Science.gov

Sample records for activities extension activities

  1. Student Activities . . . an Extension of the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Joan B.

    1981-01-01

    Extracurricular activities in secondary schools are an important part of student preparation for adult life. This document presents guidelines on the components, administration, and evaluation of student activities. It suggests that a comprehensive activity program should include student government, publications, cultural activities, service…

  2. Exploring Extension Involvement in Farm to School Program Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here examined Extension professionals' involvement in farm-to-school program activities. Results of an online survey distributed to eight state Extension systems indicate that on average, Extension professionals are involved with one farm to school program activity, with most supporting school or community garden programs.…

  3. 75 FR 13568 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0142, Decommissioning Activities, Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0142, Decommissioning Activities, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION... comments to the Department of the Interior; Minerals Management Service; Attention: Cheryl Blundon;...

  4. The effects of finger extension on shoulder muscle activity

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chae-Woo; Shin, Ju-Yong; Kim, Youn-Joung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to examine the effects of the extension of the fingers (distal upper limb) on the activity of the shoulder muscles (proximal upper limb). [Subjects and Methods] This study involved 14 healthy male adults with no musculoskeletal disorder or pain related to the shoulders and hands. The subjects in a sitting posture abducted the angle of the shoulder joints at 60° and had their palms in the front direction. Electromyography (EMG) was comparatively analyzed to look at the activities of the infraspinatus (IS) and rhomboid major (RM) when the fingers were extended and relaxed. [Results] The activity of the IS was statistically significantly higher when the fingers were extended than when they were relaxed. [Conclusion] According to the result of this study, finger extension is considered to affect the muscles for connected shoulder joint stability. PMID:26504277

  5. Tests of the Extension and Deadbolt Models of Integrin Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jieqing; Boylan, Brian; Luo, Bing-Hao; Newman, Peter J.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite extensive evidence that integrin conformational changes between bent and extended conformations regulate affinity for ligands, an alternative hypothesis has been proposed in which a “deadbolt” can regulate affinity for ligand in the absence of extension. Here, we tested both the deadbolt and the extension models. According to the deadbolt model, a hairpin loop in the β3 tail domain could act as a deadbolt to restrain the displacement of the β3 I domain β6-α7 loop and maintain integrin in the low affinity state. We found that mutating or deleting the β3 tail domain loop has no effect on ligand binding by either αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 integrins. In contrast, we found that mutations that lock integrins in the bent conformation with disulfide bonds resist inside-out activation induced by cytoplasmic domain mutation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that extension is required for accessibility to fibronectin but not smaller fragments. The data demonstrate that integrin extension is required for ligand binding during integrin inside-out signaling and that the deadbolt does not regulate integrin activation. PMID:17301049

  6. Using Non-Extension Volunteering as an Experiential Learning Activity for Extension Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Kevin B.; Lockett, Landry L.

    2013-01-01

    Extension professionals can gain much-needed competencies in volunteer administration through experiential learning by participating in volunteer activities. Experiential learning is a means of behavior change that allows the individual learner to reflect on, abstract, and apply their experiences to new situations. This article expands on…

  7. Establishing a reproducible protocol for measuring index active extension strength.

    PubMed

    Matter-Parrat, V; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Collon, S; Salazar Botero, S; Prunières, G; Ichihara, S; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a reproducible protocol to measure active extension strength in the index finger. The secondary objectives consisted in correlating the independent or associated index extension strength to the other fingers force of contraction of the extensor indicis propius with hand dominance. The population studied consisted of 24 healthy volunteers, including 19 women and 20 right-handed individuals. The independent and dependent index extension strength in each hand was measured three times with a dynamometer by three examiners at Day 0 and again at Day 7. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility were, respectively, >0.90 and >0.75 in all cases. The independent extension strength was lower than the dependent one. There was no difference between the independent index extension strength on the dominant and non-dominant sides. The same was true for the dependent strength. Our results show that our protocol is reproducible in measuring independent and dependent index extension strength. Dominance did not come into account.

  8. A Fungal Endoglucanase with Plant Cell Wall Extension Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sheng; Wu, Yajun; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    We have identified a wall hydrolytic enzyme from Trichoderma reesei with potent ability to induce extension of heat-inactivated type I cell walls. It is a small (23-kD) endo-1,4-β-glucanase (Cel12A) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 12. Extension of heat-inactivated walls from cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv Burpee Pickler) hypocotyls was induced by Cel12A after a distinct lag time and was accompanied by a large increase in wall plasticity and elasticity. Cel12A also increased the rate of stress relaxation of isolated walls at very short times (<200 ms; equivalent to reducing t0, a parameter that estimates the minimum relaxation time). Similar changes in wall plasticity and elasticity were observed in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Pennmore Winter) coleoptile (type II) walls, which showed only a negligible extension in response to Cel12A treatment. Thus, Cel12A modifies both type I and II walls, but substantial extension is found only in type I walls. Cel12A has strong endo-glucanase activity against xyloglucan and (1→3,1→4)-β-glucan, but did not exhibit endo-xylanase, endo-mannase, or endo-galactanase activities. In terms of kinetics of action and effects on wall rheology, wall loosening by Cel12A differs qualitatively from the action by expansins, which induce wall extension by a non-hydrolytic polymer creep mechanism. The action by Cel12A mimics some of the changes in wall rheology found after auxin-induced growth. The strategy used here to identify Cel12A could be used to identify analogous plant enzymes that cause auxin-induced changes in cell wall rheology. PMID:11553760

  9. Three determinants in ezrin are responsible for cell extension activity.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, M; Roy, C; Montcourrier, P; Sahuquet, A; Mangeat, P

    1997-01-01

    The ERM proteins--ezrin, radixin, and moesin--are key players in membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. In insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses, amino acids 1-115 of ezrin were shown to inhibit an actin- and tubulin-dependent cell-extension activity located in ezrin C-terminal domain (ezrin310-586), whereas full-length ezrin1-586 did not induce any morphological change. To refine the mapping of functional domains of ezrin, 30 additional constructs were overexpressed in Sf9 cells, and the resulting effect of each was qualitatively and semiquantitatively compared. The removal of amino acids 13-30 was sufficient to release a cell-extension phenotype. This effect was abrogated if the 21 distal-most C-terminal amino acids were subsequently deleted (ezrin31-565), confirming the existence of a head-to-tail regulation in the whole molecule. Surprisingly, the deletion in full-length ezrin of the same 21 amino acids provided strong cell-extension competence to ezrin1-565, and this property was recovered in N-terminal constructs as short as ezrin1-310. Within ezrin1-310, amino acid sequences 13-30 and 281-310 were important determinants and acted in cooperation to induce cytoskeleton mobilization. In addition, these same residues are part of a new actin-binding site characterized in vitro in ezrin N-terminal domain. Images PMID:9285824

  10. Passive resting state and history of antagonist muscle activity shape active extensions in an insect limb

    PubMed Central

    Ache, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Limb movements can be driven by muscle contractions, external forces, or intrinsic passive forces. For lightweight limbs like those of insects or small vertebrates, passive forces can be large enough to overcome the effects of gravity and may even generate limb movements in the absence of active muscle contractions. Understanding the sources and actions of such forces is therefore important in understanding motor control. We describe passive properties of the femur-tibia joint of the locust hind leg. The resting angle is determined primarily by passive properties of the relatively large extensor tibiae muscle and is influenced by the history of activation of the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron. The resting angle is therefore better described as a history-dependent resting state. We selectively stimulated different flexor tibiae motor neurons to generate a range of isometric contractions of the flexor tibiae muscle and then stimulated the fast extensor tibiae motor neuron to elicit active tibial extensions. Residual forces in the flexor muscle have only a small effect on subsequent active extensions, but the effect is larger for distal than for proximal flexor motor neurons and varies with the strength of flexor activation. We conclude that passive properties of a lightweight limb make substantial and complex contributions to the resting state of the limb that must be taken into account in the patterning of neuronal control signals driving its active movements. Low variability in the effects of the passive forces may permit the nervous system to accurately predict their contributions to behavior. PMID:22357791

  11. Transverse extension of Guatemala active margin: implications for accretion

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.

    1987-05-01

    The inner trench wall of the Middle America Trench off Guatemala does not show evidence of accretion, based on DSDP Legs 67 and 84. The presence of normal faults on the lower inner trench slope has resulted in various subsidence models for the margin. Fault traces would be expected to trend parallel to the margin (northwest-southeast) if margin subsidence had occurred. Instead, the faults trend north-south and occur in groups of faults downdropped to the east and to the west. The faults do not seem to be related to margin subsidence but rather to previously proposed Cenozoic Central American rifting. The rifting resulted from crustal bending as the Central American block rounded southern Mexico during differential North American/Caribbean plate motion. The rifts, which extend nearly to the trench axis, underlie the San Jose submarine canyon and align with the Guatemala City graben. Possible east-west accommodation zones, between fault zones that dip in opposite directions, exist near the shelf edge. These accommodation zones may have formed along lines of weakness where oceanic crust was previously emplaced into the margin during or prior to the Eocene. These rifts show that compressional and extension features can occur simultaneously with underthrusting on active margins.

  12. An Extensible, User- Modifiable Framework for Planning Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshing, Joseph C.; Abramyan, Lucy; Mickelson, Megan C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Kurien, James A.; Crockett, Thomasa M.; Powell, Mark W.; Pyrzak, Guy; Aghevli, Arash

    2013-01-01

    This software provides a development framework that allows planning activities for the Mars Science Laboratory rover to be altered at any time, based on changes of the Activity Dictionary. The Activity Dictionary contains the definition of all activities that can be carried out by a particular asset (robotic or human). These definitions (and combinations of these definitions) are used by mission planners to give a daily plan of what a mission should do. During the development and course of the mission, the Activity Dictionary and actions that are going to be carried out will often be changed. Previously, such changes would require a change to the software and redeployment. Now, the Activity Dictionary authors are able to customize activity definitions, parameters, and resource usage without requiring redeployment. This software provides developers and end users the ability to modify the behavior of automatically generated activities using a script. This allows changes to the software behavior without incurring the burden of redeployment. This software is currently being used for the Mars Science Laboratory, and is in the process of being integrated into the LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) mission, as well as the International Space Station.

  13. Assessing adult leisure activities: an extension of a self-report activity questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela S; Hertzog, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value, as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, the authors enhanced the content validity of the Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire by adding items on physical and social activities and validated a shortened version of the questionnaire. The proposed leisure activity model included 11 activity categories: 3 types of social activities (i.e., activities with close social partners, group-centered public activity, religious activities), physical activities, developmental activities, experiential activities, crafts, game playing, TV watching, travel, and technology use. Confirmatory factor analyses validated the proposed factor structure in 2 independent samples. A higher order model with a general activity factor fitted the activity factor correlations with relatively little loss of fit. Convergent and discriminant validity for the activity scales were supported by patterns of their correlations with education, health, depression, cognition, and personality. In sum, the scores derived from of the augmented Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire demonstrate good reliability, and validity evidence supports their use as measures of leisure activities in young, middle-aged, and older individuals.

  14. A National Perspective on the Current Evaluation Activities in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Israel, Glenn D.; Diehl, David

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance Extension evaluation efforts it is important to understand current practices. The study reported here researched the evaluation behaviors of county-based Extension professionals. Extension professionals from eight states (n = 1,173) responded to a survey regarding their evaluation data collection, analysis, and reporting…

  15. Assessing Adult Leisure Activities: An Extension of a Self-Report Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, we enhanced the content validity of the Victoria Longitudinal Study activity questionnaire by adding items on physical and social activities, and validated a shortened version of the questionnaire. Our proposed leisure activity model included 11 activity categories: three types of social activities (i.e., activities with close social partners, group-centered public activity, religious activities), physical, developmental, and experiential activities, crafts, game playing, TV watching, travel, and technology use. Confirmatory factor analyses validated the proposed factor structure in two independent samples. A higher-order model with a general activity factor fitted the activity factor correlations with relatively little loss of fit. Convergent and discriminant validity for the activity scales were supported by patterns of their correlations with education, health, depression, cognition, and personality. In sum, the scores derived from of the augmented VLS activity questionnaire demonstrate good reliability, and validity evidence supports their use as measure of leisure activities in young, middle-aged, and older individuals. PMID:20230157

  16. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  17. Characteristics, Views Held of Agricultural Extension Activities, and Communication Behavior of Hsien Extension Supervisors in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Pi-Feng

    Government agencies in Taiwan have carried out agricultural extension programs since 1910, with the assistance of Farmers' Associations. Programs have been expanded since 1953, and now include both general extension (subsidy programs) and educational extension. Comparison of personal characteristics of hsien (county) Farmers' Association…

  18. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Judy

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities designed to give students an opportunity to solve concrete problems involving spatial relationships and logical thinking utilizing hands-on manipulatives. Provides teacher instructions and four reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  19. Life Extension Activities for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Pepe, Joyce A. K.; Prior, Michael

    2004-01-01

    With the cancellation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), the HST Project will face numerous challenges to keep the Telescope operating during the remainder of the decade. As part of the SM4, the HST Project had planned to install various upgrades to the Telescope including the installation of new batteries and new rate integrating gyros. Without these upgrades, reliability analysis indicates that the spacecraft will lose the capability to conduct science operations later this decade. The HST team will be severely challenged to maximize the Telescope's remaining operational lifetime, while still trying to maximize - its science output and quality. Two of the biggest areas of concern are the age and condition of the batteries and gyros. Together they offer the largest potential extension in Telescope lifetime and present the biggest challenges to the HST team. The six Ni-H batteries on HST are the original batteries from launch. With fourteen years of operational life, these batteries have collectively lasted longer than any other comparable mission. Yet as with all batteries, their capacity has been declining. Engineers are examining various methods to prolong the life of these mission critical batteries, and retard the rate of degradation. This paper will focus on these and other efforts to prolong the life of the HST, thus enabling it to remain a world-class observatory for as long as possible.

  20. 75 FR 54363 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0142, Decommissioning Activities, Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, subpart Q, Decommissioning Activities. OMB Control... prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires, spillages, physical... equipment and subsea protective covering; or other departures. Subtotal 50 responses 150...

  1. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  2. 78 FR 46358 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Security Programs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under... against acts of criminal violence and air piracy, and the introduction of explosives, incendiaries,...

  3. 78 FR 13657 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-577); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... of information technology. Dated: February 21, 2013. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-577); Comment Request; Extension AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of information collection...

  4. 75 FR 11621 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... information; and (4) ways that the burden could be minimized, including the use of electronic technology... Federal Highway Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),...

  5. 76 FR 38410 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0057, Pollution Prevention and Control, Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0057, Pollution Prevention and Control, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  6. 78 FR 53464 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for Review; Information Collection Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for Review; Information Collection Extension Request for the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology First Responders Community of... comment. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) invites the general public to comment on...

  7. 78 FR 69843 - Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-Ferc-549d); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... fax at (202) 273-0873. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Quarterly Transportation and Storage Report... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-Ferc-549d); Comment Request; Extension AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. 78 FR 45971 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Extension of Currently Approved Collection; Bureau of Justice Assistance Application Form: Law...

  9. 75 FR 14185 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection: Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved... currently approved collection. Bureau of Justice Assistance Application Form: Public Safety...

  10. 77 FR 1727 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Extension of Currently Approved Collection; Bureau of Justice Assistance Application Form: National...

  11. 77 FR 31432 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Extension of Credit to...

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    2012-05-25

    ... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Extension of Credit to Political Candidates AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology..., Research and Innovative Technology Administration. BILLING CODE 4910-HY-P...

  12. 75 FR 4612 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... construction time and traffic congestion; C. The development of engineering design criteria for innovative... Federal Highway Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),...

  13. 78 FR 49490 - Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-511); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (Ferc-511); Comment Request; Extension AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of information collection...

  14. 78 FR 13367 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Security Threat Assessment...

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    2013-02-27

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under... for a Commercial Drivers License AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA)...

  15. 77 FR 25188 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Enhanced Security...

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    2012-04-27

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under...: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), OMB......

  16. 77 FR 65701 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement...

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    2012-10-30

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under...: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-Day Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office......

  17. 78 FR 4856 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under... Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-Day notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Transportation Security..., Office of Information Technology (OIT), TSA-11, Transportation Security Administration, 601 South...

  18. 77 FR 25187 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

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    2012-04-27

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Transportation Security...

  19. 75 FR 9915 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-Day notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Transportation Security...

  20. 77 FR 25189 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Federal Flight Deck Officer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Federal Flight Deck Officer Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Transportation Security...

  1. 78 FR 5504 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of Information Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). ACTION: Notice and comment... are directly related to responsibilities assigned to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI)...

  2. 75 FR 49946 - National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension...

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    2010-08-16

    ... National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension With Change... Response System. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC... Intelligence Center, Fifth Floor, 319 Washington Street, Johnstown, PA 15901. Written comments and...

  3. 77 FR 71018 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Comment...

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    2012-11-28

    ... Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension... Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Department of Justice. ACTION: 30... the collection: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice...

  4. 76 FR 68786 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... annual progress report is 2,556 hours. If additional information is required contact: Jerri Murray... Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Annual Progress Report for the STOP Formula Grants... Information Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection:...

  5. Assessing Adult Leisure Activities: An Extension of a Self-Report Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopp, Daniela S.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value, as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, the authors enhanced…

  6. Lumbar paraspinal electromyographic activity during trunk extension exercises on two types of exercise machines.

    PubMed

    Walsworth, M

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare lumbar paraspinal muscle activity during trunk extension exercises on two lumbar extension machines with different types of pelvic stabilization mechanisms. Thirteen healthy male (n = 9) and female (n = 4) volunteers aged 21-24 (22.6 +/- 1.4) were recruited in a university setting. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded bilaterally from the L3-4 paraspinal region during trunk extension exercises performed on two different exercise machines. One machine, the MedX, has a complex pelvic stabilization mechanism. The other machine, the Cybex, has a relatively simple pelvic stabilization mechanism. There was no significant difference between lumbar paraspinal electromyographic activity during trunk extension on the MedX compared to the Cybex dynamic variable resistance trunk extension machine. These results suggest that a complex pelvic stabilization mechanism does not significantly enhance the level of activation of the lumbar paraspinal muscles during lumbar extension exercises. Thus, a less expensive trunk extension machine with a less sophisticated pelvic stabilization mechanism, such as the Cybex, can be used to train the lumbar paraspinal muscles. This is important to rehabilitation clinicians because these machines are often more readily available and easier for patients to use. Further research is warranted to determine the applicability of these findings to a patient population.

  7. Extensive mutagenesis of a transcriptional activation domain identifies single hydrophobic and acidic amino acids important for activation in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, M B; Goff, S A; Chandler, V L

    1997-01-01

    C1 is a transcriptional activator of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes of the maize anthocyanin pigment pathway. C1 has an amino terminus homologous to Myb DNA-binding domains and an acidic carboxyl terminus that is a transcriptional activation domain in maize and yeast cells. To identify amino acids critical for transcriptional activation, an extensive random mutagenesis of the C1 carboxyl terminus was done. The C1 activation domain is remarkably tolerant of amino acid substitutions, as changes at 34 residues had little or no effect on transcriptional activity. These changes include introduction of helix-incompatible amino acids throughout the C1 activation domain and alteration of most single acidic amino acids, suggesting that a previously postulated amphipathic alpha-helix is not required for activation. Substitutions at two positions revealed amino acids important for transcriptional activation. Replacement of leucine 253 with a proline or glutamine resulted in approximately 10% of wild-type transcriptional activation. Leucine 253 is in a region of C1 in which several hydrophobic residues align with residues important for transcriptional activation by the herpes simplex virus VP16 protein. However, changes at all other hydrophobic residues in C1 indicate that none are critical for C1 transcriptional activation. The other important amino acid in C1 is aspartate 262, as a change to valine resulted in only 24% of wild-type transcriptional activation. Comparison of our C1 results with those from VP16 reveal substantial differences in which amino acids are required for transcriptional activation in vivo by these two acidic activation domains. PMID:8972191

  8. Comparison of trunk muscle reflex activation patterns between active and passive trunk flexion-extension loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of trunk flexion-extension loading on the neuromuscular reflexive latencies and amplitude responses of the trunk musculature. Eighteen male and female subjects (18-27yrs) participated in active and passive trunk flexion extension, performed ∼7days apart. Subjects performed 60 trunk flexion-extension repetitions. Surface electromyography (EMG) was collected bilaterally from paraspinal and abdominal muscles. In the active condition, subjects volitionally moved their trunks, while in the passive condition the dynamometer controlled the movements. The trunk was perturbed before and immediately after 30 repetitions. Latency of muscle onset, latency of first peak, latency of maximum peak, and peak EMG amplitude were evaluated. No differences between conditions, sides, or perturbation session were apparent. Overall latencies were shorter in females (p<.05) and abdominal muscles compared to paraspinals (p<.05). Thoracic paraspinal muscle amplitudes were greater than all other muscles (p<.05). Based upon the present results, the neuromuscular system engages trunk flexor muscles prior to the paraspinals in order to provide possible stabilization of the trunk when flexor moments are generated. Overall, the results indicate no difference in response of the neuromuscular system to active or passive repetitive loading.

  9. 20S proteasome activation promotes life span extension and resistance to proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Georgila, Konstantina; Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Gonos, Efstathios S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is one of the nodal points that need to be preserved to retain physiologic cellular/organismal balance. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins, with the proteasome being the downstream effector. The proteasome is the major cellular protease with progressive impairment of function during aging and senescence. Despite the documented age-retarding properties of proteasome activation in various cellular models, simultaneous enhancement of the 20S core proteasome content, assembly, and function have never been reported in any multicellular organism. Consequently, the possible effects of the core proteasome modulation on organismal life span are elusive. In this study, we have achieved activation of the 20S proteasome at organismal level. We demonstrate enhancement of proteasome levels, assembly, and activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, resulting in life span extension and increased resistance to stress. We also provide evidence that the observed life span extension is dependent on the transcriptional activity of Dauer formation abnormal/Forkhead box class O (DAF-16/FOXO), skinhead-1 (SKN-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) factors through regulation of downstream longevity genes. We further show that the reported beneficial effects are not ubiquitous but they are dependent on the genetic context. Finally, we provide evidence that proteasome core activation might be a potential strategy to minimize protein homeostasis deficiencies underlying aggregation-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or Huntington’s disease (HD). In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that 20S core proteasome up-regulation in terms of both content and activity is feasible in a multicellular eukaryotic organism and that in turn this modulation promotes extension of organismal health span and life span.—Chondrogianni, N., Georgila, K., Kourtis, N

  10. 78 FR 12789 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection: Office on...

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  1. 7 CFR 3400.22 - Merit review for education and extension activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  9. Developing L2 Listening Fluency through Extended Listening-Focused Activities in an Extensive Listening Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S.; Millett, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects on developing L2 listening fluency through doing extended listening-focused activities after reading and listening to audio graded readers. Seventy-six EFL university students read and listened to a total of 15 graded readers in a 15-week extensive listening programme. They were divided into three groups (Group…

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

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  11. Health-related impact of deployment extensions on spouses of active duty army personnel.

    PubMed

    SteelFisher, Gillian K; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Blendon, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    This study examined problems pertaining to the health and well-being of Army spouses during deployment, comparing those whose experienced extensions of their partners' deployments with those whose partners returned home on time or early. It used data from a 2004 survey of 798 spouses of active duty personnel. Controlling for demographic and deployment characteristics, spouses who experienced extensions fared worse on an array of measures, including mental well-being (e.g., feelings of depression), household strains (e.g., problems with household and car maintenance), and some areas of their jobs (having to stop work or to work fewer hours). There were no statistically significant differences regarding problems pertaining to their overall health, marriage, other work issues, finances, relationships with Army families, or safety. However, spouses who experienced extensions were more likely to perceive the Army negatively during deployment. These findings suggest that deployment extensions may exacerbate certain problems and frustrations for Army spouses.

  12. 20S proteasome activation promotes life span extension and resistance to proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Georgila, Konstantina; Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Gonos, Efstathios S

    2015-02-01

    Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is one of the nodal points that need to be preserved to retain physiologic cellular/organismal balance. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins, with the proteasome being the downstream effector. The proteasome is the major cellular protease with progressive impairment of function during aging and senescence. Despite the documented age-retarding properties of proteasome activation in various cellular models, simultaneous enhancement of the 20S core proteasome content, assembly, and function have never been reported in any multicellular organism. Consequently, the possible effects of the core proteasome modulation on organismal life span are elusive. In this study, we have achieved activation of the 20S proteasome at organismal level. We demonstrate enhancement of proteasome levels, assembly, and activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, resulting in life span extension and increased resistance to stress. We also provide evidence that the observed life span extension is dependent on the transcriptional activity of Dauer formation abnormal/Forkhead box class O (DAF-16/FOXO), skinhead-1 (SKN-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) factors through regulation of downstream longevity genes. We further show that the reported beneficial effects are not ubiquitous but they are dependent on the genetic context. Finally, we provide evidence that proteasome core activation might be a potential strategy to minimize protein homeostasis deficiencies underlying aggregation-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that 20S core proteasome up-regulation in terms of both content and activity is feasible in a multicellular eukaryotic organism and that in turn this modulation promotes extension of organismal health span and life span.

  13. Active simultaneous uplift and margin-normal extension in a forearc high, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, S. F.; Wegmann, K. W.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Brandon, M. T.; Fassoulas, C.

