Science.gov

Sample records for activities focused primarily

  1. Affinity Maturation of a Potent Family of HIV Antibodies Is Primarily Focused on Accommodating or Avoiding Glycans.

    PubMed

    Garces, Fernando; Lee, Jeong Hyun; de Val, Natalia; de la Pena, Alba Torrents; Kong, Leopold; Puchades, Cristina; Hua, Yuanzi; Stanfield, Robyn L; Burton, Dennis R; Moore, John P; Sanders, Rogier W; Ward, Andrew B; Wilson, Ian A

    2015-12-15

    The high-mannose patch on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein is the epicenter for binding of the potent broadly neutralizing PGT121 family of antibodies, but strategies for generating such antibodies by vaccination have not been defined. We generated structures of inferred antibody intermediates by X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy to elucidate the molecular events that occurred during evolution of this family. Binding analyses revealed that affinity maturation was primarily focused on avoiding, accommodating, or binding the N137 glycan. The overall antibody approach angle to Env was defined very early in the maturation process, yet some variation evolved in the PGT121 family branches that led to differences in glycan specificities in their respective epitopes. Furthermore, we determined a crystal structure of the recombinant BG505 SOSIP.664 HIV-1 trimer with a PGT121 family member at 3.0 Å that, in concert with these antibody intermediate structures, provides insights to advance design of HIV vaccine candidates. PMID:26682982

  2. Cytotoxic activity of the novel heterocyclic compound G-11 is primarily mediated through intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ayman M; Aziz, Mohammad A; Abdou, Ibrahim M; Taha, Mutasem O; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Abadleh, Mohammed M; Aljada, Ahmad; Rizvi, Syed A

    2016-07-01

    Natural and chemically synthesized heterocyclic compounds have been explored for their potential use as anticancer agents. We had synthesized non-natural heterocyclic analogs and evaluated their anti-tumor activity by measuring effect on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in different cell lines. Previously, we identified a pyrazole-containing compound (G-11) showing cytotoxic effect towards leukemia and lymphoma cell lines. In this study, we further investigated the mechanistic aspects of anticancer properties of G-11 in HL-60 cell line. We demonstrated that cytotoxic effect of G-11 is mediated by caspase-dependent apoptosis. However, the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by G-11 was independent of caspases. G-11 triggered generation of ROS, caused disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, increased release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and altered the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. These results suggest significant involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This study comprehensively details the possible mechanisms of action of a novel heterocyclic compound which could find its potential use as an anticancer agent. PMID:27154302

  3. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, Howard C.

    1998-01-01

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught.

  4. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, H.C.

    1998-12-22

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal is disclosed. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught. 4 figs.

  5. Heat Shock Protein 96 is Elevated in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Activates Macrophages primarily via TLR2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi-Quan; Sobkoviak, Rudina; Jockheck-Clark, Angela; Shi, Bo; Mandelin, Arthur M.; Tak, Paul Peter; Haines, G Kennith; Nicchitta, Christopher V.; Pope, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages are important mediators of chronic inflammation and are prominent in the synovial lining and sublining of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, we demonstrated increased toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 expression and increased response to microbial TLR2 and TLR4 ligands in macrophages from the joints of RA. The current study characterized the expression of the 96-kDa heat shock glycoprotein (gp96) in the joints of RA and its role as an endogenous TLR ligand to promote innate immunity in RA. Gp96 was increased in RA compared with osteoarthritis and arthritis-free control synovial tissues. The expression of gp96 strongly correlated with inflammation and synovial lining thickness. Gp96 was increased in synovial fluid from the joints of RA compared with disease controls. Recombinant gp96 was a potent activator of macrophages, and the activation was mediated primarily through TLR2 signaling. The cellular response to gp96 was significantly stronger with RA synovial macrophages compared to peripheral blood monocytes from RA or healthy controls. The transcription of TLR2, TNFα and IL-8, but not TLR4, was significantly induced by gp96, and the induction was significantly greater in purified RA synovial macrophages. The expression of TLR2, but not TLR4, on synovial fluid macrophages strongly correlated with the level of gp96 in the synovial fluid. The present study documents the potential role of gp96 as an endogenous TLR2 ligand in RA and provides insight into the mechanism by which gp96 promotes the chronic inflammation of RA, identifying gp96 as a potential new therapeutic target. PMID:19342676

  6. Signal focusing through active transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  7. Factor analysis shows that female rat behaviour is characterized primarily by activity, male rats are driven by sex and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C; González, M I; Wilson, C A; File, S E

    1999-12-01

    This experiment explored sex differences in behaviour using factor analysis to describe the relationship between different behavioral variables. A principal component solution with an orthogonal rotation of the factor matrix was used, ensuring that the extracted factors are independent of one another, and thus reflect separate processes. In the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, in male rats factor 1 accounted for 75% of the variance and reflected anxiety, factor 2 represented activity, and accounted for 24% of the variance. This contrasted with the finding in female rats in which factor 1 was activity, accounting for 57% of the variance, with the anxiety factor accounting for only 34% of the variance. When behaviour in both the plus-maze and holeboard were analysed, a similar sex difference was found with anxiety emerging as factor 1 in males and holeboard activity as factor 1 in females. Locomotor activity in the inner portion of the holeboard loaded on the anxiety factor for males, but on activity for females. When behaviours in the plus-maze and sexual orientation tests were analysed, anxiety emerged as factor 1 in males, sexual preferences factor 2, and activity factor 3. In females, activity was factor 1, sexual preference factor 2, anxiety factor 3, and social interest factor 4. These results suggest caution should be exercised in interpreting the results from female rats in tests validated on males because the primary controlling factor may be different. PMID:10593196

