriate sensors and actuators will be available for use with both techniques; locations will be the same for both techniques. The control actuators will be positioned at the midpoint and free end of the structure. The laser source for the optical sensor is mounted on the feed mast. The beam will be reflected from a mirror on the offset antenna onto the detectors mounted above the shaker table bay. The next phase is to develop an analysis simulation with the control algorithms implemented for dynamics verification. The third phase is to convert the control laws into high level computer language and test them in the NASA-MSFC facility. The final phase is to compile all analytical and test results for performance comparisons.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Barker, Alan M; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Albright, Austin P; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  12. Economic evaluation techniques in healthcare. Reinventing the wheel?

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1997-02-01

    Application of the technique of economic evaluation has increased markedly in the past 5 years. Literature on the techniques of economic evaluation is over 30 year old, and the principal architect of such techniques in Britain is Professor Alan Williams of the University of York. In 1974 he wrote a 'checklist of questions' to apply to economic studies. These questions have since been elaborated by Mike Drummond and colleagues, and by the end of the 1980s guidelines were well articulated. Since this time there have been substantial investments in 'gilding the lily', leading to marginal improvements. This investment in 'reinventing the wheel' could more usefully be applied to resolution of contentious areas where there is still a lack of consensus. It is time to stop going around in circles with guideline reiteration and quasi-consensus statements, and instead target resources where they give the greatest return to knowledge.

  13. Phase Diversity and Polarization Augmented Techniques for Active Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Phase Diversity and Polarization Augmented Techniques for Active Imaging DISSERTATION Peter M. Johnson, Captain, USAF AFIT/DS/ENG/07-05 DEPARTMENT OF...Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/DS/ENG/07-05 Phase Diversity and Polarization Augmented Techniques for Active Imaging...must be used. To facilitate this, a multi-frame active phase diversity imaging (APDI) algorithm is derived and demonstrated for the statistics of

  14. Industrial Materials Characterization Using Neutron Activation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    S. Yusuf; W. Rigot; M. Buchmann; T. Quinn

    2000-06-04

    For more than 30 yr now, we have applied neutron activation analysis (NAA) in material characterization by stressing the fundamentals, namely, understanding the nuclear reactions, characterizing the irradiation facility, and establishing a stable counting system. When these three aspects are treated properly, then Eq. (1), A{sub 0} = {lambda}Ce{sup {lambda}t{sub 1}}/(1-e{sup -{lambda}{Delta}})(1-e{sup {lambda}{tau}})={epsilon}{gamma}({theta}mN{sub A}/M){integral}{sub E=0}{sup E={infinity}}{Phi}(E){sigma}(E)dE, is applicable with negligible errors. The quantities in Eq. (1) are all known except for the quantities under the integral and the counting efficiency. It is the treatment of the integral in Eq. (1) that raises a question and is the topic in numerous theses. The object of this paper is to show how the shape-independent approach can be used to cut down time and cost of analysis without compromising accuracy.

  15. Biomechanical techniques to evaluate tibial rotation. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Mak-Ham; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2012-09-01

    This article systematically reviewed the biomechanical techniques to quantify tibial rotation, for an overview of how to choose a suitable technique for specific clinical application. A systematic search was conducted and finally 110 articles were included in this study. The articles were categorized by the conditions of how the knee was examined: external load application, physical examination and dynamic task. The results showed that two-thirds of the included studies measured tibial rotation under external load application, of which over 80% of the experiments employed a cadaveric model. The common techniques used included direct displacement measurement, motion sensor, optical tracking system and universal force moment sensor. Intra-operative navigation system was used to document tibial rotation when the knee was examined by clinical tests. For dynamic assessment of knee rotational stability, motion analysis with skin reflective markers was frequently used although this technique is less accurate due to the skin movement when compared with radiographic measurement. This study reports various biomechanical measurement techniques to quantify tibial rotation in the literatures. To choose a suitable measurement technique for a specific clinical application, it is suggested to quantify the effectiveness of a new designed surgical technique by using a cadaveric model before applying to living human subjects for intra-operative evaluation or long-time functional stability assessment. Attention should also be paid on the study's purpose, whether to employ a cadaveric model and the way of stress applied to the knee. IV.

  16. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  17. Restoring accommodation: surgical technique and preliminary evaluation in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahi, Hassan; Chapon, Pascal F.; Hamaoui, Marie; Lee, William E.; Holden, Brien; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose. To evaluate an innovative surgical technique for phaco-ersatz, a cataract surgery designed to restore accommodation. Techniques for very small capsulorhexis as well as the refilling procedure were developed. This study evaluates the feasibility and reproducibility of the surgical technique. Methods. The right eye of 8 NZW rabbits (~ 2 Kg) were operated following the ARVO Statements for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The surgery is begun by making a small peripheral capsulorhexis of about 1 mm using. The lens content is then removed. The lens is then refilled with a novel in situ polymerizable gel and the corneal incision is closed using one 10/0 Nylon interrupted stitch. Results. The capsulorhexis technique was succesfully performed and reproducible in all animals. The average size of the capsulorhexis opening was 1. 2 mm (+/-0.14). Lens material removal and refilling of the capsular bag with an in situ polymerizable material was also performed in each trial study. Conclusion. This surgical technique seemed feasible and reproducible.

  18. Averaging sensors technique for active vibration control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquemani, S.; Cazzulani, G.; Braghin, F.; Resta, F.

    2013-04-01

    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) sensors have a great potential in active vibration control of smart structures thanks to their small transversal size and the possibility to make an array of many sensors. The paper deals with the opportunity to reduce vibration in structures by using distributed sensors embedded in carbon fiber structures through the so called sensors-averaging technique. This method provides a properly weighted average of the outputs of a distributed array of sensors generating spatial filters on a broad range of undesired resonance modes without adversely affecting phase and amplitude. This approach combines the positive sides of decentralized control techniques as the control forces applied to the system are independent of one another, while, as for the centralized controls it has the possibility to exploit the information from all the sensors. The ability to easily manage this information allows to synthesize an efficient modal controller. Furthermore it enables to evaluate the stability of the control, the effects of spillover and the consequent effectiveness in reducing vibration. Theoretical aspects are supported by experimental applications on a large flexible system composed of a thin cantilever beam with 30 longitudinal FBG sensors and 6 piezoelectric actuators (PZT).

  19. Pattern Activity Clustering and Evaluation (PACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Banas, Christopher; Paul, Michael; Bussjager, Becky; Seetharaman, Guna

    2012-06-01

    With the vast amount of network information available on activities of people (i.e. motions, transportation routes, and site visits) there is a need to explore the salient properties of data that detect and discriminate the behavior of individuals. Recent machine learning approaches include methods of data mining, statistical analysis, clustering, and estimation that support activity-based intelligence. We seek to explore contemporary methods in activity analysis using machine learning techniques that discover and characterize behaviors that enable grouping, anomaly detection, and adversarial intent prediction. To evaluate these methods, we describe the mathematics and potential information theory metrics to characterize behavior. A scenario is presented to demonstrate the concept and metrics that could be useful for layered sensing behavior pattern learning and analysis. We leverage work on group tracking, learning and clustering approaches; as well as utilize information theoretical metrics for classification, behavioral and event pattern recognition, and activity and entity analysis. The performance evaluation of activity analysis supports high-level information fusion of user alerts, data queries and sensor management for data extraction, relations discovery, and situation analysis of existing data.

  20. Techniques to Evaluate Dental Erosion: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mahasweta; Joshi, Nikhil; Angadi, Prabhakar; Raikar, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews different techniques for evaluating dental erosion, weighs the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques, and presents the latest trends in the study of dental erosion. In May 2014, an initial search was carried out in the PubMed/MEDLINE database of indexed journals from 1975 to 2013 using the following keywords: dental erosion; dental erosion In-vitro; and dental erosion in-vivo. Bibliographic citations from the papers found were then used to find other useful sources. The authors categorize the techniques into three classes: in-vitro, in-vivo and in-vitro/in-vivo. The article discusses the instrumentation required to use each of these techniques, as well as their rationale, merits and applications. The emergence of in-vitro/in-vivo techniques offers the potential to accurately quantify tooth wear in clinical situations. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies show that these techniques will improve diagnosis, treatment planning and management of dental erosion. PMID:27891489

  1. Techniques to Evaluate Dental Erosion: A Systematic Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mahasweta; Joshi, Nikhil; Kathariya, Rahul; Angadi, Prabhakar; Raikar, Sonal

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews different techniques for evaluating dental erosion, weighs the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques, and presents the latest trends in the study of dental erosion. In May 2014, an initial search was carried out in the PubMed/MEDLINE database of indexed journals from 1975 to 2013 using the following keywords: dental erosion; dental erosion In-vitro; and dental erosion in-vivo. Bibliographic citations from the papers found were then used to find other useful sources. The authors categorize the techniques into three classes: in-vitro, in-vivo and in-vitro/in-vivo. The article discusses the instrumentation required to use each of these techniques, as well as their rationale, merits and applications. The emergence of in-vitro/in-vivo techniques offers the potential to accurately quantify tooth wear in clinical situations. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies show that these techniques will improve diagnosis, treatment planning and management of dental erosion.

  2. Evaluation of Non-Volcanic Tremor Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sit, S. M.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Kao, H.

    2009-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) is a subduction zone process often associated with the transition from stick-slip to stable sliding on the plate interface. In Northern Cascadia, NVT episodes lasting multiple weeks have been correlated spatially and temporally with slow slip episodes at a regular recurrence interval of 15±2 months. However, NVT across the entire Cascadia margin varies widely in recurrence and duration, while still other subduction zones (Japan, Mexico) observe separate cases of tremor and GPS-detected slip. Multiple identification and location techniques exist, but we will focus on techniques that can identify NVT at single stations to accommodate searching outside a dense network of instruments. This study evaluates these techniques in several regions along the entire Cascadia margin and in the Oaxaca segment of the Middle America Subduction Zone. Tremor signals are collected from a mixture of seismometers including those of temporary deployments targeting NVT, the EarthScope Transportable Array, the Canadian National Seismograph Network, and a few other regional networks that span the subduction zones. We compare existing techniques that scan moving averages, scintillation index, and hourly mean amplitudes with a new tremor frequency scanning technique that bandpass filters seismic data into three categories, 10-15 Hz, 2-5 Hz, and 0.2-0.5 Hz, where we expect prominent signals from microseismicity, NVT, and surface waves, respectively. Applying these techniques to episodes over the last few years finds that each technique can identify large, multi-week tremor events associated with GPS recorded slow slip. However, different techniques result in different totals of tremor hours detected per episode, as well as variable numbers of additional smaller episodes identified. Based on previous research that finds the amount of tremor correlated to the amount of slip from geodetic inversions, we are working towards a consensus single station approach that is

  3. Analytical techniques for the evaluation of liquid protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tatford, Owen C; Gomme, Peter T; Bertolini, Joseph

    2004-08-01

    A common problem in the manufacture of liquid protein therapeutics is the tendency for aggregation and particle formation on extended storage. Analytical techniques are required to study the propensity of solutions to form aggregates and particles and to allow the investigation of the effect of conditions encountered during manufacture and storage. A key challenge is to utilize appropriate specific and sensitive techniques to allow the early detection of initial aggregation events, thereby avoiding the need to resort to extended stability trials. The present review evaluates a range of techniques for the detection of changes in protein conformation and the formation of aggregates and particles. It is hoped that the availability of this information will encourage and facilitate studies to resolve stability issues associated with protein therapeutics.

  4. Performance Evaluation of OWC Using Different Modulation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Heena; Saxena, Jyoti; Dewra, Sanjeev

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, performance of an optical wireless communication (OWC) channel has been investigated using different modulation techniques such as phase shift keying (PSK), differential PSK (DPSK) and optical quadrature PSK (OQPSK). This investigation has been compared at a bit rate of 20 Gbps. The results are evaluated in terms of quality (Q) factor and bit error rate (BER) using different modulation techniques. It is observed that by using PSK modulation technique, the signal can travel up to 70 km transmission distance with acceptable BER of 3.48×10-12 and Q factor of 6.93. It is also observed that by using DPSK and OQPSK, system covers transmission distance of 80 and 90 km with acceptable values of Q factor of 6.59, 6.02 and BER of 2.34×10-11, 1.46×10-10, respectively.

  5. Non-destructive evaluation techniques for chemical weapons destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1996-09-01

    fThe safe and verifiable disposition, either by incineration or chemical neutralization of chemical warfare (CW) agents requires correct {ital a priori} identification of each munition or container to be processed. A variety of NDE techniques have been used or tested for the examination and characterization of munitions. In the U.S., three widely used techniques are X-ray radiography, acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS), and prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PINS). The technical bases, instrumental implementations, and applications of the U.S. versions of these methods are briefly discussed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Theory and experimental technique for nondestructive evaluation of ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    The important ultrasonic scattering mechanisms for SiC and Si3N4 ceramic composites were identified by examining the interaction of ultrasound with individual fibers, pores, and grains. The dominant scattering mechanisms were identified as asymmetric refractive scattering due to porosity gradients in the matrix material, and symmetric diffractive scattering at the fiber-to-matrix interface and at individual pores. The effect of the ultrasonic reflection coefficient and surface roughness in the ultrasonic evaluation was highlighted. A new nonintrusive ultrasonic evaluation technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS), was presented that is sensitive to microstructural variations in composites. Preliminary results indicate that APSS will yield information on the composite microstructure that is not available by any other nondestructive technique.

  7. Comparison of retinal image evaluation techniques in novice clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Christopher M.; Permann, Alex; Bassi, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Retinal fundus evaluation is learned through experience and training. This study aimed to determine the image presentation characteristics and the accompanying evaluation techniques, which led to the most accurate and efficient retinal pathology detection method. Phase I included 25 novice clinicians asked to evaluate 14 different pathologies using spatial versus temporal image presentations. Phase II included 25 different novice clinicians asked to evaluate five different simulated pathologies at three different pixel sizes presented in both spatial and temporal image presentations. Accuracy and speed of recognition were evaluated between the spatial and temporal presentations of the same simulated pathology. In phase l, subjects were significantly faster at simulated pathology detection using a temporal presentation with a 95% accuracy rate versus a spatial presentation with a 79% accuracy rate. In phase II, subjects demonstrated significant differences in speed of detection using the temporal technique at all 3 pixel number sizes with the greatest difference in detection times shown at the smallest retinal defects. Accuracy and speed of recognition in simulated pathology assessment were improved in a temporal presentation and the greatest improvements were demonstrated at the smallest pixel numbers. PMID:26158113

  8. Techniques for the evaluation of outgassing from polymeric wafer pods

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.C.; Liang, A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Bender, S.F.; Lujan, R.D.; Blewer, R.S.; Bowers, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in using wafer-level isolation environments or pods (microenvironments) to provide a more controllable, cleaner wafer environment during wafer processing. It has been shown that pods can be effective in reducing the amount of particulate contamination on wafers during manufacturing. However, there have also been studies that indicate that pods and wafer boxes can be the source of condensible, molecular organic contamination. This paper summarizes the work that has been performed during the past year at Sandia National Laboratories` Contamination Free Manufacturing Research Center (CFMRC) on (1) devising standard, low-temperature, high sensitivity techniques to detect outgassing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polymers used to construct wafer pods and (2) development of a technique that can be used to continuously measure the condensible contamination within pods so that the pod environment can be monitored during manufacturing. Although these techniques have been developed specifically for assessing contamination threats from wafer pods, they can be used to evaluate other potential contamination sources. The high sensitivity outgassing techniques can be used to evaluate outgassing of volatiles from other clean-room materials and the real-time outgassing sensor can be used to monitor contamination condensation in non-pod environments such as ballroom-type cleanrooms and minienvironments.

  9. Analysis Techniques for Airborne Laser Range Safety Evaluations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Subtitle) $- TYPE OP "EPORT 6 PERIOD COVEMEb Final ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR AIRBORNE LASER RANGE SAFETY EVALUATIONS 6, PERFORMING ORO . REPORT NUMBER 7...the total energy available will pass through various aperture sizes (i.e., 8-cm entrance aperture optics). One approximation is the range equation...Q a Total available energy out of the laser 11 - Radiant energy RELATIVE RADIANT ENERGY 1.0 ".,, I• .,•., -0.5 e20 . BEAM • DIAMETER - Figure 3. A

  10. Active cycle of breathing technique for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mckoy, Naomi A; Wilson, Lisa M; Saldanha, Ian J; Odelola, Olaide A; Robinson, Karen A

    2016-07-05

    People with cystic fibrosis experience chronic airway infections as a result of mucus build up within the lungs. Repeated infections often cause lung damage and disease. Airway clearance therapies aim to improve mucus clearance, increase sputum production, and improve airway function. The active cycle of breathing technique (also known as ACBT) is an airway clearance method that uses a cycle of techniques to loosen airway secretions including breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises, and the forced expiration technique. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the clinical effectiveness of the active cycle of breathing technique with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 25 April 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled clinical studies, including cross-over studies, comparing the active cycle of breathing technique with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. Two review authors independently screened each article, abstracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each study. Our search identified 62 studies, of which 19 (440 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Five randomised controlled studies (192 participants) were included in the meta-analysis; three were of cross-over design. The 14 remaining studies were cross-over studies with inadequate reports for complete assessment. The study size ranged from seven to 65 participants. The age of the participants ranged from six to 63 years (mean age 22.33 years). In 13 studies, follow up lasted a single day. However, there were two long-term randomised controlled studies with follow up of one to three years. Most of the studies did not report on key quality items, and therefore, have an unclear risk of

  11. Evaluation of noise reduction techniques for digital hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Vijay; Umapathy, Karthikeyan

    2003-10-01

    Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss have increased difficulty in understanding speech in noisy backgrounds. To combat this issue, there has been a major thrust in recent years toward the development of noise reduction algorithms. The goals of this paper are to quantify the relative benefits of different single-microphone noise reduction algorithms, and to investigate the interaction between the noise reduction and dynamic range compression algorithms. Noise reduction techniques evaluated in this paper include spectral subtraction-based techniques, a wavelet-packet-based technique and a matching pursuit-based technique. All algorithms were tested with HINT signals with SNR levels ranging from -5 to 15 dB, and two different noise types viz. the speech-shaped noise and multi-talker babble. Performance was quantified using the ITU standardized PESQ measure which computes the perceptual similarity between the enhanced signal and the original signal. Initial PESQ results showed that the spectral subtraction-based techniques perform superior to that of the wavelet-packet and matching pursuit-based approaches and that the compression time constants have an impact on the overall performance. Perceptual data collected from hearing impaired listeners on sound quality and noise reduction performance will be presented and their correlation with the objective measurements will be discussed.

  12. Comparative research on activation technique for GaAs photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang; Chen, Xinlong; Yang, Rui

    2012-03-01

    The properties of GaAs photocathodes mainly depend on the material design and activation technique. In early researches, high-low temperature two-step activation has been proved to get more quantum efficiency than high-temperature single-step activation. But the variations of surface barriers for two activation techniques have not been well studied, thus the best activation temperature, best Cs-O ratio and best activation time for two-step activation technique have not been well found. Because the surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) before activation is only in connection with the body parameters for GaAs photocathode such as electron diffusion length and the spectral response current (SRC) after activation is in connection with not only body parameters but also surface barriers, thus the surface escape probability (SEP) can be well fitted through the comparative research between SPS before activation and SEP after activation. Through deduction for the tunneling process of surface barriers by Schrödinger equation, the width and height for surface barrier I and II can be well fitted through the curves of SEP. The fitting results were well proved and analyzed by quantitative analysis of angle-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ADXPS) which can also study the surface chemical compositions, atomic concentration percentage and layer thickness for GaAs photocathodes. This comparative research method for fitting parameters of surface barriers through SPS before activation and SRC after activation shows a better real-time in system method for the researches of activation techniques.

  13. Evaluation of techniques for determining the density of fine woody debris

    Treesearch

    Becky Fasth; Mark E. Harmon; Christopher W. Woodall; Jay. Sexton

    2010-01-01

    Evaluated various techniques for determining the density (i.e., bulk density) of fine woody debris during forest inventory activities. It was found that only experts in dead wood inventory may be able to identify fine woody debris stages of decay. Suggests various future research directions such as...

  14. Incorporating Active Learning Techniques into a Genetics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, W. Theodore; Jabot, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    We revised a sophomore-level genetics class to more actively engage the students in their learning. The students worked in groups on quizzes using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and active-learning projects. The IF-AT quizzes allowed students to discuss key concepts in small groups and learn the correct answers in class. The…

  15. Incorporating Active Learning Techniques into a Genetics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, W. Theodore; Jabot, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    We revised a sophomore-level genetics class to more actively engage the students in their learning. The students worked in groups on quizzes using the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and active-learning projects. The IF-AT quizzes allowed students to discuss key concepts in small groups and learn the correct answers in class. The…

  16. Talking Techne: Techniques to Establish an Active Online Discussion Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palenque, Stephanie Maher; DeCosta, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Discussion forums are critically important to the online classroom, as they virtually take the place of a classroom discussion and become a stage on which active learning takes place. Active learning occurs when instructors practice certain techniques in the discussion that are carefully and thoughtfully crafted and guided. The authors propose the…

  17. Accessory muscle activation during the superimposed burst technique.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Devin; Kuenze, Christopher; Saliba, Susan; Hart, Joseph M

    2012-08-01

    Quadriceps muscle activation is assessed using the superimposed burst technique. This technique involves percutaneous muscle stimulation superimposed during maximal isometric volitional knee extension. It is unknown whether accessory muscle activation during maximal knee extension influences estimates of quadriceps muscle activation. Our aim was to compare accessory muscle activation while performing the superimposed burst technique using investigator delivered verbal instruction to constrain the system (CS) and a participant preferred (PP) technique. Twenty five healthy, active individuals (13M/12F, age=23.8 ± 3.35, height=72.73 ± 14.51 cm, and weight=175.29 ± 9.59 kg) were recruited for this study. All participants performed superimposed burst testing with (CS) and without (PP) verbal instruction to encourage isolated quadriceps activation during maximal isometric knee extension. The main outcome variables measured were knee extension torque, quadriceps central activation ratio and mean EMG of vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and lumbar paraspinal muscles. There were significant differences in knee extension torque (CS=2.87 ± 0.93 Nm/kg, PP=3.40 ± 1.12 Nm/kg, p<0.001), superimposed burst torque (CS=3.40 ±0.98 Nm/kg, PP=3.75 ± 1.11 Nm/kg, p=0.002) and quadriceps CAR (CS=84.1 ± 12.0%, PP=90.2 ± 9.9%, p<0.001) between the techniques. There was also a significant difference in lumbar paraspinal EMG (CS=6.40 ± 8.52%, PP=11.86 ± 14.89%, p=0.043) between the techniques however vastus lateralis EMG was not significantly different. Patient instruction via verbal instruction to constrain proximal structures may help patient minimize confounders to knee extension torque generation while maximizing quadriceps activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infrared Contrast Analysis Technique for Flash Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the infrared flash thermography inspection to detect and analyze delamination-like anomalies in nonmetallic materials. It provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast verses time evolutions from the flash thermography infrared video data. The paper provides the analytical model used in the simulation of infrared image contrast. The contrast evolution simulation is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat bottom holes in the subject material. The paper also provides formulas to calculate values of the thermal measurement features from the measured contrast evolution curve. Many thermal measurement features of the contrast evolution that relate to the anomaly characteristics are calculated. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography inspection data in order to characterize the delamination-like anomalies. In addition, the contrast evolution prediction is matched to the measured anomaly contrast evolution to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width in terms of depth and diameter of the corresponding equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) or equivalent uniform gap (EUG). The paper provides anomaly edge detection technique called the half-max technique which is also used to estimate width of an indication. The EFBH/EUG and half-max width estimations are used to assess anomaly size. The paper also provides some information on the "IR Contrast" software application, half-max technique and IR Contrast feature imaging application, which are based on models provided in this paper.

  19. Development and evaluation of a technique for in vivo monitoring of 60Co in human lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, J. Q.; Lucena, E. A.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    60Co is a fission product of 235U and represents a risk of internal exposure of workers in nuclear power plants, especially those involved in the maintenance of potentially contaminated parts and equipment. The control of 60Co intake by inhalation can be performed through in vivo monitoring. This work describes the evaluation of a technique through the minimum detectable activity and the corresponding minimum detectable effective doses, based on biokinetic and dosimetric models of 60Co in the human body. The results allow to state that the technique is suitable either for monitoring of occupational exposures or evaluation of accidental intake.

  20. Evaluating polymeric biomaterial–environment interfaces by Langmuir monolayer techniques

    PubMed Central

    Schöne, Anne-Christin; Roch, Toralf; Schulz, Burkhard

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric biomaterials are of specific relevance in medical and pharmaceutical applications due to their wide range of tailorable properties and functionalities. The knowledge about interactions of biomaterials with their biological environment is of crucial importance for developing highly sophisticated medical devices. To achieve optimal in vivo performance, a description at the molecular level is required to gain better understanding about the surface of synthetic materials for tailoring their properties. This is still challenging and requires the comprehensive characterization of morphological structures, polymer chain arrangements and degradation behaviour. The review discusses selected aspects for evaluating polymeric biomaterial–environment interfaces by Langmuir monolayer methods as powerful techniques for studying interfacial properties, such as morphological and degradation processes. The combination of spectroscopic, microscopic and scattering methods with the Langmuir techniques adapted to polymers can substantially improve the understanding of their in vivo behaviour. PMID:28468918

  1. Satellite communication performance evaluation: Computational techniques based on moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1980-09-01

    Computational techniques that efficiently compute bit error probabilities when only moments of the various interference random variables are available are presented. The approach taken is a generalization of the well known Gauss-Quadrature rules used for numerically evaluating single or multiple integrals. In what follows, basic algorithms are developed. Some of its properties and generalizations are shown and its many potential applications are described. Some typical interference scenarios for which the results are particularly applicable include: intentional jamming, adjacent and cochannel interferences; radar pulses (RFI); multipath; and intersymbol interference. While the examples presented stress evaluation of bit error probilities in uncoded digital communication systems, the moment techniques can also be applied to the evaluation of other parameters, such as computational cutoff rate under both normal and mismatched receiver cases in coded systems. Another important application is the determination of the probability distributions of the output of a discrete time dynamical system. This type of model occurs widely in control systems, queueing systems, and synchronization systems (e.g., discrete phase locked loops).

  2. Satellite communication performance evaluation: Computational techniques based on moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    Computational techniques that efficiently compute bit error probabilities when only moments of the various interference random variables are available are presented. The approach taken is a generalization of the well known Gauss-Quadrature rules used for numerically evaluating single or multiple integrals. In what follows, basic algorithms are developed. Some of its properties and generalizations are shown and its many potential applications are described. Some typical interference scenarios for which the results are particularly applicable include: intentional jamming, adjacent and cochannel interferences; radar pulses (RFI); multipath; and intersymbol interference. While the examples presented stress evaluation of bit error probilities in uncoded digital communication systems, the moment techniques can also be applied to the evaluation of other parameters, such as computational cutoff rate under both normal and mismatched receiver cases in coded systems. Another important application is the determination of the probability distributions of the output of a discrete time dynamical system. This type of model occurs widely in control systems, queueing systems, and synchronization systems (e.g., discrete phase locked loops).

  3. Risk assessment for transboundary rivers using fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Subash P.; Sharma, Nayan; Lohani, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Large scale urbanization has resulted in greater withdrawals of shared waters and this withdrawal has been largely dependent on the hegemony of the riparian's. The last few decades has seen the upward surge of many countries in terms of development as well as hegemony. Existing structures of established water sharing framework typically evaluate only parameters related to historic water use such as historic water demand and supply, contribution to flow, and hydrology. Water conflicts and cooperation is affected by various issues related with development and hegemony. Characterization and quantification of development and hegemony parameters is a very complex process. This paper establishes a novel approach to predict river basins at risk; the approach addresses the issue of water conflict and cooperation within a methodologically more rigorous predictive framework. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique is used in this paper to undertake the risk assessment of international transboundary rivers. In this paper the fuzzy domain of risk consists of two fuzzy sets - hegemony and development, indices of which are developed with the help of fuzzy synthetic evaluation techniques. Then the compositional rule-base is framed to ascertain the fuzzy risk. This fuzzy risk can be further used to prioritize all the international river basins which can help in the identification of potentially high risk basins. Risk identification of international river basins is not only scientifically valuable, but also practically highly useful. Identifying those basins that are likely to be particularly prone to conflict or cooperation is of high interest to policy makers.

  4. The conservative treatment of Trigger Thumb using Graston Techniques and Active Release Techniques®

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Scott; Wong, Jerome; Zabukovec, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detail the progress of a patient with unresolved symptoms of Trigger thumb who underwent a treatment plan featuring Active Release Technique (ART) and Graston Technique. Clinical Features The most important feature is painful snapping or restriction of movement, most notably in actively extending or flexing the digit. The cause of this flexor tendinopathy is believed to be multi-factorial including anatomical variations of the pulley system and biomechanical etiologies such as exposure to shear forces and unaccustomed activity. Conventional treatment aims at decreasing inflammation through corticosteroid injection or surgically removing imposing tissue. Intervention and Outcome The conservative treatment approach utilized in this case involved Active Release Technique (ART®) and Graston Technique (GT). An activity specific rehabilitation protocol was employed to re-establish thumb extensor strength and ice was used to control pain and any residual inflammation. Outcome measures included subjective pain ratings with range of motion and motion palpation of the first right phalangeal joint. Objective measures were made by assessing range of motion. Conclusion A patient with trigger thumb appeared to be relieved of his pain and disability after a treatment plan of GT and ART. PMID:17549185

  5. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

    2004-09-10

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

  6. Development of evaluation techniques for electrochemical energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, L. H.; Nazimek, K.

    1980-03-01

    The development of standardized techniques for the comparative evaluation of electric vehicle battery technologies is summarized. The methodology considers both the traditional measures of battery performance (energy density, energy storage costs, and cycle life) and the equally important usage related battery characteristics (probability of technical success, operating and maintenance parameters, and safety/environmental impact). This comparative rationale is supplemented by the ability to generate battery test programs normalized to specific technologies and electric vehicle mission specifications. These test programs allow the evaluation of different battery technologies at comparable levels of electric vehicle performance. It was found that cost optimized electric passenger vehicles will have range specifications of 100 to 110 KM, depending on the specific performance of the battery. Longer range vehicles are penalized by higher first costs while shorter range vehicles suffer from reduced battery life and the need for more frequent alternative car rentals (presumably petroleum fueled) for trips which exceed the EV's range capability.

  7. Techniques to evaluate the quality of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Diaz, Marlen

    2014-11-01

    There is not a perfect agree in the definition of medical image quality from the physician and physicist point of view. The present conference analyzes the standard techniques used to grade image quality. In the first place, an analysis about how viewing conditions related to environment, monitor used or physician experience determines the subjective evaluation is done. After that, the physics point of view is analyzed including the advantage and disadvantage of the main published methods like: Quality Control Tests, Mathematical metrics, Modulation Transfer Function, Noise Power Spectrum, System Response Curve and Mathematical observers. Each method is exemplified with the results of updated papers. We concluded that the most successful methods up to the present have been those which include simulations of the Human Visual System. They have good correlation between the results of the objective metrics and the subjective evaluation made by the observers.

  8. Meat quality evaluation by hyperspectral imaging technique: an overview.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, Gamal; Barbin, Douglas F; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, a number of methods have been developed to objectively measure meat quality attributes. Hyperspectral imaging technique as one of these methods has been regarded as a smart and promising analytical tool for analyses conducted in research and industries. Recently there has been a renewed interest in using hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of different food products. The main inducement for developing the hyperspectral imaging system is to integrate both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system to make direct identification of different components and their spatial distribution in the tested product. By combining spatial and spectral details together, hyperspectral imaging has proved to be a promising technology for objective meat quality evaluation. The literature presented in this paper clearly reveals that hyperspectral imaging approaches have a huge potential for gaining rapid information about the chemical structure and related physical properties of all types of meat. In addition to its ability for effectively quantifying and characterizing quality attributes of some important visual features of meat such as color, quality grade, marbling, maturity, and texture, it is able to measure multiple chemical constituents simultaneously without monotonous sample preparation. Although this technology has not yet been sufficiently exploited in meat process and quality assessment, its potential is promising. Developing a quality evaluation system based on hyperspectral imaging technology to assess the meat quality parameters and to ensure its authentication would bring economical benefits to the meat industry by increasing consumer confidence in the quality of the meat products. This paper provides a detailed overview of the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts exerted in hyperspectral imaging technology developed for evaluating the quality of different meat products and the possibility of its widespread

  9. Comparison and evaluation of retrospective intermodality image registration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Jay B.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Wang, Matthew Y.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.; Kessler, Robert M.; Maciunas, Robert J.; Barillot, Christian; Lemoine, Didier; Collignon, Andre M. F.; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; van den Elsen, Petra A.; Hemler, Paul F.; Napel, Sandy; Sumanaweera, Thilaka S.; Harkness, Beth A.; Hill, Derek L.; Studholme, Colin; Malandain, Gregoire; Pennec, Xavier; Noz, Marilyn E.; Maguire, Gerald Q., Jr.; Pollack, Michael; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Robb, Richard A.; Hanson, Dennis P.; Woods, Roger P.