    2014-07-01

    The island of Crete occupies a forearc high in the central Hellenic subduction zone and is characterized by sustained exhumation, surface uplift and extension. The processes governing orogenesis and topographic development here remain poorly understood. Dramatic topographic relief (2-6 km) astride the southern coastline of Crete is associated with large margin-parallel faults responsible for deep bathymetric depressions known as the Hellenic troughs. These structures have been interpreted as both active and inactive with either contractional, strike-slip, or extensional movement histories. Distinguishing between these different structural styles and kinematic histories here allows us to explore more general models for improving our global understanding of the tectonic and geodynamic processes of syn-convergent extension. We present new observations from the south-central coastline of Crete that clarifies the role of these faults in the late Cenozoic evolution of the central Hellenic margin and the processes controlling Quaternary surface uplift. Pleistocene marine terraces are used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminesce dating and correlation to the Quaternary eustatic curve to document coastal uplift and identify active faults. Two south-dipping normal faults are observed, which extend offshore, offset these marine terrace deposits and indicate active N-S (margin-normal) extension. Further, marine terraces preserved in the footwall and hanging wall of both faults demonstrate that regional net uplift of Crete is occurring despite active extension. Field mapping and geometric reconstructions of an active onshore normal fault reveal that the subaqueous range-front fault of south-central Crete is synthetic to the south-dipping normal faults on shore. These findings are inconsistent with models of active horizontal shortening in the upper crust of the Hellenic forearc. Rather, they are consistent with topographic growth of the forearc in a viscous orogenic

  14. Non-extensivity and complexity in the earthquake activity at the West Corinth rift (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michas, Georgios; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Earthquakes exhibit complex phenomenology that is revealed from the fractal structure in space, time and magnitude. For that reason other tools rather than the simple Poissonian statistics seem more appropriate to describe the statistical properties of the phenomenon. Here we use Non-Extensive Statistical Physics [NESP] to investigate the inter-event time distribution of the earthquake activity at the west Corinth rift (central Greece). This area is one of the most seismotectonically active areas in Europe, with an important continental N-S extension and high seismicity rates. NESP concept refers to the non-additive Tsallis entropy Sq that includes Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy as a particular case. This concept has been successfully used for the analysis of a variety of complex dynamic systems including earthquakes, where fractality and long-range interactions are important. The analysis indicates that the cumulative inter-event time distribution can be successfully described with NESP, implying the complexity that characterizes the temporal occurrences of earthquakes. Further on, we use the Tsallis entropy (Sq) and the Fischer Information Measure (FIM) to investigate the complexity that characterizes the inter-event time distribution through different time windows along the evolution of the seismic activity at the West Corinth rift. The results of this analysis reveal a different level of organization and clusterization of the seismic activity in time. Acknowledgments. GM wish to acknowledge the partial support of the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY).

  15. Systematic Review of Physical Activity Objectives in Extension Strategic Plans: Findings and Implications for Improved Public Health Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; Lindsay, Anne; Everette, Alicia; Gunter, Katherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Extension programming that incorporates both physical activity and dietary behaviors is necessary for the prevention of certain chronic diseases, including obesity. The purpose of the study presented here was to systematically identify the presence of physical activity objectives in the strategic plan for each Extension system in the United…

  16. Rnd1 regulates axon extension by enhancing the microtubule destabilizing activity of SCG10.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Hua; Ghavampur, Sharang; Bondallaz, Percy; Will, Lena; Grenningloh, Gabriele; Püschel, Andreas W

    2009-01-02

    The GTPase Rnd1 affects actin dynamics antagonistically to Rho and has been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth, dendrite development, and axon guidance. Here we show that Rnd1 interacts with the microtubule regulator SCG10. This interaction requires a central domain of SCG10 comprising about 40 amino acids located within the N-terminal-half of a putative alpha-helical domain and is independent of phosphorylation at the four identified phosphorylation sites that regulate SCG10 activity. Rnd1 enhances the microtubule destabilizing activity of SCG10 and both proteins colocalize in neurons. Knockdown of Rnd1 or SCG10 by RNAi suppressed axon extension, indicating a critical role for both proteins during neuronal differentiation. Overexpression of Rnd1 in neurons induces the formation of multiple axons. The effect of Rnd1 on axon extension depends on SCG10. These results indicate that SCG10 acts as an effector downstream of Rnd1 to regulate axon extensions by modulating microtubule organization.

  17. Correlated activity of cortical neurons survives extensive removal of feedforward sensory input

    PubMed Central

    Shapcott, Katharine A.; Schmiedt, Joscha T.; Saunders, Richard C.; Maier, Alexander; Leopold, David A.; Schmid, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental property of brain function is that the spiking activity of cortical neurons is variable and that some of this variability is correlated between neurons. Correlated activity not due to the stimulus arises from shared input but the neuronal circuit mechanisms that result in these noise correlations are not fully understood. Here we tested in the visual system if correlated variability in mid-level area V4 of visual cortex is altered following extensive lesions of primary visual cortex (V1). To this end we recorded longitudinally the neuronal correlations in area V4 of two behaving macaque monkeys before and after a V1 lesion while the monkeys fixated a grey screen. We found that the correlations of neuronal activity survived the lesions in both monkeys. In one monkey, the correlation of multi-unit spiking signals was strongly increased in the first week post-lesion, while in the second monkey, correlated activity was slightly increased, but not greater than some week-by-week fluctuations observed. The typical drop-off of inter-neuronal correlations with cortical distance was preserved after the lesion. Therefore, as V4 noise correlations remain without feedforward input from V1, these results suggest instead that local and/or feedback input seem to be necessary for correlated activity. PMID:27721468

  18. Modeling of micromagnetic Barkhausen activity using a stochastic process extension to the theory of hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiles, D.C. ); Sipahi, L.B. ); Williams, G. )

    1993-05-15

    Recent work by Bertotti [IEEE Trans. Magn. [bold MAG]-[bold 24], 621 (1988)] and others has shown that it is possible to model the micromagnetic Barkhausen discontinuities at the coercive point using a two-parameter stochastic model. However, the present formulation of the model is restricted to limited regions of the hysteresis curve over which [ital dM]/[ital dH] is approximately constant and when [ital dH]/[ital dt] is held at a constant rate. A natural extension of this model is to take the basic result, in which the level of Barkhausen activity in one time period is related to the activity in the previous time period, and increment it by a small amount which is dependent on the differential permeability. The extension of the model proposed here uses the theory of ferromagnetic hysteresis to determine the differential permeability at any point of the hysteresis loop. The Barkhausen activity is then assumed to vary in proportion to the differential permeability. The resulting model allows the Barkhausen sum of discontinuous changes in magnetization to be modelled around the entire hysteresis loop, leading to an important generalization of the basic model.

  19. Muscle activity patterns during quick increase of movement amplitude in rapid elbow extensions.

    PubMed

    Takatoku, Nozomi; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we investigated a motor strategy for increasing the amplitude of movement in rapid extensions at the elbow joint. This study focused on the changes in a triphasic electromyographic (EMG) pattern, i.e., the first agonist burst (AG1), the second agonist burst (AG2) and the antagonist burst (ANT), for increasing the amplitude of movement required after the initiation of movement. Subjects performed 40 degrees (Basic task) and 80 degrees of extension (Wide task). These tasks were performed under two conditions; performing a predetermined task (SF condition) and performing a task in response to a visual stimulus immediately after movement commencement (ST condition). Kinematic parameters and EMG activity from the agonist (triceps brachii) and the antagonist (biceps brachii) muscles were recorded. As a result, the onset latency of AG1 and AG2 and the duration of AG1 were longer under the ST condition than the SF condition. No difference was observed between the SF and ST condition with respect to ANT activity. It is concluded that the motor strategy for increasing the amplitude of movement after the initiation of movement was to control the movement velocity and the timing to stop movement by the coactivation duration of AG1 and ANT and to stop the desired position accurately by AG2 activity.

  20. The "Conflicted Dying": The Active Search for Life Extension in Advanced Cancer Through Biomedical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Shan; Peter, Elizabeth; Gastaldo, Denise; Howell, Doris

    2016-03-01

    Using a poststructural perspective, we examine the subjectivities that are produced when advanced cancer patients seek life extension through biomedical treatments. Seven case studies were developed that included 20 interviews with patients, family, nurses, and physicians recruited from a tertiary hospital in Canada, 30 documents, and 5 hours of participant observation. We identify seven types of subjectivity: (a) the Desperate Subject, (b) the Cancer Expert Subject, (c) the Proactive Subject, (d) the Productive Subject, (e) the Mistrusting Subject, (f) the Model Patient Subject, and (g) the Suffering Subject. We characterize the "conflicted dying," a contemporary figure who holds multiple perspectives about seeking curative treatment despite the acknowledgment of death. Using active strategies to gain access to treatment, this figure resists traditional arrangements of power/knowledge established by health care providers. We suggest that the search for life extension is a process of shaping the self to fit certain aesthetical traits associated with surviving cancer.

  1. Investigation of Cervical Fleksor and Extensor Muscle Activation During Isometric Neck Extension Applied by Therraband

    PubMed Central

    Önal, Sercan; Can, Filiz; Yakut, Yavuz; Baltacı, Gül

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Therrabands are commonly used for resistive exercises, streching and stabilization exercises and also isometric exercises. However, principles of practice of therrabands are mostly focused on exercise variety. Likewise it is only given point to exercise variety during therrabands’ usage at cervical region. Nevertheless, for effective usage of therrabands and for proper assessment of effectiveness response, it is necessary to know the amount of resistance being given or muscle activation response against the resistance given. The aim of this study was to compare activations of cervical flexor and extensor muscles during isometric extension exercise against the resistance of therraband in healthy individuals. Methods: 14 healthy subjects (8 female,6 male)aged between 19-32 have been included in the study. Subjects with neck problems, systemic diseases, history of trauma or operation were excluded. Neck isometric exercises with therraband was 2 sets with 2 minutes’ intervals and EMG records have been taken during exercises. After preparation of the skin, surface electrodes placed on the motor points of sternocleidomastoideus(SCM) and erector spinae(ES) muscles. After taking the average of 3 measures, the first 10 seconds of muscular activations were recorded. The average of integrated EMG(iEMG) values of each records was used for statistical data. Independent T test and Mann Whitney U test were used for the analysis of findings. Results: There was no significant difference between the right ES and left ES’s mean iEMG during isometric neck extension against therraband (p=0.06). Although there was no difference between right SCM and right ES muscles action potentials(t=-0.895; p=0.379), there was a significant difference between left SCM and left ES muscles’ action potentials (z= -2.435; p=0.01). When all the right and left SCM and ES muscle activations were compared, a significant difference was detected in favour of ES muscles ( t= -2.133; p= 0

  2. Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2008-06-01

    To search for edible herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity, we conducted a large scale screening based on the superoxide scavenging activity. That is, scavenging activity against superoxide anions were extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1,000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method. Among them we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to reduce the signal intensity of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)-OOH, a spin adduct formed by DMPO and superoxide anion. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit), and are allowed to be used as foodstuffs according to the Japanese legal regulation. The ESR-spin trapping method coupled with steady state kinetic analysis showed that all of the four extracts directly scavenge superoxide anions, and that the superoxide scavenging potential of any of the extracts was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid. Furthermore, polyphenol determination indicates that the activity is at least in part attributable to polyphenols. These results with such large scale screening might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff.

  3. Exploring the Gap for Effective Extension of Professional Active Life in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Will; Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Msanjila, Simon S.; Playfoot, Jim

    Extending Professional Active Life (ePAL [2]) of elder people in Europe is affected by a number of factors in the market and society, which have the potential to either positively and negatively influence it. Current practices indicate that the European society, while started to act on this subject, is still slow to recognize the rationale behind and importance of fully supporting the extension of active professional life of seniors. Similarly, the capacity of the service sector to fully support the involvement of seniors in economical activities is at present limited, given the huge number of these seniors in different countries who need to be mobilized. This paper seeks to highlight the identified gaps related to effective mechanisms by which Europe can support its willing senior professionals to remain active. The study on gap identification addresses relevant technological, social, and organizational factors and external influences which have the potential to impact successful future life of elderly population. It also presents the methodology that is applied in our study to identify and analyze the gaps between the current practices in this area, the so-called baseline [2], and the desired future for this area as inspired in the ePAL vision [1] addressed in other research.

  4. 76 FR 43654 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... the antidumping duty administrative review on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of... preliminary results by 120 days to April 30, 2011. See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic...

  5. 75 FR 61126 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... the antidumping duty administrative review on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of... results of this review. See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice...

  6. 75 FR 39916 - Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-904 Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China... initiation of the antidumping duty administrative review on certain activated carbon from the People's... Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results...

  7. 75 FR 61697 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period April 1, 2009, through... Administrative Review of Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Selection of...

  8. Defective DNA repair increases susceptibility to senescence through extension of Chk1-mediated G2 checkpoint activation

    PubMed Central

    Johmura, Yoshikazu; Yamashita, Emiri; Shimada, Midori; Nakanishi, Keiko; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility to senescence caused by defective DNA repair is a major hallmark of progeroid syndrome patients, but molecular mechanisms of how defective DNA repair predisposes to senescence are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that suppression of DNA repair pathways extends the duration of Chk1-dependent G2 checkpoint activation and sensitizes cells to senescence through enhancement of mitosis skipping. Extension of G2 checkpoint activation by introduction of the TopBP1 activation domain and the nondegradable mutant of Claspin sensitizes cells to senescence. In contrast, a shortening of G2 checkpoint activation by expression of SIRT6 or depletion of OTUB2 reduces susceptibility to senescence. Fibroblasts from progeroid syndromes tested shows a correlation between an extension of G2 checkpoint activation and an increase in the susceptibility to senescence. These results suggest that extension of G2 checkpoint activation caused by defective DNA repair is critical for senescence predisposition in progeroid syndrome patients. PMID:27507734

  9. Activation of forearm muscles for wrist extension in patients affected by lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Monica; Mañanas, Miquel A; Muller, Bertram; Chaler, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    Work related upper extremity disorders are associated with cumulative trauma resulting from the continuous use of forearm muscles rather than from a specific incident. The aim of this work is to compare wrist extensor muscles activation between patients with lateral epicondylitis and healthy subjects. Differences can be used in the design of rehabilitation or injury prevention programs according to biomechanical deficits. Surface EMG signals from three forearm extensor muscles (Carpi Radialis-ECR, Digitorum Communis-EDC and Carpi Ulnaris-ECU) were recorded by linear electrode arrays in wrist extension as well as during selective contractions. Average Rectified Values (ARV) were calculated in order to identify the contribution of each muscle to different tasks. On the other hand, Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity, Mean and Median Frequencies and also ARV were studied to obtain fatigue indexes related to metabolic changes in the muscles during a high force sustained contraction. Results showed muscular imbalance with lower ECR activity compensated by higher ECU activation, and higher fatigue indexes in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

  10. Active shallow extension in central and eastern Betic Cordillera from CGPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Gil, A. J.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Lacy, M. C.; García-Armenteros, J. A.; Ruano, P.; Ruiz, A. M.; Martínez-Martos, M.; Alfaro, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Betic Cordillera is an Alpine belt formed in the western Mediterranean by the westward displacement of the Alboran Domain in between the Eurasian and African convergent plates. New CGPS data from the central and eastern Betic Cordillera and its foreland-obtained mainly from the Topo-Iberia project-allowed us to precisely determine the rate of tectonic deformation. Most of the displacements of the central and eastern Betics are westward, with a variable southwestward component, in relation to the Eurasian stable plate. While in the Iberian foreland the displacements are extremely low, some deformation related to low compressional deformation occurs in the easternmost foreland basin and eastern Betic Cordillera. The displacement increases substantially southwards and westwards in relation to present-day extensional deformation. Major active discontinuities correspond to the NW-SE normal fault zones, which dip westwards; they are located in Almeria-Tabernas; Balanegra, and western Sierra de Gador; whereas the Padul fault zone located west of Sierra Nevada extends northwards to the Granada Basin. NW-SE extensional faults are also observed to the north, in the Baza Basin. Moreover, the activity of dextral faults along the Sorbas-Tabernas-Alpujarras-Guajares band, generally considered as a transfer fault zone, is evidenced by the displacement data. These results come to demonstrate the low activity or inactivity of the large northern E-W oriented folds of the central and eastern Internal Zone, such as the Sierra de Los Filabres antiform. They also point to the possible residual activity of the northern part of the NE-SW Sierra Nevada antiform, where the maximum relief of the Cordillera is found. Altogether, our data support a heterogeneous present-day westward extension that affects the upper crust of the Betic Cordillera and increases towards the thinned continental crust of the Alboran Sea and towards the west, which is compatible with roll-back subduction along

  11. Extensive Submarine Active Fault and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, T.; Kumamoto, T.; Muroi, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2013-12-01

    Active faults observed on seafloor along Japan Trench are resultants of repeated large earthquakes. We discuss on the relation between large earthquakes and their source faults based on a detailed active fault map along Japan Trench. Judging from location and continuation of active faults in the earthquake source area, we consider that one of the extensive thrust faults which extends from off-Sanriku to off-Ibaraki for about 500km, is directly related to the source fault of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0) generated large tsunami with massive pulsating pattern of waves (Maeda et al. 2011). A leading hypothesis believed among many seismologists that an earthquake source fault that generated the earthquake, caused the near-surface fault rupture along the axis of Japan Trench, and large displacement ~50m eastward and ~7 to ~10m upward was estimated from comparison of data obtained before and after the earthquake in 2004 and 2011 by multibeam bathymetric surveys across the trench (Fujiwara et al. 2011). Satake et al. (2011) explained the large tsunami height by simultaneous faulting on two different fault planes, one on subducting plate boundary and the other near the trench axis. Since most of the workers hypothesized without any doubt believed that the earthquake was caused by the fault ruptured up to the trench axis, existence of submarine active fault is rather overlooked so far. However, we consider the large displacement is due to landslide and do not find any extensive fault scarp on the trench axis. We simulated pattern of seafloor deformation associated with the earthquake using a simple dislocation model for a single fault plane with uniform slip that dips 14 degree in depth and 33.6 degree beneath the tectonic bulge related to the extensive active fault. A result shows that an area of large uplift agrees more or less with the location of tectonic bulge with width of about 20km

  12. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-09

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.

  13. Pairing broadband noise with cortical stimulation induces extensive suppression of ascending sensory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Hogan, Patrick S.; Wesen, Kyle A.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The corticofugal system can alter coding along the ascending sensory pathway. Within the auditory system, electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex (AC) paired with a pure tone can cause egocentric shifts in the tuning of auditory neurons, making them more sensitive to the pure tone frequency. Since tinnitus has been linked with hyperactivity across auditory neurons, we sought to develop a new neuromodulation approach that could suppress a wide range of neurons rather than enhance specific frequency-tuned neurons. Approach. We performed experiments in the guinea pig to assess the effects of cortical stimulation paired with broadband noise (PN-Stim) on ascending auditory activity within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC), a widely studied region for AC stimulation paradigms. Main results. All eight stimulated AC subregions induced extensive suppression of activity across the CNIC that was not possible with noise stimulation alone. This suppression built up over time and remained after the PN-Stim paradigm. Significance. We propose that the corticofugal system is designed to decrease the brain’s input gain to irrelevant stimuli and PN-Stim is able to artificially amplify this effect to suppress neural firing across the auditory system. The PN-Stim concept may have potential for treating tinnitus and other neurological disorders.

  14. Pairing broadband noise with cortical stimulation induces extensive suppression of ascending sensory activity

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Hogan, Patrick S.; Wesen, Kyle A.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The corticofugal system can alter coding along the ascending sensory pathway. Within the auditory system, electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex (AC) paired with a pure tone can cause egocentric shifts in the tuning of auditory neurons, making them more sensitive to the pure tone frequency. Since tinnitus has been linked with hyperactivity across auditory neurons, we sought to develop a new neuromodulation approach that could suppress a wide range of neurons rather than enhance specific frequency-tuned neurons. Approach We performed experiments in the guinea pig to assess the effects of cortical stimulation paired with broadband noise (PN-Stim) on ascending auditory activity within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC), a widely studied region for AC stimulation paradigms. Main results All eight stimulated AC regions induced extensive suppression of activity across the CNIC that was not possible with noise stimulation alone. This suppression built up over time and remained after the PN-Stim paradigm. Significance We propose that the corticofugal system is designed to decrease the brain’s input gain to irrelevant stimuli and PN-Stim is able to artificially amplify this effect to suppress neural firing across the auditory system. The PN-Stim concept may have potential for treating tinnitus and other neurological disorders. PMID:25686163

  15. Southeast Papuan crustal tectonics: Imaging extension and buoyancy of an active rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, G. A.; Eilon, Z.; Gaherty, J. B.; Jin, G.; Kim, YH.; Obrebski, M.; Dieck, C.

    2016-02-01

    Southeast Papua hosts the world's youngest ultra-high-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. These rocks are found in an extensional setting in metamorphic core complexes. Competing theories of extensional shear zones or diapiric upwelling have been suggested as driving their exhumation. To test these theories, we analyze the CDPAPUA temporary array of 31 land and 8 seafloor broadband seismographs. Seismicity shows that deformation is being actively accommodated on the core complex bounding faults, offset by transfer structures in a manner consistent with overall north-south extension rather than radial deformation. Rayleigh wave dispersion curves are jointly inverted with receiver functions for crustal velocity structure. They show crustal thinning beneath the core complexes of 30-50% and very low shear velocities at all depths beneath the core complexes. On the rift flanks velocities resemble those of normal continents and increase steadily with depth. There is no evidence for velocity inversions that would indicate that a major density inversion exists to drive crustal diapirs. Also, low-density melt seems minor within the crust. Together with the extension patterns apparent in seismicity, these data favor an extensional origin for the core complexes and limit the role of diapirism as a secondary exhumation mechanism, although deeper mantle diapirs may be undetected. A small number of intermediate-depth earthquakes, up to 120 km deep, are identified for the first time just northeast of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands. They occur at depths similar to those recorded by UHP rocks and similar temperatures, indicating that the modern seismicity occurs at the setting that generates UHP metamorphism.

  16. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  17. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis reveals interconnected functional units in the alkaline phosphatase active site

    PubMed Central

    Sunden, Fanny; Peck, Ariana; Salzman, Julia; Ressl, Susanne; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes enable life by accelerating reaction rates to biological timescales. Conventional studies have focused on identifying the residues that have a direct involvement in an enzymatic reaction, but these so-called ‘catalytic residues’ are embedded in extensive interaction networks. Although fundamental to our understanding of enzyme function, evolution, and engineering, the properties of these networks have yet to be quantitatively and systematically explored. We dissected an interaction network of five residues in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Analysis of the complex catalytic interdependence of specific residues identified three energetically independent but structurally interconnected functional units with distinct modes of cooperativity. From an evolutionary perspective, this network is orders of magnitude more probable to arise than a fully cooperative network. From a functional perspective, new catalytic insights emerge. Further, such comprehensive energetic characterization will be necessary to benchmark the algorithms required to rationally engineer highly efficient enzymes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06181.001 PMID:25902402

  18. Extensive neurite outgrowth and active synapse formation on self-assembling peptide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Holmes, T C; de Lacalle, S; Su, X; Liu, G; Rich, A; Zhang, S

    2000-06-06

    A new type of self-assembling peptide (sapeptide) scaffolds that serve as substrates for neurite outgrowth and synapse formation is described. These peptide-based scaffolds are amenable to molecular design by using chemical or biotechnological syntheses. They can be tailored to a variety of applications. The sapeptide scaffolds are formed through the spontaneous assembly of ionic self-complementary beta-sheet oligopeptides under physiological conditions, producing a hydrogel material. The scaffolds can support neuronal cell attachment and differentiation as well as extensive neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, they are permissive substrates for functional synapse formation between the attached neurons. That primary rat neurons form active synapses on such scaffold surfaces in situ suggests these scaffolds could be useful for tissue engineering applications. The buoyant sapeptide scaffolds with attached cells in culture can be transported readily from one environment to another. Furthermore, these peptides did not elicit a measurable immune response or tissue inflammation when introduced into animals. These biological materials created through molecular design and self assembly may be developed as a biologically compatible scaffold for tissue repair and tissue engineering.

  19. Application of winglets and/or wing tip extensions with active load control on the Boeing 747

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, R. L.; Perkin, B. R.; Schoenman, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The application of wing tip modifications and active control technology to the Boeing 747 airplane for the purpose of improving fuel efficiency is considered. Wing tip extensions, wing tip winglets, and the use of the outboard ailerons for active wing load alleviation are described. Modest performance improvements are indicated. A costs versus benefits approach is taken to decide which, if any, of the concepts warrant further development and flight test leading to possible incorporation into production airplanes.

  20. Effects of hand and knee positions on muscular activity during trunk extension exercise with the Roman chair.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-yeon; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-12-01

    This experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of hand and knee positions on muscular activity during back extension exercises with the Roman chair. Eighteen asymptomatic male amateur athletes performed four prone back extension exercises with two hand positions (crossed-arms and behind-the-head), and two knee positions (extended knee and 90° flexed knee). Surface electromyography (sEMG) was performed to collect data from the lower trapezius (LT), latissimus dorsi (LD), erector spinae in the T12 paraspinal region (ES-T12), erector spinae at the L3 level (ES-L3), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF). Two-way repeated analysis of variance with two within-subject factors (two hand positions and two knee positions) was used to determine the significance of differences between the exercise conditions, and which hand and knee positions resulted in greater activation with exercise variation. The root mean square sEMG values were normalized using the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and represented as the % of the maximum EMG (%mEMG). There was no significant interaction between knee and hand positions in the %mEMG data. The results showed that the hand position affected the normalized activation of LT; the behind-the-head position resulted in significantly greater muscle activation than the crossed-arms hand position (P<0.05). The activations of the LD, ES-T10, ES-L4, and GM were greater in the 90° flexed-knee position compared to the extended-knee position (P<0.05). Although back extension exercise using the Roman chair has been shown to effectively activate the extensor musculature, our results indicated that changing the knee and hand positions could activate specific muscles differently. To achieve greater activation of trunk extensor muscle during extension exercise with the Roman chair, the flexed-knee position is a useful means of increasing resistance.

  1. 38 CFR 21.46 - Veteran ordered to active duty; extension of basic period of eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  3. Active crustal extension in the Central Apennines (Italy) inferred from GPS measurements in the interval 1994-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, N.; Giuliani, R.; Mattone, M.; Bonci, L.

    We present the first GPS estimate of crustal extension in the central Apennines (Italy) through the analysis of the deformation of a sub-network of the National GPS Geodetic network IGM95 in the interval 1994-1999. The selected sub-network spans the entire active deformation belt perpendicularly to its axis and allows the evaluation of (1) the total extension rate absorbed in this sector of the Apennines and (2) the seismogenic potential of the normal faults active in the Late Pleistocene-Holocene interval within the network. Results of this reoccupation are consistent with an extensional strain rate of 0.18 × 10-6 yr-1 concentrated in an area of about 35 km width, giving an average extension rate of 6±2 mm/yr across the central Apennines. The pattern of active deformation suggests active elastic strain accumulation on the westernmost of the two fault systems active in the Late Pleistocene-Holocene interval and may also suggest the presence of another active fault system not recognized so far.