  8. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Primarily Contribute to Inhibition of Electroencephalogram Delta Activity, Rather Than Inducing Behavioral Wakefulness in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yin, Dou; Wang, Tian-Xiao; Guo, Wei; Dong, Hui; Xu, Qi; Luo, Yan-Jia; Cherasse, Yoan; Lazarus, Michael; Qiu, Zi-Long; Lu, Jun; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2016-07-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons have long been thought to be involved in behavioral wakefulness and cortical activation. However, owing to the heterogeneity of BF neurons and poor selectivity of traditional methods, the precise role of BF cholinergic neurons in regulating the sleep-wake cycle remains unclear. We investigated the effects of cell-selective manipulation of BF cholinergic neurons on the sleep-wake behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum using the pharmacogenetic technique, the 'designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD)' approach, and ChAT-IRES-Cre mice. Our results showed that activation of BF cholinergic neurons expressing hM3Dq receptors significantly and lastingly decreased the EEG delta power spectrum, produced low-delta non-rapid eye movement sleep, and slightly increased wakefulness in both light and dark phases, whereas inhibition of BF cholinergic neurons expressing hM4Di receptors significantly increased EEG delta power spectrum and slightly decreased wakefulness. Next, the projections of BF cholinergic neurons were traced by humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP). Abundant and highly dense hrGFP-positive fibers were observed in the secondary motor cortex and cingulate cortex, and sparse hrGFP-positive fibers were observed in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, a known sleep-related structure. Finally, we found that activation of BF cholinergic neurons significantly increased c-Fos expression in the secondary motor cortex and cingulate cortex, but decreased c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these findings reveal that the primary function of BF cholinergic neurons is to inhibit EEG delta activity through the activation of cerebral cortex, rather than to induce behavioral wakefulness. PMID:26797244

  9. Antibacterial activity of lichen secondary metabolite usnic acid is primarily caused by inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Maciąg-Dorszyńska, Monika; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Guzow-Krzemińska, Beata

    2014-04-01

    Usnic acid, a compound produced by various lichen species, has been demonstrated previously to inhibit growth of different bacteria and fungi; however, mechanism of its antimicrobial activity remained unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that usnic acid causes rapid and strong inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria, represented by Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, while it does not inhibit production of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) in Escherichia coli, which is resistant to even high doses of this compound. However, we also observed slight inhibition of RNA synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio harveyi. Inhibition of protein synthesis in B. subtilis and S. aureus was delayed, which suggest indirect action (possibly through impairment of transcription) of usnic acid on translation. Interestingly, DNA synthesis was halted rapidly in B. subtilis and S. aureus, suggesting interference of usnic acid with elongation of DNA replication. We propose that inhibition of RNA synthesis may be a general mechanism of antibacterial action of usnic acid, with additional direct mechanisms, such as impairment of DNA replication in B. subtilis and S. aureus. PMID:24571086

  10. The Groucho Co-repressor Is Primarily Recruited to Local Target Sites in Active Chromatin to Attenuate Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Barbara H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression is regulated by the complex interaction between transcriptional activators and repressors, which function in part by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to control accessibility of DNA to RNA polymerase. The evolutionarily conserved family of Groucho/Transducin-Like Enhancer of split (Gro/TLE) proteins act as co-repressors for numerous transcription factors. Gro/TLE proteins act in several key pathways during development (including Notch and Wnt signaling), and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human cancers. Gro/TLE proteins form oligomers and it has been proposed that their ability to exert long-range repression on target genes involves oligomerization over broad regions of chromatin. However, analysis of an endogenous gro mutation in Drosophila revealed that oligomerization of Gro is not always obligatory for repression in vivo. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) to profile Gro recruitment in two Drosophila cell lines. We find that Gro predominantly binds at discrete peaks (<1 kilobase). We also demonstrate that blocking Gro oligomerization does not reduce peak width as would be expected if Gro oligomerization induced spreading along the chromatin from the site of recruitment. Gro recruitment is enriched in “active” chromatin containing developmentally regulated genes. However, Gro binding is associated with local regions containing hypoacetylated histones H3 and H4, which is indicative of chromatin that is not fully open for efficient transcription. We also find that peaks of Gro binding frequently overlap the transcription start sites of expressed genes that exhibit strong RNA polymerase pausing and that depletion of Gro leads to release of polymerase pausing and increased transcription at a bona fide target gene. Our results demonstrate that Gro is recruited to local sites by transcription factors to attenuate rather than silence gene expression by promoting histone deacetylation

  11. The disintegrin, trimucrin, suppresses LPS-induced activation of phagocytes primarily through blockade of NF-κB and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chun; Hsu, Chun-Chieh; Chung, Ching-Hu; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-07-01