    1996-04-01

    All retrospective image registration methods have attached to them some intrinsic estimate of registration error. However, this estimate of accuracy may not always be a good indicator of the distance between actual and estimated positions of targets within the cranial cavity. This paper describes a project whose principal goal is to use a prospective method based on fiducial markers as a 'gold standard' to perform an objective, blinded evaluation of the accuracy of several retrospective image-to-image registration techniques. Image volumes of three modalities -- CT, MR, and PET -- were taken of patients undergoing neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. These volumes had all traces of the fiducial markers removed, and were provided to project collaborators outside Vanderbilt, who then performed retrospective registrations on the volumes, calculating transformations from CT to MR and/or from PET to MR, and communicated their transformations to Vanderbilt where the accuracy of each registration was evaluated. In this evaluation the accuracy is measured at multiple 'regions of interest,' i.e. areas in the brain which would commonly be areas of neurological interest. A region is defined in the MR image and its centroid C is determined. Then the prospective registration is used to obtain the corresponding point C' in CT or PET. To this point the retrospective registration is then applied, producing C' in MR. Statistics are gathered on the target registration error (TRE), which is the disparity between the original point C and its corresponding point C'. A second goal of the project is to evaluate the importance of correcting geometrical distortion in MR images, by comparing the retrospective TRE in the rectified images, i.e., those which have had the distortion correction applied, with that of the same images before rectification. This paper presents preliminary results of this study along with a brief description of each registration technique and an

  10. Evaluation of amorphous solid dispersion properties using thermal analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Baird, Jared A; Taylor, Lynne S

    2012-04-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions are an increasingly important formulation approach to improve the dissolution rate and apparent solubility of poorly water soluble compounds. Due to their complex physicochemical properties, there is a need for multi-faceted analytical methods to enable comprehensive characterization, and thermal techniques are widely employed for this purpose. Key parameters of interest that can influence product performance include the glass transition temperature (T(g)), molecular mobility of the drug, miscibility between the drug and excipients, and the rate and extent of drug crystallization. It is important to evaluate the type of information pertaining to the aforementioned properties that can be extracted from thermal analytical measurements, in addition to considering any inherent assumptions or limitations of the various analytical approaches. Although differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most widely used thermal analytical technique applied to the characterization of amorphous solid dispersions, there are many established and emerging techniques which have been shown to provide useful information. Comprehensive characterization of fundamental material descriptors will ultimately lead to the formulation of more robust solid dispersion products. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Analysis Techniques for Fluted-Core Sandwich Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    Buckling-critical launch-vehicle structures require structural concepts that have high bending stiffness and low mass. Fluted-core, also known as truss-core, sandwich construction is one such concept. In an effort to identify an analysis method appropriate for the preliminary design of fluted-core cylinders, the current paper presents and compares results from several analysis techniques applied to a specific composite fluted-core test article. The analysis techniques are evaluated in terms of their ease of use and for their appropriateness at certain stages throughout a design analysis cycle (DAC). Current analysis techniques that provide accurate determination of the global buckling load are not readily applicable early in the DAC, such as during preliminary design, because they are too costly to run. An analytical approach that neglects transverse-shear deformation is easily applied during preliminary design, but the lack of transverse-shear deformation results in global buckling load predictions that are significantly higher than those from more detailed analysis methods. The current state of the art is either too complex to be applied for preliminary design, or is incapable of the accuracy required to determine global buckling loads for fluted-core cylinders. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for calculating global buckling loads of fluted-core cylinders that includes transverse-shear deformations, and that can be easily incorporated in preliminary design.

  12. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof.

    PubMed

    Kummer, M; Lischer, C; Ohlerth, S; Vargas, J; Auer, J

    2004-11-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PX, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually.

  13. Evaluation of flow capture techniques for measuring HVAC grilleairflows

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Wray, Craig P.

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the accuracy of commercially available flow hoods for residential applications. Results of laboratory and field tests indicate these hoods can be inadequate to measure airflows in residential systems, and there can be large measurement discrepancies between different flow hoods. The errors are due to poor calibrations, sensitivity of the hoods to grille airflow non-uniformities, and flow changes from added flow resistance. It is possible to obtain reasonable results using some flow hoods if the field tests are carefully done, the grilles are appropriate, and grille location does not restrict flow hood placement. We also evaluated several simple flow capture techniques for measuring grille airflows that could be adopted by the HVAC industry and homeowners as simple diagnostics. These simple techniques can be as accurate as commercially available devices. Our test results also show that current calibration procedures for flow hoods do not account for field application problems. As a result, agencies such as ASHRAE or ASTM need to develop a new standard for flow hood calibration, along with a new measurement standard to address field use of flow capture techniques.

  14. Sensory evaluation techniques - make "good for you" taste "good".

    PubMed

    Civille, Gail Vance; Oftedal, Katherine Nolen

    2012-11-05

    Sensory evaluation techniques are frequently used, however applied sensory is most often used within private industry. Basic sensory techniques can be an invaluable aid to research on nutritional or functional benefits of natural products such as whole fruits, nuts and vegetables (through varietal selection, breeding, etc.) in addition to clinical trials of botanicals. Products' sensory properties, including fruits and vegetables, must be tailored to ultimately appeal to the "consumer": no matter how healthy and nutritious a food is, if it does not appeal to its intended end user, it is unlikely to succeed in today's marketplace. This paper outlines the "5 S's" or basic principles of applied sensory testing; Subjects, Site, Samples, Statistics, and Sensory Methods. Two case studies are detailed where applied sensory is used to benefic academic research; one as a clinical trial of broccoli sprout extract, and the second as plant breeding research on strawberries. Finally, more in-depth techniques are discussed so that one can ensure that product sensory properties are aligned with consumer expectations, in other words, that sensory congruence is achieved.

  15. Validation of a musculoskeletal model of lifting and its application for biomechanical evaluation of lifting techniques.

    PubMed

    Mirakhorlo, Mojtaba; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Kahrizi, Sedighe

    2014-01-01

    Lifting methods, including standing stance and techniques have wide effects on spine loading and stability. Previous studies explored lifting techniques in many biomechanical terms and documented changes in muscular and postural response of body as a function of techniques .However, the impact of standing stance and lifting technique on human musculoskeletal had not been investigated concurrently. A whole body musculoskeletal model of lifting had been built in order to evaluate standing stance impact on muscle activation patterns and spine loading during each distinctive lifting technique. Verified model had been used in different stances width during squat, stoop and semi-squat lifting for examining the effect of standing stance on each lifting technique. The model muscle's activity was validated by experimental muscle EMGs resulting in Pearson's coefficients of greater than 0.8. Results from analytical analyses show that the effect of stance width on biomechanical parameters consists in the lifting technique, depending on what kind of standing stance was used. Standing stance in each distinctive lifting technique exhibit positive and negative aspects and it can't be recommended either one as being better in terms of biomechanical parameters.

  16. Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R&D Roadmap for Concrete, "Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap", focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

  17. Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus

    2014-02-18

    The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R and D Roadmap for Concrete, 'Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap', focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

  18. Moisture Management in an Active Sportswear: Techniques and Evaluation—A Review Article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Mani; Sampath, M. B.; Ramachandran, T.

    2013-07-01

    Moisture management property is an important aspect of any fabric meant for active sportswear, which decides the comfort level of that fabric. Every human being sweats during different kinds of activities. An important feature of any fabric is how it transports this water out of the body, so as to make the wearer feel comfortable. This paper reports the concept of moisture management, various production techniques and evaluation of the moisture management characteristics on fabrics for active sportswear.

  19. Robust control design techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozbay, Hitay; Bachmann, Glen R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, an active flutter suppression problem is studied for a thin airfoil in unsteady aerodynamics. The mathematical model of this system is infinite dimensional because of Theodorsen's function which is irrational. Several second order approximations of Theodorsen's function are compared. A finite dimensional model is obtained from such an approximation. We use H infinity control techniques to find a robustly stabilizing controller for active flutter suppression.

  20. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, G.; Wassenhove, G. Van; Mlynar, J.; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Lutter, G.; Vermaercke, P.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.

    2012-10-15

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R and D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -{approx}6 times more - compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  1. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique.

    PubMed

    Bonheure, G; Mlynar, J; Van Wassenhove, G; Hult, M; González de Orduña, R; Lutter, G; Vermaercke, P; Huber, A; Schweer, B; Esser, G; Biel, W

    2012-10-01

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R&D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -~6 times more--compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  2. Bonding techniques for hybrid active pixel sensors (HAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigas, M.; Cabruja, E.; Lozano, M.

    2007-05-01

    A hybrid active pixel sensor (HAPS) consists of an array of sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. The most used way to connect these two different devices is bump bonding. This interconnection technique is very suitable for these systems because it allows a very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. However, there are other interconnection techniques available such as direct bonding. This paper, as a continuation of a review [M. Lozano, E. Cabruja, A. Collado, J. Santander, M. Ullan, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (1-2) (2001) 95-101] published in 2001, presents an update of the different advanced bonding techniques available for manufacturing a hybrid active pixel detector.

  3. Innovative Perceptual Motor Activities: Programing Techniques That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrell, Howard M.

    1978-01-01

    A circuit approach and station techniques are used to depict perceptual motor games for handicapped and nonhandicapped children. Twenty activities are described in terms of objectives, materials, and procedures, and their focus on visual tracking, visual discrimination and copying of forms, spatial body perception, fine motor coordination, tactile…

  4. Evaluating Credit Applications: A Validation of Multiattribute Utility Techniques Against a Real World Criterion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    science research institute RESEARCH REPORT EVALUATING CREDIT APPLICATIONS: A Z’ VALIDATION OF MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY TECHNIQUES AGAINST A REAL WORLD...8217_, ", ’- .’.- .. .- ... . .. ,-*,. . .. EVALUATING CREDIT APPLICATIONS: A VALIDATION OF MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY TECHNIQUES AGAINST A REAL WORLD CRITERION...validation of multiattribute utility elicitation techniques. The techniques tested were the Holistic Orthogonal Parameter Estimation (HOPE) technique

  5. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) design techniques and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jamil Yusuf; Yuce, Mehmet R; Bulger, Garrick; Harding, Benjamin

    2012-06-01

    In recent years interest in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) for patient monitoring applications has grown significantly. A WBAN can be used to develop patient monitoring systems which offer flexibility to medical staff and mobility to patients. Patients monitoring could involve a range of activities including data collection from various body sensors for storage and diagnosis, transmitting data to remote medical databases, and controlling medical appliances, etc. Also, WBANs could operate in an interconnected mode to enable remote patient monitoring using telehealth/e-health applications. A WBAN can also be used to monitor athletes' performance and assist them in training activities. For such applications it is very important that a WBAN collects and transmits data reliably, and in a timely manner to a monitoring entity. In order to address these issues, this paper presents WBAN design techniques for medical applications. We examine the WBAN design issues with particular emphasis on the design of MAC protocols and power consumption profiles of WBAN. Some simulation results are presented to further illustrate the performances of various WBAN design techniques.

  6. A three-dimensional muscle activity imaging technique for assessing pelvic muscle function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Dan; Timm, Gerald W.

    2010-11-01

    A novel multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG)-based three-dimensional muscle activity imaging (MAI) technique has been developed by combining the bioelectrical source reconstruction approach and subject-specific finite element modeling approach. Internal muscle activities are modeled by a current density distribution and estimated from the intra-vaginal surface EMG signals with the aid of a weighted minimum norm estimation algorithm. The MAI technique was employed to minimally invasively reconstruct electrical activity in the pelvic floor muscles and urethral sphincter from multi-channel intra-vaginal surface EMG recordings. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the present MAI technique. With appropriate numerical modeling and inverse estimation techniques, we have demonstrated the capability of the MAI technique to accurately reconstruct internal muscle activities from surface EMG recordings. This MAI technique combined with traditional EMG signal analysis techniques is being used to study etiologic factors associated with stress urinary incontinence in women by correlating functional status of muscles characterized from the intra-vaginal surface EMG measurements with the specific pelvic muscle groups that generated these signals. The developed MAI technique described herein holds promise for eliminating the need to place needle electrodes into muscles to obtain accurate EMG recordings in some clinical applications.

  7. Assessing voluntary muscle activation with the twitch interpolation technique.

    PubMed

    Shield, Anthony; Zhou, Shi

    2004-01-01

    The twitch interpolation technique is commonly employed to assess the completeness of skeletal muscle activation during voluntary contractions. Early applications of twitch interpolation suggested that healthy human subjects could fully activate most of the skeletal muscles to which the technique had been applied. More recently, however, highly sensitive twitch interpolation has revealed that even healthy adults routinely fail to fully activate a number of skeletal muscles despite apparently maximal effort. Unfortunately, some disagreement exists as to how the results of twitch interpolation should be employed to quantify voluntary activation. The negative linear relationship between evoked twitch force and voluntary force that has been observed by some researchers implies that voluntary activation can be quantified by scaling a single interpolated twitch to a control twitch evoked in relaxed muscle. Observations of non-linear evoked-voluntary force relationships have lead to the suggestion that the single interpolated twitch ratio can not accurately estimate voluntary activation. Instead, it has been proposed that muscle activation is better determined by extrapolating the relationship between evoked and voluntary force to provide an estimate of true maximum force. However, criticism of the single interpolated twitch ratio typically fails to take into account the reasons for the non-linearity of the evoked-voluntary force relationship. When these reasons are examined, it appears that most are even more challenging to the validity of extrapolation than they are to the linear equation. Furthermore, several factors that contribute to the observed non-linearity can be minimised or even eliminated with appropriate experimental technique. The detection of small activation deficits requires high resolution measurement of force and careful consideration of numerous experimental details such as the site of stimulation, stimulation intensity and the number of interpolated

  8. Performance evaluation of different depth from defocus (DFD) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Tao; Subbarao, Murali

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, several binary mask based Depth From Defocus (DFD) algorithms are proposed to improve autofocusing performance and robustness. A binary mask is defined by thresholding image Laplacian to remove unreliable points with low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Three different DFD schemes-- with/without spatial integration and with/without squaring-- are investigated and evaluated, both through simulation and actual experiments. The actual experiments use a large variety of objects including very low contrast Ogata test charts. Experimental results show that autofocusing RMS step error is less than 2.6 lens steps, which corresponds to 1.73%. Although our discussion in this paper is mainly focused on a spatial domain method STM1, this technique should be of general value for different approaches such as STM2 and other spatial domain based algorithms.

  9. Evaluation of master cast techniques for multiple abutment implant prostheses.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, P; Millstein, P L

    1993-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of three techniques used to fabricate master casts for implant prostheses. A metal model with six implants and standard abutments and a matching template were fabricated. Impressions of the model were made in Impregum and cast in Die Keen. The casts were divided into three groups of 15 casts: group A--solid casts; group B--Pindex; and group C--Zeiser system. Each cast was visually evaluated for fit of the template. Positional accuracy of the abutments was numerically assessed using an optical comparator. Visual analysis showed that only casts sectioned with the Zeiser system allowed a passive fit of the template. Statistical analysis of numerical findings indicated that casts made with the Zeiser system were significantly more accurate than solid casts, which in turn were more accurate than those made with the Pindex system.

  10. Evaluation of turbulence measurement techniques from a single Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Timothy A.; Choukulkar, Aditya; Brewer, W. Alan; Sandberg, Scott P.; Weickmann, Ann M.; Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Oncley, Steven P.; Wolfe, Daniel E.

    2017-08-01

    Measurements of turbulence are essential to understand and quantify the transport and dispersal of heat, moisture, momentum, and trace gases within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Through the years, various techniques to measure turbulence using Doppler lidar observations have been proposed. However, the accuracy of these measurements has rarely been validated against trusted in situ instrumentation. Herein, data from the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) are used to verify Doppler lidar turbulence profiles through comparison with sonic anemometer measurements. For 17 days at the end of the experiment, a single scanning Doppler lidar continuously cycled through different turbulence measurement strategies: velocity-azimuth display (VAD), six-beam scans, and range-height indicators (RHIs) with a vertical stare.Measurements of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), turbulence intensity, and stress velocity from these techniques are compared with sonic anemometer measurements at six heights on a 300 m tower. The six-beam technique is found to generally measure turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity the most accurately at all heights (r2 ≈ 0.78), showing little bias in its observations (slope of ≈ 0. 95). Turbulence measurements from the velocity-azimuth display method tended to be biased low near the surface, as large eddies were not captured by the scan. None of the methods evaluated were able to consistently accurately measure the shear velocity (r2 = 0.15-0.17). Each of the scanning strategies assessed had its own strengths and limitations that need to be considered when selecting the method used in future experiments.

  11. Histological evaluation of three techniques for caries removal.

    PubMed

    Medioni, Etienne; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    A number of concepts and devices have been proposed for caries removal. Among these, the Er:YAG laser is a potential alternative to conventional mechanical treatment. This study compared the effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser with that of low-speed rotary instruments for removal of carious tissue in 26 extracted human molars and premolars with severe decay (i.e., large occlusal or proximal decay but no pulpal contact). The teeth were divided into three groups of eight teeth, and two teeth were used as controls. After sectioning all the teeth through the center of the carious lesion before excavation, each group was randomly assigned to three groups-Er:YAG laser versus tungsten bur, Er:YAG laser versus polymer bur, and polymer bur versus tungsten bur-to evaluate the efficacy of the three techniques. The time required for carious treatment of each half was recorded, and samples were then histologically examined. Mean duration of caries removal did not significantly differ in relation to the technique used. Histological analysis of tooth halves treated with the Er:YAG laser revealed a regular 5-µm-thick stained layer that appeared to be denatured collagen. A smear layer was often detectable in halves treated with carbide burs. A superficial disorganized layer, which was found to be affected dentin, was observed in halves treated with polymer burs. The present findings indicate that the three techniques were clinically and histologically effective in removing the infected dentin layer.(J Oral Sci 58, 583-589, 2016).

  12. Applied geophysical techniques to evaluate earth dams and foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llopis, Jose L.; Sharp, Michael K.; Butler, Dwain K.; Yule, Donald E.

    1995-05-01

    Mill Creek Dam, near Walla Walla, Washington has experienced anomalous seepage since its first filling in 1941. Various attempts to abate and control the seepage, including construction of a concrete wall, have not been completely successful. Construction of the cutoff wall reduced the seepage by about 30 percent, from 33 cubic feet per second to 22 cubic feet per second, and downstream saturated farmland was reduced by 56 percent. However, there are indications of increased seepage pressures in a conglomerate formation in the right abutment. A comprehensive, integrated geophysics investigation of the right abutment area of the dam was conducted to detect and map anomalous conditions and assist in the evaluation of remedial measures. The geophysics program consisted of microgravity, ground penetrating radar, seismic reflection, electromagnetic conductivity, and electrical resistivity surveying. Results of the program indicate anomalous conditions extending from the reservoir area through the right abutment. The aspects of the program planning leading to technique selection and field procedures are emphasized, as well as the role of different geophysical techniques in defining the nature of anomalous condition.

  13. Low-frequency electromagnetic technique for nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalichaouch, Yacine; Singsaas, Alan L.; Putris, Firas; Perry, Alexander R.; Czipott, Peter V.

    2000-05-01

    We have developed a low frequency electromagnetic technique using sensitive room temperature magnetoresistive (MR) sensors for a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. These applications include the NDE of medical implants and aircraft structures, the detection of cracks and corrosion in metals, the detection of ferromagnetic foreign objects in the eye and the brain, and the noninvasive determination of iron content in the liver. Our technique consists of applying a low frequency ac magnetic field to the sample and detecting the sample response. The low excitation frequency enables us to probe deep into metal structures; the sensitivity of the MR sensor allows us to detect weak responses from the sample without applying too large an excitation field, particularly in the case of human tissue. The MR sensors are small and relatively inexpensive compared to other sensitive magnetic field sensors such as fluxgates and superconducting quantum interference devices or SQUIDs; hence the resulting NDE instrument will be compact and cost-efficient, enabling its commercialization for practical applications. In this paper, we focus primarily on NDE of orthopedic implants.

  14. An acoustic method of automatically evaluating patient inhaler technique.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Martin S; D'Arcy, Shona; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect millions of people worldwide. Inhalers are devices utilized to deliver medication in small doses directly to the airways in the treatment of asthma and COPD. Despite the proven effectiveness of inhaler medication in controlling symptoms, many patients suffer from technique errors leading to decreased levels of medication efficacy. This study employs a recording device attached to a commonly used dry powder inhaler (DPI) to obtain the acoustic signals of patients taking their inhaler medication. The audio files provide information on how a patient uses their inhaler over a period of one month. Manually listening to such a large quantity of audio files would be a time consuming and monotonous process and therefore an algorithm that could automatically carry out this task would be of great benefit. An algorithm was thus designed and developed to detect inhalation, exhalation and blister events in the audio signals, analyze the quantity of each event, the order in which the events took place and finally provide a score on the overall performance. The algorithm was tested on a dataset of 185 audio files obtained from five community dwelling asthmatic patients in real world environments. Evaluation of the algorithm on this dataset revealed that it had an accuracy of 92.8% in deciding the correct technique score compared to manual detection methods.

  15. Culturally Specific Evaluation of Inhaler Techniques in Asthma.

    PubMed

    Poureslami, Iraj; Shum, Jessica; Nimmon, Laura; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2016-12-01

    Little work has been done on identifying the impact of educational materials developed by immigrant patients themselves, along with their caregivers and health professionals in terms of inhaler use technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate understanding of physicians' instructions on asthma management and inhaler techniques in Punjabi and Chinese subjects using educational interventions in their native languages. Eighty-seven subjects with asthma were randomly assigned to either one of 3 experimental groups (physician-led video, subject-generated community video, or both) or a control group (educational pamphlet). Medication knowledge and inhaler skills were measured during 3 in-person interviews. Subjects in all 3 experimental groups, when compared with control subjects, demonstrated improvements in the follow-up test in terms of ability to use inhalers correctly (P < .001) and understanding of physicians' instructions (P = .008). Chinese participants showed significantly greater improvements compared with Punjabi participants for the correct use of inhalers (P < .047), and females showed greater improvements compared with male subjects (P = .04). The educational interventions developed were successful in behavioral modification and beneficial beyond usual care in terms of improving proper use of inhalers and understanding of physicians' instructions. The findings can be translated to health education practice, promoting the development of short, simple, and culturally linguistically appropriate learning materials for patients. Such interventions that draw on patients' life experiences and socio-cultural context can overcome certain limitations of conventional patient education approaches. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01474928.). Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Evaluation of acoustic testing techniques for spacecraft systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockburn, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    External acoustic environments, structural responses, noise reductions, and the internal acoustic environments have been predicted for a typical shroud/spacecraft system during lift-off and various critical stages of flight. Spacecraft responses caused by energy transmission from the shroud via mechanical and acoustic paths have been compared and the importance of the mechanical path has been evaluated. Theoretical predictions have been compared extensively with available laboratory and in-flight measurements. Equivalent laboratory acoustic fields for simulation of shroud response during the various phases of flight have been derived and compared in detail. Techniques for varying the time-space correlations of laboratory acoustic fields have been examined, together with methods for varying the time and spatial distribution of acoustic amplitudes. Possible acoustic testing configurations for shroud/spacecraft systems have been suggested and trade-off considerations have been reviewed. The problem of simulating the acoustic environments versus simulating the structural responses has been considered and techniques for testing without the shroud installed have been discussed.

  17. Evaluating eye drop instillation technique in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Patil, Bharat; Shah, Bhavin M; Bali, Shveta Jindal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Dada, Tanuj

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the technique of eye drop instillation in glaucoma patients. Seventy patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or primary angle-closure glaucoma, self-administering topical antiglaucoma medications for at least 6 months were evaluated. All patients instilled a tear substitute in 1 eye using the same technique they used for instilling antiglaucoma medications at home. The parameters that were recorded included time taken to instill the first drop, number of eye drops instilled, drop contact location, any contact with the tip of the bottle, and closure of the eyelids or tear duct after drop instillation. The mean age of the patients was 54.1±10.0 years. The mean time taken to instill the first drop was 14.8±3.7 seconds (range, 8.7 to 23.5 s). The mean number of drops squeezed from the bottle per instillation was 1.8±1.2 drops (range, 1 to 8 drops). In 22 patients (31.43%), the eye drops fell on the eyelids or cheek. Fifty-three patients (75.7%) touched the tip of the bottle to the globe or periocular tissue. Twenty patients (28.57%) closed eyes after instilling drops and 4 patients (5.7%) occluded the punctum. Only 6 patients (8.57%) were able to correctly instill the eye drops (squeeze out 1 drop and instill it into the conjunctival sac without bottle tip contact). Nearly, 9 of 10 glaucoma patients were unable to instill eye drops correctly. This may be an important cause of unintentional noncompliance in glaucoma medical therapy.

  18. Corrosion Evaluation of Carbon Steels Using Nondestructive Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Sang Pill; Lee, Moon Hee; Lee, Joon Hyun; Park, Jun Young

    Primary water stress corrosion crack (PWSCC) in the piping used at the nuclear power plant has been one of the major issues for the safety of plant. The major objective in this paper is to clarify the corrosion degree and damage by the PWSCC using nondestructive technique. The instrument of the tube typed reactor with the internal conditions of the temperature of 473K under pressure of 10 MPa was designed for corrosion of the material. The tensile specimens of the same material with the reactor were corroded in the reactor for evaluation of mechanical properties according to the corrosion. The corrosion of the specimen was maintained over one year, and an acoustic emission technique was applied to inspect the corrosion damage of the specimen periodically. A tensile test was performed for the corroded specimen, and then the elastic waves caused the deformation of the corroded specimen were analyzed. With the increase of the corrosion time the elastic waves generated in the specimen due to the tensile load showed a little difference, and these differences of the waves work as a cause of the change of acoustic emission (AE) parameters. The number of AE events at the beginning of the load increased with the corrosion time. AE parameters of amplitude and energy decreased as the corrosion times increased, while the level of duration time and count were increased with the corrosion periods. The velocity and attenuation of the elastic wave were also analyzed for the specimen, and these factors showed a close relation with the corrosion times. In addition, SEM and XRD analysis were performed to evaluate the damage behavior of the carbon steel due to corrosion.

  19. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W S

    1982-01-01

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of ..gamma.. rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed.

  20. Construction accident narrative classification: An evaluation of text mining techniques.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yang Miang; Ubeynarayana, C U

    2017-11-01

    Learning from past accidents is fundamental to accident prevention. Thus, accident and near miss reporting are encouraged by organizations and regulators. However, for organizations managing large safety databases, the time taken to accurately classify accident and near miss narratives will be very significant. This study aims to evaluate the utility of various text mining classification techniques in classifying 1000 publicly available construction accident narratives obtained from the US OSHA website. The study evaluated six machine learning algorithms, including support vector machine (SVM), linear regression (LR), random forest (RF), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision tree (DT) and Naive Bayes (NB), and found that SVM produced the best performance in classifying the test set of 251 cases. Further experimentation with tokenization of the processed text and non-linear SVM were also conducted. In addition, a grid search was conducted on the hyperparameters of the SVM models. It was found that the best performing classifiers were linear SVM with unigram tokenization and radial basis function (RBF) SVM with uni-gram tokenization. In view of its relative simplicity, the linear SVM is recommended. Across the 11 labels of accident causes or types, the precision of the linear SVM ranged from 0.5 to 1, recall ranged from 0.36 to 0.9 and F1 score was between 0.45 and 0.92. The reasons for misclassification were discussed and suggestions on ways to improve the performance were provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Evaluation of 2 invasive techniques for treating myofascial pain].

    PubMed

    Corujeira Rivera, M C; Carregal Rañó, A; Diz Gómez, J C; Mayo Moldes, M; Prieto Requeijo, P; Areán González, I

    2010-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of 2 invasive techniques for treating myofascial pain: trigger point acupuncture and 1% lidocaine infiltration of trigger points. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to 2 groups for evaluation at our pain clinic over a period of 7 months. Each patient had 4 treatment sessions. Response was evaluated on a visual analog scale (VAS) and by means of the Lattinen test. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. Eleven underwent acupuncture and 10 received lidocaine infiltrations. When post-treatment pain was assessed, the mean (SD) VAS scores fell from 5.50 (2.08) to 2.45 (2.05) in the acupuncture group and from 4.8 (2.03) to 2.2 (1.91) in the lidocaine group. Lattinen test scores also fell, from 10.63 (2.69) to 8.54 (3.14) in the acupuncture group and from 10.9 (1.59) to 8.60 (2.63) in the lidocaine group. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 treatment groups. Both acupuncture and lidocaine infiltration of trigger points were effective in reducing pain intensity after treatment and in improving quality of life. One method could not be shown to be better than the other for treating myofascial pain.

  2. Application of Active Learning Techniques to an Advanced Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knop, R. A.

    2004-05-01

    The New Faculty Workshop provided a wealth of techniques as well as an overriding philosophy for the teaching of undergraduate Physics and Astronomy courses. The focus of the workshop was active learning, summarized in ``Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching" by Slater & Adams: it's not what you do in class that matters, it's what the students do. Much of the specific focus of the New Faculty Workshop is on teaching the large, introductory Physics classes that many of the faculty present are sure to teach, both algebra-based and calculus-based. Many of these techniques apply directly and with little modification to introductory Astronomy courses. However, little direct attention is given to upper-division undergraduate, or even graduate, courses. In this presentation, I will share my experience in attempting to apply some of the techniques discussed at the New Faculty Workshop to an upper-division course in Galactic Astrophysics at Vanderbilt University during the Spring semester of 2004.

  3. A new polarimetric active radar calibrator and calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaojian

    2015-10-01

    Polarimetric active radar calibrator (PARC) is one of the most important calibrators with high radar cross section (RCS) for polarimetry measurement. In this paper, a new double-antenna polarimetric active radar calibrator (DPARC) is proposed, which consists of two rotatable antennas with wideband electromagnetic polarization filters (EMPF) to achieve lower cross-polarization for transmission and reception. With two antennas which are rotatable around the radar line of sight (LOS), the DPARC provides a variety of standard polarimetric scattering matrices (PSM) through the rotation combination of receiving and transmitting polarization, which are useful for polarimatric calibration in different applications. In addition, a technique based on Fourier analysis is proposed for calibration processing. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed DPARC and processing technique.

  4. Active vibration control techniques for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Jayasuriya, Suhada

    1990-01-01

    Two proposed control system design techniques for active vibration control in flexible space structures are detailed. Control issues relevant only to flexible-body dynamics are addressed, whereas no attempt was made to integrate the flexible and rigid-body spacecraft dynamics. Both of the proposed approaches revealed encouraging results; however, further investigation of the interaction of the flexible and rigid-body dynamics is warranted.

  5. The Human Activity of Evaluation Theorizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Ellett, Frederick, Jr.

    Theorizing about evaluation should be conceptualized as a human activity governed by certain strategies and principles. The theories advanced by various evaluators have changed over the years, thus illustrating ten principles of evaluation. The starting point for theory development or modification is self-reflection and review of one's own…

  6. Factors Associated with Evaluating Public Relations Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    More than 150 public relations practitioners responded to a survey designed to identify and clarify factors associated with evaluative research in public relations. Responses indicated that (1) no more than half the practitioners formally evaluate their public relations activities on a regular basis; (2) the majority of evaluation is done…

  7. Tri-axial accelerometer analysis techniques for evaluating functional use of the extremities

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Morrow, Melissa M.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2013-01-01

    Activity monitors provide an objective mechanism for evaluating patient function. It is unclear what similarities or unique information may be yielded using different analyses. Fifteen patients scheduled to undergo shoulder arthroplasty and fifteen matched control subjects wore tri-axial accelerometer activity monitors bilaterally at the lower (wrist) and upper (biceps) arm for 3 days. Measures of central tendency, variance, sample entropy, and asymmetry were calculated. A novel technique to evaluate time distribution of activity intensity was also performed. Within both groups there was a difference in central tendency and variance when comparing dominant and non-dominant limbs for both the lower (Controls: Mean Activity, P < 0.001; Max Activity, P < 0.001; Patients: Mean Activity, P = 0.044; Max Activity, P = 0.009) and upper (Controls: Mean Activity, P < 0.001; Max Activity, P = 0.046; Patients: Mean Activity, P = 0.002; Max Activity, P = 0.049) arm. Within group differences were also present for lower arm entropy in both groups (Controls, P < 0.001; Patients P = 0.041), and at the upper arm for patients (P = 0.003). There were differences between groups for the asymmetry index for both the lower (P = 0.033) and upper arm (P = 0.005), and maximum activity level of the lower arm (P = 0.05). Between group differences were present for time distribution of activity intensity, as the involved upper arm of patients was inactive for a greater time than controls (P = 0.013). These results highlight unique information provided by multiple analysis methods, and include a novel approach of evaluating the distribution of time spent across variable intensity activities. PMID:23642841

  8. Combination of electrochemical, spectrometric and other analytical techniques for high throughput screening of pharmaceutically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Suzen, Sibel; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-08-01

    Recently, use of electrochemistry and combination of this method with spectroscopic and other analytical techniques are getting one of the important approaches in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, determination of physiological activity, measurement of neurotransmitters. Many fundamental physiological processes are depending on oxido-reduction reactions in the body. Therefore, it may be possible to find connections between electrochemical and biochemical reactions concerning electron transfer pathways. Applications of electrochemical techniques to redox-active drug development and studies are one of the recent interests in drug discovery. In this review, the latest developments related to the use of electrochemical techniques in drug research in order to evaluate possible combination spectrometric methods with electrochemical techniques.

  9. Evaluation of the spline reconstruction technique for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kastis, George A. Kyriakopoulou, Dimitra; Gaitanis, Anastasios; Fernández, Yolanda; Hutton, Brian F.; Fokas, Athanasios S.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The spline reconstruction technique (SRT), based on the analytic formula for the inverse Radon transform, has been presented earlier in the literature. In this study, the authors present an improved formulation and numerical implementation of this algorithm and evaluate it in comparison to filtered backprojection (FBP). Methods: The SRT is based on the numerical evaluation of the Hilbert transform of the sinogram via an approximation in terms of “custom made” cubic splines. By restricting reconstruction only within object pixels and by utilizing certain mathematical symmetries, the authors achieve a reconstruction time comparable to that of FBP. The authors have implemented SRT in STIR and have evaluated this technique using simulated data from a clinical positron emission tomography (PET) system, as well as real data obtained from clinical and preclinical PET scanners. For the simulation studies, the authors have simulated sinograms of a point-source and three digital phantoms. Using these sinograms, the authors have created realizations of Poisson noise at five noise levels. In addition to visual comparisons of the reconstructed images, the authors have determined contrast and bias for different regions of the phantoms as a function of noise level. For the real-data studies, sinograms of an{sup 18}F-FDG injected mouse, a NEMA NU 4-2008 image quality phantom, and a Derenzo phantom have been acquired from a commercial PET system. The authors have determined: (a) coefficient of variations (COV) and contrast from the NEMA phantom, (b) contrast for the various sections of the Derenzo phantom, and (c) line profiles for the Derenzo phantom. Furthermore, the authors have acquired sinograms from a whole-body PET scan of an {sup 18}F-FDG injected cancer patient, using the GE Discovery ST PET/CT system. SRT and FBP reconstructions of the thorax have been visually evaluated. Results: The results indicate an improvement in FWHM and FWTM in both simulated and real

  10. Evaluation of the spline reconstruction technique for PET.

    PubMed

    Kastis, George A; Kyriakopoulou, Dimitra; Gaitanis, Anastasios; Fernández, Yolanda; Hutton, Brian F; Fokas, Athanasios S

    2014-04-01

    The spline reconstruction technique (SRT), based on the analytic formula for the inverse Radon transform, has been presented earlier in the literature. In this study, the authors present an improved formulation and numerical implementation of this algorithm and evaluate it in comparison to filtered backprojection (FBP). The SRT is based on the numerical evaluation of the Hilbert transform of the sinogram via an approximation in terms of "custom made" cubic splines. By restricting reconstruction only within object pixels and by utilizing certain mathematical symmetries, the authors achieve a reconstruction time comparable to that of FBP. The authors have implemented SRT in STIR and have evaluated this technique using simulated data from a clinical positron emission tomography (PET) system, as well as real data obtained from clinical and preclinical PET scanners. For the simulation studies, the authors have simulated sinograms of a point-source and three digital phantoms. Using these sinograms, the authors have created realizations of Poisson noise at five noise levels. In addition to visual comparisons of the reconstructed images, the authors have determined contrast and bias for different regions of the phantoms as a function of noise level. For the real-data studies, sinograms of an(18)F-FDG injected mouse, a NEMA NU 4-2008 image quality phantom, and a Derenzo phantom have been acquired from a commercial PET system. The authors have determined: (a) coefficient of variations (COV) and contrast from the NEMA phantom, (b) contrast for the various sections of the Derenzo phantom, and (c) line profiles for the Derenzo phantom. Furthermore, the authors have acquired sinograms from a whole-body PET scan of an (18)F-FDG injected cancer patient, using the GE Discovery ST PET/CT system. SRT and FBP reconstructions of the thorax have been visually evaluated. The results indicate an improvement in FWHM and FWTM in both simulated and real point-source studies. In all simulated

  11. Identification and evaluation of facilitation techniques for decommissioning light water power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Risley, J.F.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to identify practical techniques to facilitate the decommissioning of nuclear power generating facilities. The objective of these ''facilitation techniques'' is to reduce the radioactive exposures and/or volumes of waste generated during the decommissioning process. The report presents the possible facilitation techniques identified during the study and discusses the corresponding facilitation of the decommissioning process. Techniques are categorized by their applicability of being implemented during the three stages of power reactor life: design/construction, operation, or decommissioning. Detailed cost-benefit analyses were performed for each technique to determine the anticipated exposure and/or radioactive waste reduction; the estimated costs for implementing each technique were then calculated. Finally, these techniques were ranked by their effectiveness in facilitating the decommissioning process. This study is a part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's evaluation of decommissioning policy and its modification of regulations pertaining to the decommissioning process. The findings can be used by the utilities in the planning and establishment of activities to ensure that all objectives of decommissioning will be achieved.