  4. Read Alouds and Beyond: The Effects of Read Aloud Extension Activities on Vocabulary in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Rebecca; Crandell, Jennifer DiBara; Carlis, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in 26 Head Start classrooms with 264 children to compare the effect of a read aloud plus extension activities intervention over a control group to the effect of a read aloud only intervention over a control group on preschool children's vocabulary. Children were assessed before and after the intervention on target vocabulary…

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  10. Muscular Activation Pattern of Bilateral Extensors Response to Asymmetric Hand Lifting During Trunk Flexion-extension Performance.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ying; Shan, Xinhai

    2016-10-14

    The authors' purpose was to test the effect of asymmetric hand lifting on muscular activation patterns of 3 bilateral extensors. Eighteen male university students without back pain were volunteered. Each performed flexion-extension randomly with conditions of right lifting, left lifting, and nonlifting. Surface electromyography from bilateral thoracic, lumbar erector spinae, and hamstring was recorded. The cross-correlation and relative intensity in paired muscles of bilateral extensors was calculated in flexion as well as extension period. The results showed that the cross-correlation coefficient was decreased and the phase lag as well as the relative intensity of bilateral extensors was increased significantly in thoracic level. The phase lag as well as the relative intensity of bilateral extensors was increased significantly in lumbar level. It was concluded that asymmetric lifting has a significant effect on muscular activation of bilateral extensors in thorax level, which causes the ipsilateral extensor to activate larger and longer. Asymmetric lifting also has some effect on muscular activation of bilateral extensors in lumbar level but with less extent than in thorax level, which causes contralateral extensor to activate larger and longer. Asymmetric lifting seems to have no significant effect on muscular activation of bilateral hamstring.

  11. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing dynamic knee extensions at low load.

    PubMed

    Wernbom, Mathias; Järrebring, Rickard; Andreasson, Mikael A; Augustsson, Jesper

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing low-intensity dynamic knee extension exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Eleven healthy subjects with strength training experience performed 3 sets of unilateral knee extensions with no relaxation between repetitions to concentric torque failure at 30% of the 1 repetition maximum. One leg was randomized to exercise with cuff occlusion and the other leg to exercise without occlusion. The muscle activity in the quadriceps was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and acute pain were collected immediately, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was rated before and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The results demonstrated high EMG levels in both experimental conditions, but there were no significant differences regarding maximal muscle activity, except for a higher EMG in the eccentric phase in set 3 for the nonoccluded condition (p = 0.005). Significantly more repetitions were performed with the nonoccluded leg in every set (p < 0.05). The RPE and acute pain ratings were similar, but DOMS was higher in the nonoccluded leg (p < 0.05). We conclude that blood flow restriction during low-intensity dynamic knee extension decreases the endurance but does not increase the maximum muscle activity compared with training without restriction when both regimes are performed to failure. The high levels of muscle activity suggest that performing low-load dynamic knee extensions in a no-relaxation manner may be a useful method in knee rehabilitation settings when large forces are contraindicated. However, similarly to fatiguing blood flow restricted exercise, this method is associated with ischemic muscle pain, and thus its applications may be limited to highly motivated individuals.

  12. 75 FR 13776 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300; Extension of an Existing Information...

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  1. 75 FR 71451 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470, Extension of a Currently Approved...

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  3. 76 FR 69275 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400, Extension of a Currently Approved...

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    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities...: State, Local, or Tribal Government. Section 404(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101... immigration emergency. This collection of information allows for State or local governments to...

  8. 77 FR 49823 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

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    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... determining whether or not a state or local law enforcement ] officer will be granted Federal immigration.... The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), will submit...

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    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities.... 1653-0048. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will... Homeland Security (DHS), Scott Elmore, Forms Manager, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 801...

  11. 77 FR 35704 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved...

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    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... return of cash or United States bonds or notes deposited to secure an immigration bond upon the... of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will submit the...

  12. 77 FR 11148 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved...

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    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities...-0026. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will submit... Homeland Security (DHS), John Ramsay, Program (Forms) Manager, U.S. Immigration and Customs...

  13. 75 FR 41214 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

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    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... United States or abroad regarding the whereabouts of the alien. (5) An estimate of the total number of... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), will be submitting...

  14. 77 FR 50145 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

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    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... visitor (J- 1), or dependent (F-2, M-2 or J-2) is admitted to the United States as a nonimmigrant alien... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will submit the...

  15. 77 FR 50146 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, With Change, of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

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  16. 77 FR 11147 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved...

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  17. 76 FR 36562 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

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    2011-06-22

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities..., Office of Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to OMB Desk Officer, for United States... Control No. 1653-0034. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement...

  18. 77 FR 38651 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities...: State, Local, or Tribal Government. Section 404(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101... immigration emergency. This collection of information allows for State or local governments to...

  19. 75 FR 68372 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of an Existing Information Collection...

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    2010-11-05

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... Collection for Review; Immigration Bond; OMB Control No. 1653-0022. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), will be submitting the following information collection...

  20. 75 FR 68371 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of an Existing Information Collection...

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    2010-11-05

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... Government. Section 404(b) of the Immigration and Naturalization Act provides for the reimbursement to States...-0019. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will...

  1. 76 FR 4930 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of an Existing Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities..., Office of Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to OMB Desk Officer, for United States... Collection for Review; Immigration Bond; OMB Control No. 1653-0022. The Department of Homeland Security,...

  2. 75 FR 2881 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of an Existing Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities...-0026. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), has... of Homeland Security (DHS), Joseph M. Gerhart, Chief, Records Management Branch, U.S. Immigration...

  3. 75 FR 16158 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of an Existing Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities...-0026. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), has... should be addressed to OMB Desk Officer, for U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department...

  4. 77 FR 50147 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... for an applicant's request for removal from the United States. (5) An estimate of the total number of... Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will submit the following...

  5. 78 FR 18620 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities.... The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), will submit the...), Scott Elmore, Forms Manager, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 801 I Street NW., Mailstop...

  6. 77 FR 47656 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

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    2012-08-09

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities...: Primary: State, Local, or Tribal Government. Section 404(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S... meeting an immigration emergency. This collection of information allows for State or local governments...

  7. 76 FR 36561 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

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    2011-06-22

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... addressed to OMB Desk Officer, for United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will be submitting...

  8. 76 FR 36562 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... of persons in the United States or abroad regarding the whereabouts of the alien. (5) An estimate of... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will be submitting...

  9. 77 FR 65901 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... addressed to OMB Desk Officer, for United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Department of Homeland... his or her whereabouts. Form G-146 is used to inquire of persons in the United States or...

  10. 77 FR 50147 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

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    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... information collection; I-395; Affidavit in Lieu of Lost Receipt of United States ICE for Collateral Accepted... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Affidavit in Lieu of Lost Receipt of United States...

  11. 75 FR 41214 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

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    2010-07-15

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  12. 75 FR 24720 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of an Existing Information Collection...

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    2010-05-05

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  13. 77 FR 38651 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, With Change, of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities...: Primary: State, Local, or Tribal Government. Section 404(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S... meeting an immigration emergency. This collection of information allows for State or local governments...

  14. 77 FR 50148 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities.... Comments should be addressed to OMB Desk Officer, for United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement... Control No. 1653-0026. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement...

  15. 77 FR 50148 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... of persons in the United States or abroad regarding the whereabouts of the alien. (5) An estimate of... Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), will submit the following...

  16. 75 FR 24721 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of an Existing Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities... or school; and at the time they leave the United States. (5) An estimate of the total number of.... The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), will...

  17. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  18. 75 FR 54366 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0086, Sulphur Operations, Extension of a Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... source of information to evaluate the performance of drilling rigs under various weather and ocean... Bureau of Ocean Management, Regulation and Enforcement BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0086...; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE),...

  19. The classification of sri lankan medicinal herbs: an extensive comparison of the antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Waisundara, Viduranga Y; Watawana, Mindani I

    2014-07-01

    Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups - 'heating' and 'cooling', based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the 'cooling' herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. This study systematically determines the rationale behind this classification, by specifically evaluating the antioxidant activity of 18 herbs - nine herbs from each category. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and the total phenolic contents are analyzed here. The 'heating' herbs have a comparatively lower antioxidant potential than the 'cooling' herbs. The total phenolic contents correlate with the antioxidant values. It can be hypothesized that the high antioxidant potential of the 'cooling' herbs may have been responsible for the containment of the diseases mentioned previously.

  20. Sulfonate derived phosphoramidates as active intermediates in the enzymatic primer-extension of DNA.

    PubMed

    De, S; Groaz, E; Margamuljana, L; Abramov, M; Marlière, P; Herdewijn, P

    2015-04-07

    Novel unnatural 5'-phosphoramidate nucleosides, capable of being processed as substrates by DNA polymerases for multiple nucleotide incorporations, have been designed. The mimics feature metabolites such as taurine and a broad range of aliphatic sulfonates coupled through a P-N bond to the 5'-phosphate position of deoxynucleotides, to allow binding interactions in the enzyme active site. The utility of all of the analogues as pyrophosphate mimics was demonstrated for the chain elongation of DNA, using both thermophilic and mesophilic microbial polymerases.

  1. Cortical activity differs between position- and force-control knee extension tasks.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, Peter C; Tucker, Kylie J; Finnigan, Simon; Scott, Dion; Sowman, Paul; Hodges, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    Neural control differs between position- and force-control tasks as evident from divergent effects of fatigue and pain. Unlike force-control tasks, position-control tasks focus on a postural goal to maintain a joint angle. Cortical involvement is suggested to be less during postural control, but whether this differs between position- and force-control paradigms remains unclear. Coherence estimates the functional communication between spatially distinct active regions within the cortex (cortico-cortical coherence; CCC) and between the cortex and muscles (corticomuscular coherence; CMC). We investigated whether cortical involvement differed between force-control and more posturally focused, position-control tasks. Seventeen adults performed position- and force-control knee extensor efforts at a submaximal load (10 % maximum voluntary contraction). Surface electromyography was recorded from the right knee extensor and flexor muscles and brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG). CCC and CMC in the beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (30-45 Hz) frequency bands were calculated between combinations of intra- and inter-hemispheric pairs of electrodes, and between four EEG electrodes that approximated the left motor cortical area, and right knee extensor EMG, respectively. Differences in EEG power and muscle activity were also calculated. CCC was greater across distributed regions in the force-control task. Beta EEG power in the left hemisphere was higher for the position-control task. Although averaged CMC data differed between tasks, there was no task difference for individual CMC data. Muscle activity and force did not differ between tasks. The results demonstrate differential cortical contributions to control force- versus position-control tasks. This might contribute to differences in performance outcomes of these tasks that have been shown previously.

  2. Effects of subliminal activation of Oedipal fantasies on competitive performance. A replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, R; Gillman, I

    1984-12-01

    A subliminal psychodynamic activation experiment was conducted in which the effects of five subliminal stimuli were sought on the dart-throwing performance of male subjects. The stimuli consisted of the following messages, each accompanied by a congruent picture: BEATING DAD IS OK, BEATING DAD IS WRONG, BEATING HIM IS OK, BEATING HIM IS WRONG, and PEOPLE ARE WALKING. The first two stimuli were intended to activate competitive motives within the context of the Oedipus complex; the next two, competitive motives outside that context; and the last was intended as a control stimulus. BEATING DAD IS OK led to greater dart-throwing accuracy than each of the other four conditions, which in turn did not differ from each other. This finding replicated a result reported by Silverman, L. H., Ross, D., Adler, J., and Lustig, D. (J. Abnorm. Psychol., 87: 341-357, 1978) and is in keeping with the formulation that the activation of oedipal motives can affect competitive performance. Neither a subject variable (fear of success) nor the differential effects of two experimenters was found to interact with stimulus conditions in affecting dart scores.

  3. Mosaic Activating Mutations in GNA11 and GNAQ Are Associated with Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis and Extensive Dermal Melanocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anna C.; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; O’Shaughnessy, Ryan; Al-Olabi, Lara; St.-Onge, Judith; Atherton, David J.; Aubert, Hélène; Bagazgoitia, Lorea; Barbarot, Sébastien; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Chiaverini, Christine; Chong, W. Kling; Duffourd, Yannis; Glover, Mary; Groesser, Leopold; Hadj-Rabia, Smail; Hamm, Henning; Happle, Rudolf; Mushtaq, Imran; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Waelchli, Regula; Wobser, Marion; Vabres, Pierre; Patton, E. Elizabeth; Kinsler, Veronica A.

    2016-01-01

    Common birthmarks can be an indicator of underlying genetic disease but are often overlooked. Mongolian blue spots (dermal melanocytosis) are usually localized and transient, but they can be extensive, permanent, and associated with extracutaneous abnormalities. Co-occurrence with vascular birthmarks defines a subtype of phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, a group of syndromes associated with neurovascular, ophthalmological, overgrowth, and malignant complications. Here, we discover that extensive dermal melanocytosis and phakomatosis pigmentovascularis are associated with activating mutations in GNA11 and GNAQ, genes that encode Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. The mutations were detected at very low levels in affected tissues but were undetectable in the blood, indicating that these conditions are postzygotic mosaic disorders. In vitro expression of mutant GNA11R183C and GNA11Q209L in human cell lines demonstrated activation of the downstream p38 MAPK signaling pathway and the p38, JNK, and ERK pathways, respectively. Transgenic mosaic zebrafish models expressing mutant GNA11R183C under promoter mitfa developed extensive dermal melanocytosis recapitulating the human phenotype. Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis and extensive dermal melanocytosis are therefore diagnoses in the group of mosaic heterotrimeric G-protein disorders, joining McCune-Albright and Sturge-Weber syndromes. These findings will allow accurate clinical and molecular diagnosis of this subset of common birthmarks, thereby identifying infants at risk for serious complications, and provide novel therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26778290

  4. Extensive Reading in the EFL Classroom: Benefits of a Face-to-Face Collaboration Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is an approach to language education that has shown great promise for foreign language learners to acquire language; however, implementation reveals difficulty in maintaining student motivation to read over long periods of time. This study investigates students' experience of face-to-face talk about books in an extensive reading…

  5. 78 FR 11216 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ...: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of... Managment, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 801 I Street NW., Stop 5800, Washington, DC 20536; (202... This Information Collection (1) Type of Information Collection: Extension, without change, of...

  6. Extensive Post-translational Modification of Active and Inactivated Forms of Endogenous p53*

    PubMed Central

    DeHart, Caroline J.; Chahal, Jasdave S.; Flint, S. J.; Perlman, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates to very high concentrations in normal human fibroblasts infected by adenovirus type 5 mutants that cannot direct assembly of the viral E1B 55-kDa protein-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation. Despite high concentrations of nuclear p53, the p53 transcriptional program is not induced in these infected cells. We exploited this system to examine select post-translational modifications (PTMs) present on a transcriptionally inert population of endogenous human p53, as well as on p53 activated in response to etoposide treatment of normal human fibroblasts. These forms of p53 were purified from whole cell lysates by means of immunoaffinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE, and peptides derived from them were subjected to nano-ultra-high-performance LC-MS and MS/MS analyses on a high-resolution accurate-mass MS platform (data available via ProteomeXchange, PXD000464). We identified an unexpectedly large number of PTMs, comprising phosphorylation of Ser and Thr residues, methylation of Arg residues, and acetylation, ubiquitinylation, and methylation of Lys residues—for example, some 150 previously undescribed modifications of p53 isolated from infected cells. These modifications were distributed across all functional domains of both forms of the endogenous human p53 protein, as well as those of an orthologous population of p53 isolated from COS-1 cells. Despite the differences in activity, including greater in vitro sequence-specific DNA binding activity exhibited by p53 isolated from etoposide-treated cells, few differences were observed in the location, nature, or relative frequencies of PTMs on the two populations of human p53. Indeed, the wealth of PTMs that we have identified is consistent with a far greater degree of complex, combinatorial regulation of p53 by PTM than previously anticipated. PMID:24056736

  7. 76 FR 12751 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... notice should only be used to submit comments concerning the extension of this information collection... in the United States is classified as a refugee, and is eligible to remain in the United States....

  8. Extensive beta-glucuronidase activity in murine central nervous system after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to brain.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, A; Stein, C; Derksen, T; Yang, G; Anderson, R D; Davidson, B L

    1998-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), caused by beta-glucuronidase deficiency, is a classic lysosomal storage disease. In the central nervous system (CNS), there is widespread pathology with distention of vacuoles in neurons and glia. An approach to therapy for MPS VII would require extensive delivery of enzyme to the CNS and subsequent uptake by the affected cells. In this study we show that intrastriatal injection of recombinant adenovirus encoding beta-glucuronidase (Ad betagluc) to MPS VII or wild-type mice results in focal, intense beta-glucuronidase mRNA expression near the injection site. Further, histochemical staining for enzyme activity showed that beta-glucuronidase activity extended well beyond transduced cells. Activity was detected throughout the ipsilateral striatum as well as in the corpus callosum, ventricles, and bilateral neocortex. Similarly, after injection into the right lateral ventricle or cisterna magna, enzyme activity was present in the ependymal cells of the ventricles, in the subarachnoid spaces, and also in the underlying cortex (150-500 microm from ependyma). The distribution of enzyme was most extensive 21 days after gene transfer to normal mouse brain, with more than 50% of the hemisphere positive for beta-glucuronidase activity. Eighty-four days after adenovirus injection a substantial level of enzyme expression remained (>40% of hemisphere positive for beta-glucuronidase activity). Histological sections from striatum of beta-glucuronidase-deficient mice injected with Ad betagluc showed a marked reduction in the number of distended vacuoles in both neurons and glia, as compared with uninjected striatum. Importantly, correction was noted in both hemispheres. Our finding that a relatively small number of transduced cells produce enzyme that reaches a large proportion of the CNS has favorable implications in developing direct gene transfer therapies for lysosomal storage disorders.

  9. Comprehensive program and plan for federal energy education, extension, and information activities: Fiscal Year 1981. Fifth report to congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The activities conducted solely in Fiscal Year (FY) 1981 in the areas of Federal energy education, extension service, and information dissemination are reported. The broad purpose of the FY 1981 activities addressed has been to inform governmental and private sectors about the methods and technologies to conserve energy and to utilize renewable energy sources. With the increase in awareness on the part of energy users and decisionmakers, as well as additional information sources available from the private sector, the emphasis of the various Federal energy information activities is being focused on reporting results of Federal programs. The course of activities related to conservation and renewable energy information has been one of consolidation, both in terms of programmatic substance and methods. The practical impetus has been the redirection of Federal progrms and related budgetary revisions for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Further, products conveying information on conservation and renewable energy technologies have been examined extensively, pursuant to the Administration's directive in April 1981 on elimination of wasteful spending on periodicals, audiovisuals and similar materials. Efforts in coordination of conservation and renewable energy information activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) as well as other Federal agencies have adjusted to timetables for review and redirection of programs initially planned for FY 1981. Mechanisms to coordinate existing Federal energy information activities employed in previous fiscal years were continued in FY 1981 to the extent applicable under current Administration policy and the above-noted circumstances of redirection. Coordinating actions requiring convening of groups were held in abeyance pending resolution of programmatic issues.

  10. Extensions of the Ferry shear wave model for active linear and nonlinear microrheology

    PubMed Central

    Mitran, Sorin M.; Forest, M. Gregory; Yao, Lingxing; Lindley, Brandon; Hill, David B.

    2009-01-01

    The classical oscillatory shear wave model of Ferry et al. [J. Polym. Sci. 2:593-611, (1947)] is extended for active linear and nonlinear microrheology. In the Ferry protocol, oscillation and attenuation lengths of the shear wave measured from strobe photographs determine storage and loss moduli at each frequency of plate oscillation. The microliter volumes typical in biology require modifications of experimental method and theory. Microbead tracking replaces strobe photographs. Reflection from the top boundary yields counterpropagating modes which are modeled here for linear and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive laws. Furthermore, bulk imposed strain is easily controlled, and we explore the onset of normal stress generation and shear thinning using nonlinear viscoelastic models. For this paper, we present the theory, exact linear and nonlinear solutions where possible, and simulation tools more generally. We then illustrate errors in inverse characterization by application of the Ferry formulas, due to both suppression of wave reflection and nonlinearity, even if there were no experimental error. This shear wave method presents an active and nonlinear analog of the two-point microrheology of Crocker et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85: 888 - 891 (2000)]. Nonlocal (spatially extended) deformations and stresses are propagated through a small volume sample, on wavelengths long relative to bead size. The setup is ideal for exploration of nonlinear threshold behavior. PMID:20011614

  11. Active moss biomonitoring for extensive screening of urban air pollution: Magnetic and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Goryainova, Zoya; Pergal, Miodrag; Škrivanj, Sandra; Samson, Roeland; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-07-15

    In this study, active magnetic biomonitoring of moss for particulate air pollution and an assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the entire metropolitan area of Belgrade. Two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring moss genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (a common moss in the study area), were used. During the summer of 2013, moss bags were exposed at 153 sampling sites, forming a dense network of sites. A type II regression model was applied to test the interchangeable use of the two moss species. Significantly higher levels of all measured pollutants were recorded by S. girgensohnii in comparison with H. cupressiforme. Based on the results, the mosses could not be interchangeably used in urban areas, except for the biomonitoring of Cu. Nevertheless, according to the relative accumulation factors obtained for both moss species, similar city zones related to high, moderate and low levels of air pollution were distinguished. Moreover, new pollution hotspots, omitted by regulatory monitoring, were identified. The results demonstrate that moss magnetic analysis represents an effective first step for obtaining an overview of particulate air pollution before more expensive chemical analyses. Active moss biomonitoring could be applied as a pragmatic approach for optimizing the representativeness of regulatory monitoring networks.

  12. NASA Common Research Model Test Envelope Extension With Active Sting Damping at NTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Melissa B.; Balakrishna, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Common Research Model (CRM) high Reynolds number transonic wind tunnel testing program was established to generate an experimental database for applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation studies. During transonic wind tunnel tests, the CRM encounters large sting vibrations when the angle of attack approaches the second pitching moment break, which can sometimes become divergent. CRM transonic test data analysis suggests that sting divergent oscillations are related to negative net sting damping episodes associated with flow separation instability. The National Transonic Facility (NTF) has been addressing remedies to extend polar testing up to and beyond the second pitching moment break point of the test articles using an active piezoceramic damper system for both ambient and cryogenic temperatures. This paper reviews CRM test results to gain understanding of sting dynamics with a simple model describing the mechanics of a sting-model system and presents the performance of the damper under cryogenic conditions.

  13. The Cooperative Extension System's Use of USDA's Online Food and Physical Activity Tracker-Supertracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Martinez, Cathy L.; Billias, Natalia N.; Wyatt, Melissa A.; Turner, Rachel J.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition professionals within the Cooperative Extension system use the USDA's interactive online tool SuperTracker, which is designed to help individuals track diet and physical activity (PA) to apply healthy eating patterns and improve PA. An investigation of all 50 states' Extension websites and interviews of Extension educators…

  14. 78 FR 61983 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-555); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-09

    ... methodology as before. However, we are updating the figures due to current cost information and differences in... extension of the FERC-555 information collection requirements with no changes to the current reporting...) (C)x(D) 509 1 509 5,218 2,655,962 The total estimated annual cost burden to respondents is...

  15. 77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of an Existing Information Collection...

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    2012-03-12

    ... subject box. Written comments and suggestions from the public and affected agencies concerning the... in this notice should only be used to submit comments concerning the extension of the Form I-590...: Registration for Classification as Refugee. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

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    2010-12-14

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  17. 76 FR 47183 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Extension

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    2011-08-04

    ... for information collection requirements contained in its Funeral Industry Practice Rule (``Funeral... INFORMATION: Title: Funeral Industry Practices Rule. OMB Control Number: 3084-0025. Type of Review: Extension.... Write ``Funeral Rule Paperwork Comment: FTC File No. P084401'' on your comment, and file your...

  18. 76 FR 3628 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing Collection; Emergency Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) announces that it submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request for a three-year extension of the Elementary-Secondary Staff Information Report (EEO-5) to be effective after the current January 31, 2011 expiration...

  19. 76 FR 40386 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-905, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ..., Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 905, Application for Authorization to Issue Certification for Health Care... FR 20362, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received one comment after...

  20. 76 FR 20362 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-905, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ..., Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request Action: 60-Day Notice of... Health Care Workers; OMB Control No. 1615-0086. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and... sixty days until June 13, 2011. During this 60 day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to...

  1. Enhancing Extension and Research Activities through the Use of Web GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estwick, Noel M.; Griffin, Richard W.; James, Annette A.; Roberson, Samuel G.

    2016-01-01

    There have been numerous efforts aimed at improving geographic literacy in order to address societal challenges. Extension educators can use geographic information system (GIS) technology to help their clients cultivate spatial thinking skills and solve problems. Researchers can use it to model relationships and better answer questions. A program…

  2. 76 FR 77258 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  11. Extensive metabolic activation of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Irina; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Carmella, Steven G.; Feuer, Rachel; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2008-01-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent lung carcinogen present in both unburned tobacco and cigarette smoke. The sum of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides, referred to as total NNAL, is an established urinary biomarker of human NNK uptake. Metabolic activation of NNK to DNA adducts proceeds via α-hydroxylation pathways, and 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (keto acid) and 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (hydroxy acid) are the principal end products of these pathways in rodents and primates. The purpose of this study was to determine NNK metabolic activation in smokers, as measured by the sum of keto acid and hydroxy acid, relative to total NNAL. To specifically identify NNK-derived keto acid and hydroxy acid, which are also formed extensively from nicotine, we added [pyridine-D4]NNK to cigarettes that were originally low in NNK, and measured the deuterium-labeled metabolites in the urine of people who smoked these cigarettes. The total amount of [pyridine-D4]keto acid plus [pyridine-D4]hydroxy acid averaged 4.00±2.49 nmol/24 h, while the average amount of total [pyridine-D4]NNAL was 0.511±0.368 nmol/24 h. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that NNK metabolic activation is a quantitatively significant pathway in smokers, accounting for about 86% of total urinary excretion of NNK metabolites. The large interindividual variation in the excreted [pyridine-D4]keto acid and [pyridine-D4]hydroxy acid among 20 smokers strongly support our hypothesis that some smokers activate NNK more extensively than others, and that the ratio between biomarkers of metabolic activation and detoxification at a given dose of NNK could be a potential indicator of cancer risk. PMID:18628430

  12. Extensive hydrothermal activity revealed by multi-tracer survey in the Wallis and Futuna region (SW Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konn, C.; Fourré, E.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Donval, J. P.; Guyader, V.; Birot, D.; Alix, A. S.; Gaillot, A.; Perez, F.; Dapoigny, A.; Pelleter, E.; Resing, J. A.; Charlou, J. L.; Fouquet, Y.