    In addition to antiplatelet activity, disintegrin, a small-mass RGD-containing polypeptide, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects but the mechanism involved remains unclear. In this study, we report that trimucrin, a disintegrin from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stimulation of THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells. We also investigate the underlying mechanism. Trimucrin decreased the release of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibited the adhesion and migration of LPS-activated phagocytes. Trimucrin significantly blocked the expression of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-related downstream inducible enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2. In addition, its anti-inflammatory effect was associated with the decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Furthermore, trimucrin concentration dependently inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), PI3K, and Akt. Trimucrin also reversed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by suppressing the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 and the cytosolic IκB release. Flow cytometric analyses showed that trimucrin bound to cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The anti-αVβ3 mAb also specifically decreased the binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated trimucrin. Binding assays demonstrated that integrin αVβ3 was the binding site for trimucrin on THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, we showed that trimucrin decreases the inflammatory reaction through the attenuation of iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by blocking MAP kinase and the NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27030393

  12. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  13. Expression of two PIP genes in rapidly growing internodes of rice is not primarily controlled by meristem activity or cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Malz, S; Sauter, M

    1999-08-01

    Membrane intrinsic proteins facilitate movement of small molecules often times functioning as water channels. We have identified two genes from rice which encode proteins with characteristic features of plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP). They possess six membrane-spanning domains, an NPA repeat, overall high sequence homologies and characteristic C- and N-terminal hallmark motifs which allowed assignment of OsPIP1a to the PIP1 subfamily and of OsPIP2a to the PIP2 subfamily. OsPIP1a and OsPIP2a showed similar but not identical expression patterns. The two genes were expressed at higher levels in seedlings than in adult plants and expression in the primary root was regulated by light. In internodes of deepwater rice plants which were induced to grow rapidly by submergence, transcript levels were slightly induced in the intercalary meristem (IM) and slightly reduced in the elongation zone (EZ) after 18 h. In internodes of GA-induced excised stem sections transcript levels transiently declined in the IM and EZ after 1 h and subsequently recovered to elevated levels after 18 h. GA also induced OsPIP expression in non-growing tissue after 18 h. In the IM of submergence-induced stem sections transcript levels remained constitutive. The different growth-promoting treatments showed no direct correlation between growth rate and OsPIP gene expression in dividing or expanding cells. In fact, treatment of excised stem sections with ABA or drought stress induced similar changes in OsPIP expression in the growing zone during the first 6 h as GA did. We conclude that regulation of OsPIP1a and OsPIP2a expression is not primarily controlled by growth. GA-induced growth may however change the water status of cells which in turn results in altered PIP abundance. PMID:10527423

  14. Endogenous Calpain-3 Activation Is Primarily Governed by Small Increases in Resting Cytoplasmic [Ca2+] and Is Not Dependent on Stretch*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robyn M.; Lamb, Graham D.

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytically active calpain-3/p94 is clearly vital for normal muscle function, since its absence leads to limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A, but its function and regulatory control are poorly understood. Here we use single muscle fibers, individually skinned by microdissection, to investigate the diffusibility and autolytic activation of calpain-3 in situ. Virtually all calpain-3 present in mature muscle fibers is tightly bound in the vicinity of the titin N2A line and triad junctions and remains so irrespective of fiber stretching or raised [Ca2+]. Most calpain-3 is evidently bound within the contractile filament lattice, because (i) its slow diffusional loss is slowed further by locking myosin and actin into rigor and (ii) detergent dispersion of membranes causes rapid washout of most ryanodine receptors and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps with little accompanying washout of calpain-3. Calpain-3 autolyzes (becoming proteolytically active) in a tightly calcium-dependent manner. It remains in its nonactivated full-length form if [Ca2+] is maintained at ≤50 nm, the normal resting level, even with brief increases to 2–20 μm during repeated tetanic contractions, but it becomes active (though still bound) if [Ca2+] is kept slightly elevated at 200 nm (∼20% autolysis in 1 h). Calpain-3 did not spontaneously autolyze even when free in solution with 200 nm Ca2+ for up to 60 min. These findings explain why calpain-3 remains quiescent with normal exercise but is activated following eccentric (stretching) contractions, when resting [Ca2+] is elevated, and how a protease such as calpain-3 can be very Ca2+-sensitive yet highly specific in its actions. PMID:19144634

  15. Activity-Focused Motor Interventions for Children with Neurological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valvano, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a model to guide activity-focused physical therapy and occupational therapy interventions for children with neurological conditions. Activity-focused interventions involve structured practice and repetition of functional actions and are directed toward the learning of motor tasks that will increase independence and…

  16. Cobalt Alloy Implant Debris Induces Inflammation and Bone Loss Primarily through Danger Signaling, Not TLR4 Activation: Implications for DAMP-ening Implant Related Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Samelko, Lauryn; Landgraeber, Stefan; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim James