  12. Investigating Coincidence Techniques in Biomedical Applications of Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, P.; Gramer, R.; Tandel, S. K.; Reinhardt, C. J.

    2004-05-01

    While neutron activation analysis has been widely used in biomedical applications for some time, the use of non-radioactive tracer techniques, to monitor, for example, organ blood flow, is more recent. In these studies, pre-clinical animal models are injected with micro-spheres labeled with stable isotopes of elements that have a high neutron absorption cross-section. Subsequently, samples of blood and/or tissue from different locations in the body are subjected to neutron activation analysis to measure the propagation of the labeled micro-spheres through the body. Following irradiation, the counting (with high-resolution Ge detectors) is typically delayed by a few days to dissipate short-lived activity in the samples and improve signal-to-noise for the peaks of interest in the activation spectrum. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether coincidence techniques (for isotopes which decay via two-photon cascades) could improve signal-to-noise and turn-around times. The samples were irradiated at the 1 MW research reactor at the UMass Lowell Radiation Laboratory. The analysis of the multi-parameter coincidence data recorded in event-mode will be presented and compared with the standard method of recording singles spectra.

  13. One-step multiple component isolation from the oil of Crinitaria tatarica (Less.) Sojak by preparative capillary gas chromatography with characterization by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques and evaluation of biological activity.

    PubMed

    Özek, Gulmira; Ishmuratova, Margarita; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Radwan, Mohammed M; Göger, Fatih; Özek, Temel; Wedge, David E; Becnel, James J; Cutler, Stephen J; Can Başer, Kemal H

    2012-03-01

    Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that the oil of Crinitaria tatarica was rich in sabinene (32.1%), β-pinene (8.8%), and two unknown (M+200) compounds (I) and (II) (21.4% and 3.4%). One-step multiple fractionation of the oil and separation of two unknown constituents were performed using preparative capillary gas chromatography connected to preparative fraction collector system. This combination allowed separation and recover of sufficient quantities of two unknown compounds with high purity from complex oil matrix. Separation conditions (column temperature, cooling temperature, flow rate, injection volume, cut time) were optimized to achieve the best isolation and successful collection. The target compounds were separated from the oil using a HP Innowax (Walt & Jennings Scientific, Wilmington, DE, USA) preparative capillary column in rapid one-step manner with 95.0% purity. Trapping of the isolated compounds in collector system was facilitated by cooling with liquid nitrogen. Structure determination was accomplished by spectral analysis including ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic rezonance, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Z- (I) and E-artemidin (II) were isolated for the first time from this species. Crinitaria tatarica oil and Z- (I) and E-artemidin (II) were evaluated for biological activity.

  14. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  15. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  16. Ecological Insights from Pelagic Habitats Acquired Using Active Acoustic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.; Lawson, Gareth L.

    2016-01-01

    Marine pelagic ecosystems present fascinating opportunities for ecological investigation but pose important methodological challenges for sampling. Active acoustic techniques involve producing sound and receiving signals from organisms and other water column sources, offering the benefit of high spatial and temporal resolution and, via integration into different platforms, the ability to make measurements spanning a range of spatial and temporal scales. As a consequence, a variety of questions concerning the ecology of pelagic systems lend themselves to active acoustics, ranging from organism-level investigations and physiological responses to the environment to ecosystem-level studies and climate. As technologies and data analysis methods have matured, the use of acoustics in ecological studies has grown rapidly. We explore the continued role of active acoustics in addressing questions concerning life in the ocean, highlight creative applications to key ecological themes ranging from physiology and behavior to biogeography and climate, and discuss emerging avenues where acoustics can help determine how pelagic ecosystems function.

  17. Ecological Insights from Pelagic Habitats Acquired Using Active Acoustic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Lawson, Gareth L

    2016-01-01

    Marine pelagic ecosystems present fascinating opportunities for ecological investigation but pose important methodological challenges for sampling. Active acoustic techniques involve producing sound and receiving signals from organisms and other water column sources, offering the benefit of high spatial and temporal resolution and, via integration into different platforms, the ability to make measurements spanning a range of spatial and temporal scales. As a consequence, a variety of questions concerning the ecology of pelagic systems lend themselves to active acoustics, ranging from organism-level investigations and physiological responses to the environment to ecosystem-level studies and climate. As technologies and data analysis methods have matured, the use of acoustics in ecological studies has grown rapidly. We explore the continued role of active acoustics in addressing questions concerning life in the ocean, highlight creative applications to key ecological themes ranging from physiology and behavior to biogeography and climate, and discuss emerging avenues where acoustics can help determine how pelagic ecosystems function.

  18. MAG4 Versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the "Present MAG4" technique and each of three alternative techniques, called "McIntosh Active-Region Class," "Total Magnetic Flux," and "Next MAG4." We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4).

  19. An evaluation of the efficacy of microvascular breast reconstruction techniques.

    PubMed

    Dobrut, Mirosław; Maciejewski, Adam; Półtorak, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of different microvascular techniques in breast reconstruction with the analysis of postoperative complications. The additional goal of the study is to analyze the quality of life of patients after microvascular breast reconstruction in comparison to the control group of patients who underwent only mastectomy without any reconstructive procedures. Also the algorithm of breast reconstruction is presented as the result of own experiences. Clinical material contain 2 groups of patients - women after surgical treatment in Department of Oncological and Reconstructive Surgery, Cancer Center in Gliwice in the year 2004-2009 where in 53 cases immediate and in 26 delayed breast microvascular reconstruction were performed. In all cases the diagnosis of cancer was proved by histopathological biopsy before the treatment. The type of radical resection (mastectomy) depended on histopathological type of cancer and its localization. The reconstruction - immediate vs delayed was carefully planned together with oncological treatment of the cases. Everywhere this plan was established based on carefully examinations of inferior epigastric vessels and theirs perforators. The choice between immediate and delayed microvascular reconstruction was based on prognosis and predictive factors. The QOL was analyzed due to own questionnaire when functional, aesthetics and social effects were evaluated. Free flap survival rate for all types of free flap was 95%. In cases where classic TRAM was used the rate was 85%, in cases where muscle sparring TRAM was chosen the survival rate was 100% and in remaining cases of DIEP reconstructions the rate was 89%. Generally the complications after microvascular reconstruction occurred in 13 cases (16%). In 9 cases the problems with flaps perfusion were notified. Total flap necrosis was observed in 2 TRAM and in 2 DIEP cases. In all those cases salvage surgery was administered in which the microanastomoses

  20. Performance evaluation and modeling techniques for parallel processors

    SciTech Connect

    Dimpsey, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of application performance under real operational conditions. A technique is introduced which accurately models the behavior of an application in real workloads. The methodology can evaluate the performance of the application as well as predict the effects on performance of certain system design changes. The constructed model is based on measurements obtained during normal machine operation and captures various performance issues including multiprogramming and system overheads, and contentions for resources. Methodologies to measure multiprogramming overhead (MPO) are introduced and illustrated on an Alliant FX/8, an Alliant Fx/80, and the Cedar parallel supercomputer. The measurements collected suggest that multiprogramming and system overheads can significantly impact application performance. The mean MPO incurred by PERFECT benchmarks executing in real workloads on an Alliant FX/80 is found to consume 16% of the processing power. Flor applications executing Cedar, between 10% and 60% of the application completion time is attributable to overhead caused by multiprogramming. Measurements also identify a Cedar FORTRAN construct (SDOALL) which is susceptible to performance degradation due to multiprogramming. Using the MPO measurements, the application performance model discussed above is constructed for computationally bound, parallel jobs executing on an Alliant FX/80. It is shown that the model can predict application completion time under real workloads. This is illustrated with several examples from the Perfect Benchmark suite. It is also shown that the model can predict the performance impact of system design changes. For example, the completion times of applications under a new scheduling policy are predicted. The model-building methodology is then validated with a number of empirical experiments.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGE spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 55% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of conventional versus laser bleaching techniques on enamel microroughness.

    PubMed

    Anaraki, Saeid Nemati; Shahabi, Sima; Chiniforush, Nasim; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Assadian, Hadi; Yousefi, Bahareh

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, bleaching of the teeth within the dental office is one of the most widespread techniques to correct tooth discoloration. Variability of the materials and techniques accompanied with the trend toward esthetic restorations with minimally invasive approaches are increasing. The use of laser in this regard has also been taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of in-office versus laser bleaching on surface roughness of enamel. Fifteen freshly extracted human molars were sectioned mesiodistally to produce 30 lingual and buccal enamel blocks. Samples were mounted in transparent acrylic resin blocks and polished before treatment. Samples were randomly assigned to laser bleaching (LB) and office bleaching (OB) groups (n = 15 each). Pretreatment evaluation of microroughness was carried out for all samples using profilometer. Samples were treated twice in the OB group with Opalescent Xtra Boost and in the LB group using a laser-activated gel. Microroughness was evaluated after bleaching in both groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA. Both methods increased enamel surface roughness. Microroughness changes were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05). Microroughness significantly increased in the OB group (p > 0.05), but there was no significant difference in pre- and post-treatment roughness evaluation in the LB group (p < 0.05). Laser was considered a safer technique because it demonstrated a less surface roughness increase in comparison with the conventional office bleaching procedure.

  4. Evaluation and modification of the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.

    PubMed

    Uga, S; Tanaka, K; Iwamoto, N

    2010-08-01

    Formalin-ether sedimentation (MGL) is a well-known technique for the examination of faeces for parasites, but some recent reports have indicated that its efficiency is not as high as originally thought. We reevaluated the recovery efficiency of the original MGL (O-MGL) technique to modify it. We subsequently adopted the following modified MGL technique (M-MGL): filtration by three layers of gauze and washing, adjustment to pH 3, retreatment of plug, and use of 1.5 g of faeces. We also compared five faecal examination techniques (including the O-MGL and the M-MGL) for three parameters: recovery efficiency, sensitivity, and mean number of eggs detected. The highest sensitivity was obtained by the M-MGL (95%), followed by the commercially available kit (Kit; 90%), O-MGL (76%), Kato-Katz (KK; 57%), and direct smear (DS; 50%). The mean numbers of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs recovered by the techniques were in order M-MGL (148 eggs), Kit (97), O-MGL (41), KK (11), and DS (6). This M-MGL technique has the advantage not only of the above-mentioned three parameters, but also the ease of microscopic observation and the concentration index. The parameters of the O-MGL technique were not necessarily sufficient compared with the other techniques. It seems that the improved M-MGL technique in the present study is applicable for field surveys, particularly when the survey is done in areas of low parasite endemicity.

  5. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  6. Kidney cooling in partial nephrectomy. Evaluation of a technique.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S

    1975-04-01

    A technique of cooling the isolated human kidney by immersing it in a plastic bag filled with iced saline slush is described. This technique is simple, swift to perform, requires no specialized equipment, and is inexpensive; it has proved to be effective and safe.

  7. Experimental Study of Active Techniques for Blade/Vortex Interaction Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobiki, Noboru; Murashige, Atsushi; Tsuchihashi, Akihiko; Yamakawa, Eiichi

    This paper presents the experimental results of the effect of Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) and Active Flap on the Blade/Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. Wind tunnel tests were performed with a 1-bladed rotor system to evaluate the simplified BVI phenomenon avoiding the complicated aerodynamic interference which is characteristically and inevitably caused by a multi-bladed rotor. Another merit to use this 1-bladed rotor system is that the several objective active techniques can be evaluated under the same condition installed in the same rotor system. The effects of the active techniques on the BVI noise reduction were evaluated comprehensively by the sound pressure, the blade/vortex miss distance obtained by Laser light Sheet (LLS), the blade surface pressure distribution and the tip vortex structure by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The correlation among these quantities to describe the effect of the active techniques on the BVI conditions is well obtained. The experiments show that the blade/vortex miss distance is more dominant for BVI noise than the other two BVI governing factors, such as blade lift and vortex strength at the moment of BVI.

  8. Comparative evaluation of workload estimation techniques in piloting tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques to measure operator workload in a wide range of situations and tasks were examined. The sensitivity and intrusion of a wide variety of workload assessment techniques in simulated piloting tasks were investigated. Four different piloting tasks, psychomotor, perceptual, mediational, and communication aspects of piloting behavior were selected. Techniques to determine relative sensitivity and intrusion were applied. Sensitivity is the relative ability of a workload estimation technique to discriminate statistically significant differences in operator loading. High sensitivity requires discriminable changes in score means as a function of load level and low variation of the scores about the means. Intrusion is an undesirable change in the task for which workload is measured, resulting from the introduction of the workload estimation technique or apparatus.

  9. Evaluating SPP/APR Improvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to assist State Education Agency (SEA) and Lead Agency (LA) staff and technical assistance providers in designing a meaningful evaluation for the State Performance Plan (SPP)/Annual Performance Report (APR) improvement activities. It provides: (1) information about the relevance of evaluation in the context of improvement…

  10. Modified iodine-paper technique for the standardized determination of sweat gland activation.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Daniel; Ganio, Matthew S; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G; Kenny, Glen P

    2012-04-01

    Quantifying sweat gland activation provides important information when explaining differences in sweat rate between populations and physiological conditions. However, no standard technique has been proposed to measure sweat gland activation, while the reliability of sweat gland activation measurements is unknown. We examined the interrater and internal reliability of the modified-iodine paper technique, as well as compared computer-aided analysis to manual counts of sweat gland activation. Iodine-impregnated paper was pressed against the skin of 35 participants in whom sweating was elicited by exercise in the heat or infusion of methylcholine. The number of active glands was subsequently determined by computer-aided analysis. In total, 382 measurements were used to evaluate: 1) agreement between computer analysis and manual counts; 2) the interrater reliability of computer analysis between independent investigators; and 3) the internal reliability of sweat gland activation measurements between duplicate samples. The number of glands identified with computer analysis did not differ from manual counts (68 ± 29 vs. 72 ± 24 glands/cm(2); P = 0.27). These measures were highly correlated (r = 0.77) with a mean bias ± limits of agreement of -4 ± 38 glands/cm(2). When comparing computer analysis measures between investigators, values were highly correlated (r = 0.95; P < 0.001) and the mean bias ± limits of agreement was 4 ± 18 glands/cm(2). Finally, duplicate measures of sweat gland activation were highly correlated (r = 0.88; P < 0.001) with a mean bias ± limits of agreement of 3 ± 29 glands/cm(2). These results favor the use of the modified-iodine paper technique with computer-aided analysis as a standard technique to reliably evaluate the number of active sweat glands.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation technique using infrared thermography and terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Shiozawa, Daiki; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Iwama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques using pulse heating infrared thermography and terahertz (THz) imaging were developed for detecting deterioration of oil tank floor, such as blister and delamination of corrosion protection coating, or corrosion of the bottom steel plate under coating. Experimental studies were conducted to demonstrate the practicability of developed techniques. It was found that the pulse heating infrared thermography was utilized for effective screening inspection and THz-TDS imaging technique performed well for the detailed inspection of coating deterioration and steel corrosion.

  12. Comparative evaluation of radon measurement techniques for uranium exploration. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, R F; Pacer, J C; Freeman, R W

    1983-03-01

    The measurement of radon (Rn-222) in soil gas aids in uranium exploration by indicating indirectly the presence of buried ore bodies. Intrest in this exploration methodology has led to the development of various radon measurement techniques which detect the presence of soil-gas radon, both directly and/or indirectly. To establish the relative merit of these new radon measurement techniques, Bendix Field Engineering Corporation has tested a variety of them using existing uranium occurrences located in the Red Desert area of south-central Wyoming. The following soil-gas radon measurement techniques were tested: a prototype microprocessor-controlled emanometer; a commercially available emanometer; alpha-track detectors equipped with two types of detector material (carbonate and nitrate), and equipped with and without membranes for thoron separation; radon adsorption on activated charcoal; and partial extraction of lead-210 from soil samples. These techniques were compared for relative sensitivity, variability, signal-to-background contrast, and correlation. The radon measurements obtained were also correlated to the equivalent uranium in soil, as determined radiometrically. From approximately 34 replicate samples, the variability associated with a technique was lowest with the TSA emanometer (13%). The EDA emanometer showed 31% and Track Etch carbonate/open cup (C/O) 27%. The best signal-to-background ratio, 2.55, was obtained by the EDA emanometer; the Track Etch nitrate/members cup (N/M) was a close second with 2.45. All signal-to-background ratios were greater than 2.0 except for the TSA emanometer with 1.87. All the techniques measured a sufficient number of anomalous values to locate the subsurface ore body.

  13. A Perspective on Student Evaluations, Teaching Techniques, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarun, Prashant; Krueger, Dale

    2016-01-01

    In the United States System of Education the growth of student evaluations from 1973 to 1993 has increased from 29% to 86% which in turn has increased the importance of student evaluations on faculty retention, tenure, and promotion. However, the impact student evaluations have had on student academic development generates complex educational…

  14. Teaching Computational Geophysics Classes using Active Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keers, H.; Rondenay, S.; Harlap, Y.; Nordmo, I.

    2016-12-01

    We give an overview of our experience in teaching two computational geophysics classes at the undergraduate level. In particular we describe The first class is for most students the first programming class and assumes that the students have had an introductory course in geophysics. In this class the students are introduced to basic Matlab skills: use of variables, basic array and matrix definition and manipulation, basic statistics, 1D integration, plotting of lines and surfaces, making of .m files and basic debugging techniques. All of these concepts are applied to elementary but important concepts in earthquake and exploration geophysics (including epicentre location, computation of travel time curves for simple layered media plotting of 1D and 2D velocity models etc.). It is important to integrate the geophysics with the programming concepts: we found that this enhances students' understanding. Moreover, as this is a 3 year Bachelor program, and this class is taught in the 2nd semester, there is little time for a class that focusses on only programming. In the second class, which is optional and can be taken in the 4th or 6th semester, but often is also taken by Master students we extend the Matlab programming to include signal processing and ordinary and partial differential equations, again with emphasis on geophysics (such as ray tracing and solving the acoustic wave equation). This class also contains a project in which the students have to write a brief paper on a topic in computational geophysics, preferably with programming examples. When teaching these classes it was found that active learning techniques, in which the students actively participate in the class, either individually, in pairs or in groups, are indispensable. We give a brief overview of the various activities that we have developed when teaching theses classes.

  15. Electromagnetic Scattered Field Evaluation and Data Compression Using Imaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, I. J.; Burnside, W. D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report on Project #727625 between The Ohio State University and NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. Under this project, a data compression technique for scattered field data of electrically large targets is developed. The technique was applied to the scattered fields of two targets of interest. The backscattered fields of the scale models of these targets were measured in a ra compact range. For one of the targets, the backscattered fields were also calculated using XPATCH computer code. Using the technique all scattered field data sets were compressed successfully. A compression ratio of the order 40 was achieved. In this report, the technique is described briefly and some sample results are included.

  16. Numerical evaluation of the performance of active noise control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollo, C. G.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized numerical technique for evaluating the optimal performance of active noise controllers. In this technique, the indirect BEM numerical procedures are used to derive the active noise controllers for optimal control of enclosed harmonic sound fields where the strength of the noise sources or the description of the enclosure boundary may not be known. The performance prediction for a single-input single-output system is presented, together with the analysis of the stability and observability of an active noise-control system employing detectors. The numerical procedures presented can be used for the design of both the physical configuration and the electronic components of the optimal active noise controller.

  17. An evaluation of impression techniques for osseointegrated implants.

    PubMed

    Spector, M R; Donovan, T E; Nicholls, J I

    1990-04-01

    A passive fit between osseointegrated implants and the prosthesis they will support has been advocated. An experimental model was developed to test the accuracy of three impression techniques and the components used to make the transfer records. Statistically, no significant difference was found between the three methods tested. From this initial study, it appears that further work is needed to isolate techniques that will predictably provide accurate registration of the position of endosseous implants.

  18. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  19. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  20. Module evaluation: a comparison of standard evaluation with nominal group technique.

    PubMed

    Ives, Jonathan; Skelton, John; Calvert, Melanie

    2013-02-01

    Teaching and learning practice in higher education (HE) should incorporate educational evaluation, both for the purpose of external and internal quality assurance and to monitor and improve the student experience. Methods used to evaluate education vary, but the majority of literature on course evaluation is based on quantitative surveys of the learner experience. One alternative to survey evaluation is 'nominal group technique' (NGT), which has been used with some success in curriculum development. This multi-method study aimed to (1) compare the nature and quality of data gathered using NGT with standard written questionnaires, (2) assess the usefulness of the feedback for an individual teacher and institution and (3) consider the appropriateness and feasibility of widespread use. Both the standard written questionnaire and NGT generated data on similar topics. The structured nature of the questionnaire tended to generate short answers which were similar to the results of the NGT ranking exercise. However, in contrast to the questionnaire data, the NGT discussion phase allowed in-depth exploration and interrogation of students' views. Whilst the specific data gathered via NGT are unlikely to be useful for quality assurance purposes within an institution, since they is not easily comparable, they can provide teachers with in-depth information on how to improve the learning experience and improve the efficacy of teaching. It is likely that NGT evaluation will be particularly useful when evaluating new courses, identifying problems in poorly performing courses, and identifying good practice in high-performing courses. Institutional investment in selective NGT evaluation may be more feasible than routine use.

  1. Skin blotting: a noninvasive technique for evaluating physiological skin status.

    PubMed

    Minematsu, Takeo; Horii, Motoko; Oe, Makoto; Sugama, Junko; Mugita, Yuko; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-06-01

    The skin performs important structural and physiological functions, and skin assessment represents an important step in identifying skin problems. Although noninvasive techniques for assessing skin status exist, no such techniques for monitoring its physiological status are available. This study aimed to develop a novel skin-assessment technique known as skin blotting, based on the leakage of secreted proteins from inside the skin following overhydration in mice. The applicability of this technique was further investigated in a clinical setting. Skin blotting involves 2 steps: collecting proteins by attaching a damp nitrocellulose membrane to the surface of the skin, and immunostaining the collected proteins. The authors implanted fluorescein-conjugated dextran (F-DEX)-containing agarose gels into mice and detected the tissue distribution of F-DEX under different blotting conditions. They also analyzed the correlations between inflammatory cytokine secretion and leakage following ultraviolet irradiation in mice and in relation to body mass index in humans. The F-DEX in mice was distributed in the deeper and shallower layers of skin and leaked through the transfollicular and transepidermal routes, respectively. Ultraviolet irradiation induced tumor necrosis factor secretion in the epidermis in mice, which was detected by skin blotting, whereas follicular tumor necrosis factor was associated with body mass index in obese human subjects. These results support the applicability of skin blotting for skin assessment. Skin blotting represents a noninvasive technique for assessing skin physiology and has potential as a predictive and diagnostic tool for skin disorders.

  2. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  3. Activation studies of NEG coatings by surface techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. K.; Jagannath,; Bhushan, K. G.; Gadkari, S. C.; Mukund, R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2013-02-05

    NEG (Non Evaporable Getters)materials in the form of ternary alloy coatings have many benefits compare to traditional bare surfaces such as Extreme high vacuum(XHV), lower secondary electron yield(SEY), low photon desorption cofficient. The extreme high vacuum (pressure > 10{sup -10} mbar) is very useful to the study of surfaces of the material, for high energy particle accelerators(LHC, Photon Factories), synchrotrons (ESRF, Ellectra) etc. Low secondary electron yield leads to better beam life time. In LHC the pressure in the interaction region of the two beams is something of the order of 10{sup -12} mbar. In this paper preparation of the coatings and their characterization to get the Activation temperature by using the surface techniques XPS, SEM and SIMS has been shown.

  4. [Evaluation of vector control techniques: an economic approach].

    PubMed

    Audibert, M

    2009-04-01

    Programs of disease control must be evaluated. Evaluation of these programs in terms of public health is straightforward but should be carried out in conjunction with economic evaluation to measure the cost effectiveness and cost-benefit ratio. The purpose of this report is to clarify the importance of economic evaluation by explaining why it is necessary, when it should be carried out, and what methods should be used. Program evaluation is a process with several steps. Each step is associated with specific indicators. Determining these indicators is a prerequisite for construction of the database needed for evaluation. Two methods are proposed for data analysis, i.e., a simple one for cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis and a more sophisticated one for impact analysis that must take into consideration treated and non-treated groups. Economic evaluation of disease control programs is as important as epidemiologic evaluation. However this evaluation cannot be carried out as a standalone procedure but only within a multidisciplinary framework.

  5. An evaluation of techniques used in estimating snail populations

    PubMed Central

    Hairston, Nelson G.; Hubendick, Bengt; Watson, John M.; Olivier, Louis J.

    1958-01-01

    No uniform method, applicable to all situations, can be developed for the quantitative study of bilharziasis vector snail populations. The selection of survey technique and sampling device depends on the objectives of the study, the circumstances in which the work is carried out, the nature of the habitat and the resources available. The various techniques used in obtaining snail-population estimates are divided into two categories—direct methods and indirect methods. The former involve the collection of snails from a specified habitat or for a specified period of time, while the latter include techniques, such as snail marking and palm-leaf traps, in which the snails are not obtained through the efforts of a collector. Each method and device is described in detail, and its suitability under various conditions is discussed. PMID:13596889

  6. A computerized re-evaluation of the collision technique.

    PubMed

    Nix, W A; Lüder, G; Hopf, H C; Lüth, G

    1989-01-01

    A computer program is described for the collision technique by which data acquisition and data interpretation is possible. Paired stimuli with varying interstimulus times evoke a muscle action potential. The amplitude or the rectified area integral as a function of interstimulus times was used to define the scatter of conduction velocities within the ulnar nerve. In normal and slightly distorted EMG signals the amplitude and area produces the same scatter. In distorted potentials the integrated area is more sensitive. The technique was furthermore used to separate two different age groups of normal persons. Significant differences were seen as well as in an age matched group of patients with myotonic dystrophy. The collision technique and the computer program proved to be sensitive and applicable in routine examinations.

  7. Image Analysis Technique for Material Behavior Evaluation in Civil Structures.

    PubMed

    Speranzini, Emanuela; Marsili, Roberto; Moretti, Michele; Rossi, Gianluca

    2017-07-08

    The article presents a hybrid monitoring technique for the measurement of the deformation field. The goal is to obtain information about crack propagation in existing structures, for the purpose of monitoring their state of health. The measurement technique is based on the capture and analysis of a digital image set. Special markers were used on the surface of the structures that can be removed without damaging existing structures as the historical masonry. The digital image analysis was done using software specifically designed in Matlab to follow the tracking of the markers and determine the evolution of the deformation state. The method can be used in any type of structure but is particularly suitable when it is necessary not to damage the surface of structures. A series of experiments carried out on masonry walls of the Oliverian Museum (Pesaro, Italy) and Palazzo Silvi (Perugia, Italy) have allowed the validation of the procedure elaborated by comparing the results with those derived from traditional measuring techniques.

  8. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    HOFFMAN, ELIZABETH A.

    2001-01-01

    While the traditional lecture format may be a successful way to teach microbiology to both medical and nursing students, it was not an effective means of learning for many prenursing and preprofessional students enrolled in either of the introductory microbiology courses at Ashland Community College, an open enrollment institution. The structure of both Medical Microbiology and Principles of Microbiology was redesigned to allow students to address the material in an active manner. Daily quizzes, student group discussions, scrapbooks, lab project presentations and papers, and extra credit projects were all added in order to allow students maximum exposure to the course material in a manner compatible with various methods of learning. Student knowledge, course evaluations, and student success rates have all improved with the active learning format. PMID:23653538

  9. Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

  10. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2010-07-01

    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  11. Concepts and techniques for ultrasonic evaluation of material mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrasonic methods that can be used for material strength are reviewed. Emergency technology involving advanced ultrasonic techniques and associated measurements is described. It is shown that ultrasonic NDE is particularly useful in this area because it involves mechanical elastic waves that are strongly modulated by morphological factors that govern mechanical strength and also dynamic failure modes. These aspects of ultrasonic NDE are described in conjunction with advanced approaches and theoretical concepts for signal acquisition and analysis for materials characterization. It is emphasized that the technology is in its infancy and that much effort is still required before the techniques and concepts can be transferred from laboratory to field conditions.

  12. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is strongly dependent on the amount and shape of the porosity in the coating. Current metallographic techniques do not provide polished surfaces that are adequate for a repeatable interpretation of the coating structures. A technique recently developed at NASA-Lewis for preparation of thermal barrier coating sections combines epoxy impregnation, careful sectioning and polishing, and interference layering to provide previously unobtainable information on processing-induced porosity. In fact, increased contrast and less ambiguous structure developed by the method make automatic quantitative metallography a viable option for characterizing thermal barrier coating structures.

  13. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is strongly dependent on the amount and shape of the porosity in the coating. Current metallographic techniques do not provide polished surfaces that are adequate for a repeatable interpretation of the coating structures. A technique recently developed at NASA-Lewis for preparation of thermal barrier coating sections combines epoxy impregnation, careful sectioning and polishing, and interference layering to provide previously unobtainable information on processing-induced porosity. In fact, increased contrast and less ambiguous structure developed by the method make automatic quantitative metallography a viable option for characterizing thermal barrier coating structures.

  14. Performance and cost evaluation of bioremediation techniques for fuel spills. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.H.; Hutchins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Soils and ground water beneath the US Coast Guard Air Station at Traverse City, MI, have been contaminated with separate spills of aviation gasoline and JP-4 jet fuel. Contamination from both plumes has affected a shallow water table aquifer consisting of a medium grained sand. This site has been the location of a cooperative effort between the US Coast Guard and US EPA to extensively characterize the site to determine three dimensional extent of contamination, local hydrogeology, geochemistry of the solids and water, and nature of microbial activity. Evaluation concerning feasibility and cost of three innovative bioremediation techniques has also been completed at the Air Station. One evaluation demonstrated the use of hydrogen peroxide as the electron acceptor to enhance aerobic biodegradation in a portion of the aviation gasoline area. Nitrate was used as the electron acceptor for a portion of the JP-4 jet fuel contamination. Bioventing of a second portion of the aviation gasoline contamination was the third innovative technique evaluated. Each treatment reduced benzene levels to less than 5 micrograms/l, with 25% to 60% reduction in total fuel levels. For these evaluations, bioventing had the lowest capital and operating costs, followed by nitrate addition and finally hydrogen peroxide.

  15. Focus Groups: An Important Research Technique for Internal Evaluation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara Poitras

    1993-01-01

    The use of focus groups by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a tool of internal evaluation is described. Focus groups are used in an environment where credibility is key to achieving meaningful cooperation. Issues for consideration by other evaluators interested in the approach are summarized. (SLD)

  16. Multiresource Inventories: Techniques for Evaluating Nongame Bird Habitat

    Treesearch

    Raymond M. Sheffield

    1981-01-01

    Procedures for evaluating the suitability of forest lands for the breeding habitat of individual nongame bird species and entire avian communities are presented. A multiresource inventory of South Carolina's forest resources, conducted by Renewable Resources Evaluation (formerly Forest Survey), provides the necessary habitat data. Nine nongame bird species,...

  17. Experimental Method for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Training Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, Michel F.; And Others

    Training materials are beginning to be developed, packaged and (sometimes) evaluated for use by behavioral professionals to train nonprofessionals teaching and care-giving skills; however, economic factors in many programs require that non-professional staff be trained by their non-professional predecessors. To evaluate the function of training…

  18. Evaluating a nursing erasmus exchange experience: Reflections on the use and value of the Nominal Group Technique for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Sheila

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Nominal Group Technique (NGT) for European nursing exchange evaluation at one university. The NGT is a semi-quantitative evaluation method derived from the Delphi method popular in the 1970s and 1980s. The NGT was modified from the traditional version retaining the structured cycles and but adding a broader group discussion. The NGT had been used for 2 successive years but required analysis and evaluation itself for credibility and 'fit' for purpose which is presented here. It aimed to explore nursing students' exchange experiences and aid programme development futures exchanges and closure from exchange. Results varied for the cohorts and students as participants enthusiastically engaged generating ample data which they ranked and categorised collectively. Evaluation of the NGT itself was two fold: by the programme team who considered purpose, audience, inclusivity, context and expertise. Secondly, students were asked for their thoughts using a graffiti board. Students avidly engaged with NGT but importantly also reported an effect from the process itself as an opportunity to reflect and share their experiences. The programme team concluded the NGT offered a credible evaluation tool which made use of authentic student voice and offered interactive group processes. Pedagogially, it enabled active reflection thus aiding reorientation back to the United Kingdom and awareness of 'transformative' consequences of their exchange experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of optical reflectance techniques for imaging of alveolar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unglert, Carolin I.; Namati, Eman; Warger, William C.; Liu, Linbo; Yoo, Hongki; Kang, DongKyun; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the fine structures within the lung parenchyma could advance our understanding of alveolar physiology and pathophysiology. Current knowledge has been primarily based on histology, but it is a destructive two-dimensional (2-D) technique that is limited by tissue processing artifacts. Micro-CT provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging within a limited sample size, but is not applicable to intact lungs from larger animals or humans. Optical reflectance techniques offer the promise to visualize alveolar regions of the large animal or human lung with sub-cellular resolution in three dimensions. Here, we present the capabilities of three optical reflectance techniques, namely optical frequency domain imaging, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy, and full field optical coherence microscopy, to visualize both gross architecture as well as cellular detail in fixed, phosphate buffered saline-immersed rat lung tissue. Images from all techniques were correlated to each other and then to corresponding histology. Spatial and temporal resolution, imaging depth, and suitability for in vivo probe development were compared to highlight the merits and limitations of each technology for studying respiratory physiology at the alveolar level.