    2016-10-01

    The study area is close to the Wallis and Futuna Islands in the French EEZ. It exists on the western boundary of the fastest tectonic area in the world at the junction of the Lau and North-Fiji basins. At this place, the unstable back-arc accommodates the plate motion in three ways: (i) the north Fiji transform fault, (ii) numerous unstable spreading ridges, and (iii) large areas of recent volcanic activity. This instability creates bountiful opportunity for hydrothermal discharge to occur. Based on geochemical (CH4, TDM, 3He) and geophysical (nephelometry) tracer surveys: (1) no hydrothermal activity could be found on the Futuna Spreading Centre (FSC) which sets the western limit of hydrothermal activity; (2) four distinct hydrothermal active areas were identified: Kulo Lasi Caldera, Amanaki Volcano, Fatu Kapa and Tasi Tulo areas; (3) extensive and diverse hydrothermal manifestations were observed and especially a 2D distribution of the sources. At Kulo Lasi, our data and especially tracer ratios (CH4/3He 50×106 and CH4/TDM 4.5) reveal a transient CH4 input, with elevated levels of CH4 measured in 2010, that had vanished in 2011, most likely caused by an eruptive magmatic event. By contrast at Amanaki, vertical tracer profiles and tracer ratios point to typical seawater/basalt interactions. Fatu Kapa is characterised by a substantial spatial variability of the hydrothermal water column anomalies, most likely due to widespread focused and diffuse hydrothermal discharge in the area. In the Tasi Tulo zone, the hydrothermal signal is characterised by a total lack of turbidity, although other tracer anomalies are in the same range as in nearby Fatu Kapa. The background data set revealed the presence of a Mn and 3He chronic plume due to the extensive and cumulative venting over the entire area. To that respect, we believe that the joined domain composed of our active area and the nearby active area discovered in the East by Lupton et al. (2012) highly contribute to the

  13. Within- and between-session reliability of the maximal voluntary knee extension torque and activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihong; Hopkins, J Ty

    2013-01-01

    A ratio between the torque generated by maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and exogenous electrical stimulus, central activation ratio (CAR), has been widely used to assess quadriceps function. To date, no data exist regarding between-session reliability of this measurement. Thirteen neurologically sound volunteers underwent three testing sessions (three trials per session) with 48 hours between-session. Subjects performed MVICs of the quadriceps with the knee locked at 90° flexion and the hip at 85°. Once the MVIC reached a plateau, an electrical stimulation from superimposed burst technique (SIB: 125 V with peak output current 450 mA) was manually delivered and transmitted directly to the quadriceps via stimulating electrodes. CAR was calculated by using the following equation: CAR = MVIC torque/MVIC + SIB torque. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated within- (ICC((2,1))) and between-session (ICC((2,k))) for MVIC torques and CAR values. Our data show that quadriceps MVIC and CAR are very reliable both within- (ICC((2,1)) = 0.99 for MVIC; 0.94 for CAR) and between-measurement sessions (ICC((2,k)) = 0.92 for MVIC; 0.86 for CAR) in healthy young adults. For clinical research, more data of the patients with pathological conditions are required to ensure reproducibility of calculation of CAR.

  14. Evidence of parasexual activity in "asexual amoebae" Cochliopodium spp. (Amoebozoa): extensive cellular and nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Yonas I; Anderson, O Roger; Lecky, Ariel F

    2014-09-01

    The majority of microbial eukaryotes have long been considered asexual, though new evidence indicates sex, or sexual-like (parasexual) behaviors that deviate from the usual union of two gametes, among other variant aspects. Over a dozen amoebozoans are implicated to have sexual stages. However, the exact mechanism by which sex occurs in these lineages remains elusive. This is mainly due to the diverse quality and cryptic nature of their life cycle. In this study we present evidence of some previously unreported aspects of the life cycle of an amoeba, Cochliopodium, that undergoes unusual intraspecific interactions using light microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Similar to other amoebozoans, Cochliopodium, is considered asexual with no published reports of sex or parasexuality. We also investigated environmental conditions that govern the observed intraspecific interactions. Both light microscopic and immunocytochemistry evidence demonstrates Cochliopodium undergoes cellular fusion (plasmogamy) and nuclear fusion (karyogamy). Large plasmodia eventually undergo karyogamy and contain large fused, polyploid, nuclei. These are observed to fragment, subsequently, by karyotomy (nuclear fission) and cytoplasmic fission to yield uninucleated amoebae. This process could lead to a non-meiotic, parasexual exchange of chromosomes in Cochliopodium. These findings strongly suggest that Cochliopodium is involved in parasexual activity and should no longer be considered strictly asexual.

  15. Longevity extension of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) by royal jelly: optimal dose and active ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what regulates worker longevity has potential to help increase colony productivity and improve crop pollination efficiency. PMID:28367370

  16. Longevity extension of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) by royal jelly: optimal dose and active ingredient.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Tian, Yuanyuan; Han, Mingfeng; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what regulates worker longevity has potential to help increase colony productivity and improve crop pollination efficiency.

  17. The C-terminal extension of PrhG impairs its activation of hrp expression and virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Luo, Feng; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Kiba, Akinori; Yasuo, Igarashi; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2015-04-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the second most destructive bacterial plant pathogens worldwide and HrpG is the master regulator of its pathogenicity. PrhG is a close paralogue of HrpG and both belong to OmpR/PhoB family of two-component response regulators. Despite a high similarity (72% global identity and 96% similarity in helix-loop-helix domain), they display distinct roles in pathogenicity. HrpG is necessary for the bacterial growth in planta and pathogenicity, while PrhG is dispensable for bacterial growth in planta and contributes little to pathogenicity. The main difference between HrpG and PrhG is the 50-amino-acid-long C-terminal extension in PrhG (amino-acid residues 230-283), which is absent in HrpG. When this extension is deleted, truncated PrhGs (under the control of its native promoter) allowed complete recovery of bacterial growth in planta and wild-type virulence of hrpG mutant. This novel finding demonstrates that the extension region in PrhG is responsible for the functional difference between HrpG and PrhG, which may block the binding of PrhG to target promoters and result in impaired activation of hrp expression by PrhG and reduced virulence of R. solanacearum.

  18. Hard clam walking: Active horizontal locomotion of adult Mercenaria mercenaria at the sediment surface and behavioral suppression after extensive sampling.

    PubMed

    Tettelbach, Stephen T; Europe, James R; Tettelbach, Christian R H; Havelin, Jason; Rodgers, Brooke S; Furman, Bradley T; Velasquez, Marissa

    2017-01-01

    Locomotion of infaunal bivalve mollusks primarily consists of vertical movements related to burrowing; horizontal movements have only been reported for a few species. Here, we characterize hard clam walking: active horizontal locomotion of adults (up to 118 mm shell length, SL) of the commercially important species, Mercenaria mercenaria, at the sediment surface-a behavior only briefly noted in the literature. We opportunistically observed walking over a 10-yr period, at 9 different sites in the Peconic Bays, New York, USA, and tested several hypotheses for the underlying cause of this behavior through quantitative field sampling and reproductive analyses. Hard clam walking was exhibited by males and females at equal frequency, predominantly during June/July and October, when clams were in peak spawning condition. Extensive walking behavior appears to be cued by a minimum population density; we suggest it may be mediated by unidentified pheromone(s), infaunal pressure waves and/or other unidentified factors. There was no directionality exhibited by walking clams, but individuals in an area of extensive walking were highly aggregated and walking clams were significantly more likely to move toward a member of the opposite sex. Thus, we conclude that hard clam walking serves to aggregate mature individuals prior to spawning, thereby facilitating greater fertilization success. In the process of investigating this behavior, however, we apparently oversampled one population and reduced clam densities below the estimated minimum threshold density and, in so doing, suppressed extensive walking for a period of >3 years running. This not only reinforces the importance of detailed field investigations of species biology and ecology, even for those that are considered to be well studied, but also highlights the need for greater awareness of the potential for research activities to affect focal species behavior.

  19. Hard clam walking: Active horizontal locomotion of adult Mercenaria mercenaria at the sediment surface and behavioral suppression after extensive sampling

    PubMed Central

    Europe, James R.; Tettelbach, Christian R. H.; Havelin, Jason; Rodgers, Brooke S.; Furman, Bradley T.; Velasquez, Marissa

    2017-01-01

    Locomotion of infaunal bivalve mollusks primarily consists of vertical movements related to burrowing; horizontal movements have only been reported for a few species. Here, we characterize hard clam walking: active horizontal locomotion of adults (up to 118 mm shell length, SL) of the commercially important species, Mercenaria mercenaria, at the sediment surface—a behavior only briefly noted in the literature. We opportunistically observed walking over a 10-yr period, at 9 different sites in the Peconic Bays, New York, USA, and tested several hypotheses for the underlying cause of this behavior through quantitative field sampling and reproductive analyses. Hard clam walking was exhibited by males and females at equal frequency, predominantly during June/July and October, when clams were in peak spawning condition. Extensive walking behavior appears to be cued by a minimum population density; we suggest it may be mediated by unidentified pheromone(s), infaunal pressure waves and/or other unidentified factors. There was no directionality exhibited by walking clams, but individuals in an area of extensive walking were highly aggregated and walking clams were significantly more likely to move toward a member of the opposite sex. Thus, we conclude that hard clam walking serves to aggregate mature individuals prior to spawning, thereby facilitating greater fertilization success. In the process of investigating this behavior, however, we apparently oversampled one population and reduced clam densities below the estimated minimum threshold density and, in so doing, suppressed extensive walking for a period of >3 years running. This not only reinforces the importance of detailed field investigations of species biology and ecology, even for those that are considered to be well studied, but also highlights the need for greater awareness of the potential for research activities to affect focal species behavior. PMID:28278288

  20. Antimicrobial activity of novel 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

    PubMed

    Na, Seok Hyeon; Jeon, Hyejin; Kim, Yoo Jeong; Kwon, Hyo Il; Selasi, Gati Noble; Nicholas, Asiimwe; Yun, Chang-Soo; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Je Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen lead compounds exhibiting potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains from a library of chemical compounds. In a high-throughput screening analysis of 7520 compounds representative of 340,000 small molecules, two 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds were the most active against A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Subsequent selection and analysis of 70 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds revealed that the top 7 compounds were extremely active against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) A. baumannii isolates. These compounds commonly carried a 1-cyclopropyl-7-fluoro-4-oxo-4H-quinolizine-3-carboxylic acid core structure but had different C-8 and/or C-9 moieties. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the seven compounds against fluoroquinolone-resistant A. baumannii isolates were found to be in the range of 0.02-1.70 µg/mL regardless of the mutation types in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA and ParC. Cytotoxicity of the seven compounds was observed in HeLa and U937 cells at a concentration of 50 µg/mL, which was >32.5- to 119-fold higher than the MIC90 for A. baumannii isolates. In conclusion, novel 4H-4-oxoquinolizine compounds represent a promising scaffold on which to develop antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant A. baumannii strains.

  1. Long-term community dynamics of small landbirds with and without exposure to extensive disturbance from military training activities.

    PubMed

    Rivers, James W; Gipson, Philip S; Althoff, Donald P; Pontius, Jeffrey S

    2010-02-01

    Military training activities are known to impact individual species, yet our understanding of how such activities influence animal communities is limited. In this study, we used long-term data in a case study approach to examine the extent to which the local small landbird community differed between a site in northeast Kansas that experienced intensive disturbance from military training activities (Ft. Riley Military Installation) and a similar, nearby site that experienced minimal human disturbance (Konza Prairie Biological Station). In addition, we characterized how the regional pool of potential colonizers influenced local community dynamics using Breeding Bird Survey data. From 1991 to 2001, most species of small terrestrial landbirds (73%) recorded during breeding surveys were found at both sites and the mean annual richness at Ft. Riley (39.0 +/- 2.86 [SD]) was very similar to that of Konza Prairie (39.4 +/- 2.01). Richness was maintained at relatively constant levels despite compositional changes because colonizations compensated local extinctions at both sites. These dynamics were driven primarily by woodland species that exhibited stochastic losses and gains and were present at a low local and regional abundance. Our results suggest that military training activities may mimic natural disturbances for some species in this area because the small landbird community did not differ markedly between sites with and sites without extensive human disturbance. Although our results suggest that military training is not associated with large changes in the avian community, additional studies are needed to determine if this pattern is found in other ecological communities.

  2. Long-Term Community Dynamics of Small Landbirds with and Without Exposure to Extensive Disturbance from Military Training Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, James W.; Gipson, Philip S.; Althoff, Donald P.; Pontius, Jeffrey S.

    2010-02-01

    Military training activities are known to impact individual species, yet our understanding of how such activities influence animal communities is limited. In this study, we used long-term data in a case study approach to examine the extent to which the local small landbird community differed between a site in northeast Kansas that experienced intensive disturbance from military training activities (Ft. Riley Military Installation) and a similar, nearby site that experienced minimal human disturbance (Konza Prairie Biological Station). In addition, we characterized how the regional pool of potential colonizers influenced local community dynamics using Breeding Bird Survey data. From 1991 to 2001, most species of small terrestrial landbirds (73%) recorded during breeding surveys were found at both sites and the mean annual richness at Ft. Riley (39.0 ± 2.86 [SD]) was very similar to that of Konza Prairie (39.4 ± 2.01). Richness was maintained at relatively constant levels despite compositional changes because colonizations compensated local extinctions at both sites. These dynamics were driven primarily by woodland species that exhibited stochastic losses and gains and were present at a low local and regional abundance. Our results suggest that military training activities may mimic natural disturbances for some species in this area because the small landbird community did not differ markedly between sites with and sites without extensive human disturbance. Although our results suggest that military training is not associated with large changes in the avian community, additional studies are needed to determine if this pattern is found in other ecological communities.

  3. Impact of an N-terminal extension on the stability and activity of the GH11 xylanase from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus.

    PubMed

    Song, Letian; Dumon, Claire; Siguier, Béatrice; André, Isabelle; Eneyskaya, Elena; Kulminskaya, Anna; Bozonnet, Sophie; O'Donohue, Michael Joseph

    2014-03-20

    To understand structure-function relationships in the N-terminal region of GH11 xylanases, the 17 N-terminal amino acids of the GH11 xylanase from Neocallimastix patriciarum (Np-Xyn) have been grafted onto the N-terminal extremity of the untypically short GH11 xylanase from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus (Tx-Xyn), creating a hybrid enzyme denoted NTfus. The hybrid xylanase displayed properties (pH and temperature optima) similar to those of the parental enzyme, although thermostability was lowered, with the Tm value, being reduced by 5°C. Kinetic assays using oNP-Xylo-oligosaccharides (DP2 and 3) indicated that the N-extension did not procure more extensive substrate binding, even when further mutagenesis was performed to promote this. However, these experiments confirmed weak subsite -3 for both NTfus and the parental enzyme. The catalytic efficiency of NTfus was shown to be 17% higher than that of the parental enzyme on low viscosity wheat arabinoxylan and trials using milled wheat straw as the substrate revealed that NTfus released more substituted oligosaccharide products (Xyl/Ara=8.97±0.13 compared to Xyl/Ara=9.70±0.21 for the parental enzyme), suggesting that the hybrid enzyme possesses wider substrate selectivity. Combining either the parental enzyme or NTfus with the cellulolytic cocktail Accellerase 1500 boosted the impact of the latter on wheat straw, procuring yields of solubilized xylose and glucose of 23 and 24% of theoretical yield, respectively, thus underlining the benefits of added xylanase activity when using this cellulase cocktail. Overall, in view of the results obtained for NTfus, we propose that the N-terminal extension leads to the modification of a putative secondary substrate binding site, a hypothesis that is highly consistent with previous data.

  4. Initiation of Extension in South China Continental Margin during the Active-Passive Margin Transition: Thermochronological and Kinematic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, X.; Chan, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South China continental margin is characterized by a widespread magmatic belt, prominent NE-striking faults and numerous rifted basins filled by Cretaceous-Eocene sediments. The geology denotes a transition from active to passive margin, which led to rapid modifications of crustal stress configuration and reactivation of older faults in this area. Our zircon fission-track data in this region show two episodes of exhumation: The first episode, occurring during 170-120Ma, affected local parts of the Nanling Range. The second episode, a more regional exhumation event, occurred during 115-70Ma, including the Yunkai Terrane and the Nanling Range. Numerical geodynamic modeling was conducted to simulate the subduction between the paleo-Pacific plate and the South China Block. The modeling results could explain the fact that exhumation of the granite-dominant Nanling Range occurred earlier than that of the gneiss-dominant Yunkai Terrane. In addition to the difference in rock types, the heat from Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatism in Nanling may have softened the upper crust, causing the area to exhume more readily than Yunkai. Numerical modeling results also indicate that (1) high lithospheric geothermal gradient, high slab dip angle and low convergence velocity favor the reversal of crustal stress state from compression to extension in the upper continental plate; (2) late Mesozoic magmatism in South China was probably caused by a slab roll-back; and (3) crustal extension could have occurred prior to the cessation of plate subduction. The inversion of stress regime in the continental crust from compression to crustal extension imply that the Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene red-bed basins in South China could have formed during the late stage of the subduction, accounting for the occurrence of volcanic events in some sedimentary basins. We propose that the rifting started as early as Late Cretaceous, probably before the cessation of subduction process.

  5. PLD1 regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements by mediating Frizzled7 endocytosis for Wnt/PCP signal activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoon; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Yeo, Inchul; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in the regulation of receptor-associated signaling, cell movement, cell adhesion and endocytosis. However, its physiological role in vertebrate development remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that PLD1 is required for the convergent extension (CE) movements during Xenopus gastrulation by activating Wnt/PCP signaling. Xenopus PLD1 protein is specifically enriched in the dorsal region of Xenopus gastrula embryo and loss or gain-of-function of PLD1 induce defects in gastrulation and CE movements. These defective phenotypes are due to impaired regulation of Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Biochemical and imaging analysis using Xenopus tissues reveal that PLD1 is required for Fz7 receptor endocytosis upon Wnt11 stimulation. Moreover, we show that Fz7 endocytosis depends on dynamin and regulation of GAP activity of dynamin by PLD1 via its PX domain is crucial for this process. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD1 acts as a new positive mediator of Wnt/PCP signaling by promoting Wnt11-induced Fz7 endocytosis for precise regulation of Xenopus CE movements.

  6. Extension of in vivo half-life of biologically active peptides via chemical conjugation to XTEN protein polymer.

    PubMed

    Podust, Vladimir N; Sim, Bee-Cheng; Kothari, Dharti; Henthorn, Lana; Gu, Chen; Wang, Chia-wei; McLaughlin, Bryant; Schellenberger, Volker

    2013-11-01

    XTEN, unstructured biodegradable proteins, have been used to extend the in vivo half-life of genetically fused therapeutic proteins and peptides. To expand the applications of XTEN technology to half-life extension of other classes of molecules, XTEN protein polymers and methods for chemical XTENylation were developed. Two XTEN precursors were engineered to contain enzymatically removable purification tags. The proteins were readily expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity by chromatography techniques. As proof-of-principle, GLP2-2G peptide was chemically conjugated to each of the two XTEN protein polymers using maleimide-thiol chemistry. The monodisperse nature of XTEN protein polymer enabled reaction monitoring as well as the detection of peptide modifications in the conjugated state using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The resulting GLP2-2G-XTEN conjugates were purified by preparative RP-HPLC to homogeneity. In comparison with recombinantly fused GLP2-2G-XTEN, chemically conjugated GLP2-2G-XTEN molecules exhibited comparable in vitro activity, in vitro plasma stability and pharmacokinetics in rats. These data suggest that chemical XTENylation could effectively extend the half-life of a wide spectrum of biologically active molecules, therefore broadening its applicability.

  7. The association between the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene and extension of postsurgical calf vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Filippo; Meli, Francesco; Raimondi, Francesco; Montalto, Salvatore; Cospite, Valentina; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of a plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promoter polymorphism 4G/5G could significantly influence the proximal extension of vein thrombosis in spite of anticoagulant treatment in patients with calf vein thrombosis (CVT) following orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery. We studied 168 patients with CVT, who had undergone orthopaedic, urological and abdominal surgery, subdivided as follows: first, 50 patients with thrombosis progression; second, 118 patients without thrombosis progression. The 4G/5G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was evaluated in all patients and in 70 healthy matched controls. We also studied PAI-1 activity in plasma. The presence of 4G/5G genotype was significantly increased in the group of patients with the extension of thrombotic lesions and was associated with an increase in CVT extension risk (odds ratio adjusted for sex 2.692; 95% confidence interval 1.302-4.702). Moreover, we observed a significant increase of PAI-1 plasma activity in patients with extension of thrombotic lesion vs. patients without extension (P=0.0001). Patients with 4G/5G genotype in the promoter of the plasminogen activator inhibitor - 1 gene present a higher risk of extension of thrombotic lesions.

  8. Cytoarchitecture, Proliferative Activity and Neuroblast Migration in the Subventricular Zone and Lateral Ventricle Extension of the Adult Guinea Pig Brain.

    PubMed

    Jara, Nery; Cifuentes, Manuel; Martínez, Fernando; Salazar, Katterine; Nualart, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    In the mouse brain, neuroblasts generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) through the rostral migratory stream (RMS). Although the RMS is not present in the human brain, a migratory pathway that is organized around a ventricular cavity that reaches the OB has been reported. A similar cavity, the lateral ventricle extension (LVE), is found in the adult guinea pig brain. Therefore, we analyzed cytoarchitecture, proliferative activity and precursor cell migration in the SVZ and LVE of 1-, 6- and 12-month-old guinea pigs. In young animals, we used confocal spectral and transmission electron microscopy to identify neuroblasts, astrocytes, and progenitor cells in the SVZ and LVE. Analysis of peroxidase diffusion demonstrated that the LVE was a continuous cavity lined by ependymal cells and surrounded by neuroblasts. Precursor cells were mostly located in the SVZ and migrated from the SVZ to the OB through the LVE. Finally, analysis of 6- and 12-month-old guinea pigs revealed that the LVE was preserved in older animals; however, the number of neurogenic cells was significantly reduced. Consequently, we propose that the guinea pig brain may be used as a new neurogenic model with increased similarity to humans, given that the LVE connects the LV with the OB, as has been described in humans, and that the LVE works a migratory pathway. Stem Cells 2016;34:2574-2586.

  9. Active-charging based powertrain control in series hybrid electric vehicles for efficiency improvement and battery lifetime extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Yin, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a powertrain control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) based on the integrated design of an active charging scenario and fixed-boundary-layer sliding mode controllers (FBLSMCs). An optimized charging curve for the battery is predetermined rather than subject to engine output and vehicle power demand, which is a total inverse of normal SHEV powertrain control process. This is aimed to remove surge and high-frequency charge current, keep the battery staying in a high state-of-charge (SOC) region and avoid persistently-high charge power, which are positive factors to battery lifetime extension. Then two robust chattering-free FBLSMCs are designed to locate the engine operation in the optimal efficiency area. One is in charge of engine speed control, and the other is for engine/generator torque control. Consequently, not only fuel economy is improved but also battery life expectancy could be extended. Finally, simulation and experimental results confirm the validity and application feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  10. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: A RANDOMIZED CROSS-OVER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Bandholm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. Study Design A randomized cross-over study. Methods Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee arthroplasty randomly performed one set of five rapid, and one set of five slow knee-extensions with the operated leg, using a load of their 10 repetition maximum, while surface electromyography recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis of the quadriceps muscle. Results Data from 23 of the 24 included patients were analyzed. Muscle activity was significantly higher during rapid knee-extensions (120.2% [10th-90th percentile: 98.3-149.1]) compared to slow knee-extensions (106.0% [88.8-140.8]) for the vastus lateralis (p<0.01), but not for the vastus medialis (120.8% [90.4-134.0]) and (121.8% [93.0-133.0]) (p = 0.17), respectively. Slow and rapid knee-extensions were performed at a median angular velocity of 19.7 degrees/sec (13.7-24.4) and 51.4 degrees/sec (28.9-63.1), respectively Conclusion Four to eight weeks after their total knee arthroplasty, the patients in the present study were able to conduct rapid knee-extensions according to the experimental protocol with an approximately doubled angular velocity compared to slow knee-extensions. This was associated with

  11. Influence of posterior dental arch length on brain activity during chewing in patients with mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Shoi, K; Fueki, K; Usui, N; Taira, M; Wakabayashi, N

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that shortened dental arch decreases masticatory function. However, its potential to change brain activity during mastication is unknown. The present study investigates the effect of a shortened posterior dental arch with mandibular removable partial dentures (RPDs) on brain activity during gum chewing. Eleven subjects with missing mandibular molars (mean age, 66.1 years) on both sides received experimental RPDs with interchangeable artificial molars in a crossover trial design. Brain activity during gum chewing with RPDs containing (full dental arch) and lacking artificial molars (shortened dental arch) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, masticatory function was evaluated for each dental arch type. Food comminuting and mixing ability and the perceived chewing ability were significantly lower in subjects with a shortened dental arch than those with a full dental arch (P < 0.05). Brain activation during gum chewing with the full dental arch occurred in the middle frontal gyrus, primary sensorimotor cortex extending to the pre-central gyrus, supplementary motor area, putamen, insula and cerebellum. However, middle frontal gyrus activation was not observed during gum chewing with the shortened dental arch. These results suggest that shortened dental arch affects human brain activity in the middle frontal gyrus during gum chewing, and the decreased middle frontal gyrus activation may be associated with decreased masticatory function.