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt alloy debris has been implicated as causative in the early failure of some designs of current total joint implants. The ability of implant debris to cause excessive inflammation via danger signaling (NLRP3 inflammasome) vs. pathogen associated pattern recognition receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors; TLRs) remains controversial. Recently, specific non-conserved histidines on human TLR4 have been shown activated by cobalt and nickel ions in solution. However, whether this TLR activation is directly or indirectly an effect of metals or secondary endogenous alarmins (danger-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs) elicited by danger signaling, remains unknown and contentious. Our study indicates that in both a human macrophage cell line (THP-1) and primary human macrophages, as well as an in vivo murine model of inflammatory osteolysis, that Cobalt-alloy particle induced NLRP3 inflammasome danger signaling inflammatory responses were highly dominant relative to TLR4 activation, as measured respectively by IL-1β or TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, tissue histology and quantitative bone loss measurement. Despite the lack of metal binding histidines H456 and H458 in murine TLR4, murine calvaria challenge with Cobalt alloy particles induced significant macrophage driven in vivo inflammation and bone loss inflammatory osteolysis, whereas LPS calvaria challenge alone did not. Additionally, no significant increase (p<0.05) in inflammation and inflammatory bone loss by LPS co-challenge with Cobalt vs. Cobalt alone was evident, even at high levels of LPS (i.e. levels commiserate with hematogenous levels in fatal sepsis, >500pg/mL). Therefore, not only do the results of this investigation support Cobalt alloy danger signaling induced inflammation, but under normal homeostasis low levels of hematogenous PAMPs (<2pg/mL) from Gram-negative bacteria, seem to have negligible contribution to the danger signaling responses elicited by Cobalt alloy metal implant debris. This suggests the

  17. Spontaneous release of interleukin 2 by lung T lymphocytes in active pulmonary sarcoidosis is primarily from the Leu3+DR+ T cell subset.

    PubMed Central

    Saltini, C; Spurzem, J R; Lee, J J; Pinkston, P; Crystal, R G

    1986-01-01

    The inflammation within the lower respiratory tract of individuals with pulmonary sarcoidosis is dominated by large numbers of helper T lymphocytes that proliferate and spontaneously release interleukin 2 (IL-2). To identify the lymphocyte subpopulation that releases IL-2 in this disorder, lung lymphocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using the monoclonal antibodies Leu4 (T lymphocyte), Leu3 (helper/inducer), Leu2 (suppressor/cytotoxic), and anti-HLA-DR, and separated by panning and flow cytometry. The majority of the IL-2 spontaneously released by T cells in the sarcoid lung was contributed by the Leu3+ cell population (Leu3+65 +/- 23 IL-2 units released/10(6) cells per 24 h; Leu2+ 9 +/- 8, P less than 0.04). Further characterization of the lung Leu3+ T cells in sarcoid demonstrated that 30 +/- 3% were expressing HLA-DR molecules on their surface compared with 6 +/- 1% in normals (P less than 0.01). Importantly, the subpopulation of Leu3+ lung T lymphocytes expressing a high intensity of HLA-DR molecules on their surface was responsible for the majority of the release of IL-2 in the sarcoid lung (Leu3+ high-intensity DR 42 +/- 17 U/10(6) cells per 24 h, Leu3+ low-intensity DR 8 +/- 1 U/10(6) cells per 24 h; P less than 0.01). Thus, the spontaneous release of IL-2 in the lung of sarcoid patients appears to be localized to a subset of Leu3+ high-intensity DR ("activated" lung helper/inducer) T lymphocytes. Because the sarcoid lung is characterized by markedly increased numbers of these cells, it is likely that this compartmentalized T cell population plays a major role in sustaining the exaggerated localized immune processes of this disorder. PMID:3486888

  18. Form-Focused Discovery Activities in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogeyik, Muhlise Cosgun

    2011-01-01

    Form-focused discovery activities allow language learners to grasp various aspects of a target language by contributing implicit knowledge by using discovered explicit knowledge. Moreover, such activities can assist learners to perceive and discover the features of their language input. In foreign language teaching environments, they can be used…

  19. Students' Activity Focus in Online Asynchronous Peer Learning Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Alessio; Langevin, Sarah; Boyer, Naomi; Armitage, William

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how using Peer Learning Forums (PLF) in an online asynchronous computer programming course can be analyzed to derive information about Student Activity Focus (SAF) for adult Information Technology students. Three instruments are proposed to assist instructors classify questions posted by students on these forums,…

  20. Focus-of-attention for human activity recognition from UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghouts, G. J.; van Eekeren, A. W. M.; Dijk, J.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a system to extract metadata about human activities from full-motion video recorded from a UAV. The pipeline consists of these components: tracking, motion features, representation of the tracks in terms of their motion features, and classification of each track as one of the human activities of interest. We consider these activities: walk, run, throw, dig, wave. Our contribution is that we show how a robust system can be constructed for human activity recognition from UAVs, and that focus-of-attention is needed. We find that tracking and human detection are essential for robust human activity recognition from UAVs. Without tracking, the human activity recognition deteriorates. The combination of tracking and human detection is needed to focus the attention on the relevant tracks. The best performing system includes tracking, human detection and a per-track analysis of the five human activities. This system achieves an average accuracy of 93%. A graphical user interface is proposed to aid the operator or analyst during the task of retrieving the relevant parts of video that contain particular human activities. Our demo is available on YouTube.