  20. Applying DEA Technique to Library Evaluation in Academic Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Wonsik

    2003-01-01

    This study applied an analytical technique called Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to calculate the relative technical efficiency of 95 academic research libraries, all members of the Association of Research Libraries. DEA, with the proper model of library inputs and outputs, can reveal best practices in the peer groups, as well as the technical…

  1. Evaluation of erosion control techniques on forest roads

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace; Bob Rummer; Bryce J. Stokes; J. Wilhoit

    1998-01-01

    The cutslope and fillslope on a newly constructed forest road on the Talladega National Forest near Heflin, AL were treated with three erosion control techniques: wood excelsior erosion mat, native grass species, and exotic grass species. Bare soil plots were used as the experimental controls. Total sediment yield was measured during the period 21 September 1995 to 18...

  2. Evaluation of Meterorite Amono Acid Analysis Data Using Multivariate Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, G.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Nealson, K.

    1999-01-01

    The amino acid distributions in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite, Mars meteorite ALH84001, and ice from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica are shown, using a multivariate technique known as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to be statistically distinct from the average amino acid compostion of 101 terrestrial protein superfamilies.

  3. Evaluation of macrozone dimensions by ultrasound and EBSD techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Andre; Toubal, Lotfi; Bocher, Philippe; Humbert, Michel; Uta, Elena; Gey, Nathalie

    2013-01-15

    Titanium alloys are known to have texture heterogeneities, i.e. regions much larger than the grain dimensions, where the local orientation distribution of the grains differs from one region to the next. The electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) technique is the method of choice to characterize these macro regions, which are called macrozones. Qualitatively, the images obtained by EBSD show that these macrozones may be larger or smaller, elongated or equiaxed. However, often no well-defined boundaries are observed between the macrozones and it is very hard to obtain objective and quantitative estimates of the macrozone dimensions from these data. In the present work, we present a novel, non-destructive ultrasonic technique that provides objective and quantitative characteristic dimensions of the macrozones. The obtained dimensions are based on the spatial autocorrelation function of fluctuations in the sound velocity. Thus, a pragmatic definition of macrozone dimensions naturally arises from the ultrasonic measurement. This paper has three objectives: 1) to disclose the novel, non-destructive ultrasonic technique to measure macrozone dimensions, 2) to propose a quantitative and objective definition of macrozone dimensions adapted to and arising from the ultrasonic measurement, and which is also applicable to the orientation data obtained by EBSD, and 3) to compare the macrozone dimensions obtained using the two techniques on two samples of the near-alpha titanium alloy IMI834. In addition, it was observed that macrozones may present a semi-periodical arrangement. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discloses a novel, ultrasonic NDT technique to measure macrozone dimensions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposes a quantitative and objective definition of macrozone dimensions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compares macrozone dimensions obtained using EBSD and ultrasonics on 2 Ti samples Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observes that macrozones may have a semi

  4. Measurement and evaluation techniques for automated demand response demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Sezgen, Osman; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    The recent electricity crisis in California and elsewhere has prompted new research to evaluate demand response strategies in large facilities. This paper describes an evaluation of fully automated demand response technologies (Auto-DR) in five large facilities. Auto-DR does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal. This paper summarizes the measurement and evaluation of the performance of demand response technologies and strategies in five large facilities. All the sites have data trending systems such as energy management and control systems (EMCS) and/or energy information systems (EIS). Additional sub-metering was applied where necessary to evaluate the facility's demand response performance. This paper reviews the control responses during the test period, and analyzes demand savings achieved at each site. Occupant comfort issues are investigated where data are available. This paper discusses methods to estimate demand savings and results from demand response strategies at five large facilities.

  5. Measurement techniques for evaluating encapsulant thermophysical properties during cure

    SciTech Connect

    Adolf, D.

    1996-06-01

    Sandia now has the capability to evaluate stresses during cure of epoxies with finite element codes. Numerous material parameters are needed as input to these codes. I present a relatively quick set of tests which enable evaluation of the required thermophysical properties. Ease and accuracy of the tests improve as the reaction rate of the thermoset slows. Material parameters for common encapsulants at Sandia are presented in tables.

  6. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  7. Radioisotope penile plethysmography: A technique for evaluating corpora cavernosal blood flow during early tumescence

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.N.; Graham, M.M.; Ferency, G.F.; Miura, R.S.

    1989-04-01

    Radioisotope penile plethysmography is a nuclear medicine technique which assists in the evaluation of patients with erectile dysfunction. This technique attempts to noninvasively quantitate penile corpora cavernosal blood flow during early penile tumescence using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells. Penile images and counts were acquired in a steady-state blood-pool phase prior to and after the administration of intracorporal papaverine. Penile counts, images, and time-activity curves were computer analyzed in order to determine peak corporal flow and volume changes. Peak corporal flow rates were compared to arterial integrity (determined by angiography) and venosinusoidal corporal leak (determined by cavernosometry). Peak corporal flow correlated well with arterial integrity (r = 0.91) but did not correlate with venosinusoidal leak parameters (r = 0.01). This report focuses on the methodology and the assumptions which form the foundation of this technique. The strong correlation of peak corporal flow and angiography suggests that radioisotope penile plethysmography could prove useful in the evaluation of arterial inflow disorders in patients with erectile dysfunction.

  8. Balance evaluation techniques and physical therapy in post-stroke patients: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Tamošauskaitė, Agnė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas

    A stroke (cerebrovascular accident - CVA) is a significant social-economic issue. Approximately 15-30% of all patients develop life-long disability, 20% require over 3 months of specialized care in healthcare institutions, and the majority of the patients never recover the ability to maintain a proper vertical position. Such CVA sequelae as balance disturbances not only negatively affect patients' daily physical activity, but also result in social isolation. A number of standardized clinical scales, tests, and instrumental examination techniques have been proposed for evaluating not only post-CVA balance function, but also any changes in this function following various interventions. Even though scientific literature lists numerous methods and instruments for the improvement of balance after a CVA, not all of them are equally effective, and there have been rather controversial evaluations of some techniques. Nevertheless, the application of the majority of the techniques as complementary or alternative measures to traditional physical therapy (PT) frequently yields better results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  9. Comparison of three clinical techniques for evaluating joint sounds.

    PubMed

    Hardison, J D; Okeson, J P

    1990-10-01

    Two-hundred two consecutive adult patients presenting to the University of Kentucky for general dental care screening were examined for temporomandibular joint sounds by three techniques: (1) lateral pole surface palpation, (2) digital palpation in the external auditory canal, (3) auscultation by a stethoscope. Sixty-nine patients reported joint sounds, but only 32 had sounds diagnosed by auscultation resulting in a 54% false-negative reporting rate. Stethoscopic auscultation was used as the standard to which the other two techniques were compared. The false-negative rate for auditory canal digital palpation was 71% and 77% for lateral pole surface palpation. Surface palpation had only a 2% false-positive incidence while auditory canal digital palpation had a 51% false-positive rate. There was poor agreement between the patients' subjective reporting and clinical exam by any technique. Using stethoscopic auscultation as the standard, both auditory canal and surface palpation had a very high false-negative rate, but only the auditory canal palpation had a poor false-positive incidence. Auditory canal palpation often produces TMJ sounds that are not heard with a stethoscope during normal opening and closure.

  10. An economic evaluation of different sinus lift techniques.

    PubMed

    Listl, Stefan; Faggion, Clovis Mariano

    2010-08-01

    To identify the most cost-effective approach to sinus lifting on the basis of currently available evidence. We incorporate the costs and clinical outcomes of nine different sinus lift techniques within a decision tree model in which costs are based on insurance regulations in Germany and health outcomes follow two recent meta-analyses. The most cost-effective treatment option is identified on the basis of the maximum net benefit criterion. Uncertainties regarding health outcomes are incorporated via probabilistic sensitivity analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation. When there are no financial restrictions, the optimum treatment strategy is the lateral approach with autogenous particulate bone and a resorbable membrane. When, however, monetary resources for sinus-floor elevation are scarce, the most cost-effective option is the transalveolar technique without bone grafting. Only if relatively high costs can be afforded or if initial bone height at implant site is below 5 mm is the maximum net benefit achieved by lateral approaches. On the basis of currently available evidence, the transalveolar technique is advisable when monetary resources for sinus-floor elevation are scarce and initial bone height is sufficiently high. Lateral approaches are primarily recommended for lower pre-operative bone heights.

  11. MAG4 versus alternative techniques for forecasting active region flare productivity

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free magnetic energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Key Points Quantitative comparison of performance of pairs of forecasting techniques Next MAG4 forecasts major flares more accurately than Present MAG4 Present MAG4 forecast outperforms McIntosh AR Class and total magnetic flux PMID:26213517

  12. Active cycle of breathing technique for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    McKoy, Naomi A; Saldanha, Ian J; Odelola, Olaide A; Robinson, Karen A

    2012-12-12

    People with cystic fibrosis experience chronic airway infections as a result of mucus build up within the lungs. Repeated infections often cause lung damage and disease. Airway clearance therapies aim to improve mucus clearance, increase sputum production, and improve airway function. The active cycle of breathing technique (ACBT) is an airway clearance method that uses a cycle of techniques to loosen airway secretions including breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises, and the forced expiration technique. To compare the clinical effectiveness of ACBT with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 02 August 2012. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled clinical studies, including cross-over studies, comparing ACBT with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. Two review authors independently screened each article, abstracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each study. Sixty studies were identified of which 18 (375 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Five randomised controlled studies (127 participants) were included in the meta-analysis; four were of cross-over design. The 13 remaining studies were cross-over studies with inadequate reports for complete assessment.Included studies compared ACBT to autogenic drainage, airway oscillating devices, high frequency chest compression devices, conventional chest physiotherapy, and positive expiratory pressure. Patient preference varied: more patients preferred autogenic drainage over ACBT; more preferred ACBT over airway oscillating devices; and more were comfortable with ACBT versus high frequency chest compression. No significant difference was seen in sputum weight, lung function, or oxygen saturation between ACBT and autogenic

  13. Active cycle of breathing technique for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Karen A; McKoy, Naomi; Saldanha, Ian; Odelola, Olaide A

    2010-11-10

    People with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience chronic airway infections as a result of mucus build up within the lungs. Repeated infections often cause lung damage and disease. Airway clearance therapies aim to improve mucus clearance, increase sputum production, and improve airway function. The active cycle of breathing technique (ACBT) is an airway clearance method that uses a cycle of techniques to loosen airway secretions including breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises, and the forced expiration technique. To compare the clinical effectiveness of ACBT with other airway clearance therapies in CF. We searched the Cochrane CF Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Last search: 05 August 2010. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled clinical studies, including crossover studies, comparing ACBT with other airway clearance therapies in CF. Two review authors independently screened each article, abstracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each study. Fifty-eight studies were identified of which 17 (346 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Four randomised controlled studies (98 participants) were included in the meta-analysis; three were of crossover design. The 13 remaining studies were crossover studies with inadequate reports for complete assessment.Included studies compared ACBT to autogenic drainage, airway oscillating devices, high frequency chest compression devices, and conventional chest physiotherapy. Patient preference varied: more patients preferred autogenic drainage over ACBT, more preferred ACBT over airway oscillating devices, and more were comfortable with ACBT versus high frequency chest compression. No significant difference was seen in sputum weight between ACBT and autogenic drainage or between ACBT and airway oscillating devices. There was no significant difference in lung

  14. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of new active sensors on corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In-season nitrogen management for corn is a challenge because the crop is growing rapidly and active sensors, as well as imagery, have difficulty penetrating very deep into the canopy. Remote sensing technologies strive to evaluate plant chlorophyll status (greenness) as an indication of current nit...

  16. Evaluation of computational radiometric and spectral sensor calibration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakov, Alkhazur

    2016-04-01

    Radiometric and spectral calibration are essential for enabling the use of digital sensors for measurement purposes. Traditional optical calibration techniques require expensive equipment such as specialized light sources, monochromators, tunable filters, calibrated photo-diodes, etc. The trade-offs between computational and physics-based characterization schemes are, however, not well understood. In this paper we perform an analysis of existing computational calibration schemes and elucidate their weak points. We highlight the limitations by comparing against ground truth measurements performed in an optical characterization laboratory (EMVA 1288 standard). Based on our analysis, we present accurate and affordable methods for the radiometric and spectral calibration of a camera.

  17. New echocardiographic techniques for evaluation of left atrial mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Todaro, Maria Chiara; Choudhuri, Indrajit; Belohlavek, Marek; Jahangir, Arshad; Carerj, Scipione; Oreto, Lilia; Khandheria, Bijoy K.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently the left atrium had been subordinate to the left ventricle, but cardiologists now recognize that left atrial (LA) function is indispensable to normal circulatory performance. Transthoracic two-dimensional (2D) and Doppler echocardiography can elucidate parameters of LA function non-invasively. Yet, with the advent of 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography, we are able to detect early LA dysfunction even before structural changes occur. This is pivotal in some common disease states, such as atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and heart failure, in which LA deformation parameters can influence clinical management. However, a unique standardized technique to investigate LA deformation needs to be validated. PMID:22909795

  18. Promising quantitative nondestructive evaluation techniques for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    Some recent results in the area of the ultrasonic, acoustic emission, thermographic, and acousto-ultrasonic NDE of composites are reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the progress in the use of ultrasonic attenuation, acoustic emission (parameter) delay, liquid-crystal thermography, and the stress wave factor in structural integrity monitoring of composite materials. The importance of NDE flaw significance characterizations is emphasized since such characterizations can directly indicate the appropriate NDE technique sensitivity requirements. The role of the NDE of flawed composites with and without overt defects in establishing quantitative accept/reject criteria for structural integrity assessment is discussed.

  19. Applications of Multivariate Statistical Techniques for Computer Performance Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    5 Summary of Current Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . -5 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -7 Approach... Current System Workload . .5 . -..... 2 Phrase Two-Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -4 Phrase Three-Data Collection and Preparation . . . -7...available for evaluating computer system performance, many are not practical for frequent or routine use. Due to cost , additional equipment requirements

  20. Comparative analysis of evaluation techniques for transport policies

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, David; Ryan, Lisa

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a number of policy evaluation tools, which can be used to measure the impact of transport policies and programmes as part of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) or sustainability appraisal. The evaluation tools that were examined include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). It was concluded that both CEA and CBA are useful for estimating the costs and/or benefits associated with transport policies but are constrained by the difficulty in quantifying non-market impacts and monetising total costs and benefits. Furthermore, CEA is limited to identifying the most 'cost-effective policy' for achieving a single, narrowly defined objective, usually greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and is, therefore, not suitable for evaluating policy options with ancillary costs or a variety of potential benefits. Thus, CBA or CEA evaluation should be complemented by a complete environmental and socio-economic impact assessment approach such as MCDA. This method allows for participatory analysis and qualitative assessment but is subject to caveats such as subjectivity and value-laden judgments.

  1. Cost-Outcome Analysis: Streamlining Techniques. Evaluation Guide Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jana K.

    Streamlining involves the modification of cost-analysis methods to make them more appropriate for the limited time and resources, and immediate information needs, of local-level program evaluations. It can also enhance the reliability and validity of district-level studies. A review of existing texts of cost analysis and of studies of traditional…

  2. Management assessment center technique: an evaluation of the literature.

    PubMed

    Myers, L

    1978-01-01

    In this article Lee Myers, manager, Medical Records, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, reviews the literature, mainly in the manpower development area, to provide an evaluative insight into the use of management assessment centers as a part of an organization's overall manpower planning and organizational development.

  3. EVALUATION OF A TECHNIQUE FOR CLASSROOM PRACTICE IN DECISION MAKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABRAHAMS, NORMAN M.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO EVALUATE, IN TERMS OF STUDENT INTEREST AND INSTRUCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, INDIVIDUALLY ADMINISTERED NOTEBOOK EXERCISES IN ANTI-AIR WARFARE DECISION MAKING. IN A FIVE DAY TRAINING SESSION, AN EXPERIMENTAL CLASS OF NAVAL OFFICERS RECEIVED NOTEBOOK EXERCISES IN ADDITION TO LECTURES, WHILE A CONTROL GROUP HAD ONLY THE LECTURES.…

  4. Energy Considerations in Home Mortgages: An Evaluation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth.

    This document, intended primarily for mortgage lenders, is designed to aid readers in evaluating solar heating technology in the aspects of its capital cost and potential for recovery of investment. Whether or not American consumers will fully exploit this alternative will depend upon interest rates, the allocation of capital to finance the higher…

  5. Energy Considerations in Home Mortgages: An Evaluation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth.

    This document, intended primarily for mortgage lenders, is designed to aid readers in evaluating solar heating technology in the aspects of its capital cost and potential for recovery of investment. Whether or not American consumers will fully exploit this alternative will depend upon interest rates, the allocation of capital to finance the higher…

  6. Viability and antibacterial efficacy of four root canal disinfection techniques evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Joan; Emil, Jonathan; Paulaian, Benin; John, Bejoy; Raja, Jacob; Mathew, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several disinfection techniques have been recently introduced with the main objective of improving root canal disinfection in the inaccessible areas of the root canal system. This in vitro study was done to evaluate the antimicrobial effect and viability of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms using conventional irrigation, EndoActivator (Dentsply, Tulsa Dental, USA), diode laser irradiation and photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS). Materials and Methods: Root canals of 130 single rooted mandibular premolars, standardized to a uniform length of 20 mm were instrumented until finishing file, F1 (Universal Protaper Rotary System, Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Specialties, USA). After smear layer removal and sterilization, five teeth were randomly selected to assure sterility before bacterial inoculation. The remaining 125 samples were contaminated with E. faecalis suspension, incubated for 21 days and divided into five groups (n = 25). In Group 1; untreated group (positive control), the root canals were not subjected to any disinfection procedure. Sampling was performed within the canals and the colony-forming unit count was evaluated for 20 samples. Five samples were selected to visualize the pattern of colonization at Level 1 (4 mm from the apex) and Level 2 (1 mm from the apex) by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Samples in Groups 2-5 namely conventional needle irrigation, EndoActivator, diode laser and PIPS were subjected to their respective disinfection procedures. Postdisinfection sample evaluation criteria was followed for all groups as same as that for Group 1. Results: Diode laser displayed the highest antibacterial efficacy and least viable bacteria than the other three disinfection techniques. Conclusion: Diode laser group showed better antibacterial efficacy and least viable bacteria when compared to conventional needle irrigation, PIPS and EndoActivator groups in minimally instrumented, experimentally infected root canals. PMID:25298645

  7. Active sampling technique to enhance chemical signature of buried explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, John S.; French, Patrick D.

    2004-09-01

    Deminers and dismounted countermine engineers commonly use metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and probes to locate mines. Many modern landmines have a very low metal content, which severely limits the effectiveness of metal detectors. Canines have also been used for landmine detection for decades. Experiments have shown that canines smell the explosives which are known to leak from most types of landmines. The fact that dogs can detect landmines indicates that vapor sensing is a viable approach to landmine detection. Several groups are currently developing systems to detect landmines by "sniffing" for the ultra-trace explosive vapors above the soil. The amount of material that is available to passive vapor sensing systems is limited to no more than the vapor in equilibrium with the explosive related chemicals (ERCs) distributed in the surface soils over and near the landmine. The low equilibrium vapor pressure of TNT in the soil/atmosphere boundary layer and the limited volume of the boundary layer air imply that passive chemical vapor sensing systems require sensitivities in the picogram range, or lower. ADA is working to overcome many of the limitations of passive sampling methods, by the use of an active sampling method that employs a high-powered (1,200+ joules) strobe lamp to create a highly amplified plume of vapor and/or ERC-bearing fine particulates. Initial investigations have demonstrated that this approach can amplify the detectability of TNT by two or three orders of magnitude. This new active sampling technique could be used with any suitable explosive sensor.

  8. Improved mesh based photon sampling techniques for neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Relson, E.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Biondo, E. D.

    2013-07-01

    The design of fusion power systems requires analysis of neutron activation of large, complex volumes, and the resulting particles emitted from these volumes. Structured mesh-based discretization of these problems allows for improved modeling in these activation analysis problems. Finer discretization of these problems results in large computational costs, which drives the investigation of more efficient methods. Within an ad hoc subroutine of the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, we implement sampling of voxels and photon energies for volumetric sources using the alias method. The alias method enables efficient sampling of a discrete probability distribution, and operates in 0(1) time, whereas the simpler direct discrete method requires 0(log(n)) time. By using the alias method, voxel sampling becomes a viable alternative to sampling space with the 0(1) approach of uniformly sampling the problem volume. Additionally, with voxel sampling it is straightforward to introduce biasing of volumetric sources, and we implement this biasing of voxels as an additional variance reduction technique that can be applied. We verify our implementation and compare the alias method, with and without biasing, to direct discrete sampling of voxels, and to uniform sampling. We study the behavior of source biasing in a second set of tests and find trends between improvements and source shape, material, and material density. Overall, however, the magnitude of improvements from source biasing appears to be limited. Future work will benefit from the implementation of efficient voxel sampling - particularly with conformal unstructured meshes where the uniform sampling approach cannot be applied. (authors)

  9. Active-passive correlation spectroscopy - A new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    A new active-passive airborne data correlation technique has been developed which allows the validation of existing in-water oceoan color algorithms and the rapid search, identification, and evaluation of new sensor band locations and algorithm wavelength intervals. Thus far, applied only in conjunction with the spectral curvature algorithm (SCA), the active-passive correlation spectroscopy (APCS) technique shows that (1) the usual 490-nm (center-band) chlorophyll SCA could satisfactorily be placed anywhere within the nominal 460-510-nm interval, and (2) two other spectral regions, 645-660 and 680-695 nm, show considerable promise for chlorophyll pigment measurement. Additionally, the APCS method reveals potentially useful wavelength regions (at 600 and about 670 nm) of very low chlorophyll-in-water spectral curvature into which accessory pigment algorithms for phycoerythrin might be carefully positioned. In combination, the APCS and SCA methods strongly suggest that significant information content resides within the seemingly featureless ocean color spectrum.

  10. Residual matrix from different separation techniques impacts exosome biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, Lucia; Zendrini, Andrea; Noto, Giuseppe Di; Busatto, Sara; Lottini, Elisabetta; Radeghieri, Annalisa; Dossi, Alessandra; Caneschi, Andrea; Ricotta, Doris; Bergese, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are gaining a prominent role in research due to their intriguing biology and several therapeutic opportunities. However, their accurate purification from body fluids and detailed physicochemical characterization remain open issues. We isolated exosomes from serum of patients with Multiple Myeloma by four of the most popular purification methods and assessed the presence of residual contaminants in the preparations through an ad hoc combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques - including Western Blot, colloidal nanoplasmonics, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning helium ion microscopy (HIM). The preparations obtained by iodixanol and sucrose gradients were highly pure. To the contrary, those achieved with limited processing (serial centrifugation or one step precipitation kit) resulted contaminated by a residual matrix, embedding the exosomes. The contaminated preparations showed lower ability to induce NfkB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells with respect to the pure ones, probably because the matrix prevents the interaction and fusion of the exosomes with the cell membrane. These findings suggest that exosome preparation purity must be carefully assessed since it may interfere with exosome biological activity. Contaminants can be reliably probed only by an integrated characterization approach aimed at both the molecular and the colloidal length scales. PMID:27009329

  11. The virtual microphone technique in active sound field control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, Iraklis E.; Shimizu, Yasushi

    2003-04-01

    Active Sound Field Control (AFC) has been proven very useful in reverberation enhancement applications in large rooms. However, feedback control is required in order to eliminate peaks in the frequency response of the system. The present research closely follows the studies of Shimizu in AFC, in which smoothing of the rooms transfer function is achieved by averaging the impulse responses of multiple microphones. ``The virtual or rotating microphone technique'' reduces the number of microphones in the aforementioned AFC technology, while still achieving the same acoustical effects in the room. After the impulse responses at previously specified pairs of microphone positions are measured, the ratio of transfer functions for every pair is calculated, thus yielding a constant K. Next, microphones are removed and their impulse responses are reproduced by processing the incoming signal of each pair through a convolver, where the computed K constants have been previously stored. Band limiting, windowing and time variance effects are critical factors, in order to reduce incoherence effects and yield reliable approximations of inverse filters and consequently calculations of K. The project is implemented in a church lacking low frequency reverberation for music and makes use of 2 physical and 2 virtual microphones.

  12. Radiographic evaluation of the modified Brunelli technique versus a scapholunotriquetral transosseous tenodesis technique for scapholunate dissociation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer W; Kollitz, Kathleen M; Jegapragasan, Mithulan; Huang, Jerry I

    2014-06-01

    To compare reduction of the scapholunate articulation using a transosseous tenodesis through the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum (SLT) with the modified Brunelli technique (MBT) in a cadaver model, as measured by scapholunate (SL) angle and diastasis on radiographs. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric wrists were radiographically examined in a neutral posture, ulnar deviation, and clenched fist position. The SL angle and diastasis were recorded in each position with the SL ligament intact, after sectioning the ligament and secondary restraints, and after reconstruction by either the MBT (6 wrists) or SLT technique (6 wrists). Wrists were cycled through their maximum flexion and extension arc 100 times to simulate wrist motion after ligament sectioning and reconstruction. After sectioning and cycling, all wrists demonstrated radiographic evidence of SL diastasis. After ligament reconstruction and cycling, there was no statistically significant difference in diastasis in the MBT reconstructions compared with the SLT reconstructions (3.0 vs 2.4 mm). The SLT group demonstrated better maintenance of the restored SL angle than the MBT reconstructions. In this cadaveric model, both MBT and SLT reconstructions restored anatomic parameters in the SL joint, with correction of SL diastasis and SL angle. Future studies to assess the clinical outcomes of SLT tenodesis in patients with chronic SL disruptions are important. The SLT tenodesis, with a central biologic tether along the SL axis and dorsal reinforcement, may prove clinically useful. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Analytical Techniques for the Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Waters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    capability of multielemental determination, and cost of analysis. The techniques are atomic absorption spectroscopy , neutron activation analysis, and x ray fluorescence analysis. (Modified author abstract)

  14. An Evaluation of Jordanian EFL Teachers' In-Service Training Courses Teaching Techniques Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Wreikat, Yazan Abdel Aziz Semreen; Bin Abdullah, Muhamad Kamarul Kabilan

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate and investigate the influence of teaching techniques on the performance of English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers by evaluating the techniques' effectiveness and actual implementation, as well as to examine the role of teachers in influencing the effectiveness of in-service training courses. A total of 798…

  15. The Impact of Economic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution: Evaluation Techniques and Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Francois, Ed.; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A., Ed.

    This book, a collection of articles and papers, reviews techniques and tools that can be used to evaluate the poverty and distributional impact of economic policy choices. Following are its contents: "Evaluating the Poverty and Distributional Impact of Economic Policies: A Compendium of Existing Techniques" (Francois Bourguignon and Luiz A.…

  16. The Impact of Economic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution: Evaluation Techniques and Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Francois, Ed.; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A., Ed.

    This book, a collection of articles and papers, reviews techniques and tools that can be used to evaluate the poverty and distributional impact of economic policy choices. Following are its contents: "Evaluating the Poverty and Distributional Impact of Economic Policies: A Compendium of Existing Techniques" (Francois Bourguignon and Luiz A.…

  17. Simulation Technique for Evaluating Containers (SIMTEC) Version 2.2. User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-26

    cycle cost and sensitivities. Procedure. The Simulation Technique for Evaluating Containers (SIMTEC), a computer simulation model, was developed to...Simulation Technique for Evaluating Containers (SIMTEC) is a computer program (model) developed to compare different types of packaging in terms of...and industrial organizations; environments involving conflict, such as military strategies and competi- tive market Ptrategies. Simulation provides a

  18. Overlapping double etch technique for evaluation of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Stewart, James C.

    1981-01-01

    A double overlapping etch zone technique for evaluation of the resistance of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking. The technique involves evaluating the metallic alloy along the line of demarcation between an overlapping double etch zone and single etch zone formed on the metallic alloy surface.

  19. Overlapping double etch technique for evaluation of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A double overlapping etch zone technique for evaluation of the resistance of metallic alloys to stress corrosion cracking is described. The technique involves evaluating the metallic alloy along the line of demarcation between an overlapping double etch zone and single etch zone formed on the metallic alloy surface.

  20. Evaluation of color-embedded wavelet image compression techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Martha; Salama, Paul; Shen, Ke; Delp, Edward J., III

    1998-12-01

    Color embedded image compression is investigated by means of a set of core experiments that seek to evaluate the advantages of various color transformations, spatial orientation trees and the use of monochrome embedded coding schemes such as EZW and SPIHT. In order to take advantage of the interdependencies of the color components for a given color space, two new spatial orientation trees that relate frequency bands and color components are investigated.

  1. Multidetector CT and dentascan software: dosimetric evaluation and technique improvement.

    PubMed

    Fanucci, E; Leporace, M; Di Costanzo, G; Fiaschetti, V; Simonetti, G

    2006-02-01

    The development of new operative techniques in oral and maxillofacial surgery within the last few years has led to an increasing demand for Dentascan examination, also in paediatric patients. It is necessary to modify acquisition parameters to reduce the absorbed dose. The aim of this study was to define a Dentascan protocol in which a reduced X-ray dose could be used. Dosimeters were applied to the eyes, mouth, parotid glands, thyroid and back of the neck of an anthropomorphic Plexiglas phantom that underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) Dentascan examinations. Both 120kV and 80 kV were used to study the mandibular and maxillary arches. Examinations obtained with the 80 kV protocol showed a ten-fold reduction in the absorbed dose, without affecting image quality. We suggest a Dentascan protocol that reduces the X-ray dose administered to the patient while ensuring the same high diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Uncertainty Evaluation of the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although the analytical performance of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique is well investigated, there is no systematic analysis of the DGT measurement uncertainty and its sources. In this study we determine the uncertainties of bulk DGT measurements (not considering labile complexes) and of DGT-based chemical imaging using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We show that under well-controlled experimental conditions the relative combined uncertainties of bulk DGT measurements are ∼10% at a confidence interval of 95%. While several factors considerably contribute to the uncertainty of bulk DGT, the uncertainty of DGT LA-ICP-MS mainly depends on the signal variability of the ablation analysis. The combined uncertainties determined in this study support the use of DGT as a monitoring instrument. It is expected that the analytical requirements of legal frameworks, for example, the EU Drinking Water Directive, are met by DGT sampling. PMID:25579402

  3. Uncertainty evaluation of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique.

    PubMed

    Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Zhang, Hao; Prohaska, Thomas; Wenzel, Walter W

    2015-02-03

    Although the analytical performance of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique is well investigated, there is no systematic analysis of the DGT measurement uncertainty and its sources. In this study we determine the uncertainties of bulk DGT measurements (not considering labile complexes) and of DGT-based chemical imaging using laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We show that under well-controlled experimental conditions the relative combined uncertainties of bulk DGT measurements are ∼10% at a confidence interval of 95%. While several factors considerably contribute to the uncertainty of bulk DGT, the uncertainty of DGT LA-ICP-MS mainly depends on the signal variability of the ablation analysis. The combined uncertainties determined in this study support the use of DGT as a monitoring instrument. It is expected that the analytical requirements of legal frameworks, for example, the EU Drinking Water Directive, are met by DGT sampling.

  4. Search for life on Mars: Evaluation of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    An important question for exobiology is, did life evolve on Mars? To answer this question, experiments must be conducted on the martian surface. Given current mission constraints on mass, power, and volume, these experiments can only be performed using proposed analytical techniques such as: electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, a-proton backscatter, g-ray spectrometry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, pyrolysis gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and specific element detectors. Using prepared test samples consisting of 1% organic matter (bovine serum albumin) in palagonite and a mixture of palagonite, clays, iron oxides, and evaporites, it was determined that a combination of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography provides the best insight into the chemistry, mineralogy, and geological history of the samples.

  5. Signature evaluation of natural targets using high spectral resolution techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chiu, H.-Y.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of 'spectral signature' identification has been applied to LANDSAT and other broad-band multi-spectral scanner data to classify various materials on the earth's surface. A large amount of the spectral information available is invisible, however, to the broad-band sensors. Although the natural targets of interest in remote sensing do not exhibit fine line features such as those associated with gaseous media, there is significant information to be extracted from smoothly varying spectral reflection functions of most natural targets. Subtle variations observed recently in the high resolution 'spectral signatures' of vegetation targets, in particular, promise to open new avenues of application using higher spectral and radiometric resolution techniques. This research was accomplished using a 500-band spectroradiometer system specially adapted to rapid airborne operations

  6. Search for life on Mars: evaluation of techniques.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, D E; Mancinelli, R L; White, M R

    1995-03-01

    An important question for exobiology is, did life evolve on Mars? To answer this question, experiments must be conducted on the martian surface. Given current mission constraints on mass, power, and volume, these experiments can only be performed using proposed analytical techniques such as: electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, alpha-proton backscatter, gamma-ray spectrometry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, pyrolysis gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and specific element detectors. Using prepared test samples consisting of 1% organic matter (bovine serum albumin) in palagonite and a mixture of palagonite, clays, iron oxides, and evaporites, it was determined that a combination of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography provides the best insight into the chemistry, mineralogy, and geological history of the samples.

  7. Peroxy bleaches Part 1. Background and techniques for hazard evaluation.

    PubMed

    Carson, P A; Fairclough, C S; Mauduit, C; Colsell, M

    2006-08-25

    Fabric laundering is now a sophisticated chemical process involving a variety of operations including bleaching. The chemistry of peroxy bleaches is described including the use of novel organic compounds to provide effective bleaching at the lower temperatures of modern wash cycles. The instability of peroxy compounds is illustrated using cameo case histories to relate theory and practice. Techniques available for determining their thermochemistry are summarised. A model is provided for hazard and risk assessment of development projects in general (particularly those involving new molecules, processes or formulations) from ideas phase through exploratory laboratory investigations to pilot plant scale-up and eventual manufacture and commercial exploitation. This paper is a prelude to Part 2, which describes the determination of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of peroxy bleaches and discusses the implication of the results in terms of precautions for their safe storage and incorporation into detergent formulations during processing.