  12. Role of the C-terminal extension peptide of plastid located glutamine synthetase from Medicago truncatula: Crucial for enzyme activity and needless for protein import into the plastids.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria João; Vale, Diogo; Cunha, Luis; Melo, Paula

    2017-02-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in plant nitrogen metabolism, is encoded by a small family of highly homologous nuclear genes that produce cytosolic (GS1) and plastidic (GS2) isoforms. Compared to GS1, GS2 proteins have two extension peptides, one at the N- and the other at the C-terminus, which show a high degree of conservation among plant species. It has long been known that the N-terminal peptide acts as a transit peptide, targeting the protein to the plastids however, the function of the C-terminal extension is still unknown. To investigate whether the C-terminal extension influences the activity of the enzyme, we produced a C-terminal truncated version of Medicago truncatula GS2a in Escherechia coli and studied its catalytic properties. The activity of the truncated protein was found to be lower than that of MtGS2a and with less affinity for glutamate. The importance of the C-terminal extension for the protein import into the chloroplast was also assessed by transient expression of fluorescently-tagged MtGS2a truncated at the C-terminus, which was correctly detected in the chloroplast. The results obtained in this work demonstrate that the C-terminal extension of M. truncatula GS2a is important for the activity of the enzyme and does not contain crucial information for the import process.

  13. [Optimization of educational activity of departments of educational creativity in the Extension Course Institute for Medical Practitioners MUNKTs n. a. P.V.Mandryka].

    PubMed

    Balakhovskiĭ, A A; Koshelev, V P; Anufriev, A A; Vlasenko, T N

    2013-09-01

    Educational creativity is the key component of educational activity. The article is devoted to logical structure of educational creativity, difficulties and problems of formation and development of educational creativity in lecturers participating in educative process with participants of the Extension Course Institute for Medical Practitioners MUNKTs n. a. P.V. Mandryka. Heuristic activity and methods that are a huge part of educational creativity are emphasized. Specific features of heuristic activity are shown; classification of heuristic methods is presented. For the first time authors gave characteristic of qualitative levels of educational creativity.

  14. Is the Modified Tardieu Scale in Semi-Standing Position Better Associated with Knee Extension and Hamstring Activity in Terminal Swing than the Supine Tardieu?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Irene R.; Nienhuis, Bart; Rijs, Nique P. A. M.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Duysens, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) in a semi-standing position, used for the assessment of hamstrings spasticity, was better associated with knee extension and hamstrings activity in terminal swing than the MTS in a supine position in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven children diagnosed with…

  15. Inter-rater agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of the prone hip extension test and active straight leg raise test

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two clinical tests used to assess for neuromuscular control deficits in low back pain (LBP) patients are the prone hip extension (PHE) test and active straight leg raise (ASLR) test. For these tests, it has been suggested examiners classify patients as “positive” or “negative” based on the presence or absence (respectively) of specific “abnormal” lumbopelvic motion patterns. The inter-rater agreement of such a classification scheme has been reported for the PHE test, but not for the ASLR test. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of such classification schemes have not been reported for either test. The primary objectives of the current study were to investigate: 1) the inter-rater agreement of the examiner-reported classification schemes for these two tests, and 2) the sensitivity and specificity of the classification schemes. Methods Thirty participants with LBP and 40 asymptomatic controls took part in this cross-sectional observational study. Participants performed 3–4 repetitions of each test whilst two examiners classified them as “positive” or “negative” based on the presence or absence (respectively) of specific “abnormal” lumbopelvic motion patterns. The inter-rater agreement (Kappa statistic), sensitivity (LBP patients), and specificity (controls) were calculated for each test. Results Both tests demonstrated substantial inter-rater agreement (PHE test: Kappa = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95, p < 0.001; ASLR test: Kappa = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.57-0.96, p < 0.001). For the PHE test, the sensitivity was 0.18-0.27 and the specificity was 0.63-0.78; the odds ratio (OR) of “positive” classifications in the LBP group was 1.25 (95% CI = 0.58-2.72; Examiner 1) and 1.27 (95% CI = 0.52-3.12; Examiner 2). For the ASLR test, the sensitivity was 0.20-0.25 and the specificity was 0.84-0.86; the OR of “positive” classifications in the LBP group was 1.72 (95% CI = 0.75-3.95; Examiner 1) and 1

  16. 77 FR 23735 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-1041 and G-1041A, Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-1041... Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Forms G- 1041 and G-1041A, Genealogy Index Search Request... Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Forms G-1041 and G-1041A. U.S. Citizenship and...

  17. 77 FR 9259 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-1041 and G-1041A, Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-1041... Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Forms G- 1041 and G-1041A, Genealogy Index Search Request... evaluating whether to revise forms G-1041 and G-1041A. Should USCIS decide to revise forms G- 1041 and...

  18. 76 FR 31972 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-508 and Form I-508F, Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-508 and... and Immigration Services (USCIS), will be submitting the following information collection request for... Immigration Services. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond, as well as a...

  19. 75 FR 65021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-485 and Supplements A and E, Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-485 and... Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information..., and Supplements A and E; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public...

  20. 75 FR 65499 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-600/I-600A, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-600/ I... of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 600/ I-600A, Petition to Classify Orphan as an... Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-600/ I-600A; U.S. Citizenship...

  1. 75 FR 35824 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms I-600/I-600A, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms I-600/I... of Information Collection Under Review: Forms I- 600/I-600A, Petition To Classify Orphan as an... USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form I-600/I-600A. Should USCIS decide to revise the...

  2. Social Guardianship and Social Isolation: An Application and Extension of Lifestyle/Routine Activities Theory to Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Nagy, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Although the overall crime rate dropped between 1993 and 2000, both adolescent violence and violent crime in rural areas has been on the rise. However, little research has been conducted on the determinants of rural violence using targeted regional samples of rural youth. This study examines the applicability of lifestyle/routine activities (RA)…

  3. 75 FR 18545 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations, Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well- Completion... request (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR 250, Subpart E, ``Oil..., subpart E, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations. OMB Control Number: 1010-0067. Abstract: The...

  4. Magma-tectonic interactions in an area of active extension; a review of recent observations, models and interpretations from Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rikke; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Drouin, Vincent; Rafn Heimisson, Elías; Parks, Michelle; Dumont, Stéphanie; Árnadóttir, Þóra; Masterlark, Timothy; Ófeigsson, Benedíkt G.; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The geological setting of Iceland provides rich opportunities of studying magma-tectonic interactions, as it constitutes Earth's largest part of the mid-oceanic ridge system exposed above sea level. A series of volcanic and seismic zones accommodate the ~2 cm/year spreading between the North-American and Eurasian plates, and the Icelandic hot-spot conveniently provides the means of exposing this oceanic crust-forming setting above sea-level. Both extinct and active plumbing system structures can be studied in Iceland, as the deeply eroded tertiary areas provide views into the structures of extinct volcanic systems, and active processes can be inferred on in the many active volcanic systems. A variety of volcanic and tectonic processes cause the Icelandic crust to deform continuously, and the availability of contemporaneous measurements of crustal deformation and seismicity provide a powerful data set, when trying to obtain insight into the processes working at depth, such as magma migration through the uppermost lithosphere, magma induced host rock deformation and volcanic eruption locations and styles. The inferences geodetic and seismic datasets allow on the active plate spreading processes and subsurface magma movements in Iceland will be reviewed, in particular in relation to the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). There the three phases of a rifting cycle (rifting, post-rifting, inter-rifting) have been observed. The NVZ is an extensional rift segment, bounded to the south by the Icelandic mantle plume, and to the north by the Tjörnes transform zone. The NVZ has typically been divided into five partly overlapping en-echelon fissure swarms, each with a central main volcanic production area. Most recently, additional insight into controlling factors during active rifting has been provided by the Bárðarbunga activity in 2014-2015 that included a major rifting event, the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since 1783, and a gradual caldera collapse. It is evident

  5. Phenanthrene Metabolism in Smokers: Use of a Two-Step Diagnostic Plot Approach to Identify Subjects with Extensive Metabolic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhong, Yan; Carmella, Steven G.; Hochalter, J. Bradley; Rauch, Diane; Oliver, Andrew; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smoke are among the most likely causes of lung cancer. PAHs require metabolic activation to initiate the carcinogenic process. Phenanthrene (Phe), a noncarcinogenic PAH, was used as a surrogate of benzo[α]pyrene and related PAHs to study the metabolic activation of PAHs in smokers. A dose of 10 μg of deuterated Phe ([D10]Phe) was administered to 25 healthy smokers in a crossover design, either as an oral solution or by smoking cigarettes containing [D10]Phe. Phe was deuterated to avoid interference from environmental Phe. Intensive blood and urine sampling was performed to quantitate the formation of deuterated r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene ([D10]PheT), a biomarker of the diol epoxide metabolic activation pathway. In both the oral and smoking arms approximately 6% of the dose was metabolically converted to diol epoxides, with a large intersubject variability in the formation of [D10]PheT observed. Two diagnostic plots were developed to identify subjects with large systemic exposure and significant lung contribution to metabolic activation. The combination of the two plots led to the identification of subjects with substantial local exposure. These subjects produced, in one single pass of [D10]Phe through the lung, a [D10]PheT exposure equivalent to the systemic exposure of a typical subject and may be an indicator of lung cancer susceptibility. Polymorphisms in PAH-metabolizing genes of the 25 subjects were also investigated. The integration of phenotyping and genotyping results indicated that GSTM1-null subjects produced approximately 2-fold more [D10]PheT than did GSTM1-positive subjects. PMID:22674470

  6. Thrombin enhances NGF-mediated neurite extension via increased and sustained activation of p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Mufti, Rania E; Sarker, Krishna; Jin, Yan; Fu, Songbin; Rosales, Jesusa L; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-01-01

    Rapid neurite remodeling is fundamental to nervous system development and plasticity. It involves neurite extension that is regulated by NGF through PI3K/AKT, p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK. It also involves neurite retraction that is regulated by the serine protease, thrombin. However, the intracellular signaling pathway by which thrombin causes neurite retraction is unknown. Using the PC12 neuronal cell model, we demonstrate that thrombin utilizes the PI3K/AKT pathway for neurite retraction in NGF-differentiated cells. Interestingly, however, we found that thrombin enhances NGF-induced neurite extension in differentiating cells. This is achieved through increased and sustained activation of p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK. Thus, thrombin elicits opposing effects in differentiated and differentiating cells through activation of distinct signaling pathways: neurite retraction in differentiated cells via PI3K/AKT, and neurite extension in differentiating cells via p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK. These findings, which also point to a novel cooperative role between thrombin and NGF, have significant implications in the development of the nervous system and the disease processes that afflicts it as well as in the potential of combined thrombin and NGF therapy for impaired learning and memory, and spinal cord injury which all require neurite extension and remodeling.

  7. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  8. A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we

  9. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  10. Multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity and epithermal mineralization in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field and their relations to magmatic activity, volcanism and regional extension

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Jackson, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    Volcanic rocks of middle Miocene age and underlying pre-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks host widely distributed zones of hydrothermal alteration and epithermal precious metal, fluorite and mercury deposits within and peripheral to major volcanic and intrusive centers of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF) in southern Nevada, near the southwestern margin of the Great Basin of the western United States. Radiometric ages indicate that episodes of hydrothermal activity mainly coincided with and closely followed major magmatic pulses during the development of the field and together spanned more than 4.5 m.y. Rocks of the SWNVF consist largely of rhyolitic ash-flow sheets and intercalated silicic lava domes, flows and near-vent pyroclastic deposits erupted between 15.2 and 10 Ma from vent areas in the vicinity of the Timber Mountain calderas, and between about 9.5 and 7 Ma from the outlying Black Mountain and Stonewall Mountain centers. Three magmatic stages can be recognized: the main magmatic stage, Mountain magmatic stage (11.7 to 10.0 Ma), and the late magmatic stage (9.4 to 7.5 Ma).

  11. Extensive Evolutionary Changes in Regulatory Element Activity during Human Origins Are Associated with Altered Gene Expression and Positive Selection

    PubMed Central

    Fedrigo, Olivier; Babbitt, Courtney C.; Wortham, Matthew; Tewari, Alok K.; London, Darin; Song, Lingyun; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Margulies, Elliott H.; Wray, Gregory A.; Furey, Terrence S.; Crawford, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS) sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species. PMID:22761590

  12. Abnormal cytoplasmic extensions associated with active αIIbβ3 are probably the cause for macrothrombocytopenia in Glanzmann thrombasthenia-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hauschner, Hagit; Mor-Cohen, Ronit; Messineo, Stefania; Mansour, Wissam; Seligsohn, Uri; Savoia, Anna; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in the ITGA2B or ITGB3 genes that encode for the αIIbβ3 platelet integrin usually cause Glanzmann thrombasthenia, a severe autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by absence of platelet aggregation, but normal platelet number and size. Several rare mutations cause a Glanzmann-like syndrome which manifests macrothrombocytopenia and usually displays autosomal dominant inheritance. The exact mechanism causing Glanzmann-like syndrome is unknown. One typical example of Glanzmann-like mutations causes deletion of 40 amino acids (p.647-686) in the β3 β-tail domain (βTD_del) that was found in the heterozygous state in Italian and Japanese families. A second example is a missense mutation, C560R, located in the epidermal growth factor-like domain, found in the homozygous state in a French patient. Both mutations cause constitutive activation of αIIbβ3, but differ in their surface expression. In the current study, we generated cultured cells expressing β3-βTD_del or β3-C560R mutations along with wild-type αIIb, and examined the cells' ability to create tubulin-dependent protrusions compared to cells expressing wild-type αIIbβ3. Unlike cells expressing wild-type αIIbβ3, cells harboring each of the mutations exhibited abnormal cytoplasmic extensions on immobilized fibrinogen or Von Willebrand factor, which resembled extensions formed in megakaryocyte leading to proplatelets. Moreover, we showed that formation of abnormal extensions occurred also in wild-type αIIbβ3 cells when activated by activating antibody. These results suggest that the active conformation of αIIbβ3 can induce cytoskeletal rearrangements that lead to impaired proplatelet formation.

  13. Mapping lifecycle management activities for blockbuster drugs in Japan based on drug approvals and patent term extensions.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takayuki; Kano, Shingo

    2016-02-01

    Drug lifecycle management (LCM), which entails acquiring drug approvals and patent protections, contributes to maximizing drug discovery investment returns. In a previous survey, a comparative analysis between Japan and the USA indicated that a unique patent term extension system has an important role in Japanese drug LCM. Therefore, in this survey, we focused on drug approvals and patent term extensions, and found that the LCM for blockbuster drugs in Japan can be categorized into three types (drug approval-oriented LCM, patent term extension-oriented LCM, and inactive-type LCM), of which the first two have been implemented recently. Here, we suggest a strategy for selecting a suitable LCM approach among these three types based on the prospects for drug improvements.

  14. Extension of activation cross section data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rhodium up to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.

    2015-11-01

    In the frame of the systematical study of light ion induced nuclear reactions activation cross sections for deuteron induced reactions on monoisotopic 103Rh were extended to 50 MeV incident energy. Excitation functions were measured in the 49.8-36.6 MeV energy range for the 103Rh(d,xn)100,101Pd, 103Rh(d,pxn)99m,99g,100,101m,101g,102m,102gRh and 103Rh(d,x)97,103Ru reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and off-line high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The experimental results are compared to our previous results and to the theoretical predictions in the TENDL-2014 library (TALYS 1.6 code).

  15. 76 FR 50240 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0141, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations, Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...: 1010-0141, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for Office of... the regulations under ``Oil and Gas Drilling Operations,'' and related documents. This notice also... CFR subpart 250, subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations. Forms: BOEMRE Forms 0123, 0123S,...

  16. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Research & Extension Center during 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center (SVREC) in Frankenmuth, MI in 2014 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) and Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (CRR) disease performance of a wide range of Beta vulgaris materials. CLS and CRR trials were co...

  17. 76 FR 23833 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Supplement A to Form I-539: Extension of an Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Supplement A to Form I-539 (Filing Instructions for V... comments concerning the extension of Supplement A to Form I- 539 (Filing Instructions for V Nonimmigrant... V Nonimmigrant Status Applicants). (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component...

  18. Sir2 phosphorylation through cAMP-PKA and CK2 signaling inhibits the lifespan extension activity of Sir2 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Kyu; Kim, Yeong Hyeock; Kang, Hyun Ah; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Yoon

    2015-09-02

    Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, has been proposed to be a longevity factor that plays important roles in dietary restriction (DR)-mediated lifespan extension. In this study, we show that the Sir2's role for DR-mediated lifespan extension depends on cAMP-PKA and casein kinase 2 (CK2) signaling in yeast. Sir2 partially represses the transcription of lifespan-associated genes, such as PMA1 (encoding an H(+)-ATPase) and many ribosomal protein genes, through deacetylation of Lys 16 of histone H4 in the promoter regions of these genes. This repression is relieved by Sir2 S473 phosphorylation, which is mediated by active cAMP-PKA and CK2 signaling. Moderate DR increases the replicative lifespan of wild-type yeast but has no effect on that of yeast expressing the Sir2-S473E or S473A allele, suggesting that the effect of Sir2 on DR-mediated lifespan extension is negatively regulated by S473 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate a mechanism by which Sir2 contributes to lifespan extension.

  19. Combinatorial activity of Flamingo proteins directs convergence and extension within the early zebrafish embryo via the planar cell polarity pathway.

    PubMed

    Formstone, Caroline J; Mason, Ivor

    2005-06-15

    The seven-transmembrane protocadherin, Flamingo, functions in a number of processes during Drosophila development, including planar cell polarity (PCP). To assess the role(s) of Flamingo1/Celsr1 (Fmi1) during vertebrate embryogenesis we have exploited the zebrafish system, identifying two Fmi1 orthologues (zFmi1a and zFmi1b) and employing morpholinos to induce mis-splicing of zebrafish fmi1 mRNAs, to both imitate mutations identified in Drosophila flamingo and generate novel aberrant Flamingo proteins. We demonstrate that in the zebrafish gastrula, Fmi1 proteins function in concert with each other and with the vertebrate PCP proteins, Wnt11 and Strabismus, to mediate convergence and extension during gastrulation, without altering early dorso-ventral patterning. We show that zebrafish Fmi1a promotes extension of the entire antero-posterior axis of the zebrafish gastrula including prechordal plate and ventral diencephalic precursors. However, while we show that control over axial extension is autonomous, we find that Fmi1a is not required within lateral cells undergoing dorsal convergence.

  20. Extensions to modeling aerobic carbon degradation using combined respirometric-titrimetric measurements in view of activated sludge model calibration.

    PubMed

    Sin, Gürkan; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2007-08-01

    Recently a model was introduced to interpret the respirometric (OUR) -titrimetric (Hp) data obtained from aerobic oxidation of different carbon sources in view of calibration of Activated Sludge Model No.1 (ASM1). The model requires, among others, the carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR) to be relatively constant during aerobic experiments. As CTR is an inherently nonlinear process, this assumption may not hold for certain experimental conditions. Hence, we extended the model to describe the nonlinear CTR behavior. A simple calibration procedure of the CO2 model was developed only using titrimetric data. The identifiable parameter subset of this model when using titrimetric data only contained the first equilibrium constant of the CO2 dissociation, pK1, the initial aqueous CO2 concentration, C(Tinit) and the nitrogen content of biomass, i(NBM). The extended model was then successfully applied to interpret typical data obtained from respirometric-titrimetric measurements with a nonlinear CO2 stripping process. The parameter estimation results using titrimetric data were consistent with the results estimated using respirometric data (OUR) alone or combined OUR and Hp data, thereby supporting the validity of the dynamic CO2 model and its calibration approach. The increased range of applicability and accurate utilization of the titrimetric data are expected to contribute particularly to the improvement of calibration of ASM models using batch experiments.

  1. Investigation of hydrothermal activity at Campi Flegrei caldera using 3D numerical simulations: Extension to high temperature processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Costa, Antonio; Chiodini, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Hydrothermal activity at Campi Flegrei caldera is simulated by using the multiphase code MUFITS. We first provide a brief description of the simulator covering the mathematical formulation and its applicability at elevated supercritical temperatures. Then we apply, for the first time, the code to hydrothermal systems investigating the Campi Flegrei caldera case. We consider both shallow subcritical regions and deep supercritical regions of the hydrothermal system. We impose sophisticated boundary conditions at the surface to provide a better description of the reservoir interactions with the atmosphere and the sea. Finally we carry out a parametric study and compare the simulation results with gas temperature and composition, gas and heat fluxes, and temperature measurements in the wells of that area. Results of the parametric study show that flow rate, composition, and temperature of the hot gas mixture injected at depth, and the initial geothermal gradient strongly control parameters monitored at Solfatara. The results suggest that the best guesses conditions for the gas mixture injected at 5 km depth correspond to a temperature of ~ 700 °C, a fluid mass flow rate of about 50-100 kg/s, and an initial geothermal gradient of ~ 120 °C/km.

  2. Get Active

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics: Health Benefits What are the benefits of physical activity? Physical activity increases your chances of living longer. ... pain Help you feel better about yourself Is physical activity for everyone? Yes! Physical activity is good for ...

  3. Modeling external carbon addition in biological nutrient removal processes with an extension of the international water association activated sludge model.

    PubMed

    Swinarski, M; Makinia, J; Stensel, H D; Czerwionka, K; Drewnowski, J

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to account for a newly defined readily biodegradable substrate that can be consumed by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. The model change was to add a new substrate component and process terms for its use by PAOs and other heterotrophic bacteria under anoxic and aerobic conditions. The Gdansk (Poland) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which has a modified University of Cape Town (MUCT) process for nutrient removal, provided field data and mixed liquor for batch tests for model evaluation. The original ASM2d was first calibrated under dynamic conditions with the results of batch tests with settled wastewater and mixed liquor, in which nitrate-uptake rates, phosphorus-release rates, and anoxic phosphorus uptake rates were followed. Model validation was conducted with data from a 96-hour measurement campaign in the full-scale WWTP. The results of similar batch tests with ethanol and fusel oil as the external carbon sources were used to adjust kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients in the expanded ASM2d. Both models were compared based on their predictions of the effect of adding supplemental carbon to the anoxic zone of an MUCT process. In comparison with the ASM2d, the new model better predicted the anoxic behaviors of carbonaceous oxygen demand, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and phosphorous (PO4-P) in batch experiments with ethanol and fusel oil. However, when simulating ethanol addition to the anoxic zone of a full-scale biological nutrient removal facility, both models predicted similar effluent NO3-N concentrations (6.6 to 6.9 g N/m3). For the particular application, effective enhanced biological phosphorus removal was predicted by both models with external carbon addition but, for the new model, the effluent PO4-P concentration was approximately one-half of that found from

  4. The effect of a backrest and seatpan inclination on sitting discomfort and trunk muscle activation in subjects with extension-related low back pain.

    PubMed

    Curran, Máire; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; O'Sullivan, Leonard; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have demonstrated that seating modifications reduce low back pain (LBP). One recent study found that a forward-inclined seatpan reduced low back discomfort (LBD), however this was only examined in people with flexion-related LBP. No study has yet investigated its effectiveness among people with extension-related LBP. This crossover study examined 12 subjects with extension-related LBP. Sitting discomfort and surface electromyography of three trunk muscles were recorded during a 10-minute typing task while sitting with two different seatpan inclinations, both with and without a backrest. LBD (p < 0.001) and overall body discomfort (OBD) (p = 0.016) were significantly greater on the forward-inclined seatpan. The backrest did not alter trunk muscle activation or sitting discomfort. The results demonstrate that in a specific subgroup of people with extension-related LBP, increasing forward seatpan inclination significantly increased LBD and OBD. Future research should consider matching ergonomics prescriptions according to the individual presentation of people with LBP.

  5. Body-hypomethylated human genes harbor extensive intragenic transcriptional activity and are prone to cancer-associated dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Mendizabal, Isabel; Zeng, Jia; Keller, Thomas E; Yi, Soojin V

    2017-01-23

    Genomic DNA methylation maps (methylomes) encode genetic and environmental effects as stable chemical modifications of DNA. Variations in DNA methylation, especially in regulatory regions such as promoters and enhancers, are known to affect numerous downstream processes. In contrast, most transcription units (gene bodies) in the human genome are thought to be heavily methylated. However, epigenetic reprogramming in cancer often involves gene body hypomethylation with consequences on gene expression. In this study, we focus on the relatively unexplored phenomenon that some gene bodies are devoid of DNA methylation under normal conditions. Utilizing nucleotide-resolution methylomes of diverse samples, we show that nearly 2000 human genes are commonly hypomethylated. Remarkably, these genes occupy highly specialized genomic, epigenomic, evolutionary and functional niches in our genomes. For example, hypomethylated genes tend to be short yet encode significantly more transcripts than expected based upon their lengths, include many genes involved in nucleosome and chromatin formation, and are extensively and significantly enriched for histone-tail modifications and transcription factor binding with particular relevance for cis-regulation. Furthermore, they are significantly more prone to cancer-associated hypomethylation and mutation. Consequently, gene body hypomethylation represents an additional layer of epigenetic regulatory complexity, with implications on cancer-associated epigenetic reprogramming.

  6. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

    PubMed

    Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Kraisriwattana, Kairin; Rukseree, Kamolchanok; Boonsam, Kraisorn; Narachai, Panchaporn

    2017-02-02

    In this study, we determined the antibacterial and synergistic activities of the essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar against the extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The antibacterial and synergistic properties of the essential oil from Z. cassumunar were examined by agar disc diffusion tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated by broth microdilution using the resazurin assay. The in vitro time-kill antibacterial kinetics was analyzed using the plate count technique. We found that the essential oil from Z. cassumunar had antibacterial activity against A. baumannii, with MIC and MBC ranging from 7.00 to 9.24mg/ml. The essential oil could completely inhibit A. baumannii at 1h, and coccoid-shaped bacteria were found after treatment. In addition, the essential oil had a synergistic effect when combined with antibiotics, e.g., aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and folate pathway inhibitors. Thus, the essential oil from Z. cassumunar has strong antibacterial and synergistic activities against XDR A. baumannii, which may provide the basis for the development of a new therapy against drug-resistant bacteria.