  1. Influences on preschool children's physical activity: exploration through focus groups.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Trina; Salmon, Jo; Okely, Anthony D; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    This study explored mothers' perceptions of influences on preschoolers' physical activity. Six semistructured focus groups with 23 mothers were conducted across a range of socioeconomic position locations. Mothers identified 4 key areas of influence: child fundamentals (eg, sex, personality), parent power (eg, rules, support), people to share with (eg, peers, adults), and places and things (eg, physical environments, toys). No substantial differences in themes were identified among socioeconomic position groups. Influences on preschoolers' physical activity are multidimensional, multifactorial, and support the use of ecological models to conceptualize and understand the influencing factors. Associations among factors influencing preschoolers' physical activity should be further investigated through quantitative research. PMID:21135627

  2. The activation of p38 MAPK primarily contributes to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 to the distal CCAAT box of the RhoB promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Jiwon; Choi, Jeong-Hae; Won, Misun; Kang, Chang-Mo; Gyun, Mi-Rang; Park, Hee-Moon; Kim, Chun-Ho; Chung, Kyung-Sook

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Regulation of transcriptional activation of RhoB is still unclear. {yields} We examine the effect of p38 MAPK inhibition, and c-Jun and RhoB depletion on UV-induced RhoB expression and apoptosis. {yields} We identify the regions of RhoB promoter necessary to confer UV responsiveness using pRhoB-luciferase reporter assays. {yields} c-Jun, ATF2 and p300 are dominantly associated with NF-Y on the distal CCAAT box. {yields} The activation of p38 MAPK primarily contribute to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 proteins on distal CCAAT box of RhoB promoter. -- Abstract: The Ras-related small GTP-binding protein RhoB is rapidly induced in response to genotoxic stresses caused by ionizing radiation. It is known that UV-induced RhoB expression results from the binding of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) via NF-Y to the inverted CCAAT box (-23) of the RhoB promoter. Here, we show that the association of c-Jun with the distal CCAAT box (-72) is primarily involved in UV-induced RhoB expression and p38 MAPK regulated RhoB induction through the distal CCAAT box. UV-induced RhoB expression and apoptosis were markedly attenuated by pretreatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor. siRNA knockdown of RhoB, ATF2 and c-Jun resulted in decreased RhoB expression and eventually restored the growth of UV-irradiated Jurkat cells. In the reporter assay using luciferase under the RhoB promoter, inhibition of RhoB promoter activity by the p38 inhibitor and knockdown of c-Jun using siRNA occurred through the distal CCAAT box. Immunoprecipitation and DNA affinity protein binding assays revealed the association of c-Jun and p300 via NF-YA and the dissociation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) via c-Jun recruitment to the CCAAT boxes of the RhoB promoter. These results suggest that the activation of p38 MAPK primarily contributes to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 proteins to the distal CCAAT box of the RhoB promoter in

  3. Donor Activation Focused Rehabilitation Approach: Maximizing Outcomes After Nerve Transfers.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Lorna Canavan; Moore, Amy M

    2016-05-01

    As nerve transfers become the mainstay in treatment of brachial plexus and isolated nerve injuries, the preoperative and postoperative therapy performed to restore motor function requires continued dedication and appreciation. Through the understanding of the general principles of muscle activation and patient education, the therapist has a unique impact on the return of function in patients with nerve injuries. As surgeons continue to develop novel nerve transfers, the perioperative training, education, and implementation of the donor activation focused rehabilitation approach model is critical to ensure successful outcomes. PMID:27094897

  4. State of the science: a focus on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Byrne, Nuala M

    2006-01-01

    Diet, exercise, behavioural support and for some obese individuals, pharmacotherapy, represent the set of lifestyle factors necessary for effective management of obesity. An on-going challenge in the prevention, treatment and management of obesity is to arm health professionals in particular, with the necessary knowledge and understanding and time to engage in meaningful weight management counseling. Despite the many barriers to effective management such as lack of relevant education in nutrition and physical activity, perceived patient non-compliance, perceived inability to change patient behaviours, and the cost of specialist behavioural support, there is increasing evidence of the value of behaviour modification techniques to both dietary and exercise counseling, particularly when focusing on current behaviour. Behavioural counseling addresses the barriers to compliance with diet and physical activity goals and also equips the individual with practical strategies and motivation to be more self-responsible. Commonly employed behavioural interventions include stimulus control, reinforcement techniques, self-monitoring, behavioural contracting, and social support programs. This paper addresses one of the key behavioural components in the treatment and management of obesity - physical activity. Higher levels of energy expenditure through increased physical activity are central to successful weight loss and long-term weight maintenance. The specific value derived from physical activity in the context of weight management for the overweight and obese is in large part associated with an appreciation of the role of both physical activity promotion and exercise prescription. PMID:16928660

  5. Focus of attention in an activity-based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Norman; Fox, Mark S.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier research in job shop scheduling has demonstrated the advantages of opportunistically combining order-based and resource-based scheduling techniques. An even more flexible approach is investigated where each activity is considered a decision point by itself. Heuristics to opportunistically select the next decision point on which to focus attention (i.e., variable ordering heuristics) and the next decision to be tried at this point (i.e., value ordering heuristics) are described that probabilistically account for both activity precedence and resource requirement interactions. Preliminary experimental results indicate that the variable ordering heuristic greatly increases search efficiency. While least constraining value ordering heuristics have been advocated in the literature, the experimental results suggest that other value ordering heuristics combined with our variable-ordering heuristic can produce much better schedules without significantly increasing search.