  8. Evaluation of the uranium double spike technique for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hemberger, P.H.; Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.; Smith, D.H.; Turner, M.L.; Barshick, C.M.; Bayne, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Use of a uranium double spike in analysis of environmental samples showed that a {sup 235}U enrichment of 1% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00732) can be distinguished from natural ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00725). Experiments performed jointly at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used a carefully calibrated double spike of {sup 233}U and {sup 236}U to obtain much better precision than is possible using conventional analytical techniques. A variety of different sampling media (vegetation and swipes) showed that, provided sufficient care is exercised in choice of sample type, relative standard deviations of less than {+-} 0.5% can be routinely obtained. This ability, unavailable without use of the double spike, has enormous potential significance in the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities.

  9. Ex vivo evaluation of canine lung biopsy techniques.

    PubMed

    Marvel, Sarah; Monnet, Eric

    2013-05-01

    An ex vivo comparison of thoracoscopic lung biopsy techniques in dogs. Experimental. Cadaveric canine lung lobes. Lungs were inflated to 10 cmH2 O. After collecting biopsies 3 cm from the edge of lung lobes, leak pressures were recorded as inflation pressure was increased to 40 cmH2 O. Pre-tied loop ligature, square knot (SQ), modified 4S Roeder knot (M4SR) with glycomer 631 and polyglactin 910 size 0 and 2-0 were used in addition to EndoGIA 45-2.5 mm (Covidien, Norwalk, CT) and a vessel sealant device (VSDS single and VSDD double seal). Six biopsies were performed with each of these modalities. Median airway pressure at which leakage occurred was 28 (20-34)cmH2 O for EndoGIA 45; 33 (14-40) for VSDD; and 33 (10-40) for VSDS while other groups reached a median pressure of 40 cmH2 O (P < .0001). Leakage occurred at 20 cmH2 O in 1 sample with the EndoGIA and the VSDS, and in 2 with the VSDD while leakage did not occur in any other group (P = .36). Leakage occurred at 30 cmH2 O in 1 specimen each of the 0-polyglactin SQ, 2-0 glycomer 631 M4SR, 2-0 polyglactin M4SR, and 2-0 Surgitie (Covidien, Norwalk, CT); 2 with the VSDS; and 3 with the EndoGIA and the VSDD while leakage did not occur in any other group (P = .26). All tested techniques seemed safe except the vessel sealant device since it did not consistently seal every biopsy and leaked at pressures <20 cmH2 O. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. A neutron activation technique for manganese measurements in humans.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, C; Byun, S H; Chettle, D R; Inskip, M J; Prestwich, W V

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for humans, animals, and plants and is required for growth, development, and maintenance of health. Studies show that Mn metabolism is similar to that of iron, therefore, increased Mn levels in humans could interfere with the absorption of dietary iron leading to anemia. Also, excess exposure to Mn dust, leads to nervous system disorders similar to Parkinson's disease. Higher exposure to Mn is essentially related to industrial pollution. Thus, there is a benefit in developing a clean non-invasive technique for monitoring such increased levels of Mn in order to understand the risk of disease and development of appropriate treatments. To this end, the feasibility of Mn measurements with their minimum detection limits (MDL) has been reported earlier from the McMaster group. This work presents improvement to Mn assessment using an upgraded system and optimized times of irradiation and counting for induced gamma activity of Mn. The technique utilizes the high proton current Tandetron accelerator producing neutrons via the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at McMaster University and an array of nine NaI (Tl) detectors in a 4 π geometry for delayed counting of gamma rays. The neutron irradiation of a set of phantoms was performed with protocols having different proton energy, current and time of irradiation. The improved MDLs estimated using the upgraded set up and constrained timings are reported as 0.67 μgMn/gCa for 2.3 MeV protons and 0.71 μgMn/gCa for 2.0 MeV protons. These are a factor of about 2.3 times better than previous measurements done at McMaster University using the in vivo set-up. Also, because of lower dose-equivalent and a relatively close MDL, the combination of: 2.0 MeV; 300 μA; 3 min protocol is recommended as compared to 2.3 MeV; 400 μA; 45 s protocol for further measurements of Mn in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. [sEMG Time-frequency analysis techniques for evaluation of muscle fatigue and it's application in ergonomic studies].

    PubMed

    Wang, Du-ming; Wang, Jian; Ge, Lie-zhong

    2003-10-01

    As a non-invasive on-line measurement, sEMG can reflect the status of muscle activity and muscle function accurately and objectively. Some sEMG Time-frequency analysis techniques, especially the JASA (joint analysis of EMG spectrum and amplitude) analysis, for evaluation of muscle fatigue in ergonomics and occupational field studies are introduced and evaluated in this paper. The sEMG signal analysis and the necessity for developing sEMG analysis techniques for field use in ergonomics are also briefly discussed.

  12. Evaluation of spectral unfolding techniques for neutron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sunden, Erik Andersson; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.

    2008-03-12

    The precision of the JET installations of MAXED, GRAVEL and the L-curve version of MAXED has been evaluated by using synthetic neutron spectra. We have determined the number of counts needed for the detector systems NE213 and MPR to get an error below 10% of the MAXED unfolded neutron spectra is determined to be {approx}10{sup 6} and {approx}10{sup 4}, respectively. For GRAVEL the same number is {approx}10{sup 7} and {approx}3{center_dot}10{sup 4} for NE213 and MPR, respectively.

  13. Photothermal Techniques Used to Evaluate Quality in Dairy Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Romero, E.; Balderas-López, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Photothermal systems were used to quantify thermal and optical properties of commercial and natural dairy products. Thermal diffusivity and light absorption coefficient were analyzed. It was found that water content easily alters thermal properties in samples of milk. In addition, all samples showed strong light absorptions at 405 nm, 980 nm and 488 nm, evidencing presence of proteins, fat and vitamins (riboflavin), respectively. Therefore, it was shown that thermo-physical properties measured in this work could be used as complementary parameters for quality evaluation of dairy products.

  14. Planning tools and techniques for production evaluation and disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; List, G.F.; Turnquist, M.A.; Jones, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a computerized model to support production planning in a specialized type of remanufacturing facility, the Pantex Plant operated for the US Department of Energy. The model integrates two different production processes (nuclear weapon dismantlement and stockpile evaluation) which use common facilities and personnel, and reflects the interactions of scheduling constraints, material flow constraints and resource availability. These two processes reflect characteristics of flow-shop and job-shop operations in a single facility. Operational results from using the model are also discussed.

  15. Using the Delphi technique in economic evaluation: time to revisit the oracle?

    PubMed

    Simoens, S

    2006-12-01

    Although the Delphi technique has been commonly used as a data source in medical and health services research, its application in economic evaluation of medicines has been more limited. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology of the Delphi technique, to present a case for using the technique in economic evaluation, and to provide recommendations to improve such use. The literature was accessed through MEDLINE focusing on studies discussing the methodology of the Delphi technique and economic evaluations of medicines using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique can be used to provide estimates of health care resources required and to modify such estimates when making inter-country comparisons. The Delphi technique can also contribute to mapping the treatment process under investigation, to identifying the appropriate comparator to be used, and to ensuring that the economic evaluation estimates cost-effectiveness rather than cost-efficacy. Ideally, economic evaluations of medicines should be based on real-patient data. In the absence of such data, evaluations need to incorporate the best evidence available by employing approaches such as the Delphi technique. Evaluations based on this approach should state the limitations, and explore the impact of the associated uncertainty in the results.

  16. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for nickel-cadmium aerospace battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haak, R.; Tench, D.

    1982-01-01

    The ac impedance characteristics of Ni-Cd cells as an in-situ, nondestructive means of determining cell lifetime, particularly with respect to the probability of premature failure were evaluated. Emphasis was on evaluating Ni-Cd cell impedance over a wide frequency range (10,000 to 0.0004 Hz) as the cells were subjected to charge/discharge cycle testing. The results indicate that cell degradation is reflected in the low frequency (Warburg) impedance characteristics associated with diffusion processes. The Warburg slope (W) was found to steadily increase as a function of cell aging for completely discharged cells. In addition, based on data for two cells, a high or rapidly increasing value for W signals imminent cell failure by one mechanism. Degradation by another mechanism is apparently reflected in a fall-off (roll-over) of W at lower frequencies. As a secondary result, the frequency dependence of the absolute cell impedance at low frequencies (5 - 500 mHz) was found to be a good indication of the cell state-of-charge.

  17. Evaluating techniques for metagenome annotation using simulated sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Randle-Boggis, Richard J.; Helgason, Thorunn; Sapp, Melanie; Ashton, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has allowed huge amounts of DNA sequence data to be produced, advancing the capabilities of microbial ecosystem studies. The current challenge is to identify from which microorganisms and genes the DNA originated. Several tools and databases are available for annotating DNA sequences. The tools, databases and parameters used can have a significant impact on the results: naïve choice of these factors can result in a false representation of community composition and function. We use a simulated metagenome to show how different parameters affect annotation accuracy by evaluating the sequence annotation performances of MEGAN, MG-RAST, One Codex and Megablast. This simulated metagenome allowed the recovery of known organism and function abundances to be quantitatively evaluated, which is not possible for environmental metagenomes. The performance of each program and database varied, e.g. One Codex correctly annotated many sequences at the genus level, whereas MG-RAST RefSeq produced many false positive annotations. This effect decreased as the taxonomic level investigated increased. Selecting more stringent parameters decreases the annotation sensitivity, but increases precision. Ultimately, there is a trade-off between taxonomic resolution and annotation accuracy. These results should be considered when annotating metagenomes and interpreting results from previous studies. PMID:27162180

  18. Evaluation of Her2 status using photoacoustic spectroscopic CT techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Michael; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Mendonca, Marc; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of using photacoustic CT spectroscopy(PCT-s) to track a near infrared dye conjugated with trastuzumab in vivo. Materials and Methods: An animal model was developed which contained both high and low Her2 expression tumor xenografts on the same mouse. The tumors were imaged at multiple wavelengths (680- 950nm) in the PCT scanner one day prior to injection of the near infrared conjugated probe. Baseline optical imaging data was acquired and the probe was then injected via the tail vein. Fluorescence data was acquired over the next week, PCT spectroscopic data was also acquired during this timeframe. The mice were sacrificed and tumors were extirpated and sent to pathology for IHC staining to verify Her2 expression levels. The optical fluorescence images were analyzed to determine probe uptake dynamics. Reconstructed PCT spectroscopic data was analyzed using IDL routines to deconvolve the probe signal from endogenous background signals, and to determine oxygen saturation. Results: The location of the NIR conjugate was able to be identified within the tumor utilizing IDL fitting routines, in addition oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentrations were discernible from the spectroscopic data. Conclusion: Photacoustic spectroscopy allows for the determination of in vivo tumor drug delivery at greater depths than can be determined from optical imaging techniques.

  19. Nondestructive pavement evaluation technique using falling weight deflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Nageim, H.; Al-Hakim, B.; Lesley, L.

    1996-11-01

    An analytical method to predict the mechanical properties of a multi-layer pavement structure is presented. The development of the model is based on a modified back calculation model, using a finite circular plate resting on an elastic layered system. The deflection of the pavement under the dynamic action of the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is taken as a function of the load action and the characteristic strength of the layers comprising the system including the friction between the individual layers. The responses of the pavement during the impact loading of the falling weight are measured and analyzed to predict the stress, strain and coefficient of friction between the layers making the system. The results revealed that the model which incorporates the interface of friction coefficient in the back-analysis technique allows for a more accurate calculation of the mechanical properties of the pavements and thus can be used as a quality control to assess the state of adhesion between the pavement layer system.

  20. An evaluation of wind turbine blade cross section analysis techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Laird, Daniel L.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-03-01

    The blades of a modern wind turbine are critical components central to capturing and transmitting most of the load experienced by the system. They are complex structural items composed of many layers of fiber and resin composite material and typically, one or more shear webs. Large turbine blades being developed today are beyond the point of effective trial-and-error design of the past and design for reliability is always extremely important. Section analysis tools are used to reduce the three-dimensional continuum blade structure to a simpler beam representation for use in system response calculations to support full system design and certification. One model simplification approach is to analyze the two-dimensional blade cross sections to determine the properties for the beam. Another technique is to determine beam properties using static deflections of a full three-dimensional finite element model of a blade. This paper provides insight into discrepancies observed in outputs from each approach. Simple two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional blade models are analyzed in this investigation. Finally, a subset of computational and experimental section properties for a full turbine blade are compared.

  1. A Methodology to Evaluate Agent Oriented Software Engineering Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chia-En; Kavi, Krishna M.; Sheldon, Frederick T; Daley, Kristopher M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Systems using software agents (or multi-agent systems, MAS) are becoming more popular within the development mainstream because, as the name suggests, an agent aims to handle tasks autonomously with intelligence. To benefit from autonomous control and reduced running costs, system functions are performed automatically. Agent-oriented considerations are being steadily accepted into the various software design paradigms. Agents may work alone, but most commonly, they cooperate toward achieving some application goal(s). MAS's are components in systems that are viewed as many individuals living in a society working together. From a SE perspective, solving a problem should encompass problem realization, requirements analysis, architecture design and implementation. These steps should be implemented within a life-cycle process including testing, verification, and reengineering to proving the built system is sound. In this paper, we explore the various applications of agent-based systems categorized into different application domains. A baseline is developed herein to help us focus on the core of agent concepts throughout the comparative study and to investigate both the object-oriented and agent-oriented techniques that are available for constructing agent-based systems. In each respect, we address the conceptual background associated with these methodologies and how available tools can be applied within specific domains.

  2. Evaluation of Techniques Used to Estimate Cortical Feature Maps

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Nalin; Chen, Thomas L.; Watkins, Paul V.; Barbour, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    Functional properties of neurons are often distributed nonrandomly within a cortical area and form topographic maps that reveal insights into neuronal organization and interconnection. Some functional maps, such as in visual cortex, are fairly straightforward to discern with a variety of techniques, while other maps, such as in auditory cortex, have resisted easy characterization. In order to determine appropriate protocols for establishing accurate functional maps in auditory cortex, artificial topographic maps were probed under various conditions, and the accuracy of estimates formed from the actual maps was quantified. Under these conditions, low-complexity maps such as sound frequency can be estimated accurately with as few as 25 total samples (e.g., electrode penetrations or imaging pixels) if neural responses are averaged together. More samples are required to achieve the highest estimation accuracy for higher complexity maps, and averaging improves map estimate accuracy even more than increasing sampling density. Undersampling without averaging can result in misleading map estimates, while undersampling with averaging can lead to the false conclusion of no map when one actually exists. Uniform sample spacing only slightly improves map estimation over nonuniform sample spacing typical of serial electrode penetrations. Tessellation plots commonly used to visualize maps estimated using nonuniform sampling are always inferior to linearly interpolated estimates, although differences are slight at higher sampling densities. Within primary auditory cortex, then, multiunit sampling with at least 100 samples would likely result in reasonable feature map estimates for all but the highest complexity maps and the highest variability that might be expected. PMID:21889537

  3. Noninvasive Evaluation of Portal Hypertension: Emerging Tools and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, V. K.; Guha, N.; Fallowfield, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension is the main cause of complications in patients with cirrhosis. However, evaluating the development and progression of portal hypertension represents a challenge for clinicians. There has been considerable focus on the potential role of noninvasive markers of portal hypertension that could be used to stratify patients with respect to the stage of portal hypertension and to monitor disease progression or treatment response in a longitudinal manner without having to undertake repeated invasive assessment. The pathogenesis of portal hypertension is increasingly understood and emerging knowledge of the vascular processes that underpin portal hypertension has paved the way for exploring novel biomarkers of vascular injury, angiogenesis, and endothelial dysfunction. In this paper we focus on the pathogenesis of portal hypertension and potential non-invasive biomarkers with particular emphasis on serum analytes. PMID:22720166

  4. Evaluation of ultrasound techniques for brain injury detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, Joel; Kasili, Paul M.; Norton, Stephen J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1998-05-01

    In this work, we examine the physics underlying wave propagation in the head to evaluate various ultrasonic transducers for use in a brian injury detection device. The results of measurements of the attenuation coefficient and phase velocity for ultrasonic propagation in samples of brain tissue and skull bone from sheep are presented. The material properties are then used to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic pressure fields in the head. The ultrasound fields for three different transducers are calculated for propagation in a simulated brain/skull model. The model is constructed using speed-of-sound and mass density values of the two tissue types. The impact of the attenuation on the ultrasound fields is then examined. Finally, the relevant points drawn from these discussions are summarized. We hope to minimize the confounding effects of the skull by using sub-MHz ultrasound while maintaining the necessary temporal and spatial resolution to successfully detect injury in the brain.

  5. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, C.

    The application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. The technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses are compared. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality.

  6. A titration model for evaluating calcium hydroxide removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Mark; McClanahan, Scott; Bowles, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament due to its antimicrobial effects and its ability to inactivate bacterial endotoxin. The inability to totally remove this intracanal medicament from the root canal system, however, may interfere with the setting of eugenol-based sealers or inhibit bonding of resin to dentin, thus presenting clinical challenges with endodontic treatment. This study used a chemical titration method to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left after different endodontic irrigation methods. Eighty-six human canine roots were prepared for obturation. Thirty teeth were filled with known but different amounts of Ca(OH)2 for 7 days, which were dissolved out and titrated to quantitate the residual Ca(OH)2 recovered from each root to produce a standard curve. Forty-eight of the remaining teeth were filled with equal amounts of Ca(OH)2 followed by gross Ca(OH)2 removal using hand files and randomized treatment of either: 1) Syringe irrigation; 2) Syringe irrigation with use of an apical file; 3) Syringe irrigation with added 30 s of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), or 4) Syringe irrigation with apical file and PUI (n=12/group). Residual Ca(OH)2 was dissolved with glycerin and titrated to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left in the root. No method completely removed all residual Ca(OH)2. The addition of 30 s PUI with or without apical file use removed Ca(OH)2 significantly better than irrigation alone. This technique allowed quantification of residual Ca(OH)2. The use of PUI (with or without apical file) resulted in significantly lower Ca(OH)2 residue compared to irrigation alone.

  7. Evaluation of adhesively bonded composites by nondestructive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Paweł H.; Ecault, Romain; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wiesław M.

    2017-04-01

    Composite materials are commonly used in many branches of industry. One method to join or repair CFRP parts is by the use adhesive bonding. There is a search of effective methods for pre-bond assessment of bonded parts and post-bond inspection. Research reported here focuses on post-bond inspection of bonded CFRP plates. In this paper we reported results of two methods. We used noncontact ultrasonic testing (UT) technique as reference method. Ultrasonic testing was made in an immersion tank using phased-array probes. The second method was the electromechanical impedance (EMI). A piezoelectric sensors were surface mounted on each of the samples. Due to piezoelectric effect the electrical response of the sensor is related to mechanical response of the structure to which the sensors is bonded to. Measurements were conducted using HIOKI Impedance Analyzer IM3570. In order to perform a detailed study three samples of each kind were tested. There were three reference samples. The samples with modified adhesive bonds had three levels of severity, so there were three samples with each level of modification. The ultrasonic testing was focused on C-scan analysis taking into consideration the amplitude and time of flight (TOF). Two probes were used, one with 5 MHz frequency, second with 10 MHz. The EMI spectra were gathered up to 5 MHz and they were processed with signal processing algorithms in order to extract differences between reference samples and samples with modified bonds. The UT results provided relevant information about the investigated samples, while the EMI showed sensitivity to the level of adhesive bond modification.

  8. A titration model for evaluating calcium hydroxide removal techniques

    PubMed Central

    PHILLIPS, Mark; McCLANAHAN, Scott; BOWLES, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament due to its antimicrobial effects and its ability to inactivate bacterial endotoxin. The inability to totally remove this intracanal medicament from the root canal system, however, may interfere with the setting of eugenol-based sealers or inhibit bonding of resin to dentin, thus presenting clinical challenges with endodontic treatment. This study used a chemical titration method to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left after different endodontic irrigation methods. Material and Methods Eighty-six human canine roots were prepared for obturation. Thirty teeth were filled with known but different amounts of Ca(OH)2 for 7 days, which were dissolved out and titrated to quantitate the residual Ca(OH)2 recovered from each root to produce a standard curve. Forty-eight of the remaining teeth were filled with equal amounts of Ca(OH)2 followed by gross Ca(OH)2 removal using hand files and randomized treatment of either: 1) Syringe irrigation; 2) Syringe irrigation with use of an apical file; 3) Syringe irrigation with added 30 s of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), or 4) Syringe irrigation with apical file and PUI (n=12/group). Residual Ca(OH)2 was dissolved with glycerin and titrated to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left in the root. Results No method completely removed all residual Ca(OH)2. The addition of 30 s PUI with or without apical file use removed Ca(OH)2 significantly better than irrigation alone. Conclusions This technique allowed quantification of residual Ca(OH)2. The use of PUI (with or without apical file) resulted in significantly lower Ca(OH)2 residue compared to irrigation alone. PMID:25760272

  9. Comparative techniques used to evaluate Thematic Mapper data for land cover classification in Logan County, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, J. O.; Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Several digital data processing techniques were evaluated in an effort to identify and map active/abandoned, partially reclaimed, and fully revegetated surface mine areas in the central portion of Logan County. The TM data were first subjected to various enhancement procedures, including a linear contrast stretch, principal components and canonical analysis transformations. At the same time, four general procedures were followed to produce six classifications as a means of comparing the techniques involved. Preliminary results show that various feature extraction/data reduction techniques provide classification results equal or superior to the more straightforward unsupervised clustering technique. Analyst interaction time for labelling clusters is reduced using the canonical analysis and principal components procedures, though the canonical technique has clearly produced better results to date.

  10. In vitro haemocompatibility evaluation of PET surfaces using the quartz crystal microbalance technique.

    PubMed

    Doliška, Aleš; Strnad, Simona; Stana, Jan; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Ribitsch, Volker; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the complex influences of several experimental conditions on the in vitro alteration of blood, there is still a lack of viable in vitro tests and methods for blood compatibility evaluation of biomaterials. The aim of this research was to study a new approach for the haemocompatibility assessment of differently modified PET surfaces using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation unit (QCM-D) technique and measure the mass increase caused by clot formation under physiological conditions. For this purpose some of the most frequently applied in vitro methods for haemocompatibility determination, i.e., clotting time measurement and observation of red blood cells' mobility, were applied and their accuracy and sensitivity compared to the new QCM-D approach. Haemocompatibility was evaluated for non-modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surfaces and PET surfaces coated with dextran sulphate and heparin. The basic anti-coagulant properties of heparin and dextran sulphate were analysed by means of their activated partial thromboplastine time (APTT). PET, as well as different polysaccharides coatings were chosen for this study due to their promising biocompatible properties and numerous possibilities for biomedical applications. The results showed that the new QCM-D technique to study clot formation in contact with PET surfaces under physiological environment was the most informative and accurate for in vitro haemocompatibility assessment. Although the results achieved with the other two methods were in good correlation, they did not provide such a high level of sensitivity.

  11. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  12. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhold steam generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generatjion, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generatjion are discussed. (JMT)

  13. Evaluation of Candidate In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    B. Fox; H. Ban; J. Daw; K. Condie; D. Knudson; J. Rempe

    2009-05-01

    Thermophysical properties of materials must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural properties in nuclear reactors. In the case of nuclear fuels during irradiation, the physical structure and chemical composition change as a function of time and position within the rod. Typically, thermal conductivity changes, as well as other thermophysical properties being evaluated during irradiation in a materials and test reactor, are measured out-of-pile in “hot-cells.” Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provide understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for the development of next generation reactors and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Having the capacity to effectively and quickly characterize fuels and material properties during irradiation has the potential to improve the fidelity of nuclear fuel data and reduce irradiation testing costs.

  14. Evaluation of traumatic brain injury by optical technique.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shyh; Wang, Che-Chuan; Chang, Ming-Hsien; Chio, Chung-Ching

    2015-10-14

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), usually due to brain shaking or impact, affects the normal brain function and may lead to severe disability or even death. However, there is paucity of information regarding changes in the physiologic state of humans or animals after brain shaking. In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to continuously monitor the concentration change of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) to understand changes in the physiological state during and after brain shaking. Laser Doppler flowmetry was also used to monitor changes in cerebral blood flow under TBI to supplement the investigation. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to monitor changes of infarction volume corresponding to different impact strengths. The experimental results indicated that concentration changes of HbO2 and total-hemoglobin (HbT) were significantly related to the impact strength. The infarction volume was also significantly related to the impact strength. Therefore, the non-invasive monitoring of concentration changes in HbO 2 , HbR, and HbT using NIRS may have a clinical application for the evaluation of TBI.

  15. Retrospective Evaluation of Anaesthesia Techniques for Hip Replacement Operations.

    PubMed

    Koç, Murat; Saçan, Özlem; Gamlı, Mehmet; Taşpınar, Vildan; Postacı, Aysun; Fikir, Emel; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2014-06-01

    In this retrospective study, we evaluated the demographic characteristics of patients that underwent hip replacement surgery in our orthopedic clinic. Associated diseases, preoperative laboratory findings, intraoperative findings, and the effect of admission or refusal to the intensive care unit on postoperative mortality and morbidity were recorded. Furthermore, we tried to identify surgical and anaesthetic methods applied, intraoperative hemodynamic changes, length of stay in the post-anaesthesia care unit, and postoperative complications. Demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, preoperative laboratory findings, intraoperative findings, and admission or refusal to the intensive care unit of patients who underwent hip replacement surgery between January 2008-December 2010 were enrolled. Out of 500 patients, 33.4% (n=164) were operated under general anaesthesia, 34% (n=170) under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia, 22.2% (n=111) under spinal anaesthesia, 6.4% (n=32) under combined lomber plexus block and sciatic nerve block, and 4% (n=20) under epidural anaesthesia. Mean hospital stay was 7 days in the general anaesthesia group and 5 days in the regional anaesthesia group. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores and incidence of co-morbidities were higher in the partial hip replacement group. Admission to the intensive care unit was lower in the total hip replacement group. Hospital stay was shorter in the partial hip replacement group. Mortality rates on the 7(th) and 30(th) days were higher in the partial hip replacement group.

  16. Retrospective Evaluation of Anaesthesia Techniques for Hip Replacement Operations

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Murat; Saçan, Özlem; Gamlı, Mehmet; Taşpınar, Vildan; Postacı, Aysun; Fikir, Emel; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this retrospective study, we evaluated the demographic characteristics of patients that underwent hip replacement surgery in our orthopedic clinic. Associated diseases, preoperative laboratory findings, intraoperative findings, and the effect of admission or refusal to the intensive care unit on postoperative mortality and morbidity were recorded. Furthermore, we tried to identify surgical and anaesthetic methods applied, intraoperative hemodynamic changes, length of stay in the post-anaesthesia care unit, and postoperative complications. Methods Demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, preoperative laboratory findings, intraoperative findings, and admission or refusal to the intensive care unit of patients who underwent hip replacement surgery between January 2008-December 2010 were enrolled. Results Out of 500 patients, 33.4% (n=164) were operated under general anaesthesia, 34% (n=170) under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia, 22.2% (n=111) under spinal anaesthesia, 6.4% (n=32) under combined lomber plexus block and sciatic nerve block, and 4% (n=20) under epidural anaesthesia. Mean hospital stay was 7 days in the general anaesthesia group and 5 days in the regional anaesthesia group. Conclusion American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores and incidence of co-morbidities were higher in the partial hip replacement group. Admission to the intensive care unit was lower in the total hip replacement group. Hospital stay was shorter in the partial hip replacement group. Mortality rates on the 7th and 30th days were higher in the partial hip replacement group. PMID:27366407

  17. An evaluation of motion mitigation techniques for pancreatic SBRT.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Warren G; Jones, Bernard L; Schefter, Tracey; Goodman, Karyn A; Miften, Moyed

    2017-07-01

    Ablative radiation therapy can be beneficial for pancreatic cancer, and motion mitigation helps to reduce dose to nearby organs-at-risk. Here, we compared two competing methods of motion mitigation-abdominal compression and respiratory gating. CBCT scans of 19 pancreatic cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy were acquired with and without abdominal compression, and 3D target motion was reconstructed from CBCT projection images. Daily target motion without mitigation was compared against motion with compression and with simulated respiratory gating. Gating was free-breathing and based on an external surrogate. Target coverage was also evaluated for each scenario by simulating reduced target margins. Without mitigation, average daily target motion in LR/AP/SI directions was 5.3, 7.3, and 13.9mm, respectively. With abdominal compression, these values were 5.2, 5.3, and 8.5mm, and with respiratory gating they were 3.2, 3.9, and 5.5mm, respectively. Reductions with compression were significant in AP/SI directions, while reductions with gating were significant in all directions. Respiratory gating also demonstrated better coverage in the reduced margins scenario. Respiratory gating is the most effective strategy for reducing motion in pancreatic SBRT, and may allow for dose escalation through a reduction in target margin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating fusion techniques for multi-sensor satellite image data

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Benjamin W; Vatsavai, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Satellite image data fusion is a topic of interest in many areas including environmental monitoring, emergency response, and defense. Typically any single satellite sensor cannot provide all of the benefits offered by a combination of different sensors (e.g., high-spatial but low spectral resolution vs. low-spatial but high spectral, optical vs. SAR). Given the respective strengths and weaknesses of the different types of image data, it is beneficial to fuse many types of image data to extract as much information as possible from the data. Our work focuses on the fusion of multi-sensor image data into a unified representation that incorporates the potential strengths of a sensor in order to minimize classification error. Of particular interest is the fusion of optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images into a single, multispectral image of the best possible spatial resolution. We explore various methods to optimally fuse these images and evaluate the quality of the image fusion by using K-means clustering to categorize regions in the fused images and comparing the accuracies of the resulting categorization maps.

  19. Radiopacity of Esthetic Post Materials: Evaluation with Digital Analysis Technique.

    PubMed

    Kaval, Mehmet Emin; Akin, Hakan; Guneri, Pelin

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the radiopacity of five post materials using a digital image analysis method. Twelve specimens from each post type (two zirconia and three fiber based) of 2 mm in thickness were obtained using a diamond blade mounted on a cutting machine, and digital radiographs were taken along with aluminum step-wedge and dentin discs under standard exposure conditions. The mean gray-values of specimens were measured using a computer graphics program. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak multicomparison test (p = 0.05). The highest radiopacity was observed in custom zirconia (5.842 millimeters of equivalent Al [mmAl]), and the lowest value was detected with FRC-Postec (Ivoclar Vivadent) (1.716 mmAl). Significant differences were revealed between the radiopacity values among all groups (p < 0.05), except the Zr post materials (p = 0.56). All tested post materials had higher radiopacity than dentin. Further studies will be required to clarify optimum radiopacity properties of the post materials to provide a precise clinical observation. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Matthew A; Zieminski, Chris; Fuller, Todd K; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling costs, and the cost/sample for each method relative to species and study site, and performed simulations to determine the sampling intensity necessary to achieve abundance estimates with coefficients of variation (CV) of <10%. Scat sampling was effective for both coyotes and bears and hair snags effectively sampled bears in two of three study sites. Rub pads were ineffective in sampling coyotes and lynx. The precision of abundance estimates was dependent upon the number of captures/individual. Our simulations suggested that ~3.4 captures/individual will result in a < 10% CV for abundance estimates when populations are small (23-39), but fewer captures/individual may be sufficient for larger populations. We found scat sampling was more cost-effective for sampling multiple species, but suggest that hair sampling may be less expensive at study sites with limited road access for bears. Given the dependence of sampling scheme on species and study site, the optimal sampling scheme is likely to be study-specific warranting pilot studies in most circumstances.

  1. A New Active Cavitation Mapping Technique for Pulsed HIFU Applications – Bubble Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; Hwang, Joo Ha; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new active cavitation mapping technique for pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) applications termed bubble Doppler is proposed and its feasibility tested in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms. pHIFU therapy uses short pulses, delivered at low pulse repetition frequency, to cause transient bubble activity that has been shown to enhance drug and gene delivery to tissues. The current gold standard for detecting and monitoring cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments is passive cavitation detection (PCD), which provides minimal information on the spatial distribution of the bubbles. B-mode imaging can detect hyperecho formation, but has very limited sensitivity, especially to small, transient microbubbles. The bubble Doppler method proposed here is based on a fusion of the adaptations of three Doppler techniques that had been previously developed for imaging of ultrasound contrast agents – color Doppler, pulse inversion Doppler, and decorrelation Doppler. Doppler ensemble pulses were interleaved with therapeutic pHIFU pulses using three different pulse sequences and standard Doppler processing was applied to the received echoes. The information yielded by each of the techniques on the distribution and characteristics of pHIFU-induced cavitation bubbles was evaluated separately, and found to be complementary. The unified approach - bubble Doppler – was then proposed to both spatially map the presence of transient bubbles and to estimate their sizes and the degree of nonlinearity. PMID:25265178

  2. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    PubMed

    Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-25

    There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.

  3. A technique for measuring absolute toe pressures: evaluation of pressure-sensitive film techniques.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, A S; Werner, F W; Fortino, M D; Spadaro, J A

    1992-05-01

    Although a number of pathologies of the forefoot in ballet dancers on pointe have been described, pressures and deforming forces have not been adequately measured. To evaluate the possible use of pressure-sensitive film (PSF) in measuring the pressures on the external soft tissues in such a confined space as the dancer's toe shoe, it was tested and calibrated with 20 cadaver toes. Each cadaver toe was internally stabilized and loaded longitudinally against PSF on a flat surface. The resultant films were analyzed with a video imaging system and the pressures and total forces were determined. Results showed that the linearity of the PSF to pressure had a regression value of 0.98. By using two sensitivity ranges of films, the total force measured by the PSF was found to be within 10% of the known applied force on each toe. The PSF, therefore, may very well be a useful and accurate method of measuring external soft tissue pressures on the forefoot.

  4. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.

    1982-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil-bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generation, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generation are discussed.

  5. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of system models and techniques for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness is reported. Topics covered include: analysis of functional dependence: a prototype software package, METAPHOR, developed to aid the evaluation of performability; and a comprehensive performability modeling and evaluation exercise involving the SIFT computer.