  7. Extension of excitation functions up to 50 MeV for activation products in deuteron irradiations of Pr and Tm targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.

    2016-09-01

    Extension up to 50 MeV incident deuteron energy is presented for excitation functions of activation products formed in monoisotopic Tm (169Tm) and Pr (141Pr). By stacked foil irradiations direct and/or cumulative production of 140,139m,138Nd, 138mPr, 141,139,137m,135Ce on Pr and 166,169Yb, 166,167,168Tm on Tm targets were measured. Confirmation of earlier experimental results for all investigated radionuclides is found and the influence of the higher energy on thick target yields and batch production of medically relevant radionuclides (140Nd, 139Pr (as decay product of 139mNd), 166,169Yb, 167Tm) is discussed. A comparison of experimental values with TALYS1.6 code results (predicted values from TENDL-2015 on-line library) shows a better description of the (d,pxn) reactions than older ones.

  8. Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-based agents active against tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Marco; Tipparaju, Suresh K; Lun, Shichun; Song, Yang; Sturm, A Willem; Bishai, William R; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2011-02-07

    The struggle against tuberculosis (TB) is still far from over. TB, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the deadliest infections worldwide. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains have further increased the burden for this disease. Herein, we report the discovery of 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-methyl-1-oxo-1H,5H-pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-4-carbonitrile as an effective antitubercular agent and the structural modifications of this molecule that have led to analogues with improved potency and lower toxicity. A number of these derivatives were also active at sub-micromolar concentrations against resistant TB strains and devoid of apparent toxicity to Vero cells, thereby underscoring their value as novel scaffolds for the development of new anti-TB drugs.

  9. Activation detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material lacking a photoluminescent material and generating a by-product of a radioactive decay due to the activator impinging the reeptor material. The method further including, generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect and identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

  10. Chikungunya virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase core domain displays detergent-sensitive primer extension and terminal adenylyltransferase activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming Wei; Tan, Yaw Bia; Zheng, Jie; Zhao, Yongqian; Lim, Bee Ting; Cornvik, Tobias; Lescar, Julien; Ng, Lisa Fong Poh; Luo, Dahai

    2017-04-05

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an important arboviral infectious agent in tropical and subtropical regions, often causing persistent and debilitating disease. The viral enzyme non-structural protein 4 (nsP4), as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), catalyzes the formation of negative-sense, genomic and subgenomic viral RNAs. Here we report a truncated nsP4 construct that is soluble, stable and purified recombinantly from Escherichia coli. Sequence analyses and homology modelling indicate that all necessary RdRP elements are included. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometry was used to analyze solvent accessibility and flexibility of subdomains. Fluorophore-conjugated RNA ligands were designed and screened by using fluorescence anisotropy to select a suitable substrate for RdRP assays. Assay trials revealed that nsP4 core domain is conditionally active upon choice of detergent species, and carries out both primed extension and terminal adenylyltransferase activities. The polymerization assay can be further developed to screen for antiviral compounds in vitro.

  11. The Campania-Lucania Extensional Fault System, southern Italy: A suggestion for a uniform model of active extension in the Italian Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozzetti, F.

    2011-10-01

    By integrating new field data, seismic lines interpretation and a critical review of the literature, this work highlights a regional array of normal faults in the southern Apennines of Italy, which have been active during the Quaternary and are referred to as the "Campania-Lucania Extensional Fault System" (CLEFS). The CLEFS consists of three main NW-SE striking alignments of normal faults, which for the first time are considered genetically linked and methodically described in their geometry, kinematics and displacement. The CROP04 seismic profile, crossing the central part of the CLEFS, was strictly constrained by detailed geological surveys and reinterpreted to define the downdip trajectory of the major normal faults. These latter have been observed to splay from an east dipping low-angle detachment surface penetrating the upper crust to depths of 12-13 km. The time-space evolution of the faults and the associated basins was defined through a review of the stratigraphic data on the syntectonic deposits. As regards the overall geometry and the associate sense of shear (top-to-east), the CLEFS sensibly differs from the extensional features described previously in this region but shows surprising affinities with the "Etrurian Fault System," an extensional megastructure of the northern Apennines. Remarkable similarities concern the extent, the surface and subsurface geometry, the timing of activity and the amount of the associated deformation. These common characters recognized over a belt nearly 600 km long lead to formulation of a low-angle normal fault-driven extension geometrical-kinematic model, which is sound for the whole active extensional belt of Italy.

  12. The character and reactivation history of the southern extension of the seismically active Clarendon Linden Fault System, western New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Robert D.; Fountain, John

    2002-08-01

    Integration of 11 types of data sets enabled us to determine the location, character and fault history of the southern extension of the Clarendon-Linden Fault System (CLF) in southwestern New York State. The data sets utilized include detailed stratigraphic and fracture measurements at more than 1000 sites, soil gas anomalies, seismic reflection profiles, well logs and lineaments on air photos, topographic maps, Landsat and SLAR images. The seismically active CLF consists of as many as 10 parallel, segmented faults across the fault system. The fault segments are truncated by NW-striking cross-strike discontinuities (CSDs). The faults of the CLF and intersecting CSDs form fault blocks that have semi-independent subsidence and uplift histories. East-dipping reflectors in the Precambrian basement indicate the southward continuation of thrusts of the intra-Grenvillian Elzevir-Frontenac Boundary Zone. These thrusts were reactivated during Iapetan rifting as normal (listric) growth faults. In Ordovician Black River to Trenton time, the southern CLF segments experienced a second phase of growth fault activity, with faults displaying a cumulative stratigraphic throw of as much as ˜170 m. Thrusting on the same east-dipping Precambrian reflectors typified the CLF in Taconic (post-Trenton) times. Detailed comparisons among the fault segments show that the fault activity in Silurian and Devonian times generally alternated between the western and central main faults. In Late Devonian time, the fault motion reversed from down-on-the-east to down-on-the-west about the time the Appalachian Basin axis passed across the CLF in its westward migration. The deep Precambrian faults of the CLF were thus reactivated as the Appalachian Basin developed in Acadian times. Finally, the CLF thrust fault imaged on seismic line CLF-1 offsets all bedrock (Devonian) units; thus, significant motion occurred along this fault during Late Acadian, or more likely, Alleghanian time.

  13. Activities. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Daffer, Phares G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provided are the activity sheets for students and the teaching guide for this middle school geometry activity. Materials, prerequisites, objectives, and procedures are listed. Extension activities are suggested. An answer key is included. (CW)

  14. In Vitro Activity of Polymyxin B in Combination with Various Antibiotics against Extensively Drug-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae with Decreased Susceptibility to Polymyxin B.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yiying; Lim, Tze-Peng; Teo, Jocelyn; Sasikala, Suranthran; Lee, Winnie; Hong, Yanjun; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Tan, Thean Yen; Tan, Thuan-Tong; Koh, Tse Hsien; Hsu, Li Yang; Kwa, Andrea L

    2016-09-01

    Against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Enterobacter cloacae, combination antibiotic therapy may be the only option. We investigated the activity of various antibiotics in combination with polymyxin B using time-kill studies (TKS). TKS were conducted with four nonclonal XDR E. cloacae isolates with 5 log10 CFU/ml bacteria against maximum, clinically achievable concentrations of polymyxin B alone and in two-drug combinations with 10 different antibiotics. A hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) simulating clinically relevant polymyxin B and tigecycline dosing regimens was conducted for two isolates over 240 h. Emergence of resistance was quantified using antibiotic-containing (3× MIC) media. Biofitness and stability of resistant phenotypes were determined. All XDR E. cloacae isolates were resistant to all antibiotics except for polymyxin B (polymyxin B MIC, 1 to 4 mg/liter). All isolates harbored metallo-β-lactamases (two with NDM-1, two with IMP-1). In single TKS, all antibiotics alone demonstrated regrowth at 24 h, except amikacin against two strains and polymyxin B and meropenem against one strain each. In combination TKS, only polymyxin B plus tigecycline was bactericidal against all four XDR E. cloacae isolates at 24 h. In HFIM, tigecycline and polymyxin B alone did not exhibit any killing activity. Bactericidal kill was observed at 24 h for both isolates for polymyxin B plus tigecycline; killing was sustained for one isolate but regrowth was observed for the second. Phenotypically stable resistant mutants with reduced in vitro growth rates were observed. Polymyxin B plus tigecycline is a promising combination against XDR E. cloacae However, prolonged and indiscriminate use can result in resistance emergence.

  15. In Vitro Activity of Polymyxin B in Combination with Various Antibiotics against Extensively Drug-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae with Decreased Susceptibility to Polymyxin B

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yiying; Lim, Tze-Peng; Sasikala, Suranthran; Lee, Winnie; Hong, Yanjun; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Tan, Thean Yen; Tan, Thuan-Tong; Koh, Tse Hsien; Hsu, Li Yang

    2016-01-01

    Against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Enterobacter cloacae, combination antibiotic therapy may be the only option. We investigated the activity of various antibiotics in combination with polymyxin B using time-kill studies (TKS). TKS were conducted with four nonclonal XDR E. cloacae isolates with 5 log10 CFU/ml bacteria against maximum, clinically achievable concentrations of polymyxin B alone and in two-drug combinations with 10 different antibiotics. A hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) simulating clinically relevant polymyxin B and tigecycline dosing regimens was conducted for two isolates over 240 h. Emergence of resistance was quantified using antibiotic-containing (3× MIC) media. Biofitness and stability of resistant phenotypes were determined. All XDR E. cloacae isolates were resistant to all antibiotics except for polymyxin B (polymyxin B MIC, 1 to 4 mg/liter). All isolates harbored metallo-β-lactamases (two with NDM-1, two with IMP-1). In single TKS, all antibiotics alone demonstrated regrowth at 24 h, except amikacin against two strains and polymyxin B and meropenem against one strain each. In combination TKS, only polymyxin B plus tigecycline was bactericidal against all four XDR E. cloacae isolates at 24 h. In HFIM, tigecycline and polymyxin B alone did not exhibit any killing activity. Bactericidal kill was observed at 24 h for both isolates for polymyxin B plus tigecycline; killing was sustained for one isolate but regrowth was observed for the second. Phenotypically stable resistant mutants with reduced in vitro growth rates were observed. Polymyxin B plus tigecycline is a promising combination against XDR E. cloacae. However, prolonged and indiscriminate use can result in resistance emergence. PMID:27324776

  16. Early Jurassic Volcanism in the South Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet: Record of Back-arc Extension in the Active Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, D. C.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Mo, X.

    2015-12-01

    Indus-Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (IYZSZ) represents the Mesozoic remnants of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean lithosphere after its northward subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane. The evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean prior to India-Asia collision remains unclear. To explore this period of history, we investigate zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic bimodal-like volcanic sequence around Dagze area, south Tibet. The volcanic sequence comprises calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites whereas intermediate components are volumetrically restricted. Zircons from a basaltic andesite yielded crystallization age of 178Ma whereas those from 5 silicic rocks were dated at 183-174Ma, which suggest that both the basaltic and the silicic rocks are coeval. The basaltic rocks are enriched in LREE and LILE, and depleted in HFSE, with Epsilon Nd(t) of 1.6-4.0 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 0.7-11.8, which implies that they were derived from a heterogenetic mantle source metasomatized by subduction components. Trace element geochemistry shows that the basaltic rocks are compositionally transitional from normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) to island arc basalts (IAB, e.g. Zedong arc basalts of ~160-155Ma in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane), with the signature of immature back-arc basin basalts. The silicic rocks display similar Nd-Hf isotopic features of the Gangdese batholith with Epsilon Nd(t) of 0.9-3.4 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 2.4-17.7, indicating that they were possibly generated by anatexis of basaltic juvenile lower crust, instead of derived from the basaltic magma. These results support an Early to Middle Jurassic (183-155Ma) model that the back-arc extension tectonic setting were existing in the active continental margin in the south Lhasa Terrane.

  17. A Finite Element Model for the Active Extension in the Central Part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt: Control of Subduction on Intra-arc Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, J.

    2005-12-01

    An extensional strain field of normal faults with a preferred E-W orientation dominates the central part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Faults lay west of 99 W meridian. These faults tend to form tectonic depressions filled with lake sediments and volcanic rocks. Typically these faults have lengths < 50 km, are disconnected, and are seismically active. The origin of the extension is enigmatic and has been attributed to collapse of the volcanic belt (Suter, 2001), partition of deformation induced by subduction (Alanis et al., 1998), end recently to mantle plumes and rift dynamics (Marquez et al, 1999; Verma, 2002). This work uses a finite element model to explain the origin of the extension based on the dynamical subduction model proposed by Scholz and Campos (1995). These authors demonstrated that resistive forces in the mantle as well as slab pull control the coupling of the plates. They also showed that in some arcs these forces put in tension the interior of the overriding plate leading to back-arc extension. The model used here incorporates an iso-viscous mantle whose flow is forced by subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates; deformation in North America plate (central Mexico) is modeled by an elastic plate; weakening of the elastic plate by heat flow is also considered. Boundary conditions and geometries in the model are constrained by geological observations like convergence rates, geometry of the Wadati-Benioff zone, heat-flow measurements, and gravity modeling in central-south Mexico. Two 2D-models are presented: one cutting through the Mexican state of Michoacan, characterized by a high subduction angle, and a second one through Guerrero, in southern Mexico, which has a sub-horizontal angle. Hypocenters of earthquakes, however, indicate that the subducted plate bends under the TMVB, increasing its subduction angle. Results from the model show that mantle corner flow under Michoacan drags downwards the edge of North America, inducing upward

  18. On the Use of the Passive and Active Voice in Astrophysics Journal Papers: With Extensions to Other Languages and Other Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine; Dwyer, Sharon; Gillette, Susan; Icke, Vincent.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined frequency of active, passive verb forms in two astrophysics journal articles, finding "we" plus an active voice occurs at least as frequently as the passive. This pattern typifies a previously unidentified type of research article, the logical argument scientific paper, whose characteristics are detailed. Similar pattern…

  19. Catalyst activator

    DOEpatents

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  20. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  1. Physical activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to stay healthy. ... goal. Your goal might be to: Manage a health condition Reduce stress ... other benefits, such as: Better control of your weight and ...

  2. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  3. Germinal-center kinase-like kinase co-crystal structure reveals a swapped activation loop and C-terminal extension.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Douglas; Rushe, Mia; M Arduini, Robert; Lukacs, Christine; Atkins, Kateri; Sun, Xin; Little, Kevin; Cullivan, Michael; Paramasivam, Murugan; Patterson, Thomas A; Hesson, Thomas; D McKee, Timothy; May-Dracka, Tricia L; Xin, Zhili; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea; Bhisetti, Govinda R; Lyssikatos, Joseph P; Silvian, Laura F

    2017-02-01

    Germinal-center kinase-like kinase (GLK, Map4k3), a GCK-I family kinase, plays multiple roles in regulating apoptosis, amino acid sensing, and immune signaling. We describe here the crystal structure of an activation loop mutant of GLK kinase domain bound to an inhibitor. The structure reveals a weakly associated, activation-loop swapped dimer with more than 20 amino acids of ordered density at the carboxy-terminus. This C-terminal PEST region binds intermolecularly to the hydrophobic groove of the N-terminal domain of a neighboring molecule. Although the GLK activation loop mutant crystallized demonstrates reduced kinase activity, its structure demonstrates all the hallmarks of an "active" kinase, including the salt bridge between the C-helix glutamate and the catalytic lysine. Our compound displacement data suggests that the effect of the Ser170Ala mutation in reducing kinase activity is likely due to its effect in reducing substrate peptide binding affinity rather than reducing ATP binding or ATP turnover. This report details the first structure of GLK; comparison of its activation loop sequence and P-loop structure to that of Map4k4 suggests ideas for designing inhibitors that can distinguish between these family members to achieve selective pharmacological inhibitors.

  4. Maintenance of Efficacy and Continuing Safety of Golimumab for Active Ulcerative Colitis: PURSUIT-SC Maintenance Study Extension Through 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter R; Feagan, Brian G; Sandborn, William J; Marano, Colleen; Strauss, Richard; Johanns, Jewel; Padgett, Lakshmi; Collins, Judith; Tarabar, Dino; Hebzda, Zbigniew; Rutgeerts, Paul; Reinisch, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous golimumab through 2 years of maintenance therapy was evaluated in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Patients completing treatment through week 52 (placebo, golimumab 50, 100, every-4-weeks (q4w)) and evaluations at week 54 were eligible for this long-term extension (LTE) trial. Patients receiving placebo or golimumab 50 mg with worsening disease during the LTE could receive golimumab 100 mg. Efficacy assessments included the Mayo physician's global assessment (PGA) subscore, inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ), and corticosteroid use. Patients who were randomized to golimumab at PURSUIT-Maintenance baseline and continued receiving golimumab during the LTE were analyzed for efficacy (using intention-to-treat and “as observed” analyses; N=195) and safety (N=200). Patients treated with golimumab at any time from induction baseline through week 104 (N=1240) constituted the overall safety population. Results: Baseline demographics and disease characteristics of patients entering the LTE receiving golimumab were similar to those of all patients randomized to golimumab maintenance at baseline. At week 104, 80.5% (157/195) of patients had a PGA=0/1 (range weeks 56–104: 80.5–91.8%) and 56.4% (110/195) had a PGA=0 (weeks 56–104: range: 53.8–58.5%). Through week 104, 86% of patients maintained inactive or mild disease activity. Among 174 corticosteroid-free patients at week 54, 88.5% remained corticosteroid-free at week 104. At week 104, 62.2% (120/193) had an IBDQ score ≥170. Tuberculosis, opportunistic infection, and malignancy rates were low, and the overall safety profile was similar to that reported through week 54. Two non-melanoma skin cancers, one metastatic colon cancer, and two deaths (biventricular heart dysfunction, sepsis) occurred between weeks 54 and 104. Conclusion: Subcutaneous golimumab q4w through 2 years maintained clinical benefit and reduced

  5. Activated Charcoal

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat poisonings, reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile ... lower cholesterol levels in the blood. Decreasing gas (flatulence). Some studies show that activated charcoal is effective ...

  6. Activity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  7. Photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials: Photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via the loading of PANI nanofibers on surface of coordination polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Xu, Xinxin Liu, Lu; Wang, Yi

    2013-09-15

    To enhance photocatalytic property of coordination polymer in visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst was synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on the surface of coordination polymer. The photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated. Compared with pure coordination polymer photocatalyst, which can decompose RhB merely under UV light irradiation, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst displays more excellent photocatalytic activity in visible light region. Furthermore, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst exhibits outstanding stability during the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material, which displays excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light was firstly synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on surface of coordination polymer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • This PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material represents the first conductive polymer loaded coordination polymer composite material. • PANI/coordination polymer composite material displays more excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO in visible light region. • The “combination” of coordination polymer and PANI will enable us to design high-activity, high-stability and visible light driven photocatalyst in the future.

  8. Plant metacaspase activation and activity.

    PubMed

    Minina, Elena A; Stael, Simon; Van Breusegem, Frank; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Metacaspases are essential for cell death regulation in plants. Further understanding of biochemistry of metacaspases and their molecular function in plant biology requires a set of robust methods for detection of metacaspase activation and quantitative analysis of corresponding proteolytic activity. Here we describe methods for purification of recombinant metacaspases, measurement of enzymatic activity of recombinant and endogenous metacaspases in vitro and in cell lysates, respectively, and finally detection of metacaspase activation in vivo. Additionally, an in vitro metacaspase protein substrate cleavage assay based on the cell-free production of substrate protein followed by proteolysis with recombinant metacaspase is presented. These methods have been originally developed for type II metacaspases from Arabidopsis and Norway spruce (Picea abies), but they can be used as templates for type I metacaspases, as well as for type II metacaspases from other species.

  9. Active colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor S.

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior.

  10. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  11. 77 FR 50519 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C; Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G..., Biographic Information. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond, as well as a...

  12. Cytotoxic Activity of Crude Extracts as well as of Pure Components from Jatropha Species, Plants Used Extensively in African Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju O.; Hamid, Amao A.; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from Jatropha curcas, a plant used in African traditional medicine for various diseases, were tested for cytotoxic activity. The root extracts strongly reduced cell growth of tumor cells in vitro, a result consistent with the knowledge of the application of these plant extracts in traditional medicine, especially to cure/ameliorate cancer. A selection of pure diterpenoids existing in extracts from Jatropha species and isolated from J. curcas, for example, curcusone C, curcusone D, multidione, 15-epi-4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4Z-jatrogrossidentadion, 4E-jatrogrossidentadion, 2-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, and 2-epi-hydroxyisojatrogrossidion, were likewise tested, and they also showed strong cytotoxic activity. It turned out that these extracts are highly active against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and HeLa human cervix carcinoma cells, while they cause none or only very low activity against neuronal cell, for example, PC12. These data underscore that extracts from J. curcas or pure secondary metabolites from the plant are promising candidates to be anticancer drug, combined with low neuroactive effects. PMID:21754941

  13. Activated Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Activities: Spirolaterals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Richard; McFadden, Scott

    1981-01-01

    A set of activities designed to help students discover properties about order-3 spirolaterals on square grid paper is presented. The materials are prepared on worksheets designed for easy duplication. The lessons can lead to investigations involving spirolaterals of many other orders and shapes. (MP)

  15. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  16. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Tom, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)

  17. Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  19. Recommendations on the Nature and Level of U.S. Participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Extension of the Experimental Reactor Extension of the Engineering Design Activities. Panel Report To Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-01-31

    The DOE Office of Energy Research chartered through the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) a panel to "address the topic of U. S. participation in an ITER construction phase, assuming the ITER Parties decide to proceed with construction." (Attachment 1: DOE Charge, September 1996). Given that there is expected to be a transition period of three to five years between the conclusion of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) and the possible construction start, the DOE Office of Energy Research expanded the charge to "include the U.S. role in an interim period between the EDA and construction." (Attachment 2: DOE Expanded Charge, May 1997). This panel has heard presentations and received input from a wide cross-section of parties with an interest in the fusion program. The panel concluded it could best fulfill its responsibility under this charge by considering the fusion energy science and technology portion of the U.S. program in its entirety. Accordingly, the panel is making some recommendations for optimum use of the transition period considering the goals of the fusion program and budget pressures.

  20. Combined DTI Tractography and Functional MRI Study of the Language Connectome in Healthy Volunteers: Extensive Mapping of White Matter Fascicles and Cortical Activations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Fabien; Boutet, Claire; Jean, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Despite a better understanding of brain language organization into large-scale cortical networks, the underlying white matter (WM) connectivity is still not mastered. Here we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking (FT) and language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty healthy subjects to gain new insights into the macroscopic structural connectivity of language. Eight putative WM fascicles for language were probed using a deterministic DTI-FT technique: the arcuate fascicle (AF), superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF), uncinate fascicle (UF), temporo-occipital fascicle, inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF), middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF), frontal aslant fascicle and operculopremotor fascicle. Specific measurements (i.e. volume, length, fractional anisotropy) and precise cortical terminations were derived for each WM fascicle within both hemispheres. Connections between these WM fascicles and fMRI activations were studied to determine which WM fascicles are related to language. WM fascicle volumes showed asymmetries: leftward for the AF, temporoparietal segment of SLF and UF, and rightward for the frontoparietal segment of the SLF. The lateralization of the AF, IFOF and MdLF extended to differences in patterns of anatomical connections, which may relate to specific hemispheric abilities. The leftward asymmetry of the AF was correlated to the leftward asymmetry of fMRI activations, suggesting that the lateralization of the AF is a structural substrate of hemispheric language dominance. We found consistent connections between fMRI activations and terminations of the eight WM fascicles, providing a detailed description of the language connectome. WM fascicle terminations were also observed beyond fMRI-confirmed language areas and reached numerous cortical areas involved in different functional brain networks. These findings suggest that the reported WM fascicles are not exclusively involved in language and might be related to

  1. The implications of revised Quaternary palaeoshoreline chronologies for the rates of active extension and uplift in the upper plate of subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. P.; Meschis, M.; Houghton, S.; Underwood, C.; Briant, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a synchronous correlation technique to determine the chronology of Quaternary palaeoshorelines to test proposed relationships between tectonics, climate and sea-level change. The elevations of marine palaeoshorelines in Calabria around the active Vibo normal fault have been measured from TIN DEM 10 m data and fieldwork and correlated with global sea-level curves. A synchronous correlation method and new U/Th dates are used to ascertain how the slip-rate on the fault relates to uplift rates across the region. Regional uplift, possibly associated with subduction along the Calabrian trench or due to the cumulative effect of closely-spaced active normal faults, is rapid enough to uplift even the hangingwall of the Vibo normal fault; the actual value for the rate of background uplift can only be ascertained once the rate of slip on the Vibo fault is subtracted. Synchronous correlation of multiple palaeoshorelines sampled along 29 elevation profiles with global sea-levels shows that the resultant uplift rate (background uplift minus local hangingwall subsidence) is constant through time from 0 to 340 ka, and not fluctuating by a factor of 4 as previously suggested. The uplift rate increases from 0.4 mm/yr at the centre of the hangingwall of the fault to 1.75 mm/yr in the hangingwall in the vicinity of the fault tip. Palaeoshorelines can be traced from the hangingwall to the footwall around the fault tip and hence correlated across the fault. The throw-rate on the fault averaged over 340 ka decreases from a maximum at the centre of the fault (1 mm/yr) to zero at the tip. This gradient in throw-rate explains the spatial variation in resultant uplift rates along the fault. We interpret the 1.75 mm/yr resultant uplift rate at and beyond the fault tip as the signature of a regional uplift, presumably related to subduction, although we cannot exclude the possibility that other local faults influence this uplift; the lower uplift rates in the hangingwall of the

  2. Analgesic Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics are agents which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS and peripheral pain mediators without changing consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical, and technical problems. Both peripheral and central pain models are included to make the test more evident for the analgesic property of the plant. This chapter highlights methods such as hot plate and formalin and acetic acid-induced pain models to check the analgesic activity of medicinal plants.