  6. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Methods Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children’s perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. Results The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls’ requests for more “hanging-out” facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Conclusion Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and

  7. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound induced Gene Activation in Solid Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunbo; Kon, Takashi; Li, Chuanyuan; Zhong, Pei

    2006-05-01

    In this work, the feasibility of using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to activate trans-gene expression in a mouse tumor model was investigated. 4T1 cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously in the hind limbs of Balb/C mice and adenovirus luciferase gene vectors under the control of heat shock protein 70B promoter (Adeno-hsp70B-Luc) were injected intratumoraly for gene transfection. One day following the virus injection, the transfected tumors were heated to a peak temperature of 55, 65, 75, and 85°C, respectively, in 10s at multiple sites around the center of the tumor using a HIFU transducer operated at either 1.1-MHz (fundamental) or 3.3-MHz (3rd harmonic) frequency. Inducible luciferase gene expression was found to vary from 15-fold to 120-fold of the control group following 1.1-MHz HIFU exposure. The maximum gene activation was produced at a peak temperature of 65˜75°C one day following HIFU exposure and decayed gradually to baseline level within 7 days. The inducible gene activation produced by 3.3-MHz HIFU exposure (75°C-10s) was found to be comparable to that produced by hyperthermia (42°C-30min). Altogether, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using HIFU as a simple and versatile physical means to regulate trans-gene expression in vivo. This unique feature may be explored in the future for a synergistic combination of HIFU-induced thermal ablation with heat-induced gene therapy for improved cancer therapy.

  8. Focused Interactive Learning: A Tool for Active Class Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harton, Helen C.; Richardson, Deborah S.; Barreras, Ricardo E.; Rockloff, Matthew J.; Latane, Bibb

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of focused interactive learning (FIL), in which students participate in focused discussions with their peers to learn about psychological concepts. Evaluates the use of FIL at Florida Atlantic University (Boca Raton, Florida). Addresses student benefits resulting from this technique. (CMK)

  9. Putting Activism in Its Place: The Neighborhood Context of Participation in Neighborhood-Focused Activism

    PubMed Central

    Gilster, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood-focused activism is one way residents enact their vision for their community. This study examines the neighborhood socioeconomic antecedents of participation in neighborhood-focused activism in a diverse sample of residents of Chicago neighborhoods to test three theories of neighborhood socioeconomic context and participation: 1) affluence affords participation, 2) activism addresses neighborhood needs associated with disadvantage, and 3) socioeconomic inequality creates contention that necessitates participation. Measuring neighborhood socioeconomic status as two unique dimensions, neighborhood affluence and neighborhood disadvantage, and accounting for both individual and neighborhood characteristics, I find support for each theory. Neighborhood socioeconomic context matters for participation, regardless of individual socioeconomic characteristics. Only when these three perspectives are considered jointly can they fully capture the socioeconomic context of participation in neighborhood-focused activism. PMID:24554811

  10. Putting Activism in Its Place: The Neighborhood Context of Participation in Neighborhood-Focused Activism.

    PubMed

    Gilster, Megan E

    2014-02-01

    Neighborhood-focused activism is one way residents enact their vision for their community. This study examines the neighborhood socioeconomic antecedents of participation in neighborhood-focused activism in a diverse sample of residents of Chicago neighborhoods to test three theories of neighborhood socioeconomic context and participation: 1) affluence affords participation, 2) activism addresses neighborhood needs associated with disadvantage, and 3) socioeconomic inequality creates contention that necessitates participation. Measuring neighborhood socioeconomic status as two unique dimensions, neighborhood affluence and neighborhood disadvantage, and accounting for both individual and neighborhood characteristics, I find support for each theory. Neighborhood socioeconomic context matters for participation, regardless of individual socioeconomic characteristics. Only when these three perspectives are considered jointly can they fully capture the socioeconomic context of participation in neighborhood-focused activism. PMID:24554811

  11. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  12. Promoting Physical Activity in Youth: Focus on Middle School Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines an ecological approach for promoting physical activity in middle school, reviewing data collected in physical education classes, leisure settings, and structured extracurricular programs during the 4-year Middle School Physical Activity and Nutrition Project. The paper makes recommendations for improving physical activity in middle school…

  13. Adolescent Girls' Perceptions of Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Sarah; Biddle, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among adolescent girls are a cause for concern. Examining girls' physical activity perceptions and motivations through in-depth qualitative research allows for greater understanding of the reasons behind their physical activity-related choices. Forty-seven girls aged 14 to 16 years participated in exploratory focus…

  14. Reengineering Activities in K-8 Classrooms: Focus on Formative Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Patrick N.