  6. Active and passive techniques for tiltrotor aeroelastic stability augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Eric L.

    Tiltrotors are susceptible to whirl flutter, an aeroelastic instability characterized by a coupling of rotor-generated aerodynamic forces and elastic wing modes in high speed airplane-mode flight. The conventional approach to ensuring adequate whirl flutter stability will not scale easily to larger tiltrotor designs. This study constitutes an investigation of several alternatives for improving tiltrotor aerolastic stability. A whirl flutter stability analysis is developed that does not rely on more complex models to determine the variations in crucial input parameters with flight condition. Variation of blade flap and lag frequency, and pitch-flap, pitch-lag, and flap-lag couplings, are calculated from physical parameters, such as blade structural flap and lag stiffness distribution (inboard or outboard of pitch bearing), collective pitch, and precone. The analysis is used to perform a study of the influence of various design parameters on whirl flutter stability. While previous studies have investigated the individual influence of various design parameters, the present investigation uses formal optimization techniques to determine a unique combination of parameters that maximizes whirl flutter stability. The optimal designs require only modest changes in the key rotor and wing design parameters to significantly increase flutter speed. When constraints on design parameters are relaxed, optimized configurations are obtained that allow large values of kinematic pitch-flap (delta3) coupling without degrading aeroelastic stability. Larger values of delta3 may be desirable for advanced tiltrotor configurations. An investigation of active control of wing flaperons for stability augmentation is also conducted. Both stiff- and soft-inplane tiltrotor configurations are examined. Control systems that increase flutter speed and wing mode sub-critical damping are designed while observing realistic limits on flaperon deflection. The flaperon is shown to be particularly

  7. Tissue dissolution ability of sodium hypochlorite activated by photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming technique.

    PubMed

    Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Arslan, Dilara; Usumez, Aslihan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) technique on the pulp tissue-dissolving capacity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and compare it with the EndoActivator System (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) and the Er:YAG laser with an endodontic fiber tip. Bovine pulp tissue samples (45 ± 15 mg) and dentin powder (10 mg) were placed in 1.5-mL Eppendorf tubes with 1 mL 5.25% NaOCl (Wizard; Rehber Kimya, Istanbul, Turkey) or distilled water (control) for 5 minutes with activation by the EndoActivator System, the Er:YAG laser with an endodontic fiber tip, and the PIPS technique. Nonactivated NaOCl served as the positive control. All testing procedures were performed at room temperature. The tissue samples were weighed before and after treatment, and the percentage of weight loss was calculated. The differences were statistically analyzed. The highest rate of tissue dissolution was observed in the NaOCl + Er:YAG group (P < .05). The NaOCl + PIPS group dissolved more bovine pulp tissue than the nonactivated NaOCl group (P < .05). There was no statistically significant difference between the rates of tissue dissolution of the NaOCl + EA and the nonactivated NaOCl groups (P > .05). NaOCl activation with the Er:YAG laser with an endodontic fiber tip was the most effective in bovine pulp tissue dissolution. The PIPS technique also promoted superior tissue-dissolving effects when compared with no activation. However, the EndoActivator System had no direct effect on tissue dissolution. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints by Acousto-Ultrasonic Technique and Acoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require an effective nondestructive evaluation technique for their bond strength prediction. To properly evaluate factors affecting bond strength, effects of defects such as voids and disbonds on stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. At the same time, in order to use acousto-ultrasonic (AU) technique to evaluate bond quality, the effect of these defects on dynamic response of single lap joints must be clear. The stress distribution in a single lap joint with and without defects (void or disbond) is analyzed. A bar-Theta parameter which contains adherend and adhesive thickness and properties is introduced. It is shown for bonded joints with bar-Theta greater than 10, that a symmetric void or disbond in the middle of overlap up to the 70 percent of overlap length has negligible effect on bond strength. In contrast frequency response analyses by a finite element technique showed that the dynamic response is affected significantly by the presence of voids or disbonds. These results have direct implication in the interpretations of AU results. Through transmission attenuation and a number of AU parameters for various specimens with and without defects are evaluated. It is found that although void and disbond have similar effects on bond strength (stress distribution), they have completely different effects on wave propagation characteristics. For steel-adhesive-steel specimens with voids, the attenuation changes are related to the bond strength. However, the attenuation changes for specimens with disbond are fairly constant over a disbond range. In order to incorporate the location of defects in AU parameters, a weighting function is introduced. Using an immersion system with focused transducers, a number of AU parameters are evaluated. It is found that by incorporating weighting functions in these parameters better sensitivities (AU parameters vs. bond strength) are achieved. Acoustic emission

  9. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 2--morphological and mineralogical features.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic emissions were studied at Mount Etna (Italy) by using moss-bags technique. Mosses were exposed around the volcano at different distances from the active vents to evaluate the impact of volcanic emissions in the atmosphere. Morphology and mineralogy of volcanic particulate intercepted by mosses were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Particles emitted during passive degassing activity from the two active vents, Bocca Nuova and North East Crater (BNC and NEC), were identified as silicates, sulfates and halide compounds. In addition to volcanic particles, we found evidences also of geogenic, anthropogenic and marine spray input. The study has shown the robustness of this active biomonitoring technique to collect particles, very useful in active volcanic areas characterized by continuous degassing and often not easily accessible to apply conventional sampling techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  11. Development of a corrosion detection experiment to evaluate conventional and advanced NDI techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Aging Aircraft NDI Validation Center (AANC) was established by the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) at Sandia National Laboratories in August of 1991. The goal of the AANC is to provide independent validation of technologies intended to enhance the structural inspection of aging commuter and transport aircraft. The deliverables from the AANC`s validation activities are assessments of the reliability of existing and emerging inspection technologies as well as analyses of the cost benefits to be derived from their implementation. This paper describes the methodology developed by the AANC to assess the performance of NDI techniques. In particular, an experiment being developed to evaluate corrosion detection devices will be presented. The experiment uses engineered test specimens, as well as complete aircraft test beds to provide metrics for NDI validation.

  12. Is anterior cruciate ligament surgery technique important in rehabilitation and activity scores?

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Bekir Eray; Kara, Adnan; Celik, Haluk; Oc, Yunus; Camur, Savas

    2016-01-01

    To compare the two different anterior cruciate ligament surgery techniques’ effect in rehabilitation and activity performance. Fifty-five patients were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients with transtibial technique (TT), 28 with anatomic single-bundle technique (AT) included. Tegner Activity Scale (TAS) was performed at preoperation and follow-up. The returning time of the sport and work was evaluated at follow-up. Single-leg hop test was performed at follow-up. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. The determined length difference between the operated knee and the intact knee was compared between the two groups. Average age of TT and AT was 27.9±6.4 yr, 28.3±6 yr, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups in duration of returning to sport. TT group had higher duration to return to sport (P<0.01). No difference between the two groups in duration of returning to work (P>0.05). There was a significant difference between the two groups. TT group had significantly higher values than AT group (P<0.01). No difference in TAS between the two techniques at preoperation and at last follow-up (P>0.05). The increase of TAS in patients who had AT was higher than the patients who had TT (P>0.05). No difference in single-leg hop test at 55%–65%, 65%–75%, and 85%–95% level (P>0.05). In this test at 75%–85% TT group had higher values than AT group (P<0.05), AT group had higher values at 95%–105% level (P<0.05). Good short and long-term knee outcome scores depend on rehabilitation protocol after surgery. Surgery technique should provide the adequate stability in rehabilitation period. AT obtains better outcomes in rehabilitation. PMID:27419120

  13. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  14. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  15. Comparison of Penetration of Irrigant Activated by Traditional Methods with A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kanumuru, Pavan Kumar; Sooraparaju, Sujatha Gopal; Nujella, Surya Kumari; Reddy, Bala Kasi; Penigalapati, Siva Ram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effectiveness of irrigation depends upon various irrigation activation methods & devices used. Aim To compare and evaluate the penetration of irrigant upto working length and into simulated lateral canals using four different irrigation activation techniques. Materials and Methods The root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth were instrumented using the proTaper rotary system. After decalcification of each sample tooth, three simulated lateral canals were created at 2mm, 4mm and 6mm levels from the root apex using a 06-size C+ file. After clearing the samples they were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (n=15) and 1ml of Irrigating Contrast Solution (ICS) was delivered into all samples and then it is activated with 4 different methods Group I-Conventional syringe and needle, Group II - Sonic activation with Endo activator, Group III – Ultrasonic activation with ultrasonic tips and Group IV - Activation using reciprocation movement. All the samples were examined under a stereomicroscope and irrigant penetration was evaluated by means of penetration of ICS. Results Group III and Group IV resulted in better penetration of ICS into lateral canals at 2mm and 4mm depth (p<0.001), when compared with Group I and II. At lateral canals 6mm all the groups except Group I, had shown 100 % penetration. Conclusion The activation of irrigant using reciprocation was able to achieve penetration of irrigating contrast solution both up to the working length and into lateral canals. Hence the clinical significance of this method of irrigant activation is that it can be used for effective penetration of irrigants both upto working length and into lateral canals. PMID:26674879

  16. Functional evaluation of professional athletes treated with a mini-open technique for achilles tendon rupture

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Antonio; Lanzetti, Riccardo Maria; Ciompi, Alessandro; Rossi, Cristina; Lupariello, Domenico; Ferretti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction: in this study we report the functional results of 36 professional athletes treated with a combined percutaneous and mini-open technique. Methods: patients were evaluated with Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles questionnaire (VISA-A), the objective 100-points Hannover scale and the Ergo-jump Bosco System device. Results: at a mean 28- month follow-up no re-rupture cases were observed. Six patients had minor complications. The Ergo-jump Bosco System device showed no significant differences in the side-to-side evaluation in regard to strength (−0.94%) and elasticity (+2.44%), while a significant post-operative loss was detected in the endurance trials (−6.78%). The Hannover scale showed an average score of 94.5, while the VISA-A had an average of 93.1. Thirty-one patients resumed their pre-operative sports activity level within five months from surgery. Conclusions: our results showed that the combined mini-open and percutaneous repair is an effective treatment for professional athletes, with satisfactory clinical and functional results, lack of major complications and a quick return to professional sports activity. PMID:25332932

  17. The "Small Talk" Activity: An Interactive, Applied Learning Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Tracie L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the "small talk" activity used in a course on the psychology of stereotyping and prejudice that helps students gain a comprehensive overview of course material and encourages them to apply course content to situations outside the classroom. Offers variations on the activity and descriptive statistics concerning the activity's usefulness.…

  18. Activity Trackers Implement Different Behavior Change Techniques for Activity, Sleep, and Sedentary Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Mitch; Murawski, Beatrice; Short, Camille E; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kirwan, Morwenna

    2017-08-14

    Several studies have examined how the implementation of behavior change techniques (BCTs) varies between different activity trackers. However, activity trackers frequently allow tracking of activity, sleep, and sedentary behaviors; yet, it is unknown how the implementation of BCTs differs between these behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the number and type of BCTs that are implemented by wearable activity trackers (self-monitoring systems) in relation to activity, sleep, and sedentary behaviors and to determine whether the number and type of BCTs differ between behaviors. Three self-monitoring systems (Fitbit [Charge HR], Garmin [Vivosmart], and Jawbone [UP3]) were each used for a 1-week period in August 2015. Each self-monitoring system was used by two of the authors (MJD and BM) concurrently. The Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy was used to assess the implementation of 40 BCTs in relation to activity, sleep, and sedentary behaviors. Discrepancies in ratings were resolved by discussion, and interrater agreement in the number of BCTs implemented was assessed using kappa statistics. Interrater agreement ranged from 0.64 to 1.00. From a possible range of 40 BCTs, the number of BCTs present for activity ranged from 19 (Garmin) to 33 (Jawbone), from 4 (Garmin) to 29 (Jawbone) for sleep, and 0 (Fitbit) to 10 (Garmin) for sedentary behavior. The average number of BCTs implemented was greatest for activity (n=26) and smaller for sleep (n=14) and sedentary behavior (n=6). The number and type of BCTs implemented varied between each of the systems and between activity, sleep, and sedentary behaviors. This provides an indication of the potential of these systems to change these behaviors, but the long-term effectiveness of these systems to change activity, sleep, and sedentary behaviors remains unknown.

  19. Not another boring lecture: engaging learners with active learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Margaret; Wagner, Mary Jo; Poznanski, Stacey; Schiller, Jocelyn; Santen, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Core content in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs is traditionally covered in didactic sessions, despite evidence suggesting that learners do not retain a significant portion of what is taught during lectures. We describe techniques that medical educators can use when leading teaching sessions to foster engagement and encourage self-directed learning, based on current literature and evidence about learning. When these techniques are incorporated, sessions can be effective in delivering core knowledge, contextualizing content, and explaining difficult concepts, leading to increased learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. FTIR Analysis of Alkali Activated Slag and Fly Ash Using Deconvolution Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madavarapu, Sateesh Babu

    The studies on aluminosilicate materials to replace traditional construction materials such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to reduce the effects caused has been an important research area for the past decades. Many properties like strength have already been studied and the primary focus is to learn about the reaction mechanism and the effect of the parameters on the formed products. The aim of this research was to explore the structural changes and reaction product analysis of geopolymers (Slag & Fly Ash) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and deconvolution techniques. Spectroscopic techniques give valuable information at a molecular level but not all methods are economic and simple. To understand the mechanisms of alkali activated aluminosilicate materials, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR has been used where the effect of the parameters on the reaction products have been analyzed. To analyze complex systems like geopolymers using FTIR, deconvolution techniques help to obtain the properties of a particular peak attributed to a certain molecular vibration. Time and temperature dependent analysis were done on slag pastes to understand the polymerization of reactive silica in the system with time and temperature variance. For time dependent analysis slag has been activated with sodium and potassium silicates using two different `n'values and three different silica modulus [Ms- (SiO2 /M2 O)] values. The temperature dependent analysis was done by curing the samples at 60°C and 80°C. Similarly fly ash has been studied by activating with alkali hydroxides and alkali silicates. Under the same curing conditions the fly ash samples were evaluated to analyze the effects of added silicates for alkali activation. The peak shifts in the FTIR explains the changes in the structural nature of the matrix and can be identified using the deconvolution technique. A strong correlation is found between the concentrations of silicate monomer in the

  1. Global SOFC activities and evaluation programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Noboru

    1994-04-01

    Perhaps there are a few hundred organizations worldwide at present such as universities, research institutes or companies where the research and development of SOFC is carried out, including basic research on materials for SOFCs. This paper, will not refer to the status of basic R&D materials similarities or on a single cell, but will observe developmental activities in Europe, USA and Japan, focusing on the development which has already the stage of fabrication and operation of a SOFC cell stack. Information will also include detailed operation and evaluation of the 25 kW class systems of Westinghouse.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation/characterization of composite materials and structures using the acousto-ultrasonic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dos Reis, H. L. M.; Vary, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper introduces the nature and the underlying rational of the acousto-ultrasonic stress wave factor technique and some of its applications to composite materials and structures. Furthermore, two examples of successful application of the acousto-ultrasonic technique are presented in detail. In the first example, the acousto-ultrasonic technique is used to evaluate the adhesive bond strength between rubber layers and steel plates, and in the seocnd example the tehcnique is used to monitor progressive damage in wire rope.

  3. Application and evaluation of a motion compensation technique to breast MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrücker, Frank; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Wismüller, Axel; Schlossbauer, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    Motion induced artifacts represent a major problem in detection and diagnosis of breast cancer in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the performance of a new motion correction algorithm based on different feature extraction techniques and subsequent classification techniques. Based on several simulation results, we determined the optimal motion compensation parameters, the optimal feature number and tested different classification techniques. Our results have shown that motion compensation can improve in some cases classification results.

  4. Spherical crystallization: A technique use to reform solubility and flow property of active pharmaceutical ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Arindam; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Srivastava, Birendra

    2017-01-01

    Tablets have been choice of manufacturers over the years due to their comparatively low cost of manufacturing, packaging, shipping, and ease of administration; also have better stability and can be considered virtually tamper proof. A major challenge in formulation development of the tablets extends from lower solubility of the active agent to the elaborated manufacturing procedures for obtaining a compressible granular material. Moreover, the validation and documentation increases, as the numbers of steps increases for an industrially acceptable granulation process. Spherical crystallization (SC) is a promising technique, which encompass the crystallization, agglomeration, and spheronization phenomenon in a single step. Initially, two methods, spherical agglomeration, and emulsion solvent diffusion, were suggested to get a desired result. Later on, the introduction of modified methods such as crystallo-co-agglomeration, ammonia diffusion system, and neutralization techniques overcame the limitations of the older techniques. Under controlled conditions such as solvent composition, mixing rate and temperature, spherical dense agglomerates cluster from particles. Application of the SC technique includes production of compacted spherical particles of drug having improved uniformity in shape and size of particles, good bulk density, better flow properties as well as better solubility so SC when used on commercial scale will bring down the production costs of pharmaceutical tablet and will increase revenue for the pharmaceutical industries in the competitive market. This review summarizes the technologies available for SC and also suggests the parameters for evaluation of a viable product. PMID:28405573

  5. Application of System Identification Techniques to Turbine Engine Post-Stall Test and Evaluation. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Application of System Identification Techniques to Turbine Engine Post-Stall Test and Evaluation was an Air Force funded study to investigate and...apply system identification techniques to post-stall engine models in a manner which allowed AEDC personnel to become proficient in the use of these

  6. ANALYSIS OF EMERGING NDE TECHNIQUES: METHODS FOR EVALUATING AND IMPLEMENTING CONTINUOUS ONLINE MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Lupold, Timothy R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2009-08-05

    One of the goals of the program for the proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) is to manage proactively the in-service degradation of metallic components in aging NPPs. As some forms of degradation, such as stress corrosion cracking, are characterized by a long initiation time followed by a rapid growth phase, new inspection or monitoring technologies may be required. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that may be needed include techniques to find stress corrosion cracking (SCC) precursors, on-line monitoring techniques to detect cracks as they initiate and grow, as well as advances in NDE technologies. This paper reports on the first part of the development of a methodology to determine the effectiveness of these emerging NDE techniques for managing metallic degradation. This methodology will draw from experience derived from evaluating techniques that have "emerged" in the past. The methodology will follow five stages: a definition of inspection parameters, a technical evaluation, laboratory testing, round robin testing, and the design of a performance demonstration program. This methodology will formalize the path taken for previous techniques and set a predictable course for future NDE techniques. This paper then applies the expert review section of the methodology to the acoustic emission technique to evaluate the use of acoustic emission in performing continuous online monitoring of reactor components.

  7. The RAPID technique: a new method for evaluating downstream effects of forest practices on riparian zones.

    Treesearch

    G. Grant

    1988-01-01

    The RAPID (riparian aerial photographic inventory of disturbance) technique is a method for using measurements made on aerial photographs of patterns of riparian canopy disturbance to evaluate changes in channel conditions through time and to link such changes with their possible upstream causes. The RAPID technique provides resource specialists and managers with a...

  8. Introducing Social Stratification and Inequality: An Active Learning Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Lucy

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes literature on techniques for teaching social stratification. Describes the three parts of an exercise that enables students to understand economic and political inequality: students are given a family scenario, create household budgets, and finally rework the national budget with their family scenario groups. Discusses student…

  9. Technique for inferring sizes of stellar-active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson-Hockey, A.K.; Radick, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Inspection of spectroheliograms showing large, well-developed active regions generally show the sunspots to lead the associated plage, in the sense of the solar rotation. Measurements have been made from spectroheliograms of spot-plage offsets and compared with nearly contemporaneous integrated disk observations. Larger active regions generally show larger spot leads; however, information regarding active-region sizes and spot-plage offsets is not readily obtainable form stellar-type observations of the Sun.

  10. Incorporating active-learning techniques and competency assessment into a critical care elective course.

    PubMed

    Malcom, Daniel R; Hibbs, Jennifer L

    2012-09-10

    To design, implement, and measure the effectiveness of a critical care elective course for second-year students in a 3-year accelerated doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. A critical care elective course was developed that used active-learning techniques, including cooperative learning and group presentations, to deliver content on critical care topics. Group presentations had to include a disease state overview, practice guidelines, and clinical recommendations, and were evaluated by course faculty members and peers. Students' mean scores on a 20-question critical-care competency assessment administered before and after the course improved by 11% (p < 0.05). Course evaluations and comments were positive. A critical care elective course resulted in significantly improved competency in critical care and was well-received by students.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Virtualization Techniques for Control and Access of Storage Systems in Data Center Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-09-01

    Virtualization is a new technology that creates virtual environments based on the existing physical resources. This article evaluates effect of virtualization techniques on control servers and access method in storage systems [1, 2]. In control server virtualization, we have presented a tile based evaluation based on heterogeneous workloads to compare several key parameters and demonstrate effectiveness of virtualization techniques. Moreover, we have evaluated the virtualized model using VMotion techniques and maximum consolidation. In access method, we have prepared three different scenarios using direct, semi-virtual, and virtual attachment models. We have evaluated the proposed models with several workloads including OLTP database, data streaming, file server, web server, etc. Results of evaluation for different criteria confirm that server virtualization technique has high throughput and CPU usage as well as good performance with noticeable agility. Also virtual technique is a successful alternative for accessing to the storage systems especially in large capacity systems. This technique can therefore be an effective solution for expansion of storage area and reduction of access time. Results of different evaluation and measurements demonstrate that the virtualization in control server and full virtual access provide better performance and more agility as well as more utilization in the systems and improve business continuity plan.

  12. Decontamination Techniques and Fixative Coatings Evaluated in the Building 235-F Legacy Source Term Removal Study

    SciTech Connect

    WAYNE, FARRELL

    2005-04-21

    Savannah River Site Building 235-F was being considered for future plutonium storage and stabilization missions but the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) noted that large quantities of Plutonium-238 left in cells and gloveboxes from previous operations posed a potential hazard to both the existing and future workforce. This material resulted from the manufacture of Pu-238 heat sources used by the NASA space program to generate electricity for deep space exploration satellites. A multi-disciplinary team was assembled to propose a cost- effective solution to mitigate this legacy source term which would facilitate future DOE plutonium storage activities in 235-F. One aspect of this study involved an evaluation of commercially available radiological decontamination techniques to remove the legacy Pu-238 and fixative coatings that could stabilize any residual Pu-238 following decontamination activities. Four chemical methods were identified as most likely to meet decontamination objectives for this project and are discussed in detail. Short and long term fixatives will be reviewed with particular attention to the potential radiation damage caused by Pu-238, which has a high specific activity and would be expected to cause significant radiation damage to any coating applied. Encapsulants that were considered to mitigate the legacy Pu-238 will also be reviewed.

  13. Evaluating clinical practice: using play-based techniques to elicit children's views of therapy.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Jessica; Ryan, Virginia

    2007-07-01

    Children's services' drive towards accountability, and children's rights advocates' desire to truthfully represent children's views, are leading to more evaluation of child therapy services. The challenge is to find methods that accurately reflect children's views of their therapy. In this article we argue that play therapy skills have an important place in evaluating child therapy practice. We discuss four different directive play therapy techniques three of which have been piloted in the first author's practice to help children express their views of therapy at the end of their interventions. These are: 'The expert show', the miniature playroom technique and puppet and large doll evaluations. Explanations and examples are given from pilot research with 12 children. The issues and challenges inherent in play-based evaluations also are explored. We argue that expressive therapists are in a prime position to evaluate children's services and that children appear well able to express their views of therapy with these child-centred techniques.

  14. Biofilm removal by 6% sodium hypochlorite activated by different irrigation techniques.

    PubMed

    Ordinola-Zapata, R; Bramante, C M; Aprecio, R M; Handysides, R; Jaramillo, D E

    2014-07-01

    To compare the removal of biofilm utilizing four irrigation techniques on a bovine root canal model. Fifty dentine specimens (2 × 2 mm) were infected with biofilm. The samples were then adapted to previously created cavities in the bovine model. The root canals were irrigated twice with 2 mL of 6% sodium hypochlorite for 2 min (4 min total). Following initial irrigation, the different treatment modalities were introduced for 60 s (3 × 20 s intervals). The evaluated techniques were needle irrigation, Endoactivator (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA), passive ultrasonic irrigation and laser-activated irrigation (photon-induced photoacoustic streaming). The controls were irrigated with distilled water and conventional needle irrigation. Subsequently, the dentine samples were separated from the model and analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fifteen operative fields were scanned per block, and SEM pictures were captured. Two calibrated evaluators examined the images and collected data using a four-degree scale. Nonparametric tests were used to evaluate for statistical significance amongst the groups. The group undergoing laser-activated irrigation using photon-induced photoacoustic streaming exhibited the most favourable results in the removal of biofilm. Passive ultrasonic irrigation scores were significantly lower than both the Endoactivator and needle irrigation scores. Sonic and needle irrigation were not significantly different. The least favourable results were found in the control group. Laser activation of 6% sodium hypochlorite significantly improved the cleaning of biofilm-infected dentine followed by passive ultrasonic irrigation. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Nitric oxide and cell signaling: in vivo evaluation of NO-dependent apoptosis by MRI and not NMR techniques.

    PubMed

    Hortelano, Sonsoles; Zeini, Miriam; Través, Paqui G; Boscá, Lisardo

    2005-01-01

    Apoptosis plays a key role in many pathological circumstances, such as neurodegenerative diseases. In these processes, the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) has been well established, and the ability of NO to exert cellular damage due to its reactive oxidative properties is perhaps the primary neurotoxic mechanism. The caspase 3 activation has recently been observed in stroke, spinal cord trauma, head injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Although numerous techniques have been described to evaluate apoptosis, these approaches involve invasive techniques and cannot provide detailed information about apoptosis in vivo. In this chapter, we describe the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as a non-invasive technique to detect apoptosis in vivo. fMRI techniques can detect apoptosis at early stages in the process, allowing the onset in intact biological systems, providing a useful tool for monitoring apoptosis progression.

  16. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  17. Mathematical analysis techniques for modeling the space network activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Lisa M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to explore and identify mathematical analysis techniques, and in particular, the use of linear programming. This topic was then applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in order to understand the space network better. Finally, a small scale version of the system was modeled, variables were identified, data was gathered, and comparisons were made between actual and theoretical data.

  18. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  19. Evaluating Teaching Techniques in the Hmong Breast and Cervical Cancer Health Awareness Project

    PubMed Central

    Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer health disparities are a reality for Hmong women who are often diagnosed at a later stage, have low literacy, and experienced care that is not culturally appropriate. Lack of attention to cultural appropriateness and literacy levels of cancer screening materials may contribute to disproportionately low levels of cancer screening among Hmong women. Purpose To evaluate the Hmong Health Awareness Project (HHAP), a program designed to create awareness and acceptance of breast and cervical cancer screening, and to examine participants’ perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Methods Hmong researchers partnered with three Midwestern Hmong community centers to implement six workshops. Three teaching techniques: pictographs, videos, and hands-on activities were utilized to teach Hmong participants about cancer screening. Participants included 150 Hmong (male=30, female = 120). Teach back method was used to assess participants’ understanding of cancer screening throughout the workshops. Qualitative data were collected in focus groups to assess the feasibility of teaching methods and participants’ perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Directed content analysis was used to analyze participants’ responses. Results The three teaching techniques were helpful in increasing the Hmong people’s understanding about breast and cervical cancer screening. Nearly all participants perceived an increased in their understanding, greater acceptance of cancer screening, and increased willingness to be screened. Men expressed support for screening after the workshops. Conclusion Findings can guide future interventions to improve health communications and screening and reduce diagnostic disparities among Hmong and immigrant populations. PMID:24488558

  20. Study of the magnetospheres of active regions on the sun by radio astronomy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogod, V. M.; Kal'tman, T. I.; Peterova, N. G.; Yasnov, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the 1990s, based on detailed studies of the structure of active regions (AR), the concept of the magnetosphere of the active region was proposed. This includes almost all known structures presented in the active region, ranging from the radio granulation up to noise storms, the radiation of which manifests on the radio waves. The magnetosphere concept, which, from a common point of view, considers the manifestations of the radio emission of the active region as a single active complex, allows one to shed light on the relation between stable and active processes and their interrelations. It is especially important to identify the basic ways of transforming nonthermal energy into thermal energy. A dominant role in all processes is attributed to the magnetic field, the measurement of which on the coronal levels can be performed by radio-astronomical techniques. The extension of the wavelength range and the introduction of new tools and advanced modeling capabilities makes it possible to analyze the physical properties of plasma structures in the AR magnetosphere and to evaluate the coronal magnetic fields at the levels of the chromosphere-corona transition zone and the lower corona. The features and characteristics of the transition region from the S component to the B component have been estimated.

  1. Evaluation of different preservation techniques on the storage potential of Kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Witthuhn, R Corli; Cilliers, Annamie; Britz, Trevor J

    2005-02-01

    Kefir is an acidic, mildly alcoholic dairy beverage produced by the fermentation of milk with a grain-like starter culture (Koroleva, 1988). These grains usually contain a relatively stable and specific balance of microbes that exist in a complex symbiotic relationship (Obermann & Libudzisz, 1998; Witthuhn et al. 2004). The different groups of microbes present in the grains are active at different stages of the fermentation (Koroleva, 1982). The lactococci, including Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris and Lc. lactis subsp. diacetilactis provide rapid acid development during the first hours of the fermentation (Litopoulou-Tzanetaki & Tzanetakis, 2000). As the acidity of the milk increases it provides favourable conditions for the growth of the lactobacilli (Rea et al. 1996). The yeasts, acetic acid bacteria and the aroma-producing microbes, mainly leuconostocs, have a much slower growth rate than the lactic acid producers, resulting in the slow production of the aroma compounds and the gradual increase in the concentration of these substances in the later stages of the fermentation (Koroleva, 1982). In the past the preservation of the microbial populations present in the traditional Kefir grains was achieved by methods including freezing (Garrote et al. 1997), lyophilisation (Oberman & Libudzisz, 1998), air-drying (Kroger, 1993) and refrigeration (Marshall, 1993). Research has shown that traditional Kefir grains preserved by air-drying and lyophilisation retain their activity for up to 12-18 months (Oberman & Libudzisz, 1998). Frozen grains stored at -20 degrees C were found to maintain the microbial activity for up to 7-8 months, whereas grains stored at refrigerated temperatures showed a decreased activity after about 10 d (Oberman & Libudzisz, 1998). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of four different preservation techniques on the activity of mass cultured Kefir grains (Schoevers & Britz, 2003). The activity of the grains

  2. The influence of curricular and extracurricular learning activities on students' choice of chiropractic technique

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, David M.; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. Methods: We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Conclusions: Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences. PMID:26655282

  3. An Evaluation of the Dvorak Technique for Estimating Tropical Cyclone Intensities from Satellite Imagery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    AD-A093 278 NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHY COMMAND CENTER/JOINT TYPHOON WARNI-ETC F/B 4/2 AN EVALUATION OF THE DVORAK TECHNIQUE FOR ESTIMATING TROPICAL C--ETCIU...JUL Al0. 0 SHEWCHUK, R C WEIR UNCLASSIFIED NOCC/JTAC-TN-8- Al EmhEph~ LEVEIV An Evaluation of thet DVORAK Technique for Estimating Tropical Cyclone...the accuracy of tropical cyclone intensity estimates as derived from the Dvorak technique . Estimates of current intensity and 24-hour forecast

  4. Note: Flow mediated skin fluorescence—A novel technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, L.; Urbaniak, M.; Jedrzejczak, B.; Marcinek, A.; Gebicki, J.

    2016-03-01

    This note describes a newly developed technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation. The technique called Flow Mediated Skin Fluorescence (FMSF) is based on monitoring of NADH fluorescence intensity emitted from the skin tissue cells of a forearm. The changes in fluorescence intensity as a function of time in response to blocking and releasing of blood flow in a forearm are used as a measure of oxygen transport with blood to the tissue, which directly correlates with the skin microcirculation status. Preliminary results collected for healthy volunteers and patients experiencing serious cardiovascular problems indicated a usefulness of FMSF technique for evaluation of health related perturbations in cutaneous microcirculation.

  5. Note: Flow mediated skin fluorescence--A novel technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, L; Urbaniak, M; Jedrzejczak, B; Marcinek, A; Gebicki, J

    2016-03-01

    This note describes a newly developed technique for evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation. The technique called Flow Mediated Skin Fluorescence (FMSF) is based on monitoring of NADH fluorescence intensity emitted from the skin tissue cells of a forearm. The changes in fluorescence intensity as a function of time in response to blocking and releasing of blood flow in a forearm are used as a measure of oxygen transport with blood to the tissue, which directly correlates with the skin microcirculation status. Preliminary results collected for healthy volunteers and patients experiencing serious cardiovascular problems indicated a usefulness of FMSF technique for evaluation of health related perturbations in cutaneous microcirculation.

  6. [Measurement of human body composition: in vivo techniques and related evaluation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiangpu; Fu, Tingliang; Ou, Kun; Shi, Qizhi

    2007-08-01

    The in vivo techniques for studying human body composition have built up an important field and are continuing to be developed. This review provides an overview of the present status of this field and describes the in vivo techniques used in mearsuring human body composition such as anthropometry, metabolites method, densitometry, dilution method, total body potassium, neutron activation analysis, bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual energy X ray absorptiometry and imaging method. The review also introduces the principle, method and value of these techniques.

  7. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  8. [The value of selected imaging techniques in evaluation of bone regeneration during limb lengthening].

    PubMed

    Synder, M; Hussein, A A; Niedzielski, K; Grzegorzewski, A

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the value of different imaging techniques, including X-rays, ultrasonography, computed tomography and densitometry in the evaluation of bone regenerates during limb lengthening. Material consisted of 60 children, age ranging from 4 to 18 years who underwent surgery using the Ilizarov technique because of limb inequality. During of limb lengthening different imaging techniques were employed for monitoring regenerate growth and remodeling. The study showed that all the employed imaging techniques play an important role in monitoring bone regenerate remodeling at different stages of limb lengthening.

  9. Using projective techniques in the evaluation of groups for children of rehabilitating drug addicts.

    PubMed

    Levin-Rozalis, Miry

    2006-06-01

    Evaluators and researchers often have to deal with situations in which conventional research tools are impossible to use, either because of the characteristics of a population or unclear research variables. This paper presents a technique that succeeds in overcoming this kind of problem--a projective technique, but one that differs from the usual approach to projective techniques. The approach presented here is a hermeneutic one that assumes an interpretive process. By means of an example, this paper presents the process of working with projective techniques and concludes with a discussion of this approach.

  10. Data analysis techniques used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.S. Jr.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.