  3. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-02

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  4. Label-free electrochemiluminescence biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of telomerase activity in HeLa cells based on extension reaction and intercalation of Ru(phen)3 (2.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue; Yang, Linlin; Yue, Guiyin; Chen, Lifen; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2016-10-01

    Telomerase is one of the most common markers of human malignant tumors, such as uterine, stomach, esophageal, breast, colorectal, laryngeal squamous cell, thyroid, bladder, and so on. It is necessary to develop some sensitive but convenient detection methods for telomerase activity determination. In this study, a label-free and ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor has been fabricated to detect the activity of telomerase extracted from HeLa cells. Thiolated telomerase substrate (TS) primer was immobilized on the gold electrode surface through gold-sulfur (Au-S) interaction and then elongated by telomerase specifically. Then, it was hybridized with complementary DNA to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments on the electrode surface, and Ru(phen)3 (2+) has been intercalated into the dsDNA grooves to act as the ECL probe. The enhanced ECL intensity has a linear relationship with the number of HeLa cells in the range of 5∼5000 and with a detection limit of 2 HeLa cells. The proposed ECL biosensor has high specificity to telomerase in the presence of common interferents. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <5 % at 100 HeLa cells. The proposed method provides a convenient approach for telomerase-related cancer screening or diagnosis.

  5. Active tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This study is part of a series of Studies in Geophysics that have been undertaken for the Geophysics Research Forum by the Geophysics Study Committee. One purpose of each study is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such assessments is an evaluation of the adequacy of current geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of current research programs as a source of information required for those decisions. The study addresses our current scientific understanding of active tectonics --- particularly the patterns and rates of ongoing tectonic processes. Many of these processes cannot be described reasonably using the limited instrumental or historical records; however, most can be described adequately for practical purposes using the geologic record of the past 500,000 years. A program of fundamental research focusing especially on Quaternary tectonic geology and geomorphology, paleoseismology, neotectonics, and geodesy is recommended to better understand ongoing, active tectonic processes. This volume contains 16 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Database.

  6. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014.

  7. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Research & Extension Center during 2013 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center (SVREC) in Frankenmuth, MI in 2013 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot and Rhizoctonia seedling disease performance of a wide range of Beta vulgaris materials. Leaf spot trials were conducted in conjunction w...

  8. A High and Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P)-dependent ATPase Activity for the Drs2p/Cdc50p Flippase after Removal of its N- and C-terminal Extensions.

    PubMed

    Azouaoui, Hassina; Montigny, Cédric; Dieudonné, Thibaud; Champeil, Philippe; Jacquot, Aurore; Vázquez-Ibar, José Luis; Le Maréchal, Pierre; Ulstrup, Jakob; Ash, Miriam-Rose; Lyons, Joseph A; Nissen, Poul; Lenoir, Guillaume

    2017-03-16

    P4-ATPases, also known as phospholipid flippases, are responsible for creating and maintaining transbilayer lipid asymmetry in eukaryotic cell membranes. Here, we use limited proteolysis to investigate the role of the N- and C-termini in ATP hydrolysis and auto-inhibition of the yeast flippase Drs2p/Cdc50p. We show that limited proteolysis of the detergent-solubilized and purified yeast flippase may result in more than one order of magnitude increase of its ATPase activity, which remains dependent on phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), a regulator of this lipid flippase, and specific to a phosphatidylserine substrate. Using thrombin as the protease, Cdc50p remains intact and in complex with Drs2p, which is cleaved at two positions, namely after R104 and after R1290, resulting in a homogenous sample lacking 104 and 65 residues from its N- and C-termini, respectively. Removal of the 1291-1302 region of the C-terminal extension is critical for relieving the auto-inhibition of full-length Drs2p, while the 1-104 N-terminal residues have an additional but more modest significance for activity. The present results therefore reveal that trimming off appropriate regions of the terminal extensions of Drs2p can greatly increase its ATPase activity in the presence of PI4P, and demonstrate that relief of such auto-inhibition remains compatible with subsequent regulation by PI4P. These experiments suggest that activation of the Drs2p/Cdc50p flippase follows a multi-step mechanism, with preliminary release of a number of constraints, possibly through the binding of regulatory proteins in the trans-Golgi network, followed by full activation by PI4P.

  9. Progressive activation of degradation processes in solid oxide fuel cells stacks: Part I: Lifetime extension by optimisation of the operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajo, Arata; Mueller, Fabian; Brouwer, Jacob; Van herle, Jan; Favrat, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The degradation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) depends on stack and system design and operation. A methodology to evaluate synergistically these aspects to achieve the lowest production cost of electricity has not yet been developed. A repeating unit model, with as degradation processes the decrease in ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, metallic interconnect corrosion, anode nickel particles coarsening and cathode chromium contamination, is used to investigate the impact of the operating conditions on the lifetime of an SOFC system. It predicts acceleration of the degradation due to the sequential activation of multiple processes. The requirements for the highest system efficiency at start and at long-term differ. Among the selected degradation processes, those on the cathode side here dominate. Simulations suggest that operation at lower system specific power and higher stack temperature can extend the lifetime by a factor up to 10, because the beneficial decrease in cathode overpotential prevails over the higher release of volatile chromium species, faster metallic interconnect corrosion and higher thermodynamic risks of zirconate formation, for maximum SRU temperature below 1150 K. The counter-flow configuration, combined with the beneficial effect of internal reforming on lowering the parasitic air blower consumption, similarly yields longer lifetime than co-flow.

  10. Handedness and behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system (BIS/BAS) scores: A replication and extension of Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009).

    PubMed

    Beaton, Alan A; Kaack, Imogen H; Corr, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ) as modified by Briggs and Nebes was administered along with Carver and White's behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS) scale and a shortened form of the Big Five personality questionnaire to 92 university students. After eliminating the data from five respondents who reported having changed handedness and one outlier, there was a significant sex difference in mean BIS scores, with females (n = 43) scoring higher than males (n = 43). Replicating the results of Wright, Hardie and Wilson, non-right-handers (n = 36) had significantly higher mean BIS score than right-handers (n = 50). Controlling for sex of participant, neuroticism and BAS sub-scale scores in hierarchical regression analyses left this BIS effect substantially unaffected. There was no handedness or sex difference on any of the three BAS sub-scales. Further analyses revealed no association between strength, as distinct from direction, of handedness and BIS (or BAS) scores. The findings are discussed with reference to recent developments in reinforcement sensitivity theory on which BIS/BAS variables are based.

  11. A New Extensive Catalog of Optically Variable Active Galactic Nuclei in the GOODS Fields and a New Statistical Approach to Variability Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villforth, Carolin; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2010-11-01

    Variability is a property shared by practically all active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This makes variability selection a possible technique for identifying AGNs. Given that variability selection makes no prior assumption about spectral properties, it is a powerful technique for detecting both low-luminosity AGNs in which the host galaxy emission is dominating and AGNs with unusual spectral properties. In this paper, we will discuss and test different statistical methods for the detection of variability in sparsely sampled data that allow full control over the false positive rates. We will apply these methods to the GOODS North and South fields and present a catalog of variable sources in the z band in both GOODS fields. Out of the 11,931 objects checked, we find 155 variable sources at a significance level of 99.9%, corresponding to about 1.3% of all objects. After rejection of stars and supernovae, 139 variability-selected AGNs remain. Their magnitudes reach down as faint as 25.5 mag in z. Spectroscopic redshifts are available for 22 of the variability-selected AGNs, ranging from 0.046 to 3.7. The absolute magnitudes in the rest-frame z band range from ~-18 to -24, reaching substantially fainter than the typical luminosities probed by traditional X-ray and spectroscopic AGN selection in these fields. Therefore, this is a powerful technique for future exploration of the evolution of the faint end of the AGN luminosity function up to high redshifts. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  12. IASS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  13. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  14. Venus Express Measurement of ULF and ELF Signals in the Venus Ionosphere: Evidence for Extensive Electrical Activity in the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, R.; Russell, C. T.; Leinweber, H.; Zhang, T.

    2013-05-01

    Even though the surface of Venus is currently very dry, the atmosphere has extensive cloud cover. These clouds contain sulfuric acid particles that have properties sufficiently similar to water-ice that they would be expected to become charged, as in terrestrial clouds. Also the nitric oxide content of the Venus atmosphere, which is formed by lightning on Earth is similar to the terrestrial values. Thus it is not surprising that numerous manifestations of lightning on Venus have been reported. In this paper we use the Venus Express magnetic measurements to extend our understanding of Venus lightning. The gradiometer magnetometer configuration installed on Venus Express allows the cleaning of the data up to 6 KHz. We exploit these data in the second year of operation to add statistics to our existing data base. We show how ULF and ELF signals appear to reach the spacecraft via different paths but could have the same physical cause: electrical discharges in the Venus ionosphere.

  15. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  16. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much physical activity should I do each week? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend ... 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on 2 days ...

  17. Classroom Activity Connections: Lessons from Fluorescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCormac, Aoife; O'Brien, Emma; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This Classroom Activity Connections paper describes an extension to the "JCE" Classroom Activity #68 "Turning on the Light". A number of additional common items that display fluorescence under UV light are described, including fruits, vegetables, and seashells. Two classroom extensions on fluorescence are also described. From these activities,…

  18. Rheology of Active Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Active networks drive a diverse range of critical processes ranging from motility to division in living cells, yet a full picture of their rheological capabilities in non-cellular contexts is still emerging, e.g., How does the rheological response of a network capable of remodeling under internally-generated stresses differ from that of a passive biopolymer network? In order to address this and other basic questions, we have engineered an active gel composed of microtubules, bidirectional kinesin motors, and molecular depletant that self-organizes into a highly dynamic network of active bundles. The network continually remodels itself under ATP-tunable cycles of extension, buckling, fracturing, and self-healing. Using confocal rheometry we have simultaneously characterized the network's linear and non-linear rheological responses to shear deformation along with its dynamic morphology. We find several surprising and unique material properties for these active gels; most notably, rheological cloaking, the ability of the active gel to drive large-scale fluid mixing over several orders of flow magnitude while maintaining an invariant, solid-like rheological profile and spontaneous flow under confinement, the ability to exert micro-Newton forces to drive persistent directed motion of the rheometer tool. Taken together, these results and others to be discussed highlight the rich stress-structure-dynamics relationships in this class of biologically-derived active gels.

  19. Interaction between activated chemokine receptor 1 and FcεRI at membrane rafts promotes communication and F-actin-rich cytoneme extensions between mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Freddy; Ono, Shoichiro; Ono, Santa J.

    2010-01-01

    Chemokines play important regulatory roles in immunity, but their contributions to mast cell function remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of FcεRI–chemokine receptor (CCR) 1 co-stimulation on receptor localization and cellular morphology of bone marrow-derived mast cells. Whereas FcεRI and CCR1 co-localized at the plasma membrane in unsensitized cells, sensitization with IgE promoted internalization of CCR1 molecules. Co-stimulation of FcεRI and CCR1 with antigen and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α was more effective than FcεRI stimulation alone in causing leading edge formation, flattened morphology, membrane ruffles and ganglioside (GM1+) lipid mediator release. Co-stimulation resulted in phalloidin-positive cytoneme-like cellular extensions, also known as tunneling nanotubes, which originated at points of calcium accumulation. This is the first report of cytoneme formation by mast cells. To determine the importance of lipid rafts for mast cell function, the cells were cholesterol depleted. Cholesterol depletion enhanced degranulation in resting, sensitized and co-stimulated cells, but not in FcεRI-cross-linked cells, and inhibited formation of filamentous actin+ cytonemes but not GM1+ cytonemes. Treatment with latrunculin A to sequester globular-actin abolished cytoneme formation. The cytonemes may participate in intercellular communication during allergic and inflammatory responses, and their presence in the co-stimulated mast cells suggests new roles for CCRs in immunopathology. PMID:20173038

  20. An Active Introduction To Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lach, Michael; Loverude, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Presents a series of simple and inexpensive hands-on activities with a host of extension lesson ideas that can be used to actively introduce students to the scientific theory of evolution. Lessons are designed to thwart common student difficulties. Classes are structured around a predator-prey simulation game that creates a springboard for…

  1. 200 Outdoor Science Activities, A Classroom Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Teachers' Federation, Toronto.

    To encourage teachers to use the out-of-doors in their teaching, this booklet has been prepared by the Ontario Teachers' Federation. It reviews basic approaches to out-of-doors instruction, types of field trips, teacher training and sources of instructional assistance, pre-planning and follow-up for a field trip, and points to consider in…

  2. Adolescent sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C

    1993-11-01

    Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.

  3. RNA-mediated gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Alan L; Slack, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has become a new paradigm in biology. RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways have been studied extensively, revealing diverse epigenetic and posttranscriptional mechanisms. In contrast, the roles of ncRNAs in activating gene expression remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of gene activation by small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and enhancer-derived RNAs, with an emphasis on epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24185374

  4. Guide to Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  5. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  6. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  7. Lightning activity on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Bar-Nun, A.; Scarf, F. L.; Look, A. F.; Hunt, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Photographic observations of the nightside of Jupiter by the Voyager 1 spacecraft show the presence of extensive lightning activity. Detection of whistlers by the plasma wave analyzer confirms the optical observations and implies that many flashes were not recorded by the Voyager camera because the intensity of the flashes was below the threshold sensitivity of the camera. Measurements of the optical energy radiated per flash indicate that the observed flashes had energies similar to that for terrestrial superbolts. The best estimate of the lightning energy dissipation rate of 0.0004 W/sq m was derived from a consideration of the optical and radiofrequency measurements. The ratio of the energy dissipated by lightning compared to the convective energy flux is estimated to be between 0.000027 and 0.00005. The terrestrial value is 0.0001.

  8. Trypsin activity is not involved in premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation.

    PubMed

    Halangk, Walter; Krüger, Burkhard; Ruthenbürger, Manuel; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Albrecht, Elke; Lippert, Hans; Lerch, Markus M

    2002-02-01

    A premature and intracellular activation of digestive zymogens is thought to be responsible for the onset of pancreatitis. Because trypsin has a critical role in initiating the activation cascade of digestive enzymes in the gut, it has been assumed that trypsin also initiates intracellular zymogen activation in the pancreas. We have tested this hypothesis in isolated acini and lobules from rat pancreas. Intracellular trypsinogen activation was induced by supramaximal secretagogue stimulation and measured using either specific trypsin substrates or immunoreactivity of the trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP). To prevent a trypsin-induced trypsinogen activation, we used the cell-permeant, highly specific, and reversible inhibitor Nalpha-(2-naphthylsulfonyl)-3-amidinophenylalanine-carboxymethylpiperazide (S124), and to prevent cathepsin-induced trypsinogen activation, we used the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64d. Incubation of acini or lobules in the presence of S124 completely prevented the generation of trypsin activity in response to supramaximal caerulein but had no effect whatsoever on the generation of TAP. Conversely, when trypsin activity was recovered at the end of the experiment by either washout of S124 from acini or extensive dilution of lobule homogenates, it was up to 400% higher than after caerulein alone and corresponded, in molar terms, to the generation of TAP. Both trypsin activity and TAP release were inhibited in parallel by E-64d. We conclude that caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation in the pancreas is caused by an E-64d-inhibitable mechanism such as cathepsin-induced trypsinogen activation, and neither involves nor requires intracellular trypsin activity. Specific trypsin inhibition, on the other hand, prevents 80% of trypsin inactivation or autodegradation in the pancreas.

  9. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  10. Home Activities for Fours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    These home learning activity guides have been developed for parents to use with their 4-year-old children. Most of the activities require only household items that are often thrown away and can be recycled for learning activities. Some require no materials at all. The guides frequently begin with a discussion of home activities; progress through…

  11. Active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  12. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity.…

  13. Acid Rain: Activities for Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven complete secondary/college level acid rain activities are provided. Activities include overview; background information and societal implications; major concepts; student objectives; vocabulary/material lists; procedures; instructional strategies; and questions/discussion and extension suggestions. Activities consider effects of acid rain on…

  14. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  15. The Active Solid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  16. Brain activation associated with active and passive lower limb stepping

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lukas; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert; Michels, Lars; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-01-01

    Reports about standardized and repeatable experimental procedures investigating supraspinal activation in patients with gait disorders are scarce in current neuro-imaging literature. Well-designed and executed tasks are important to gain insight into the effects of gait-rehabilitation on sensorimotor centers of the brain. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel imaging paradigm, combining the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible stepping robot (MARCOS) with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure task-related BOLD signal changes and to delineate the supraspinal contribution specific to active and passive stepping. Twenty-four healthy participants underwent fMRI during active and passive, periodic, bilateral, multi-joint, lower limb flexion and extension akin to human gait. Active and passive stepping engaged several cortical and subcortical areas of the sensorimotor network, with higher relative activation of those areas during active movement. Our results indicate that the combination of MARCOS and sparse sampling fMRI is feasible for the detection of lower limb motor related supraspinal activation. Activation of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas suggests motor response inhibition during passive movement in healthy participants. Our results are of relevance for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying gait in the healthy. PMID:25389396

  17. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  18. Cortical commands in active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The neocortex is an enormous network of extensively interconnected neurons. It has become clear that the computations performed by individual cortical neurons will critically depend on the quantitative composition of cortical activity. Here we discuss quantitative aspects of cortical activity and modes of cortical processing in the context of rodent active touch. Through in vivo whole-cell recordings one observes widespread subthreshold and very sparse evoked action potential (AP) activity in the somatosensory cortex both for passive whisker deflection in anaesthetized animals and during active whisker movements in awake animals. Neurons of the somatosensory cortex become either suppressed during whisking or activated by an efference copy of whisker movement signal that depolarize cells at certain phases of the whisking cycle. To probe the read out of cortical motor commands we applied intracellular stimulation in rat whisker motor cortex. We find that APs in individual cortical neurons can evoke long sequences of small whisker movements. The capacity of an individual neuron to evoke movements is most astonishing given the large number of neurons in whisker motor cortex. Thus, few cortical APs may suffice to control motor behaviour and such APs can be translated into action with the utmost precision. We conclude that there is very widespread subthreshold cortical activity and very sparse, highly specific cortical AP activity.

  19. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  20. Antioxidative activities of oolong tea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qin Yan; Hackman, Robert M; Ensunsa, Jodi L; Holt, Roberta R; Keen, Carl L

    2002-11-06

    While the antioxidative properties of green and black tea have been extensively studied, less attention has been given to these properties in oolong tea. The reducing powers, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities, the amount of total phenolic compounds, the inhibitory effect on FeCl(2)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton reaction system)-induced DNA damage, and the inhibitory effect on erythrocyte hemolysis of an oolong tea water extract (OTE) were evaluated in the present study. The OTE was found to have strong antioxidative activities in all of the model systems tested. When the OTE was separated into different fractions according to molecular weight, it was found that the fractions with higher amounts of phenolic compounds (lower molecular weight) have stronger antioxidative activities. The present results support the concept that oolong tea contains several low molecular weight antioxidants that may have health promotion activities.

  1. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  2. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  3. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  4. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  5. ACS Community Activities Contests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgener, Marisa

    2007-08-01

    The Committee on Community Activities and the Office of Community Activities announce the winners of the Illustrated Haiku Contest, Earth Day 2007 and the Poster Contest, National Chemistry Week 2006.

  6. Activity Theory and Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  7. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  8. Horticultural Practices. Activity Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bania, Kent; Cummings, John, Ed.

    The 88 activity guides in this document are intended to supplement the initial or organized instruction of the agricultural teacher at the secondary educational level. Some of the activities require one student to complete, others may need two or more students working in a team. Some activities also require followup checking within a few days to…

  9. Highlights of 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of NASA's 1981 activities are presented, including the results of the two flights of the space shuttle Columbia and the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn. Accomplishments in the areas of space transportation operations; space science; aeronautical, energy, and space research and development; as well as space tracking, international activities, and 1981 launch activities are discussed.

  10. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Provides on-task activities to fill in unexpected extra moments in elementary classes. The activities require little preparation and take 5-15 minutes to complete. There are activities for math, language arts, social science, science, critical thinking, and computer. An outer space board game is also included. (SM)

  11. Activity Sheets. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Power Company, Educational Services Dept., Charlotte, NC.

    This document consists of energy vocabulary activities, three games, worksheets, laboratory activities/exercises, and an introductory classroom exercise designed to introduce energy concepts to students. Vocabulary activities focus on coal and energy consumption. The three games (with instructions) focus on various aspects of energy and energy…

  12. Technology Learning Activities I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…

  13. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  14. Computers + Student Activities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masie, Elliott; Stein, Michele

    Designed to provide schools with the tools to start utilizing computers for student activity programs without additional expenditures, this handbook provides beginning computer users with suggestions and ideas for using computers in such activities as drama clubs, yearbooks, newspapers, activity calendars, accounting programs, room utilization,…

  15. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  16. 75 FR 5638 - Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of information collection... Number/Type of Packagings.'' This notice announces OMB approval and extension until January 31, 2013...

  17. Vestibular activation of sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Carter, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The vestibulosympathetic reflex refers to sympathetic nerve activation by the vestibular system. Animal studies indicate that the vestibular system assists in blood pressure regulation during orthostasis. Although human studies clearly demonstrate activation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during engagement of the otolith organs, the role of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in maintaining blood pressure during orthostasis is not well-established. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes indicates that it is a powerful and independent reflex. Ageing, which is associated with an increased risk for orthostatic hypotension, attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex. The attenuated reflex is associated with a reduction in arterial pressure. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the vestibulosympathetic reflex assists in blood pressure regulation in humans, but future studies examining this reflex in other orthostatically intolerant populations are necessary to address this hypothesis.

  18. Metabolism Supports Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Langston, P. Kent; Shibata, Munehiko; Horng, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are found in most tissues of the body, where they have tissue- and context-dependent roles in maintaining homeostasis as well as coordinating adaptive responses to various stresses. Their capacity for specialized functions is controlled by polarizing signals, which activate macrophages by upregulating transcriptional programs that encode distinct effector functions. An important conceptual advance in the field of macrophage biology, emerging from recent studies, is that macrophage activation is critically supported by metabolic shifts. Metabolic shifts fuel multiple aspects of macrophage activation, and preventing these shifts impairs appropriate activation. These findings raise the exciting possibility that macrophage functions in various contexts could be regulated by manipulating their metabolism. Here, we review the rapidly evolving field of macrophage metabolism, discussing how polarizing signals trigger metabolic shifts and how these shifts enable appropriate activation and sustain effector activities. We also discuss recent studies indicating that the mitochondria are central hubs in inflammatory macrophage activation. PMID:28197151

  19. Activated carbon from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  20. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-03-27

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states.

  1. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  2. Stochastic thermodynamics for active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The theoretical understanding of active matter, which is driven out of equilibrium by directed motion, is still fragmental and model oriented. Stochastic thermodynamics, on the other hand, is a comprehensive theoretical framework for driven systems that allows to define fluctuating work and heat. We apply these definitions to active matter, assuming that dissipation can be modelled by effective non-conservative forces. We show that, through the work, conjugate extensive and intensive observables can be defined even in non-equilibrium steady states lacking a free energy. As an illustration, we derive the expressions for the pressure and interfacial tension of active Brownian particles. The latter becomes negative despite the observed stable phase separation. We discuss this apparent contradiction, highlighting the role of fluctuations, and we offer a tentative explanation.

  3. Synopsis of Cathode #4 Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe; Ekdahl, C.; Harrison, J.; Kwan, J.; Leitner, M.; McCruistian, T.; Mitchell, R.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.

    2006-05-26

    The purpose of this report is to describe the activation of the fourth cathode installed in the DARHT-II Injector. Appendices have been used so that an extensive amount of data could be included without danger of obscuring important information contained in the body of the report. The cathode was a 612 M type cathode purchased from Spectra-Mat. Section II describes the handling and installation of the cathode. Section III is a narrative of the activation based on information located in the Control Room Log Book supplemented with time plots of pertinent operating parameters. Activation of the cathode was performed in accordance with the procedure listed in Appendix A. The following sections provide more details on the total pressure and constituent partial pressures in the vacuum vessel, cathode heater power/filament current, and cathode temperature.

  4. Patterns in Active Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like, chaotic patterns. We describe how active systems can be stabilised by tuning a physical feature of the system, friction. We demonstrate how the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter and demonstrate vortex ordering at the wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organisation of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects may be a useful step towards the design and control of active materials.

  5. Environmental Education Activity Sheets 1-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Clifton F.; And Others

    These activity sheets, developed by personnel of the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Minnesota, were designed for youth group campers but may be used by other populations and individuals. Each activity sheet focuses on a separate topic: (1) Selecting Suitable Uses for Land, (2) Measuring the Steepness of Land, (3) Determining…

  6. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  7. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  8. Activity in distant comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1992-01-01

    Activity in distant comets remains a mystery in the sense that we still have no complete theory to explain the various types of activity exhibited by different comets at large distances. This paper explores the factors that should play a role in determining activity in a distant comet, especially in the cases of comet P/Tempel 2, comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, and 2060 Chiron.

  9. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  10. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  11. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  12. Oriented active shape models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  13. Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.

  14. Photocatalytic activity of transition-metal-ion-doped coordination polymer (CP): photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via doping of transition metal ions into the framework of CPs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Cui, Zhong-Ping; Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2014-06-21

    To improve photocatalytic activity of a coordination polymer (CP) in the visible light region, five different transition metal ions (Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Ru(3+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) were introduced into its framework through an ion-exchange process. Among all the resulting transition metal ion doped coordination polymers (TMI/CPs), the one doped with Fe(3+) took on the most excellent photocatalytic activity and the highest quantum yields in the visible light region, decomposing 94% Rhodamine B (RhB) in 8 hours. It can be attributed to the doping of Fe(3+), which reduced the band gap (Eg) of the original CP, facilitating photocatalysis of the obtained polymer. Compared with the coordination polymer with Fe(3+) as a dopant, products doped with other metal ions presented weaker photocatalytic activities in the visible light region, while under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, they showed favorable photocatalytic properties. The results suggest that to dope transition metal ions into the framework of CPs would be an ideal option for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of coordination polymers.