    2006-01-01

    Almost every K-8 technology activity includes feedback. Technology teachers generally view the input-process-output paradigm as being incomplete. A step toward completion would be the inclusion of a "feedback" component incorporating reengineering. This article provides an example of how one activity evolved through several stages to include…

  15. Screening strategies for active tuberculosis: focus on cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Claudia Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in screening for active tuberculosis (TB), also called active case-finding (ACF), as a possible means to achieve control of the global TB epidemic. ACF aims to increase the detection of TB, in order to diagnose and treat patients with TB earlier than if they had been diagnosed and treated only at the time when they sought health care because of symptoms. This will reduce or avoid secondary transmission of TB to other people, with the long-term goal of reducing the incidence of TB. Here, the history of screening for active TB, current screening practices, and the role of TB-diagnostic tools are summarized and the literature on cost-effectiveness of screening for active TB reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that community-wide ACF can be cost-effective in settings with a high incidence of TB. ACF among close TB contacts is cost-effective in settings with a low as well as a high incidence of TB. The evidence for cost-effectiveness of screening among HIV-infected persons is not as strong as for TB contacts, but the reviewed studies suggest that the intervention can be cost-effective depending on the background prevalence of TB and test volume. None of the cost-effectiveness analyses were informed by data from randomized controlled trials. As the results of randomized controlled trials evaluating different ACF strategies will become available in future, we will hopefully gain a better understanding of the role that ACF can play in achieving global TB control. PMID:27418848

  16. Podocytes degrade endocytosed albumin primarily in lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Carson, John M; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, p<0.05). Cytokine production and cell death were significantly increased in HUPECs exposed to albumin and chloroquine alone, and these effects were potentiated by exposure to albumin plus chloroquine. Compared to wild-type mice, glomerular staining of LAMP-1 was significantly increased in Denys-Drash mice and appeared to be most prominent in podocytes. These data suggest lysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and

  17. Podocytes Degrade Endocytosed Albumin Primarily in Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, John M.; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, p<0.05). Cytokine production and cell death were significantly increased in HUPECs exposed to albumin and chloroquine alone, and these effects were potentiated by exposure to albumin plus chloroquine. Compared to wild-type mice, glomerular staining of LAMP-1 was significantly increased in Denys-Drash mice and appeared to be most prominent in podocytes. These data suggest lysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and

  18. How High Is It? An Educator's Guide with Activities Focused on Scale Models of Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This guide focuses on scale models of distances. Activities also incorporate mathematics but can be used in science and technology grades 5-8 classes. The content of the book is divided into three sections: (1) Introductory Activities; (2) Core Activities; and (3) Activity/Assessment. Activities include: (1) KWL Chart; (2) Ball and String…

  19. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4′-Trihydroxystilbene) Ameliorates Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis, Primarily via Induction of Apoptosis in T Cells Involving Activation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Estrogen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra P.; Hegde, Venkatesh L.; Hofseth, Lorne J.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound found in plant products, including red grapes, exhibits anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Using an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated the use of resveratrol for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. We observed that resveratrol treatment decreased the clinical symptoms and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced mice. Furthermore, we observed significant apoptosis in inflammatory cells in spinal cord of EAE-induced mice treated with resveratrol compared with the control mice. Resveratrol administration also led to significant down-regulation of certain cytokines and chemokines in EAE-induced mice including tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-9, IL-12, IL-17, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and Eotaxin. In vitro studies on the mechanism of action revealed that resveratrol triggered high levels of apoptosis in activated T cells and to a lesser extent in unactivated T cells. Moreover, resveratrol-induced apoptosis was mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) and correlated with up-regulation of AhR, Fas, and FasL expression. In addition, resveratrol-induced apoptosis in primary T cells correlated with cleavage of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and release of cytochrome c. Data from the present study demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of resveratrol to trigger apoptosis in activated T cells and its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including, MS. PMID:17872969

  20. Overview of the Tank Focus Area HLW Tank Retrieval Activities (Remote Operations)

    SciTech Connect

    GIBBONS, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently retrieving or preparing to retrieve radioactive waste from underground storage tanks with technical assistance from the Tanks Focus Area. The Tanks Focus Area is a national program that provides information and technologies to safely and effectively remediate radioactive waste stored in DOE's underground tanks. Funding for the Tanks Focus Area is provided by the DOE Offices of Science and Technology, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management. This paper provides an overview of recent remote waste retrieval activities as well as recent successes sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area.

  1. On-chip high-throughput manipulation of particles in a dielectrophoresis-active hydrophoretic focuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ming; Alici, Gursel; Du, Haiping; Sluyter, Ronald; Li, Weihua

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel concept of dielectrophoresis (DEP)-active hydrophoretic focusing of micro-particles and murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. The DEP-active hydrophoretic platform consists of crescent shaped grooves and interdigitated electrodes that generate lateral pressure gradients. These embedded electrodes exert a negative DEP force onto the particles by pushing them into a narrow space in the channel where the particle to groove interaction is intensive and hydrophoretic ordering occurs. Particles passing through the microfluidic device are directed towards the sidewalls of the channel. The critical limitation of DEP operating at a low flow rate and the specific hydrophoretic device for focusing particles of given sizes were overcome with the proposed microfluidic device. The focusing pattern can be modulated by varying the voltage. High throughput was achieved (maximum flow rate ~150 μL min-1) with good focusing performance. The non-spherical MEL cells were utilised to verify the effectiveness of the DEP-active hydrophoretic device.