    1980-07-14

    Since April 1979 the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has applied several advanced data analysis techniques to the problem of experimentally evaluating the performance of high-performance composite flywheels. Some of the more advanced techniques used and examples of these techniques are presented. Real-time applications include polar plots of runout with interruptions relating to balance and relative motions between parts, radial growth measurements, and temperature of the spinning part. The technique used to measure torque applied to a containment housing during flywheel failure is also presented. The discussion of pre- and post-test analysis techniques includes resonant frequency determination with modal analysis, waterfall charts, and runout signals at failure.

  11. Assessment and evaluation of ceramic filter cleaning techniques: Task Order 19

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Zaharchuk, R.; Harbaugh, L.B.; Klett, M.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and evaluate the effectiveness, appropriateness and economics of ceramic barrier filter cleaning techniques used for high-temperature and high-pressure particulate filtration. Three potential filter cleaning techniques were evaluated. These techniques include, conventional on-line pulse driven reverse gas filter cleaning, off-line reverse gas filter cleaning and a novel rapid pulse driven filter cleaning. These three ceramic filter cleaning techniques are either presently employed, or being considered for use, in the filtration of coal derived gas streams (combustion or gasification) under high-temperature high-pressure conditions. This study was divided into six subtasks: first principle analysis of ceramic barrier filter cleaning mechanisms; operational values for parameters identified with the filter cleaning mechanisms; evaluation and identification of potential ceramic filter cleaning techniques; development of conceptual designs for ceramic barrier filter systems and ceramic barrier filter cleaning systems for two DOE specified power plants; evaluation of ceramic barrier filter system cleaning techniques; and final report and presentation. Within individual sections of this report critical design and operational issues were evaluated and key findings were identified.

  12. Biomagnetic Techniques for Assessing Gastric and Small Bowel Electrical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, L. Alan

    2004-09-01

    Recent advances in electrophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract have emphasized the need for methods of noninvasive assessment of gastric and small intestinal electrical activity (GEA and IEA). While the cutaneous electrogastrogram (EGG) may reveal the frequency dynamics of gastric electrical activity, other parameters important for characterizing the propagating electrical activity are not available from EGG recordings. Recent studies on the electroenterogram (EENG) are promising, but low-conductivity abdominal layers have complicated the identification of small intestinal electrical rhythms in cutaneous recordings. The magnetogastrogram (MGG) and magnetoenterogram (MENG) are able to characterize gastric and intestinal electrical activity noninvasively in terms of its frequency, power and characteristics of its propagation. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers are used to detect the minute magnetic fields associated with electrical activity of the gastrointestinal syncytium formed by interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle networks. Changes in GEA and IEA that occur in response to disease or abnormal conditions are reflected in MGG and MENG signals. Magnetic methods for assessing the electrical activity of the stomach and small bowel thus show great clinical promise.

  13. Comparison of Selective Culturing and Biochemical Techniques for Measuring Biological Activity in Geothermal Process Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, Peter Albert

    2000-09-01

    For the past three years, scientists at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have been conducting studies aimed at determining the presence and influence of bacteria found in geothermal plant cooling water systems. In particular, the efforts have been directed at understanding the conditions that lead to the growth and accumulation of biomass within these systems, reducing the operational and thermal efficiency. Initially, the methods selected were based upon the current practices used by the industry and included the collection of water quality parameters, the measurement of soluble carbon, and the use of selective medial for the determination of the number density of various types of organisms. This data has been collected on a seasonal basis at six different facilities located at the Geysers’ in Northern California. While this data is valuable in establishing biological growth trends in the facilities and providing an initial determination of upset or off-normal conditions, more detailed information about the biological activity is needed to determine what is triggering or sustaining the growth in these facilities in order to develop improved monitoring and treatment techniques. In recent years, new biochemical approaches, based upon the analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and DNA recovered from environmental samples, have been developed and commercialized. These techniques, in addition to allowing the determination of the quantity of biomass, also provide information on the community composition and the nutritional status of the organisms. During the past year, samples collected from the condenser effluents of four of the plants from The Geysers’ were analyzed using these methods and compared with the results obtained from selective culturing techniques. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing these techniques for tracking microbial activity in the plant study, in place of the selective culturing

  14. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of rabeprazole using wet granulation technique.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ruqaiyah; Ashraf, Md Shamim; Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Jahangir, Mohammed Asadullah; Singh, Rajbala; Chandra, Ramesh; Anwar, Firoz

    2014-07-01

    Rabeprazole, a member of substituted benzimidazoles, inhibits the final step in gastric acid secretions. This drug claims to cause fastest acid separation (due to higher pKa), and more rapidly converts to the active species to aid gastric mucin synthesis. The most significant pharmacological action of Rabeprazole is dose dependent suppression of gastric acid secretion; without anticholinergic or H2-blocking action. It completely abolishes the hydrochloric acid secretion as it is powerful inhibitor of gastric acid. Rabeprazole is acid labile and hence commonly formulated as an enteric coated tablet. The absorption of rabeprazole occurs rapidly as soon as tablet leaves the stomach. In the present study an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate Rabeprazole sustained release matrix tablet using wet granulation technique incorporating various polymers like HPMC-E15, Carbopol934, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The Formulated tablets were evaluated for different physicochemical properties like rheological properties, weight variation, thickness, hardness, % friability, in vitro release studies and drug content. Studies revealed that all the physicochemical parameters comply with the official standards. The in vitro release studies exhibits the release up to 90%, over a prolonged period of time which confirms the extended release profile of formulation, having better bioavailability as well as decreased dosing frequency with reduced doses. The sustained release matrix tablets of rabiprazole shown better bioavailability, efficacy and potency, when compared with official standards.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of rabeprazole using wet granulation technique

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ruqaiyah; Ashraf, Md Shamim; Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Jahangir, Mohammed Asadullah; Singh, Rajbala; Chandra, Ramesh; Anwar, Firoz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rabeprazole, a member of substituted benzimidazoles, inhibits the final step in gastric acid secretions. This drug claims to cause fastest acid separation (due to higher pKa), and more rapidly converts to the active species to aid gastric mucin synthesis. The most significant pharmacological action of Rabeprazole is dose dependent suppression of gastric acid secretion; without anticholinergic or H2-blocking action. It completely abolishes the hydrochloric acid secretion as it is powerful inhibitor of gastric acid. Rabeprazole is acid labile and hence commonly formulated as an enteric coated tablet. The absorption of rabeprazole occurs rapidly as soon as tablet leaves the stomach. Aim: In the present study an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate Rabeprazole sustained release matrix tablet using wet granulation technique incorporating various polymers like HPMC-E15, Carbopol934, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Materials and Methods: The Formulated tablets were evaluated for different physicochemical properties like rheological properties, weight variation, thickness, hardness, % friability, in vitro release studies and drug content. Results: Studies revealed that all the physicochemical parameters comply with the official standards. The in vitro release studies exhibits the release up to 90%, over a prolonged period of time which confirms the extended release profile of formulation, having better bioavailability as well as decreased dosing frequency with reduced doses. Conclusion: The sustained release matrix tablets of rabiprazole shown better bioavailability, efficacy and potency, when compared with official standards. PMID:25035637

  16. Assessment of platelet activation in myeloproliferative disorders with complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Emilse; Alberto, Maria F; Meschengieser, Susana S; Lazzari, Maria A

    2004-04-01

    Bleeding and thrombosis in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) are common events, sometimes both are present in the same patient during the course of the disease. Platelet activation in patients with MPD is often suggested. The present study analyses the presence of circulating activated platelets, using simultaneously flow cytometry and aggregometric studies in MPD. We studied 28 patients: 13 with polycythaemia vera, seven with essential thrombocythaemia, and eight chronic myeloid leukaemia. We performed functional tests, aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and flow cytometric assays (mepacrine staining and platelet activation markers CD62, CD63 and fibrinogen binding (B-FG)). Twenty-one MPD samples (75%) had reduced aggregation and ATP release. Acquired delta-SPD was detected in 11 of 28 MPD patients (39%), and we found no association between reduced mepacrine labelling and abnormal ATP release. High levels of activation markers were obtained: CD62 in 19 of 28 patients (68%), CD63 in 13 of 28 patients (46%) and B-FG in 19 of 28 patients (68%). The most prevalent abnormality was a reduced aggregation and ATP release. The lack of association between ATP release and mepacrine labelling suggests that other mechanisms, besides the deficit of intraplatelet ATP/adenosine diphosphate, might occur. High levels of activation markers were also observed. We conclude that both tests are complementary and necessary to understand the functional status of platelets in MPD.

  17. Landing Technique Improvements After an Aquatic-Based Neuromuscular Training Program in Physically Active Women.

    PubMed

    Scarneo, Samantha E; Root, Hayley J; Martinez, Jessica C; Denegar, Craig; Casa, Douglas J; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Dann, Catie L; Aerni, Giselle A; DiStefano, Lindsay J

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular training programs (NTPs) improve landing technique and decrease vertical ground-reaction forces (VGRFs), resulting in injury-risk reduction. NTPs in an aquatic environment may elicit the same improvements as land-based programs with reduced joint stress. To examine the effects of an aquatic NTP on landing technique as measured by the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) and VGRFs, immediately and 4 mo after the intervention. Repeated measures, pool and laboratory. Fifteen healthy, recreationally active women (age 21 ± 2 y, mass 62.02 ± 8.18 kg, height 164.74 ± 5.97 cm) who demonstrated poor landing technique (LESS-Real Time > 4). All participants completed an aquatic NTP 3 times/wk for 6 wk. Participants' landing technique was evaluated using a jump-landing task immediately before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 4 mo after (RET) the intervention period. A single rater, blinded to time point, graded all videos using the LESS, which is a valid and reliable movement-screening tool. Peak VGRFs were measured during the stance phase of the jump-landing test. Repeated-measure analyses of variance with planned comparisons were performed to explore differences between time points. LESS scores were lower at POST (4.46 ± 1.69 errors) and at RET (4.2 ± 1.72 errors) than at PRE (6.30 ± 1.78 errors) (P < .01). No significant differences were observed between POST and RET (P > .05). Participants also landed with significantly lower peak VGRFs (P < .01) from PRE (2.69 ± .72 N) to POST (2.23 ± .66 N). The findings introduce evidence that an aquatic NTP improves landing technique and suggest that improvements are retained over time. These results show promise of using an aquatic NTP when there is a desire to reduce joint loading, such as early stages of rehabilitation, to improve biomechanics and reduce injury risk.

  18. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The development of system models that can provide a basis for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness, the formulation of quantitative measures of system effectiveness, and the development of analytic and simulation techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of a proposed or existing aircraft computer are described. Specific topics covered include: system models; performability evaluation; capability and functional dependence; computation of trajectory set probabilities; and hierarchical modeling of an air transport mission.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of activation state in functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenghui; Ni, Pengyu; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng

    2012-10-01

    Neuronal activity can evoke the hemodynamic change that gives rise to the observed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal. These increases are also regulated by the resting blood volume fraction (V (0)) associated with regional vasculature. The activation locus detected by means of the change in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity thereby may deviate from the actual active site due to varied vascular density in the cortex. Furthermore, conventional detection techniques evaluate the statistical significance of the hemodynamic observations. In this sense, the significance level relies not only upon the intensity of the BOLD signal change, but also upon the spatially inhomogeneous fMRI noise distribution that complicates the expression of the results. In this paper, we propose a quantitative strategy for the calibration of activation states to address these challenging problems. The quantitative assessment is based on the estimated neuronal efficacy parameter [Formula: see text] of the hemodynamic model in a voxel-by-voxel way. It is partly immune to the inhomogeneous fMRI noise by virtue of the strength of the optimization strategy. Moreover, it is easy to incorporate regional vascular information into the activation detection procedure. By combining MR angiography images, this approach can remove large vessel contamination in fMRI signals, and provide more accurate functional localization than classical statistical techniques for clinical applications. It is also helpful to investigate the nonlinear nature of the coupling between synaptic activity and the evoked BOLD response. The proposed method might be considered as a potentially useful complement to existing statistical approaches.

  20. Volume-rendering techniques in the assessment of cerebral activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biegel, Joseph D.; Potter, Clinton S.; Hill, Thomas C.

    1993-07-01

    Radionuclide imaging of the brain is used to study the effect of activation paradigms on cerebral function. In this study we investigate the neuro-activation due to a flickering visual stimulus as compared to a dark adapted baseline state. Neuroactivation is measured by SPECT brain imaging using the Tc99m brain perfusion imaging agent Tc99m Bicisate. (NeuroliteTM, a kit for the preparation of Tc99m Bicisate, is currently being distributed as an investigational new drug.) SPECT data generally consists of a series of 2D slices collected through the brain volume. Most analysis and interpretation schemes compare the results of imaging a subject injected without the stimulus with an image acquisition performed subsequent to injection in the presence of the activating stimulus. Common image analysis and interpretation schemes are performed using 2D slice data, often comparing data from only a single slice. We present results using a depth cueing volume rendering method for the display and comparison of full visual field activation and baseline (dark adapted) SPECT images. By rotating the rendered views of the volume, the 3D spatial structure of the data can be assessed.

  1. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  2. The Protest as a Teaching Technique for Promoting Feminist Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Suzanna

    An assignment about protesting was given to students in an upper-level undergraduate women's studies course to provide them with experience and skills in political protesting and to promote feminist activism. The students selected for their assignments: (1) a letter writing campaign against Robert Bork's Supreme Court nomination; (2) a picket…

  3. Webbing: A Technique for Developing Instructional Activities for the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Alexinia Y.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures in "webbing"--allowing gifted students to creatively explore alternatives or connections in interesting areas--are described to include topic and subtopic selection, subtopic expansion, discussion, planning, and questioning. A sample unit in space exploration is included, along with unit bibliography and webbing activity checklist. (CL)

  4. Techniques for active embodiment of participants in virtual environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, R.; Stansfield, S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary work in the development of an avatar driver. An avatar is the graphical embodiment of a user in a virtual world. In applications such as small team, close quarters training and mission planning and rehearsal, it is important that the user`s avatar reproduce his or her motions naturally and with high fidelity. This paper presents a set of special purpose algorithms for driving the motion of the avatar with minimal information about the posture and position of the user. These algorithms utilize information about natural human motion and posture to produce solutions quickly and accurately without the need for complex general-purpose kinematics algorithms. Several examples illustrating the successful applications of these techniques are included.

  5. Active-contour-based image segmentation using machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Etyngier, Patrick; Ségonne, Florent; Keriven, Renaud

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a non-linear shape prior for the deformable model framework that we learn from a set of shape samples using recent manifold learning techniques. We model a category of shapes as a finite dimensional manifold which we approximate using Diffusion maps. Our method computes a Delaunay triangulation of the reduced space, considered as Euclidean, and uses the resulting space partition to identify the closest neighbors of any given shape based on its Nyström extension. We derive a non-linear shape prior term designed to attract a shape towards the shape prior manifold at given constant embedding. Results on shapes of ventricle nuclei demonstrate the potential of our method for segmentation tasks.

  6. Imaging studies for evaluating impact of position sampling techniques in PET scanners

    PubMed Central

    Surti, Suleman; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Previously we have evaluated two crystal calibration techniques that can be applied to pixelated detector designs to improve system spatial resolution without detector motion. The inter-crystal positioning technique utilizes sub-sampling in the crystal flood map to better sample the Compton scatter events in the detector. The Compton scatter rejection technique, on the other hand, rejects those events that are located further from individual crystal centers in the flood map. Here we performed imaging studies with a Mini Deluxe hot rod phantom and a hot sphere phantom (sphere diameters of 4.95 and 7.86-mm with 6:1 uptake relative to background) using the standard crystal calibration technique, as well as the inter-crystal and Compton rejection calibration techniques. Our results show improved separation of 1.6-mm diameter hot rods with the two new crystal calibration techniques that is consistent with improved spatial resolution. For the hot sphere phantom the contrast recovery is improved with both the inter-crystal and Compton rejection calibration techniques over the standard calibration technique. The only drawback of the inter-crystal calibration technique is the increase in the number of possible lines-of-response (LORs) (factor of 16) that may slow image reconstruction. With the Compton rejection calibration technique, loss of counts leads to increased noise in the images. PMID:21547006

  7. Diametral tensile strength of composite resins submitted to different activation techniques.

    PubMed

    Casselli, Denise Sá Maia; Worschech, Claudia Cia; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Dias, Carlos Tadeu Dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) of composite resins submitted to different curing techniques. Four composite resins were tested in this study: Targis (Ivoclar), Solidex (Shofu), Charisma (Heraeus-Kulzer) and Filtek Z250 (3M Espe). Sixty-four cylindrical specimens were prepared and divided into eight groups according to each polymerization technique (n = 8). The indirect composite resins (Targis and Solidex) were polymerized with their respective curing systems (Targis Power and EDG-lux); Charisma and Filtek Z250 were light-cured with conventional polymerization (halogen light) and additionally, with post-curing systems. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for one week. DTS tests were performed in a Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm/min). The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan tests. The results were (MPa): Z250/EDG-lux: 69.04 feminine; Z250/Targis Power: 68.57 feminine; Z250/conventional polymerization: 60.75b; Charisma/Targis Power: 52.34c; Charisma/conventional polymerization: 49.17c; Charisma/EDG-lux: 47.98c; Solidex: 36.62d; Targis: 32.86d. The results reveal that the post-cured Z250 composite resin showed the highest DTS means. Charisma composite presented no significant differences when activation techniques were compared. Direct composite resins presented higher DTS values than indirect resins.

  8. Figure Analysis: A Teaching Technique to Promote Visual Literacy and Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based…

  9. Figure Analysis: A Teaching Technique to Promote Visual Literacy and Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based…

  10. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  11. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  12. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. Methods The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff’s alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Results Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were “provide instruction” (83% of the apps), “set graded tasks” (70%), and “prompt self-monitoring” (60%). Techniques such as “teach to use prompts/cues”, “agree on behavioural contract”, “relapse prevention” and “time management” were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Conclusions Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps. PMID:24965805

  13. A modeling technique for active control design studies with application to spacecraft microvibrations.

    PubMed

    Aglietti, G S; Gabriel, S B; Langley, R S; Rogers, E

    1997-10-01

    Microvibrations, at frequencies between 1 and 1000 Hz, generated by on board equipment, can propagate throughout a spacecraft structure and affect the performance of sensitive payloads. To investigate strategies to reduce these dynamic disturbances by means of active control systems, realistic yet simple structural models are necessary to represent the dynamics of the electromechanical system. In this paper a modeling technique which meets this requirement is presented, and the resulting mathematical model is used to develop some initial results on active control strategies. Attention is focused on a mass loaded panel subjected to point excitation sources, the objective being to minimize the displacement at an arbitrary output location. Piezoelectric patches acting as sensors and actuators are employed. The equations of motion are derived by using Lagrange's equation with vibration mode shapes as the Ritz functions. The number of sensors/actuators and their location is variable. The set of equations obtained is then transformed into state variables and some initial controller design studies are undertaken. These are based on standard linear systems optimal control theory where the resulting controller is implemented by a state observer. It is demonstrated that the proposed modeling technique is a feasible realistic basis for in-depth controller design/evaluation studies.

  14. Proximal tendon-prosthesis junction for active tendon implants of the hand: a biomechanical comparison of 2 techniques.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew J; Owen, John R; McDowell, Charles L; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    To study the biomechanical characteristics (percent stretch, stiffness, and ultimate load) of 2 tendon-prosthesis techniques used to connect the proximal tendon stump to silicone active tendon implants used in reconstruction of flexor tendons. We evaluated percent stretch following cyclic loading and at failure, stiffness during load to failure, and ultimate load of 16 tendon-prosthesis junctions using cadaveric canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons to re-create 2 junction techniques: the tendon loop (TL) and the polyester weave (PW). The TL junction showed greater percent stretch at a static load of 2 N, following 500 cycles of loading between 2 N and 50 N, and at peak load. The PW junction displayed greater stiffness from 50 to 150 N during load to failure. Both junctions failed at a mean ultimate load greater than 220 N. The described proximal junction techniques for active tendon implants were strong enough to resist early active motion in the immediate postoperative period without significant elongation. The PW technique displayed greater stiffness and ultimate load compared with the TL. Data on tendon-prosthesis characteristics of these 2 methods may aid the surgeon in choosing which junction technique to use, during surgical tensioning decisions, and in considering activity protocols after surgery. These data may also serve as a baseline for further investigations regarding active tendon implants. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, M.D.; Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A.

    1990-12-31

    A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Characterization of Deep Tunneling Activity through Remote-Sensing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    R. G. Best, P. J. Etzler, and J. D. Bloom

    1997-10-01

    This work is a case study demonstrating the uses of multispectral and multi-temporal imagery to characterize deep tunneling activity. A drainage tunnel excavation in Quincy, MA is the case locality. Data used are aerial photographs (digitized) and Daedalus 3600 MSS image data that were collected in July and October of 1994. Analysis of the data includes thermal characterization, spectral characterization, multi-temporal analysis, and volume estimation using digital DEM generation. The results demonstrate the type of information that could be generated by multispectral, multi-temporal data if the study locality were a clandestine excavation site with restricted surface access.

  17. Down and up with PERT at Goddard. [computer graphics applications for Program Evaluation and Review Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerega, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    During the 1960s NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) used the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) as its principal schedule planning and control tool in flight projects. After a temporary replacement of PERT by other techniques, PERT has been reinstituted on all but one of GSFC's flight projects. PERT has been combined with a computer graphics program which makes it possible to produce PERT drawings in only a few hours' time.

  18. Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

  19. Evaluation of the 'mean frequency' technique. [sum approximation in perturbation theory for atomic transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.; Reiss, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    The 'mean frequency' technique, a simple procedure introduced by Bebb and Gold for the approximate evaluation of sums occurring in high-order perturbation theory, represents a useful approximation method. Its predictions compare favorably to exact results obtained by Gontier and Trahin for multiphoton bound-bound transitions in hydrogen. However, the technique can be in error if the 'mean frequency' lies near certain integers.

  20. Evaluation of accuracy of direct transfer snapon impression coping closed tray impression technique and direct transfer open tray impression technique: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, T; Manimaran, P

    2013-09-01

    Accuracy of the implant impression technique is one of the key factor determining the strain free fit of the prosthesis fabricated which influences the treatment success. Two implant impression techniques namely the closed tray technique with transfer coping and open tray technique were evaluated for accuracy with stone casts obtained from them. Casts were evaluated using a custom constructed bar on strain gage (SYSCOM) and abutment coordinates using Coordinate Measuring Machine (TESA micro-HITE). The statistical analysis with one way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests show that the casts obtained with open tray technique were accurate than the casts of closed tray technique (significance P < 0.001). Direct transfer impression technique with less number of components ensures the high accuracy of transfer of implant positions from master cast to the laboratory cast compared to the indirect transfer impression technique.

  1. Evaluating the sources of water to wells: Three techniques for metamodeling of a groundwater flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    For decision support, the insights and predictive power of numerical process models can be hampered by insufficient expertise and computational resources required to evaluate system response to new stresses. An alternative is to emulate the process model with a statistical “metamodel.” Built on a dataset of collocated numerical model input and output, a groundwater flow model was emulated using a Bayesian Network, an Artificial neural network, and a Gradient Boosted Regression Tree. The response of interest was surface water depletion expressed as the source of water-to-wells. The results have application for managing allocation of groundwater. Each technique was tuned using cross validation and further evaluated using a held-out dataset. A numerical MODFLOW-USG model of the Lake Michigan Basin, USA, was used for the evaluation. The performance and interpretability of each technique was compared pointing to advantages of each technique. The metamodel can extend to unmodeled areas.

  2. Evaluation of examination techniques for ferritic stainless steel feedwater heater tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, M.J.; Catapano, M.C.

    1995-12-01

    Ferritic stainless steel has been finding increased application in utility plant feedwater heaters due to good strength and corrosion resistance and absence of potential copper contamination of feedwater system. Ferritic stainless steel is highly magnetic and is generally not inspectable using conventional eddy current testing techniques. A variety of techniques have been developed for inspection of this tubing material used in typical heat exchanger applications. Through a project funded by the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO), the evaluation of data generated by four present state of the art NDE testing techniques were evaluated on a controlled mock-up of the heater tubing with service related defects. The primary objective was to determine the strengths and limitations of each method. The testing of two in service feedwater heaters at the Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison`s) Arthur Kill Generating Station also allowed further evaluations based on actual field conditions.

  3. In vivo evaluation of inter-operator reproducibility of digital dental and conventional impression techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Emi; Tanaka, Shinpei; Takaba, Masayuki; Tachi, Keita; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the inter-operator reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) images of teeth captured by a digital impression technique to a conventional impression technique in vivo. Materials and methods Twelve participants with complete natural dentition were included in this study. A digital impression of the mandibular molars of these participants was made by two operators with different levels of clinical experience, 3 or 16 years, using an intra-oral scanner (Lava COS, 3M ESPE). A silicone impression also was made by the same operators using the double mix impression technique (Imprint3, 3M ESPE). Stereolithography (STL) data were directly exported from the Lava COS system, while STL data of a plaster model made from silicone impression were captured by a three-dimensional (3D) laboratory scanner (D810, 3shape). The STL datasets recorded by two different operators were compared using 3D evaluation software and superimposed using the best-fit-algorithm method (least-squares method, PolyWorks, InnovMetric Software) for each impression technique. Inter-operator reproducibility as evaluated by average discrepancies of corresponding 3D data was compared between the two techniques (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Results The visual inspection of superimposed datasets revealed that discrepancies between repeated digital impression were smaller than observed with silicone impression. Confirmation was forthcoming from statistical analysis revealing significantly smaller average inter-operator reproducibility using a digital impression technique (0.014± 0.02 mm) than when using a conventional impression technique (0.023 ± 0.01 mm). Conclusion The results of this in vivo study suggest that inter-operator reproducibility with a digital impression technique may be better than that of a conventional impression technique and is independent of the clinical experience of the operator. PMID:28636642

  4. Experimental techniques for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Swaha; Patra, Arjun; Ahirwar, Bharti

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a silent epidemic, has become a major health hazard, afflicting about 50% of postmenopausal women worldwide and is thought to be a disease with one of the highest incidences in senile people. It is a chronic, progressive condition associated with micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue that results in low bone mass, decreased bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone formation and increase in bone resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. In this review article we have made an attempt to collate the various methods and parameters most frequently used for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pertaining to ovariectomized animal model, this is the most appropriate model for studying the efficacy of different drugs to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. Smart actuators: a novel technique for active damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muth, Michael; Moldovan, Klaus; Goetz, Bernt

    1995-05-01

    Sensors are important components for any automatic process. Their function is to measure physical variables, and thus to allow automatic actions in a technical process, for example in a manufacturing sequence or a measurement. Selecting a sensor for a process, it is mostly overlooked that actuators used in a process also have sensory properties. The reactions of actuators to the state of a process give the possibility to extract relevant information out of the process with actuators. In using the sensory properties of actuators the costs for additional sensors can be saved. Even more important, under some circumstances it may not even be possible to place a special sensor directly at the location of interest: In that case the information about the physical variable is only accessible by analyzing the return signal of the actuator. An example of such a smart actuator combining active and sensory properties is demonstrated in a simple experiment. This experiment shows a steel ball supported as a pendulum. The steel ball can be pushed off, and on swinging back it can be caught in a single pass without any bounce. The actuator uses the piezoelectric effect which shows the underlying principle most clearly: Application of the reversibility of physical effects. In this case mechanical energy can either be produced or absorbed. This experiment is means as a demonstration model for students. It is also used for preliminary investigations developing a fast, actively damped tipping mechanism (optical scanner).

  6. Active Flow Control: Instrumentation Automation and Experimental Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gimbert, N. Wes

    1995-01-01

    In investigating the potential of a new actuator for use in an active flow control system, several objectives had to be accomplished, the largest of which was the experimental setup. The work was conducted at the NASA Langley 20x28 Shear Flow Control Tunnel. The actuator named Thunder, is a high deflection piezo device recently developed at Langley Research Center. This research involved setting up the instrumentation, the lighting, the smoke, and the recording devices. The instrumentation was automated by means of a Power Macintosh running LabVIEW, a graphical instrumentation package developed by National Instruments. Routines were written to allow the tunnel conditions to be determined at a given instant at the push of a button. This included determination of tunnel pressures, speed, density, temperature, and viscosity. Other aspects of the experimental equipment included the set up of a CCD video camera with a video frame grabber, monitor, and VCR to capture the motion. A strobe light was used to highlight the smoke that was used to visualize the flow. Additional effort was put into creating a scale drawing of another tunnel on site and a limited literature search in the area of active flow control.

  7. Comparative evaluation of ensemble Kalman filter, particle filter and variational techniques for river discharge forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirpa, F. A.; Gebremichael, M.; LEE, H.; Hopson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrologic data assimilation techniques provide a means to improve river discharge forecasts through updating hydrologic model states and correcting the atmospheric forcing data via optimally combining model outputs with observations. The performance of the assimilation procedure, however, depends on the data assimilation techniques used and the amount of uncertainty in the data sets. To investigate the effects of these, we comparatively evaluate three data assimilation techniques, including ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), particle filter (PF) and variational (VAR) technique, which assimilate discharge and synthetic soil moisture data at various uncertainty levels into the Sacramento Soil Moisture accounting (SAC-SMA) model used by the National Weather Service (NWS) for river forecasting in The United States. The study basin is Greens Bayou watershed with area of 178 km2 in eastern Texas. In the presentation, we summarize the results of the comparisons, and discuss the challenges of applying each technique for hydrologic applications.

  8. Development of evaluation technique of GMAW welding quality based on statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shengqiang; Terasaki, Hidenri; Komizo, Yuichi; Hu, Shengsun; Chen, Donggao; Ma, Zhihua

    2014-11-01

    Nondestructive techniques for appraising gas metal arc welding(GMAW) faults plays a very important role in on-line quality controllability and prediction of the GMAW process. On-line welding quality controllability and prediction have several disadvantages such as high cost, low efficiency, complication and greatly being affected by the environment. An enhanced, efficient evaluation technique for evaluating welding faults based on Mahalanobis distance(MD) and normal distribution is presented. In addition, a new piece of equipment, designated the weld quality tester(WQT), is developed based on the proposed evaluation technique. MD is superior to other multidimensional distances such as Euclidean distance because the covariance matrix used for calculating MD takes into account correlations in the data and scaling. The values of MD obtained from welding current and arc voltage are assumed to follow a normal distribution. The normal distribution has two parameters: the mean µ and standard deviation σ of the data. In the proposed evaluation technique used by the WQT, values of MD located in the range from zero to µ+3 σ are regarded as "good". Two experiments which involve changing the flow of shielding gas and smearing paint on the surface of the substrate are conducted in order to verify the sensitivity of the proposed evaluation technique and the feasibility of using WQT. The experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the WQT for evaluating welding quality. The proposed technique can be applied to implement the on-line welding quality controllability and prediction, which is of great importance to design some novel equipment for weld quality detection.

  9. Evaluation of a technique for predicting longitudinal pilot-induced-oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Kalteis, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    A technique for predicting the susceptibility of an aircraft to longitudinal pilot-induced-oscillations (PIO's) is evaluated using 62 configurations from a pair of flight tests involving the NT-33 variable stability aircraft. The technique is based upon the characteristics of the open-loop pilot/vehicle system for attitude control as predicted by the Optimal Control Model (OCM) of the human pilot. The OCM is simplified so that only the index of performance weighting coefficients need to be considered as problem variables and a simple technique for generating these coefficients is reviewed.

  10. Data analysis techniques used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant flywheel evaluation laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the more advanced data analysis techniques applied to the problem of experimentally evaluating the performance of high performance composite flywheels are presented. Real time applications include polar plots of runout with interruptions relating to balance and relative motions between parts, radial growth measurements, and temperature of the spinning part. The technique used to measure torque applied to a containment housing during flywheel failure is also presented. The discussion of pre and post test analysis techniques includes resonant frequency determination with modal analysis, waterfall charts, and runout signals at failure.

  11. Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, P.; Ma, J. L.; Froment, D.; Jaureguy, J. C.

    1993-06-01

    A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time.

  12. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    DOEpatents

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  13. Evaluating teaching techniques in the Hmong breast and cervical cancer health awareness project.

    PubMed

    Lor, Maichou; Bowers, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Cancer health disparities are a reality for Hmong women who are often diagnosed at a later stage and have low literacy and experienced care that are not culturally appropriate. Lack of attention to cultural appropriateness and literacy levels of cancer screening materials may contribute to disproportionately low levels of cancer screening among Hmong women. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the Hmong Health Awareness Project (HHAP), a program designed to create awareness and acceptance of breast and cervical cancer screening, and to examine participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Hmong researchers partnered with three Midwestern Hmong community centers to implement six workshops. Three teaching techniques: pictographs, videos, and hands-on activities were utilized to teach Hmong participants about cancer screening. Participants included 150 Hmong (male participants = 30 and female participants = 120). Teach-back method was used to assess the participants' understanding of cancer screening throughout the workshops. Qualitative data were collected in focus groups to assess the feasibility of teaching methods and participants' perceptions of the utility of the content of the workshops. Directed content analysis was used to analyze participants' responses. The three teaching techniques were helpful in increasing the Hmong people's understanding about breast and cervical cancer screening. Nearly, all participants perceived an increased in their understanding, greater acceptance of cancer screening, and increased willingness to be screened. Men expressed support for screening after the workshops. Findings can guide future interventions to improve health communications and screening and reduce diagnostic disparities among Hmong and immigrant populations.