  15. Active Students in Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolås, Line; Nordseth, Hugo; Yri, Jørgen Sørlie

    2015-01-01

    To ensure student activity in webinars we have defined 10 learning tasks focusing on production and communication e.g. collaborative writing, discussion and polling, and investigated how the technology supports the learning activities. The three project partners in the VisPed-project use different video-conferencing systems, and we analyzed how it…

  16. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  17. Warm-Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingguang, Yang

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how warm-up activities can help to make the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom a lively and interesting place. Warm-up activities are games carried out at the beginning of each class to motivate students to make good use of class time. (Author/VWL)

  18. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  19. Science World Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

    This document consists of three sections. Section I contains 19 activities developed by master teachers for the Science World '84 summer science program. These activities focus on studies involving airplane controls, trash bag kites, computers, meteorology, compass orienteering, soils, aquatic ecosystems, bogs, and others. Objectives, materials…

  20. The Journal Synthesizing Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Zev

    The journal synthesizing activity is intended to combine aspects of the formal essay with that of a diary. Activities associated with lecture topics are written up as short journal entries of approximately five typewritten pages and are turned in during the weekly class session at which the related topic is being discussed. The journal project…

  1. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  2. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  3. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  4. Activities: More Calculator Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Rosemary

    1983-01-01

    Provided is an activity designed to give grades 7-12 students opportunities to discover numerical patterns and to derive general conclusions from observing data. The activity focuses attention on patterns in products such as 33x34, 333x334, and 3333x3334. Three worksheets and answers are included. (JN)

  5. Choreography of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Langendorf, Christopher G; Kemp, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    A recent study published in Cell Research by Li and colleagues reports a detailed biophysical and structural study of AMPK's intra-molecular interactions during activation. By employing subunit tagging and proximity analysis with the aid of AlphaScreen instrumentation, Li et al. add to our understanding of the choreography of activation of AMPK by both nucleotides and phosphorylation.

  6. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  7. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  8. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  9. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  10. Students Active in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutcher, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Describes SAIL (Students Active in Leadership) as a school-based, youth-directed group. States that the program helps teenagers learn leadership skills by developing and implementing community service activities. SAIL finds partners with whom to collaborate among local businesses, government, and health associations, and these partners provide the…

  11. Ten Minute Writing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Sharyn

    Designed with junior high school students in mind, the activities in this booklet are offered as ways to stimulate interest in writing using as little as ten minutes of class time. The activities are arranged in six sections: (1) developing observation skills and paying attention to details; (2) word play, descriptive words, and word collections…

  12. Nature's engines: active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    2017-03-01

    Active materials, bacteria, molecular motors, and self-propelled colloids, continuously transform chemical energy from the environment to mechanical work. Dense active matter, from layers of cells to flocks of birds, self-assembles into intricate patterns. Nature's engines are complex and efficient, and we would like to exploit her ideas to fabricate nano-machines.

  13. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  14. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  15. [Biosignals of dermal activity].

    PubMed

    Rathkolb, O; Gallei, L

    1993-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) summarizes different electrophysiological dimensions of human skin. EDA is based on the activity of sweat glands and their innervation by the autonomic nervous system. EDA is used as indicator in the additional diagnostic assessment of patients in the fields of neurology and psychosomatic medicine.

  16. Active galactic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Andrew C.

    1999-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are the most powerful, long-lived objects in the Universe. Recent data confirm the theoretical idea that the power source is accretion into a massive black hole. The common occurrence of obscuration and outflows probably means that the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the power density of the Universe has been generally underestimated. PMID:10220363

  17. Reflections on Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  18. Student Activities. Managing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Barbara; And Others

    This monograph suggests ways that college or university administrations can undertake a systematic and careful review of the risks posed by students' activities. Its purpose is to provide guidance in integrating the risk management process into a school's existing approaches to managing student organizations and activities. It is noted that no…

  19. The Activity of Trypsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Salvatore F.; Holzman, Tom

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that illustrates the following points concerning the experimental determination of trypsin activity: (1) there is a difference in basing enzyme concentration on weight, absorbance, or active sites; and (2) the method of expressing enzyme concentration determines the value of specific, molecular, and catalytic center…

  20. Metastasis and AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Meng; Sheng, Shijie; Pardee, Arthur B

    2008-10-01

    Metastasis is responsible for 90% of cancer patient deaths. More information is needed about the molecular basis for its potential detection and treatment. The activated AKT kinase is necessary for many events of the metastatic pathway including escape of cells from the tumor's environment, into and then out of the circulation, activation of proliferation, blockage of apoptosis, and activation of angiogenesis. A series of steps leading to metastatic properties can be initiated upon activation of AKT by phosphorylation on Ser-473. These findings lead to the question of how this activation is connected to metastasis. Activated AKT phosphorylates GSK-3beta causing its proteolytic removal. This increases stability of the negative transcription factor SNAIL, thereby decreasing transcription of the transmembrane protein E-cadherin that forms adhesions between adjacent cells, thereby permitting their detachment. How is AKT hyperactivated in metastatic cells? Increased PI3K or TORC2 kinase activity- or decreased PHLPP phosphatase could be responsible. Furthermore, a positive feedback mechanism is that the decrease of E-cadherin lowers PTEN and thereby increases PIP3, further activating AKT and metastasis.

  1. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  2. Activities of the ILO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  3. Learning Activities for Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)

  4. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  5. ZOOMsci Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Meredith

    This activity guide is based on the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program "ZOOM." It is designed for educators with activities that are categorized into three themes: (1) Things That Go, which includes "Air" which explores air pressure, "Rubber Bands" which discovers the potential energy of rubber bands,…

  6. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  7. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  8. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  9. List 9 - Active CERCLIS Sites:

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The List 9 displays the sequence of activities undertaken at active CERCLIS sites. An active site is one at which site assessment, removal, remedial, enforcement, cost recovery, or oversight activities are being planned or conducted.

  10. THE ACTIVE CENTAURS

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David

    2009-05-15

    The Centaurs are recent escapees from the Kuiper Belt that are destined either to meet fiery oblivion in the hot inner regions of the solar system or to be ejected to the interstellar medium by gravitational scattering from the giant planets. Dynamically evolved Centaurs, when captured by Jupiter and close enough to the Sun for near-surface water ice to sublimate, are conventionally labeled as 'short-period' (specifically, Jupiter-family) comets. Remarkably, some Centaurs show comet-like activity even when far beyond the orbit of Jupiter, suggesting mass loss driven by a process other than the sublimation of water ice. We observed a sample of 23 Centaurs and found nine to be active, with mass-loss rates measured from several kg s{sup -1} to several tonnes s{sup -1}. Considered as a group, we find that the 'active Centaurs' in our sample have perihelia smaller than the inactive Centaurs (median 5.9 AU versus 8.7 AU), and smaller than the median perihelion distance computed for all known Centaurs (12.4 AU). This suggests that their activity is thermally driven. We consider several possibilities for the origin of the mass loss from the active Centaurs. Most are too cold for activity at the observed levels to originate via the sublimation of crystalline water ice. Solid carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide have the opposite problem: they are so volatile that they should drive activity in Centaurs at much larger distances than observed. We consider the possibility that activity in the Centaurs is triggered by the conversion of amorphous ice into the crystalline form accompanied by the release of trapped gases, including carbon monoxide. By imposing the condition that crystallization should occur when the crystallization time is shorter than the orbital period we find a qualitative match to the perihelion distribution of the active Centaurs and conclude that the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Centaurs contain amorphous ice.

  11. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  12. [Physical activity for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Masashi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo

    Elder populations have been increasing in Japan and estimated 24 million people have knee osteoarthritis(OA). Recently, people have diverse sociological background and demand for participating sports has been growing. People may participate sports to prevent some diseases such as locomotive syndrome. According to the recent studies, excessive high impact sports increase the risk of OA, while daily life exercise decrease the risk. Epidemiological approach demonstrated that reduced knee extension muscle strength increases the risk of OA. We reviewed and discussed the recent topics including efficacy of physical therapy for knee OA and how much sports activities could be beneficial after knee surgery.

  13. Algorithm-development activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.

    1994-01-01

    The task of algorithm-development activities at USF continues. The algorithm for determining chlorophyll alpha concentration, (Chl alpha) and gelbstoff absorption coefficient for SeaWiFS and MODIS-N radiance data is our current priority.

  14. MARIHUANA ACTIVITY OF CANNABINOL.

    PubMed

    Loewe, S

    1945-12-14

    Cannabinol, generally believed to be an inert component of hemp oil, is shown to have marihuana activity. The significance of this observation with regard to the relationship between structure and mamactivity in the class of cannabinols is discussed.

  15. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  16. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  17. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  18. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  19. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  20. ERLN Activities Details

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental Response Laboratory Network activities include the All Hazard Receipt Facility and Screening Protocol, standardizing chemical methods, Chemical Warfare Agent Fixed Laboratory Pilot Project, microbial efforts, and WLA response plan.

  1. The Activity Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Mathematics Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presents four examples on arithmetic mean and harmonic mean. Provides solution of each of the examples and instructional activities related to the examples. Lists eight references on mathematical problem solving. (YP)

  2. Active at Any Size

    MedlinePlus

    ... a row. Your muscles need time to recover. Mind and body exercise Your local hospital or fitness, ... can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov . Additional Reading Tips to Help You Get Active Identifies and ...

  3. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with the ... your child's preferences and abilities. Individual activities include swimming, running, skiing, or biking. Group sports are another ...

  4. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate planar terahertz metamaterial devices enabling actively controllable transmission amplitude, phase, or frequency at room temperature via carrier depletion or photoexcitation in the semiconductor substrate or in semiconductor materials incorporated into the metamaterial structure.

  5. Enrichment Activities for Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    1983-01-01

    Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

  6. Interactive Design Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulev, Petar; Farrer, Joan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computers and Human Well-being * To Fuzzy or Yes (No)! * Interactive Design Activism * Sensing the Sun * Personalised Public Health Advice * Modifying Human Behaviour * Transdisciplinarity, Knowledge Transfer and Multi-domain

  7. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  8. Active Limiters For Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Active or "smart" electro-optical shutters proposed for protection of photodetectors, imaging devices, and other sensitive optical or optoelectronic elements. Responds rapidly and automatically to increase in illumination above prescribed level.

  9. Math Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumbaugh, Douglas K.; Hynes, Michael C.

    1974-01-01

    The goals, objects, materials and grade levels are specified in this description of a laboratory activity involving analytic geometry concepts. Students mark out bicycle gymkhana courses in which directions to participants are given by Cartesian coordinates. (JP)

  10. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  11. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  12. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  13. Activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a commonly used coagulation assay that is easy to perform, is affordable, and is therefore performed in most coagulation laboratories, both clinical and research, worldwide. The APTT is based on the principle that in citrated plasma, the addition of a platelet substitute, factor XII activator, and CaCl2 allows for formation of a stable clot. The time required for the formation of a stable clot is recorded in seconds and represents the actual APTT result.

  14. Active aperture phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, R. P.

    1989-04-01

    Developments towards the realization of active aperture phased arrays are reviewed. The technology and cost aspects of the power amplifier and phase shifter subsystems are discussed. Consideration is given to research concerning T/R modules, MESFETs, side lobe control, beam steering, optical control techniques, and printed circuit antennas. Methods for configuring the array are examined, focusing on the tile and brick configurations. It is found that there is no technological impediment for introducing active aperture phased arrays.

  15. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  16. ABB: active bandwidth broker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kason; Law, Eddie

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we shall discuss a novel design on the policy-based management for the Internet. This design deploys the concept of active networking. As opposed to the traditional network design, active network empowers network node with the ability to manipulate data and program code in packets, and configure the network properties according to the needs of different applications. The policy-based management can control network routers in order to realize end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS), such as differentiated and integrated services, across the Internet. For the moment, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the framework of the policy-based management. It employs a simple client/server model that uses Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol to facilitate policy management and control. Our design of Active Bandwidth Broker (ABB) belongs to an active application. Our goals are to distribute centralized workload of the policy-based management over multiple active nodes in the active networks, introduce mobility of the bandwidth brokers, and allows load sharing to the policy-based management. This results a network-wide intelligent, highly available, and consistent QoS control that allows performance protection for voice, video and Internet business application while reducing costs for growing networks.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J

    2005-11-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  18. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  19. Achievements and tasks for active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Jiri

    This short survey attempted to highlight some achievements of the latest active control applications. Except for the active control of a one-dimensional sound field in ducts and active headphones, the applications for active control technology are still being developed. Although the principles of active control are simple, their applications still require substantial research and modeling of the sound fields to find optimal solutions. There is no doubt that active control of sound field triggered extensive research of the fundamental properties of the sound field which goes beyond the textbook simplifications. Also, new hardware, particularly actuators, are under development. As more realism is brought into assessment of applicability of active control, we will see in the future increasing confidence of industry to adopt this new technology.

  20. Both Sm-domain and C-terminal extension of Lsm1 are important for the RNA-binding activity of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ashis; Raju, Kalidindi K; Kalurupalle, Swathi; Tharun, Sundaresan

    2012-05-01

    Lsm proteins are a ubiquitous family of proteins characterized by the Sm-domain. They exist as hexa- or heptameric RNA-binding complexes and carry out RNA-related functions. The Sm-domain is thought to be sufficient for the RNA-binding activity of these proteins. The highly conserved eukaryotic Lsm1 through Lsm7 proteins are part of the cytoplasmic Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex, which is an activator of decapping in the conserved 5'-3' mRNA decay pathway. This complex also protects mRNA 3'-ends from trimming in vivo. Purified Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex is able to bind RNA in vitro and exhibits a unique binding preference for oligoadenylated RNA (over polyadenylated and unadenylated RNA). Lsm1 is a key subunit that determines the RNA-binding properties of this complex. The normal RNA-binding activity of this complex is crucial for mRNA decay and 3'-end protection in vivo and requires the intact Sm-domain of Lsm1. Here, we show that though necessary, the Sm-domain of Lsm1 is not sufficient for the normal RNA-binding ability of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex. Deletion of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Lsm1 (while keeping the Sm-domain intact) impairs mRNA decay in vivo and results in Lsm1-7-Pat1 complexes that are severely impaired in RNA binding in vitro. Interestingly, the mRNA decay and 3'-end protection defects of such CTD-truncated lsm1 mutants could be suppressed in trans by overexpression of the CTD polypeptide. Thus, unlike most Sm-like proteins, Lsm1 uniquely requires both its Sm-domain and CTD for its normal RNA-binding function.

  1. T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Smith-Garvin, Jennifer E; Koretzky, Gary A; Jordan, Martha S

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the first Annual Review of Immunology article to describe features of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). In celebration of this anniversary, we begin with a brief introduction outlining the chronology of the earliest studies that established the basic paradigm for how the engaged TCR transduces its signals. This review continues with a description of the current state of our understanding of TCR signaling, as well as a summary of recent findings examining other key aspects of T cell activation, including cross talk between the TCR and integrins, the role of costimulatory molecules, and how signals may negatively regulate T cell function.Acronyms and DefinitionsAdapter protein: cellular protein that functions to bridge molecular interactions via characteristic domains able to mediate protein/protein or protein/lipid interactions Costimulation: signals delivered to T cells by cell surface receptors other than the TCR itself that potentiate T cell activation cSMAC: central supramolecular activation cluster Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM): a short peptide sequence in the cytoplasmic tails of key surface receptors on hematopoietic cells that is characterized by tyrosine residues that are phosphorylated by Src family PTKs, enabling the ITAM to recruit activated Syk family kinases Inside-out signaling: signals initiated by engagement of immunoreceptors that lead to conformational changes and clustering of integrins, thereby increasing the affinity and avidity of the integrins for their ligands NFAT: nuclear factor of activated T cells PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase PKC: protein kinase C PLC: phospholipase C pMHC: peptide major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complex pSMAC: peripheral supramolecular activation cluster PTK: protein tyrosine kinase Signal transduction: biochemical events linking surface receptor engagement to cellular responses TCR: T cell antigen receptor

  2. Sirtuin activators and inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, José M.; Alcaín, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins 1-7 (SIRT1-7) belong to the third class of deacetylase enzymes, which are dependent on NAD+ for activity. Sirtuins activity is linked to gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy aging. Because sirtuins modulation could have beneficial effects on human diseases there is a growing interest in the discovery of small molecules modifying their activity. We review here those compounds known to activate or inhibit sirtuins, discussing the data that support the use of sirtuin-based therapies. Almost all sirtuin activators have been described only for SIRT1. Resveratrol is a natural compound which activates SIRT1, and may help in the treatment or prevention of obesity, and in preventing tumorigenesis and the aging-related decline in heart function and neuronal loss. Due to its poor bioavailability, reformulated versions of resveratrol with improved bioavailability have been developed (resVida, Longevinex®, SRT501). Molecules that are structurally unrelated to resveratrol (SRT1720, SRT2104, SRT2379, among others) have been also developed to stimulate sirtuin activities more potently than resveratrol. Sirtuin inhibitors with a wide range of core structures have been identified for SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT5 (splitomicin, sirtinol, AGK2, cambinol, suramin, tenovin, salermide, among others). SIRT1 inhibition has been proposed in the treatment of cancer, immunodeficiency virus infections, Fragile X mental retardation syndrome and for preventing or treating parasitic diseases, whereas SIRT2 inhibitors might be useful for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22730114

  3. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-01-01

    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).

  4. Extension of the in vivo half-life of endostatin and its improved anti-tumor activities upon fusion to a humanized antibody against tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 in a mouse model of human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jeung, In Cheul; Park, Tae Woo; Lee, Kyungmin; Lee, Dong Gwang; Cho, Young-Lai; Lee, Tae Sup; Na, Hee-Jun; Park, Young-Jun; Lee, Hee Gu; Jeong, Mun Sik; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kwon, Young-Guen; Hong, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Jang-Seong; Min, Jeong-Ki

    2015-03-30

    Endostatin is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor that exhibits potential anti-tumor efficacy in various preclinical animal models. However, its relatively short in vivo half-life and the long-term, frequent administration of high doses limit its widespread clinical use. In this study, we evaluated whether a fusion protein of murine endostatin (mEndo) to a humanized antibody against tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72), which is highly expressed in several human tumor tissues including colon cancer, can extend the serum half-life and improve the anti-tumor efficacy of endostatin by targeted delivery to the tumor mass. The fusion protein (3E8-mEndo) and mEndo showed improved anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, predominantly by interfering with pro-angiogenic signaling triggered by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, in mice treated with 3E8-mEndo, we observed a markedly prolonged serum half-life and significantly inhibited tumor growth. The improved anti-tumor activity of 3E8-mEndo can be partially explained by increased local concentration in the tumor mass due to targeted delivery of 3E8-mEndo to implanted colon tumors. Collectively, our data clearly indicate that tumor-targeting antibody fusions to endostatin are a powerful strategy that improves the poor pharmacokinetic profile and anti-tumor efficacy of endostatin.

  5. Active sliding between cytoplasmic microtubules.

    PubMed

    Koonce, M P; Tong, J; Euteneuer, U; Schliwa, M

    Microtubules are versatile cellular polymers that play a role in cell shape determination and mediate various motile processes such as ciliary and flagellar bending, chromosome movements and organelle transport. That a sliding microtubule mechanism can generate force has been demonstrated in highly ordered structures such as axonemes, and microtubule-based force generation almost certainly contributes to the function of mitotic and meiotic spindles. Most cytoplasmic microtubule arrays, however, do not exhibit the structural regularity of axonemes and some spindles, and often appear disorganized. Yet many cellular activities (such as shape changes during morphogenesis, axonal extension and spindle assembly) involve highly coordinated microtubule behaviour and possibly require force generated by an intermicrotubule sliding mechanism, or perhaps use sliding to move microtubules rapidly into a protrusion for stabilization. Here we show that active sliding between cytoplasmic microtubules can occur in microtubule bundles of the amoeba Reticulomyxa. A force-producing mechanism of this sort could be used by this organism to facilitate the extension of cell processes and to generate the dynamic movements of the cytoplasmic network.

  6. [Inflammasome: activation mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Suárez, Raibel; Buelvas, Neudo

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a rapid biologic response of the immune system in vascular tissues, directed to eliminate stimuli capable of causing damage and begin the process of repair. The macromolecular complexes known as "inflammasomes" are formed by a receptor, either NOD (NLR) or ALR, the receptor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). In addition, the inflammasome is formed by the speck-like protein associated to apoptosis (ASC) and procaspase-1, that may be activated by variations in the ionic and intracellular and extracellular ATP concentrations; and the loss of stabilization of the fagolisosomme by internalization of insoluble crystals and redox mechanisms. As a result, there is activation of the molecular platform and the processing of inflammatory prointerleukins to their active forms. There are two modalities of activation of the inflammasome: canonical and non-canonical, both capable of generating effector responses. Recent data associate NLRP 3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia, gout, malaria and hypertension. The inflammasome cascade is emerging as a new chemotherapeutic target in these diseases. In this review we shall discuss the mechanisms of activation and regulation of the inflammasome that stimulate, modulate and resolve inflammation.

  7. Chromatin as active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.

    2017-01-01

    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  8. Active flows on trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-11-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

  9. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D

    2014-07-01

    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  10. Active thermal cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dang Minh; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2015-09-01

    Thermal cloaking, as an ultimate thermal "illusion" phenomenon, is the result of advanced heat manipulation with thermal metamaterials—heat can be guided around a hidden object smoothly without disturbing the ambient thermal environment. However, all previous thermal metamaterial cloaks were passive devices, lacking the functionality of switching on/off and the flexibility of changing geometries. In this letter, we report an active thermal cloaking device that is controllable. Different from previous thermal cloaking approaches, this thermal cloak adopts active thermoelectric components to "pump" heat from one side to the other side of the hidden object, in a process controlled by input electric voltages. Our work not only incorporates active components in thermal cloaking but also provides controllable functionality in thermal metamaterials that can be used to construct more flexible thermal devices.

  11. Activity Cycles in Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Starspots and stellar activity can be detected in other stars using high precision photometric and spectrometric measurements. These observations have provided some surprises (starspots at the poles - sunspots are rarely seen poleward of 40 degrees) but more importantly they reveal behaviors that constrain our models of solar-stellar magnetic dynamos. The observations reveal variations in cycle characteristics that depend upon the stellar structure, convection zone dynamics, and rotation rate. In general, the more rapidly rotating stars are more active. However, for stars like the Sun, some are found to be inactive while nearly identical stars are found to be very active indicating that periods like the Sun's Maunder Minimum (an inactive period from 1645 to 1715) are characteristic of Sun-like stars.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of spices.

    PubMed

    Arora, D S; Kaur, J

    1999-08-01

    Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, in particular, antimicrobial activity. This study compares the sensitivity of some human pathogenic bacteria and yeasts to various spice extracts and commonly employed chemotherapeutic substances. Of the different spices tested only garlic and clove were found to possess antimicrobial activity. The bactericidal effect of garlic extract was apparent within 1 h of incubation and 93% killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi was achieved within 3 h. Yeasts were totally killed in 1 h by garlic extract but in 5 h with clove. Some bacteria showing resistance to certain antibiotics were sensitive to extracts of both garlic and clove. Greater anti-candidal activity was shown by garlic than by nystatin. Spices might have a great potential to be used as antimicrobial agents.

  13. PRODUCTS OF ACTIVATED LYMPHOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, Clemens; Bloom, Barry R.

    1973-01-01

    General methods were developed and applied to the biosynthesis and purification of products of activated lymphocytes available in minute quantities. The activity studied here was the migration inhibitory factor (MIF) produced by purified protein derivative (PPD)- or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphocytes obtained from one guinea pig or less. The methods selected yielded results in terms of two chemical parameters characteristic of the molecules involved, namely Kd on Sephadex G-75 and isoionic point, pI, on isoelectric focusing. When supernatants were fractionated on G-75 columns, there were several areas even in control supernatants which produced migration inhibition relative to medium controls. However, in PPD- and Con A-stimulated supernatants, at least one peak of MIF activity was found solely in the stimulated cultures, with a Kd of 0.15. A double-labeling technique was used to characterize the proteins of this peak. Control, unstimulated cultures were labeled with [14C]leucine and stimulated cultures were labeled with [3H]leucine. After mixing the supernatants and G-75 filtration, a major "ratiolabeled" broad peak. i.e. one with increased 3H/14C ratio, was found. When a narrow portion of this peak about Kd 0.15, containing most of the MIF activity, was subjected to analytical isoelectric focusing, all of the label was associated with proteins of lower net charge than albumin. A unique ratiolabeled peak was found in PPD- and Con A-stimulated fractions with a pI of approx. 5.3. A micropreparative isoelectric focusing technique was developed and yielded MIF activity in the same region as the major ratiolabeled peak. Further study will be required to ascertain whether the ratiolabeled protein is MIF. By following the Kd, pI, and 3H/14C labeling ratio, at least 14 products of activated lymphocytes, synthesized either de novo or in increased amounts, could be distinguished. PMID:4688317

  14. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  15. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively coupled (AC) waveguides can act as a stationary or integrate-and-fire comparator sensitive to tiny differences in their input powers.

  16. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  17. Inflammasomes and Their Activation

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sonal; Luc, Nancy; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system relies on the recognition of pathogens by pattern recognition receptors as a first line of defense and to initiate the adaptive immune response. Substantial progress has been made in defining the role of Nod (nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain)-like receptors and AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) as pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammasomes in macrophages. Inflammasomes are protein platforms essential for the activation of inflammatory caspases and subsequent maturation of their pro-inflammatory cytokine substrates and induction of pyroptosis. This paper summarizes recent developments regarding the function of Nod-like receptors in immunity and disease. PMID:21083527

  18. Activated carbon material

    DOEpatents

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  19. Antibacterial activity of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, B; Heisig, P

    1997-12-01

    Grepafloxacin has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Its activity against Gram-positive bacteria exceeds that of currently available quinolones. Grepafloxacin-resistant mutants seem to occur less frequently than ciprofloxacin- or ofloxacin-resistant mutants, and the increase in MIC against the former mutants is less than that of the latter. This applies only to the relative differences (in dilution steps); the absolute values are similar. Grepafloxacin kills Gram-positive bacteria at concentrations little above the MIC. Its pharmacodynamic profile against pneumococci is promising, favouring use of this drug for respiratory tract infections.

  20. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.