  14. An Investigation into Techniques for the Determination of Moisture Content on Activated Carbon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Activated carbon (or charcoal ) is a universal adsorbent for the removal of a variety of organic/inorganic contaminants, in both gaseous and aqueous phase...AD-A245 938 i * *~fl Nadoni Waren AN INVESTIGATION INTO TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETERMNATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON ACTIVATED CARBON (U) by L.E. Cameron...INVESTIGATION INTO TECHNIQUES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON ACTIVATED CARBON (U) by L.E. Cameron and S.H.C. Liang Chemical Protecti

  15. Activated mechanisms in proteins: a multiple-temperature activation-relaxation technique study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Rachid; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2001-03-01

    The low-temperature dynamics of proteins is controlled by a complex activated dynamics taking place over long time-scales compared with the period of thermal oscillations. In view of the range of relevant time scales, the numerical study of these processes remains a challenge and numerous methods have been introduced to address this problem. We introduce here a mixture of two algorithms, the activation-relaxation technique (ART)^1,2 coupled with the parallel tempering method, and use it to study the structure of the energy landscape around the native state of a 38-residue polypeptide. While ART samples rapidly the local energy landscape, the parallel tempering, which sets up exchanges of configuration between simultaneous runs at multiple temperatures, generates a very efficient sampling of energy basins separated by high barriers^(3). Results show the nature of the barriers and local minima surrounding the native state of this 38-residue peptide, modeled with off-lattice OPEP-like interactions^4. (1) G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, PRL 77, 4358 (1996) (2) N. Mousseau and G.T. Barkema, PRE 57, 2419 (1998) (3) E. Marinari and G. Parisi, Europhys. Lett., 19 (6), 451 (1992) (4) Ph. Derreumaux, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2301 (1999); PRB 85, 206 (2000)

  16. Constrained optimization techniques for active control of aeroelastic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivekananda

    1987-01-01

    Active control of aeroelastic response is a complex problem in which the designer usually tries to satisfy many design criteria which are often conflicting in nature. To further complicate the design problem, the state space equations describing this type of control problem are usually of high order, involving a large number of states to represent the flexible structure and unsteady aerodynamics. Control laws based on the standard Linear - Quadratic - Gaussian method are of the same high order as the aeroelastic plant and may be difficult to implement in the flight computer. To overcome this disadvantage a new approach was developed for designing low-order optimized robust control laws. In this approach, a nonlinear programming algorithm is used to search for the values of control law design variables that minimize a performance index while satisfying several inequality constraints that describe the design criteria on the stability robustness and responses. The method is applied to a gust load alleviation problem and a stability robustness improvement problem of a drone aircraft.

  17. Innovative techniques to analyze time series of geomagnetic activity indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Potirakis, Stelios M.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic storms are undoubtedly among the most important phenomena in space physics and also a central subject of space weather. The non-extensive Tsallis entropy has been recently introduced, as an effective complexity measure for the analysis of the geomagnetic activity Dst index. The Tsallis entropy sensitively shows the complexity dissimilarity among different "physiological" (normal) and "pathological" states (intense magnetic storms). More precisely, the Tsallis entropy implies the emergence of two distinct patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a higher degree of organization, and (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a lower degree of organization. Other entropy measures such as Block Entropy, T-Complexity, Approximate Entropy, Sample Entropy and Fuzzy Entropy verify the above mentioned result. Importantly, the wavelet spectral analysis in terms of Hurst exponent, H, also shows the existence of two different patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian persistent behavior (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian anti-persistent behavior. Finally, we observe universality in the magnetic storm and earthquake dynamics, on a basis of a modified form of the Gutenberg-Richter law for the Tsallis statistics. This finding suggests a common approach to the interpretation of both phenomena in terms of the same driving physical mechanism. Signatures of discrete scale invariance in Dst time series further supports the aforementioned proposal.

  18. One-flap Palatoplasty: A Cohort Study to Evaluate a Technique for Unilateral Cleft Palate Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cotrinal-Rabanal, Omar; Caceres-Nano, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 2-flap palatoplasty technique is actually the approach most commonly used in the United States for cleft palate repair. This is a one-time surgery that enables closure under minimal tension, lowering rates of subsequent fistula development. However, its primary disadvantage is potential detriment to maxillary growth (due to extent of dissection on both sides of the cleft and raw lateral surfaces). Since 2007, a surgical technique using only one mucoperiosteal flap from the noncleft side has been performed by us, reducing the extent of the surgery and its potential nondesirable effects over the palate. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of this technique for unilateral cleft palate repair. Methods: This is a retrospective, simple-blinded cohort study between 2 groups of 120 patients each with unilateral cleft palate who were operated on using the 2-flap and 1-flap techniques by the Outreach Surgical Center Program Lima from 2007 to 2012. Data collection was accomplished by physical examination to evaluate the presence or absence of a fistula and to evaluate the presence of hypernasality. Postoperative bleeding was also studied. Results: We have observed no increase in the rate of fistulas and velopharyngeal insufficiency between these 2 studied groups (P = 0.801 and P = 1.000). Conclusions: Use of a 1-flap technique for unilateral cleft palate repair allowed us to achieve results comparable to those of a 2-flap technique in terms of postoperative fistula development and hypernasal speech. Additional studies are required to evaluate the effect of this technique on palatal growth. PMID:25973351

  19. Comparative analysis of techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitt, E. F.; Bridgman, M. S.; Robinson, A. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performability analysis is a technique developed for evaluating the effectiveness of fault-tolerant computing systems in multiphase missions. Performability was evaluated for its accuracy, practical usefulness, and relative cost. The evaluation was performed by applying performability and the fault tree method to a set of sample problems ranging from simple to moderately complex. The problems involved as many as five outcomes, two to five mission phases, permanent faults, and some functional dependencies. Transient faults and software errors were not considered. A different analyst was responsible for each technique. Significantly more time and effort were required to learn performability analysis than the fault tree method. Performability is inherently as accurate as fault tree analysis. For the sample problems, fault trees were more practical and less time consuming to apply, while performability required less ingenuity and was more checkable. Performability offers some advantages for evaluating very complex problems.

  20. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Models, measures, and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems were developed. By "effectiveness" in this context we mean the extent to which the user, i.e., a commercial air carrier, may expect to benefit from the computational tasks accomplished by a computing system in the environment of an advanced commercial aircraft. Thus, the concept of effectiveness involves aspects of system performance, reliability, and worth (value, benefit) which are appropriately integrated in the process of evaluating system effectiveness. Specifically, the primary objectives are: the development of system models that provide a basis for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness, the formulation of quantitative measures of system effectiveness, and the development of analytic and simulation techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of a proposed or existing aircraft computer.

  1. Selective evaluation of high density lipoprotein from mouse small intestine by an in situ perfusion technique[S

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Zhang, Bo; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Seino, Utako; Kanagawa, Akiko; Segawa, Masaru; Nagasaka, Hironori; Suzuki, Akira; Miida, Takashi; Yamada, Sohsuke; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Doi, Takefumi; Saku, Keijiro; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    The small intestine (SI) is the second-greatest source of HDL in mice. However, the selective evaluation of SI-derived HDL (SI-HDL) has been difficult because even the origin of HDL obtained in vivo from the intestinal lymph duct of anesthetized rodents is doubtful. To shed light on this question, we have developed a novel in situ perfusion technique using surgically isolated mouse SI, with which the possible filtration of plasma HDL into the SI lymph duct can be prevented. With the developed method, we studied the characteristics of and mechanism for the production and regulation of SI-HDL. Nascent HDL particles were detected in SI lymph perfusates in WT mice, but not in ABCA1 KO mice. SI-HDL had a high protein content and was smaller than plasma HDL. SI-HDL was rich in TG and apo AIV compared with HDL in liver perfusates. SI-HDL was increased by high-fat diets and reduced in apo E KO mice. In conclusion, with our in situ perfusion model that enables the selective evaluation of SI-HDL, we demonstrated that ABCA1 plays an important role in intestinal HDL production, and SI-HDL is small, dense, rich in apo AIV, and regulated by nutritional and genetic factors. PMID:24569139

  2. Evaluation of acoustic emission technique for crack growth measurement in aeronautical structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted concerning the possibility to use the acoustic emission technique for the measurement of fatigue crack growth in aluminum alloy specimens. Two types of aluminum alloys were tested in the investigation. It was found that the acoustic emission technique provides a reliable indication of changes in the crack dimensions over relatively short periods of time. The level of acoustic activity serves as an indicator of the size of the cracks.

  3. Implantation of the Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator: An Evaluation of 4 Implantation Techniques.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Tom F; Miller, Marc A; Quast, Anne-Floor B E; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Dukkipati, Srinivas R; Reddy, Vivek; Wilde, Arthur A; Willner, Jonathan M; Knops, Reinoud E

    2017-01-01

    Alternative techniques to the traditional 3-incision subcutaneous implantation of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator may offer procedural and cosmetic advantages. We evaluate 4 different implant techniques of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Patients implanted with subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators from 2 hospitals between 2009 and 2016 were included. Four implantation techniques were used depending on physician preference and patient characteristics. The 2- and 3-incision techniques both place the pulse generator subcutaneously, but the 2-incision technique omits the superior parasternal incision for lead positioning. Submuscular implantation places the pulse generator underneath the serratus anterior muscle and subfascial implantation underneath the fascial layer on the anterior side of the serratus anterior muscle. Reported outcomes include perioperative parameters, defibrillation testing, and clinical follow-up. A total of 246 patients were included with a median age of 47 years and 37% female. Fifty-four patients were implanted with the 3-incision technique, 118 with the 2-incision technique, 38 with submuscular, and 37 with subfascial. Defibrillation test efficacy and shock lead impedance during testing did not differ among the groups; respectively, P=0.46 and P=0.18. The 2-incision technique resulted in the shortest procedure duration and time-to-hospital discharge compared with the other techniques (P<0.001). A total of 18 complications occurred, but there were no significant differences between the groups (P=0.21). All infections occurred in subcutaneous implants (3-incision, n=3; 2-incision, n=4). In the 2-incision group, there were no lead displacements. The presented implantation techniques are feasible alternatives to the standard 3-incision subcutaneous implantation, and the 2-incision technique resulted in shortest procedure duration. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benkiran, Imane; El Ouazzani, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i) passive irrigation, (ii) manually activated irrigation, and (iii) passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682 ± 0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876 ± 0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910 ± 0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α = 5%). Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system. PMID:27433162

  5. How to Activate Teachers through Teacher Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert

    2014-01-01

    There is a general doubt on whether teacher evaluation can contribute to teachers' professional development. Recently, standards-based teacher evaluation has been introduced in many countries to improve teaching practice. This study wants to investigate which teacher evaluation procedural, leadership, and teacher characteristics can stimulate…

  6. Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of a Fleet Post-Training Performance Evaluation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafacz, Bernard A.; Foley, Paul P.

    A study was conducted by the Navy to develop and evaluate human performance reliability estimates for electronic maintenance. Data were collected using the Personnel Identification Information Forms, the Technical Proficiency Checkout Form, and the Job Performance Questionnaire. On the basis of the total number of uncommonly effective and the…

  7. Getting the Most Out of Dual-Listed Courses: Involving Undergraduate Students in Discussion Through Active Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasich, C. M.; Duncan, L. L.; Duncan, B. R.; Burkhardt, B. L.; Benneyworth, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dual-listed courses will persist in higher education because of resource limitations. The pedagogical differences between undergraduate and graduate STEM student groups and the underlying distinction in intellectual development levels between the two student groups complicate the inclusion of undergraduates in these courses. Active learning techniques are a possible remedy to the hardships undergraduate students experience in graduate-level courses. Through an analysis of both undergraduate and graduate student experiences while enrolled in a dual-listed course, we implemented a variety of learning techniques used to complement the learning of both student groups and enhance deep discussion. Here, we provide details concerning the implementation of four active learning techniques - role play, game, debate, and small group - that were used to help undergraduate students critically discuss primary literature. Student perceptions were gauged through an anonymous, end-of-course evaluation that contained basic questions comparing the course to other courses at the university and other salient aspects of the course. These were given as a Likert scale on which students rated a variety of statements (1 = strongly disagree, 3 = no opinion, and 5 = strongly agree). Undergraduates found active learning techniques to be preferable to traditional techniques with small-group discussions being rated the highest in both enjoyment and enhanced learning. The graduate student discussion leaders also found active learning techniques to improve discussion. In hindsight, students of all cultures may be better able to take advantage of such approaches and to critically read and discuss primary literature when written assignments are used to guide their reading. Applications of active learning techniques can not only address the gap between differing levels of students, but also serve as a complement to student engagement in any science course design.

  8. Effects on Hamstring Muscle Extensibility, Muscle Activity, and Balance of Different Stretching Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance. PMID:24648633

  9. Utilization of fringe projection technique for evaluation of wound dimensions and of healing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Marcia T.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.; Palácios, Francisco F.; Lino, Antonio C. L.; Palácios, Guillermo F.; Sousa, Marcelo V. P.

    2013-03-01

    Background: The methods used for evaluating wound dimensions, especially the chronic ones, are invasive and inaccurate. The fringe projection technique with phase shift is a non-invasive, accurate and low-cost optical method. Objective: The aim is to validate the technique through the determination of dimensions of objects of known topography and with different geometries and colors to simulate the wounds and tones of skin color. Taking into account the influence of skin wound optical factors, the technique will be used to evaluate actual patients' wound dimensions and to study its limitations in this application. Methods: Four sinusoidal fringe patterns, displaced ¼ of period each, were projected onto the objects surface. The object dimensions were obtained from the unwrapped phase map through the observation of the fringe deformations caused by the object topography and using phase shift analysis. An object with simple geometry was used for dimensional calibration and the topographic dimensions of the others were determined from it. After observing the compatibility with the data and validating the method, it was used for measuring the dimensions of real patients' wounds. Results and Conclusions: The discrepancies between actual topography and dimensions determined with Fringe Projection Technique and for the known object were lower than 0.50 cm. The method was successful in obtaining the topography of real patient's wounds. Objects and wounds with sharp topographies or causing shadow or reflection are difficult to be evaluated with this technique.

  10. Evaluating the dynamic response of in-flight thrust calculation techniques during throttle transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    New flight test maneuvers and analysis techniques for evaluating the dynamic response of in-flight thrust models during throttle transients have been developed and validated. The approach is based on the aircraft and engine performance relationship between thrust and drag. Two flight test maneuvers, a throttle step and a throttle frequency sweep, were developed and used in the study. Graphical analysis techniques, including a frequency domain analysis method, were also developed and evaluated. They provide quantitative and qualitative results. Four thrust calculation methods were used to demonstrate and validate the test technique. Flight test applications on two high-performance aircraft confirmed the test methods as valid and accurate. These maneuvers and analysis techniques were easy to implement and use. Flight test results indicate the analysis techniques can identify the combined effects of model error and instrumentation response limitations on the calculated thrust value. The methods developed in this report provide an accurate approach for evaluating, validating, or comparing thrust calculation methods for dynamic flight applications.

  11. The range of replications technique for assessing the external validity of road safety evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2012-03-01

    This paper introduces a simple statistical technique that can be used to assess the external validity of road safety evaluation studies. External validity refers to the possibility of generalising the results of research to other contexts than those in which it was made. There are several aspects of external validity. Two aspects that are often of interest concern the applicability of the results of road safety evaluation studies across countries and time. Can the results of studies made in one or more countries be applied in countries where studies have not been made? Can the results of studies made many years ago still be applied? The technique introduced in this paper is designed to provide support in answering these questions. The technique evaluates the stability of research results in time and space. The technique is based on cumulative meta-analysis and produces statistics that show the consistency of study results in time and space (across countries). The range of replications denotes the span of time and countries in which studies have been made. The idea is that if the results of studies are stable throughout the range of replications, one may have greater confidence in their external validity than if the results of research vary in time and between countries. The technique is illustrated by means of numerical examples.

  12. A Review of Emerging Analytical Techniques for Objective Physical Activity Measurement in Humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cain C T; Barnes, Claire M; Stratton, Gareth; McNarry, Melitta A; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Summers, Huw D

    2017-03-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the world. A fundamental barrier to enhancing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary behavior is limited by our understanding of associated measurement and analytical techniques. The number of analytical techniques for physical activity measurement has grown significantly, and although emerging techniques may advance analyses, little consensus is presently available and further synthesis is therefore required. The objective of this review was to identify the accuracy of emerging analytical techniques used for physical activity measurement in humans. We conducted a search of electronic databases using Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. This review included studies written in English and published between January 2010 and December 2014 that assessed physical activity using emerging analytical techniques and reported technique accuracy. A total of 2064 papers were initially retrieved from three databases. After duplicates were removed and remaining articles screened, 50 full-text articles were reviewed, resulting in the inclusion of 11 articles that met the eligibility criteria. Despite the diverse nature and the range in accuracy associated with some of the analytic techniques, the rapid development of analytics has demonstrated that more sensitive information about physical activity may be attained. However, further refinement of these techniques is needed.

  13. Field Evaluation of Two Geophysical Techniques for Real-Time Mapping of Smouldering Remediation (STAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trento, L. M.; Tsourlos, P.; McMaster, M.; Liefl, D.; Sims, A.; Dominguez, J. L. G.; Vidumsky, J.; Gerhard, J.

    2016-12-01

    Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) technology destroys non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in situ using principles of smouldering combustion. It involves propagating an exothermic (400-1000C) oxidation reaction outwards from an ignition well. A full-scale STAR system is currently being applied at an industrial site contaminated with coal tar below the water table in New Jersey, USA. STAR is typically tracked using multi-level thermocouples, which are discrete and sparse in space and time. This study evaluates two surface-based geophysical methods - Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Self-Potential (SP) - for the ability to map the STAR reaction in real time at the New Jersey site. Both techniques involve placing electrode arrays on the surface and monitoring electrical signals over time (i.e., time-lapse). It is hypothesized that ERT should be able to monitor the resistive dry zone that precedes the reaction front and/or the growing NAPL-depleted zone. SP is expected to be able to detect the potential difference associated with thermal gradients generated by the reaction. Approximately 72 ERT electrodes in a "swiss cross" pattern plus 10 SP electrodes will be emplaced over single STAR treatment cell (six ignition wells). This setup will be employed to monitor both a deep (25 feet) and shallow (8 feet) STAR treatments. The geophysics will be complemented by in situ temperature measurements, continuous gas measurements, and pre- and post-treatment coring. The primary goal of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of using ERT and SP for STAR under field conditions. The tests will be conducted in August 2016.

  14. A methodological approach for direct quantification of the activated sludge floc size distribution by using different techniques.

    PubMed

    Govoreanu, R; Saveyn, H; Van der Meeren, P; Nopens, I; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2009-01-01

    The activated sludge floc size distribution (FSD) is investigated by using different measurement techniques in order to gain insight in FSD assessment as well as to detect the strengths and limitations of each technique. A second objective was to determine the experimental conditions that allow a representative and accurate measurement of activated sludge floc size distributions. Laser diffraction, Time Of Transition (TOT) and Dynamic Image Analysis (DIA) devices were connected in series. The sample dilution liquid, the dilution factor and hydraulic flow conditions avoiding flocculation proved to be important. All methods had certain advantages and limitations. The MastersizerS has a broader dynamic size range and provides accurate results at high concentrations. However, it suffers from an imprecise evaluation of small size flocs and is susceptible to particle shape effects. TOT suffers less from size overestimation for non-spherical particles. However, care should be taken with the settings of the transparency check. Being primarily a counting technique, DIA suffers from a limited size detection range but is an excellent technique for process visualization. All evaluated techniques turned out to be reliable methods to quantify the floc size distribution. Selection of a certain method depends on the purpose of the measurement.

  15. A new technique for the evaluation of shale stability in the presence of polymeric drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.F.

    1988-08-01

    A quantitative evaluation technique for shale stability in a polymeric medium has been developed with a rheological method. The storage modulus of a shale pellet immersed in a drilling fluid is used to predict the shale-inhibitive properties of the fluid. Polymer concentration, molecular weight, carboxyl substitution, and KCl concentration are important parameters affecting shale stability.

  16. Nursing Evaluation: The Problem and the Process: The Critical Incident Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivars, Grace; Gosnell, Doris

    Intended as a text and a reference work, the book emphasizes the development of broad institutional objectives, and covers in detail curriculum and course development, selection of learning experiences, and evaluation of nursing behavior. All subjects are approached through the critical incident technique, which presents material in brief case…

  17. Development of an invitro technique to use mouse embryonic stem cell in evaluating effects of xenobiotics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal has been to develop a high-throughput, in vitro technique for evaluating the effects of xenobiotics using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We began with the Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST), which is used to predict the embryotoxic potential of a test compound by combin...

  18. Using Probability Distributions to Evaluate an Energy Conservation Program: A Technique for Dealing with Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Linda; Brown, Marilyn A.

    1995-01-01

    In many evaluations, presenting probability distributions of cost-effectiveness results offers a convenient way to show the likelihood of various conclusions given the uncertainties in the inputs. The techniques presented in this paper should be useful for many programs characterized by controversy over perspectives, assumptions, and dollar…

  19. Non-destructive evaluation techniques, high temperature ceramic component parts for gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, H.; Hirsekorn, S.; Lottermoser, J.; Goebbels, K.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns studies conducted on various tests undertaken on material without destroying the material. Tests included: microradiographic techniques, vibration analysis, high-frequency ultrasonic tests with the addition of evaluation of defects and structure through analysis of ultrasonic scattering data, microwave tests and analysis of sound emission.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of green wood using stress wave and transverse vibration techniques

    Treesearch

    Udaya B. Halabe; Gangadhar M. Bidigalu; Hota V.S. GangaRao; Robert J. Ross

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal stress wave and transverse vibration nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques have proven to be accurate means of evaluating the quality of wood based products. Researchers have found strong relationships between stress wave and transverse vibration parameters (e.g., wave velocity and modulus of elasticity predicted using NDT measurements) with the actual...

  1. Development of an invitro technique to use mouse embryonic stem cell in evaluating effects of xenobiotics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal has been to develop a high-throughput, in vitro technique for evaluating the effects of xenobiotics using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We began with the Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST), which is used to predict the embryotoxic potential of a test compound by combin...

  2. Assessment of Techniques for Evaluating Computer Systems for Federal Agency Procurements. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letmanyi, Helen

    Developed to identify and qualitatively assess computer system evaluation techniques for use during acquisition of general purpose computer systems, this document presents several criteria for comparison and selection. An introduction discusses the automatic data processing (ADP) acquisition process and the need to plan for uncertainty through…

  3. Evaluating bruise susceptibility of ’Golden Delicious’ apples using hyperspectral scattering technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research evaluated the potential of hyperspectral scattering technique for predicting the bruise susceptibility of apples. Spectral scattering images between 500 and 1,000 nm were acquired for 300 ‘Golden Delicious’ apples over a time period of three weeks after harvest, using a hyperspectral i...

  4. An Accountability Technique in Higher Education: The Role of Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Evaluation System (PPBES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Zdzislaw P.

    In response to the demand for accountability in higher education, colleges have adopted business techniques of planning and management systems in the form of Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Evaluation System (PPBES). The system approach to educational administration consists of three interrelated concepts: (1) input, (2) process, and (3)…

  5. The Impact of the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique on Course Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Trent W.; Kropp, Jerri J.

    2015-01-01

    This project reports the results of two studies that investigated the impact on course evaluations of using partial credit iterative responding (PCIR) with the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) forms on summative course assessments. This project also quantifies grade inflation from utilizing different PCIR schemes and documents the…

  6. Evaluation of NDE techniques for type 439 stainless steel feedwater heater tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, M.J.; Catapano, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Ferritic stainless steel has been finding increased application in utility plant feedwater heaters due to good strength and corrosion resistance and absence of potential copper contamination of feedwater system. Ferritic stainless steel is highly magnetic and is generally not inspectable using conventional eddy current testing techniques. A variety of techniques have been developed for inspection of this tubing material used in typical heat exchanger applications. Through a project completely funded by the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO), the data generated by four present state of the art NDE testing techniques was evaluated on a controlled mock-up of the heater tubing with service related defects. The primary objective was to determine the strengths and limitations of each method. The testing of two (2) in service feedwater heaters at the Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison`s) Arthur Kill Generating Station also allowed further evaluations based on actual field conditions.

  7. The Application of a Residual Risk Evaluation Technique Used for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, John A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provides a Residual Risk Evaluation Technique (RRET) developed by Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Launch Services Division. This technique is one of many procedures used by S&MA at KSC to evaluate residual risks for each Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) mission. RRET is a straight forward technique that incorporates the proven methodology of risk management, fault tree analysis, and reliability prediction. RRET derives a system reliability impact indicator from the system baseline reliability and the system residual risk reliability values. The system reliability impact indicator provides a quantitative measure of the reduction in the system baseline reliability due to the identified residual risks associated with the designated ELV mission. An example is discussed to provide insight into the application of RRET.

  8. A Load-Based Multiple-Partial Unloading Micro-Indentation Technique for Mechanical Property Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    C. Feng; J.M. Tannenbaum; B.S. Kang; M.A. Alvin

    2009-07-23

    A load-based multiple-partial unloading microindentation technique has been developed for evaluating mechanical properties of materials. Comparing to the current prevailing nano/micro-indentation methods, which require precise measurements of the indentation depth and load, the proposed technique only measures indentation load and the overall indentation displacement (i.e. including displacement of the loading apparatus). Coupled with a multiple-partial unloading procedure during the indentation process, this technique results in a load-depth sensing indentation system capable of determining Young’s modulus of metallic alloys with flat, tubular, or curved architectures. Test results show consistent and correct elastic modulus values when performing indentation tests on standard alloys such as steel, aluminum, bronze, and single crystal superalloys. The proposed micro-indentation technique has led to the development of a portable loaddepth sensing indentation system capable of on-site, in-situ material property measurement.

  9. Evaluation of nondestructive testing techniques for the space shuttle nonmetallic thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiede, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate nondestructive analysis techniques for the detection of defects in rigidized surface insulation (a candidate material for the Space Shuttle thermal protection system). Uncoated, coated, and coated and bonded samples with internal defects (voids, cracks, delaminations, density variations, and moisture content), coating defects (holes, cracks, thickness variations, and loss of adhesion), and bondline defects (voids and unbonds) were inspected by X-ray radiography, acoustic, microwave, high-frequency ultrasonic, beta backscatter, thermal, holographic, and visual techniques. The detectability of each type of defect was determined for each technique (when applicable). A possible relationship between microwave reflection measurements (or X-ray-radiography density measurements) and the tensile strength was established. A possible approach for in-process inspection using a combination of X-ray radiography, acoustic, microwave, and holographic techniques was recommended.

  10. AN EVALUATION OF CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR LOW-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC CABLES

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.J.; GROVE,E.; SOO,P.

    2000-07-23

    Aging of systems and components in nuclear power plants is a well known occurrence that must be managed to ensure the continued safe operation of these plants. Much of the degradation due to aging is controlled through periodic maintenance and/or component replacement. However, there are components that do not receive periodic maintenance or monitoring once they are installed; electric cables are such a component. To provide a means of monitoring the condition of electric cables, research is ongoing to evaluate promising condition monitoring (CM) techniques that can be used in situ to monitor cable condition and predict remaining life. While several techniques are promising, each has limitations that must be considered in its application. This paper discusses the theory behind several of the promising cable CM techniques being studied, along with their effectiveness for monitoring aging degradation in typical cable insulation materials, such as cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber. Successes and limitations of each technique are also presented.

  11. A new microtomographic technique for non-invasive evaluation of the bone structure around implants.

    PubMed

    Sennerby, L; Wennerberg, A; Pasop, F

    2001-02-01

    A new X-ray microtomographic technique for non-invasive assessment of the structure of bone surrounding implants was tested. Three titanium microimplants retrieved directly (n = 2) or 6 months (n = 1) after insertion in 3 patients were used as test samples. Two samples were used dry and one was embedded in plastic resin prior to microtomography. The technique provided high-resolution consecutive cross-sectional X-ray images of the specimens with a slice-to-slice distance of 4.4 to 11.0 microns. The pictures could be imported into an image analysing software with which semiautomatic quantitative measurement of the bone area and three-dimensional images of the specimens could be made. It is suggested that the technique may be used for non-invasive assessment of the bone structure around implants. Further studies are needed to evaluate the accuracy of the technique, for instance by comparing tomographic sections with histologic ones.

  12. A comprehensive evaluation of machine learning techniques for cancer class prediction based on microarray data.

    PubMed

    Raza, Khalid; Hasan, Atif N

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common cancer in males and its heterogeneity is well known. The genomic level changes can be detected in gene expression data and those changes may serve as standard model for any random cancer data for class prediction. Various techniques were implied on prostate cancer data set in order to accurately predict cancer class including machine learning techniques. Large number of attributes but few numbers of samples in microarray data leads to poor training; therefore, the most challenging part is attribute reduction or non-significant gene reduction. In this work, a combination of interquartile range and t-test is used for attribute reduction. Further, a comprehensive evaluation of ten state-of-the-art machine learning techniques for their accuracy in class prediction of prostate cancer is done. Out of these techniques, Bayes Network outperformed with an accuracy of 94.11% followed by Naïve Bayes with an accuracy of 91.17%.

  13. Best Estimate Method vs Evaluation Method: a comparison of two techniques in evaluating seismic analysis and design

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, S.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Smith, P.D.

    1980-05-01

    The concept of how two techniques, Best Estimate Method and Evaluation Method, may be applied to the traditional seismic analysis and design of a nuclear power plant is introduced. Only the four links of the seismic analysis and design methodology chain (SMC) - seismic input, soil-structure interaction, major structural response, and subsystem response - are considered. The objective is to evaluate the compounding of conservatisms in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear power plants, to provide guidance for judgments in the SMC, and to concentrate the evaluation on that part of the seismic analysis and design which is familiar to the engineering community. An example applies the effects of three-dimensional excitations on a model of a nuclear power plant structure. The example demonstrates how conservatisms accrue by coupling two links in the SMC and comparing those results to the effects of one link alone. The utility of employing the Best Estimate Method vs the Evaluation Method is also demonstrated.

  14. Principles for Evaluating Teacher Development Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bax, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a teacher development activity in two different teacher training contexts. It is argued that the two different aspects of the activity exemplify important principles in the emerging model of trainee-centred teacher development. (15 references) (JL)

  15. Neural Detection of Malicious Network Activities Using a New Direct Parsing and Feature Extraction Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NETWORK ACTIVITIES USING A NEW DIRECT PARSING AND FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE by Cheng Hong Low September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Phillip Pace Co...FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Low, Cheng Hong 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Center for...FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE Cheng Hong Low Civlian, ST Aerospace, Singapore M.Sc., National University of Singapore, 2012 Submitted in

  16. Randomised controlled trial of Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage (ATEAM) for chronic and recurrent back pain: economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hollinghurst, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie; Ballard, Kathleen; Barnett, Jane; Beattie, Angela; Evans, Maggie; Lewith, George; Middleton, Karen; Oxford, Frances; Webley, Fran; Little, Paul

    2008-12-11

    An economic evaluation of therapeutic massage, exercise, and lessons in the Alexander technique for treating persistent back pain. Cost consequences study and cost effectiveness analysis at 12 month follow-up of a factorial randomised controlled trial. 579 patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain recruited from primary care. Normal care (control), massage, and six or 24 lessons in the Alexander technique. Half of each group were randomised to a prescription for exercise from a doctor plus behavioural counselling from a nurse. Costs to the NHS and to participants. Comparison of costs with Roland-Morris disability score (number of activities impaired by pain), days in pain, and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Comparison of NHS costs with QALY gain, using incremental cost effectiveness ratios and cost effectiveness acceptability curves. Intervention costs ranged from pound30 for exercise prescription to pound596 for 24 lessons in Alexander technique plus exercise. Cost of health services ranged from pound50 for 24 lessons in Alexander technique to pound124 for exercise. Incremental cost effectiveness analysis of single therapies showed that exercise offered best value ( pound61 per point on disability score, pound9 per additional pain-free day, pound2847 per QALY gain). For two-stage therapy, six lessons in Alexander technique combined with exercise was the best value (additional pound64 per point on disability score, pound43 per additional pain-free day, pound5332 per QALY gain). An exercise prescription and six lessons in Alexander technique alone were both more than 85% likely to be cost effective at values above pound20 000 per QALY, but the Alexander technique performed better than exercise on the full range of outcomes. A combination of six lessons in Alexander technique lessons followed by exercise was the most effective and cost effective option.

  17. 38 CFR 1.489 - Audit and evaluation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audit and evaluation... GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.489 Audit and evaluation activities. Subject to... part may be disclosed outside VA for the purposes of conducting audit and evaluation activities....

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of two arthroscopic techniques for biceps tenodesis: triple loop suture versus simple suture.

    PubMed

    Gigi, Roy; Dolkart, Oleg; Sharfman, Zachary T; Goldstein, Yariv; Brosh, Tamar; Rath, Ehud; Maman, Eran; Chechik, Ofir

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques and procedures have been described to treat long head of the biceps pathology; however, tenodesis and tenotomy are the 2 most common procedures performed. This study evaluated the initial fixation strength of the biceps tenodesis triple loop suture (TLS) technique and compared it with that of the simple suture technique (SST). Twenty fresh frozen cadaveric human shoulders (humeral head and neck with attached biceps tendons) were harvested. The biceps tendon was tenotomized proximally before reattachment to the bicipital groove of the matching humerus using suture anchors. Tenodesis was performed using the SST or the TLS technique. Specimens were tested biomechanically for load to failure, stress, and stiffness. The mechanism of failure was evaluated and compared between the 2 suture techniques. Maximal load to failure was significantly greater using the TLS technique (122.2 ± 26.73 N) than the SST (46.12 ± 14.37 N, P < .001). There was no difference in the mean stiffness (SST: 7.33 ± 4.41 N/mm, TLS: 7.46 N/mm ± 2.67, P = .94). The failure mechanism in all SST samples occurred by suture cutout through the longitudinal fibers of the tendon. In all TLS samples, the failure occurred by suture slippage. This study demonstrated superior load to failure of the TLS compared with the SST technique for biceps tenodesis. Furthermore, this study provides the first description of the TLS technique as a possible application in biceps tenodesis. Clinical application of the TLS must be carefully considered, because although it achieved a superior biomechanical profile, experience with this stitch is limited. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Canal cleanliness using different irrigation activation systems: a SEM evaluation.

    PubMed

    Urban, K; Donnermeyer, D; Schäfer, Edgar; Bürklein, S

    2017-02-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of different final irrigation activation methods in removing debris and smear layer in the apical, middle, and coronal portion of straight root canals. Straight root canals of 58 freshly extracted mandibular premolars were used. Root canals were prepared to size 40.06. Irrigation was performed using 3% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were divided into four equal groups (n = 12) according to the irrigation activation techniques: (A) manual irrigation (MI), (B) EndoActivator (EA) (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), (C) sonic activation EDDY (EDDY; VDW, Munich, Germany), and (D) passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). Ten teeth served as negative controls. Roots were split longitudinally, and the canal walls were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of debris and smear layer at coronal, middle, and apical levels were evaluated using a 5-point scoring system and statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests. Canal cleanliness decreased from coronal to apical (P = 0.035). Significantly more debris was removed with EA, EDDY, and PUI compared to MI (P < 0.001; total values), but no differences were observed in the different portions of the root canals (P > 0.05). Smear layer removal with PUI, EA, and EDDY was not significantly different (P > 0.05), but only EDDY and PUI were superior to MI (P < 0.01). All activation methods created nearly debris-free canal walls and were superior compared to manual irrigation (P < 0.001). EDDY and PUI also showed significantly better smear layer scores compared to manual irrigation. The sonic activation system EDDY performed equally as well as PUI, and both methods were significantly superior compared with manual irrigation in straight root canals with regard to debris and smear layer removal.

  20. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…