  2. Using function-focused care to increase physical activity among older adults.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of physical activity for older adults, adherence to regular physical activity recommendations is poor. Less than half of adults in this country meet physical activity recommendations with reasons for lack of adherence including such things as access, motivation, pain, fear, comorbidities, among others. To overcome these challenges, function-focused care was developed. Function-focused care is a philosophy of care that focuses on evaluating the older adult's underlying capability with regard to function and physical activity and helping him or her optimize and maintain physical function and ability and continually increase time spent in physical activity. Examples of function-focused care include such things as using verbal cues during bathing, so the older individual performs the tasks rather than the caregiver bathing the individual; walking a resident or patient to the bathroom rather than using a urinal, or taking a resident to an exercise class. There are now over 20 studies supporting the benefits of function-focused care approaches across all settings and different types of patient groups (i.e, those with mild versus moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment). The approaches for implementation of function-focused care have also been well supported and have moved beyond establishing effectiveness to considering dissemination and implementation of this approach into real world clinical settings. The process of dissemination and implementation has likewise been articulated and supported, and ongoing work needs to continue in this venue across all care settings. PMID:24894140

  3. Amphotericin primarily kills yeast by simply binding ergosterol

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kaitlyn C.; Palacios, Daniel S.; Dailey, Ian; Endo, Matthew M.; Uno, Brice E.; Wilcock, Brandon C.; Burke, Martin D.

    2012-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is a prototypical small molecule natural product that can form ion channels in living eukaryotic cells and has remained refractory to microbial resistance despite extensive clinical utilization in the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections for more than half a century. It is now widely accepted that AmB kills yeast primarily via channel-mediated membrane permeabilization. Enabled by the iterative cross-coupling-based synthesis of a functional group deficient derivative of this natural product, we have discovered that channel formation is not required for potent fungicidal activity. Alternatively, AmB primarily kills yeast by simply binding ergosterol, a lipid that is vital for many aspects of yeast cell physiology. Membrane permeabilization via channel formation represents a second complementary mechanism that further increases drug potency and the rate of yeast killing. Collectively, these findings (i) reveal that the binding of a physiologically important microbial lipid is a powerful and clinically validated antimicrobial strategy that may be inherently refractory to resistance, (ii) illuminate a more straightforward path to an improved therapeutic index for this clinically vital but also highly toxic antifungal agent, and (iii) suggest that the capacity for AmB to form protein-like ion channels might be separable from its cytocidal effects. PMID:22308411

  4. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Awards not primarily for research. 650.6 Section... PATENTS § 650.6 Awards not primarily for research. (a) Awards not primarily intended to support scientific or engineering research need contain no patent provision. Examples of such awards are travel...

  5. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Awards not primarily for research. 650.6 Section... PATENTS § 650.6 Awards not primarily for research. (a) Awards not primarily intended to support scientific or engineering research need contain no patent provision. Examples of such awards are travel...

  6. Individual Focus in an Activity Centre: An Observational Study among Persons with Profound and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, S. J.; Vlaskamp, C.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are being offered more--and more frequent--day services at activity centres. Little is known about the way direct support persons (DSP) in activity centres divide their time over the various tasks they have to perform and to what extent they are focused on…

  7. Focused Campaign Increases Activity among Participants in "Nature's Notebook," a Citizen Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants' activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a…

  8. Chemopreventive Activity of Vitamin E in Breast Cancer: A Focus on γ- and δ-Tocopherol

    PubMed Central

    Smolarek, Amanda K.; Suh, Nanjoo

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail). Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation. PMID:22254089

  9. National Report Sweden: Swedish Space Activities- An Overview with a Focus on Balloons and Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, K.

    2015-09-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of Swedish space activities with a focus on balloon and rocket projects, launched or scheduled for launch in the near future from Esrange Space Center. Several on-going national balloon and rocket projects are described in brief. Sweden is also a major player in sounding rocket activities within the ESA Elips programme as provider of launch services and developer of modules for microgravity experiments. Another important activity, described below, is the student programme REXUS/BEXUS, carried out within the framework of bilateral agreement between DLR and SNSB, and in collaboration with ESA. It should also be noted that several other balloons and rockets have been launched from Esrange Space Center during the reporting period. The present paper focuses, however, on the projects led by Swedish Principal Investigators and activities with a major involvement of Swedish scientists and engineers.

  10. Detection of high tritium activity on the central titanium electrode of a plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Rout, R.K.; Spinivasan, M.; Shyam, A.; Chitra, V. )

    1991-03-01

    In this paper a 2-kJ Mather plasma focus device is used to deuterate the top end surface (or tip) of its central titanium electrode to investigate the occurrence of anomalous nuclear reactions in the context of the cold fusion phenomenon. The tip of the central titanium electrode is found to develop at least a few tens of microcuries of tritium after several plasma focus discharges. Neither the tritium impurity level in the deuterium gas used in the experiment nor the tritium branch of the d-d reactions that are known to occur in plasma focus devices can account for such activity in the electrode. Anomalous nuclear reactions in the deuterated titanium lattice appear to be the most probable source of this high activity.

  11. Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in

  12. Noninvasive transcranial focused ultrasonic-magnetic stimulation for modulating brain oscillatory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yi; Chen, Yudong; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    A novel technique, transcranial focused ultrasonic-magnetic stimulation (tFUMS), has been developed for noninvasive brain modulation in vivo. tFUMS has a higher spatial resolution (<2 mm) and a higher penetration depth than other noninvasive neuromodulation methods. The in vivo animal experimental results show that tFUMS can not only increase the power of local field potentials and the firing rate of the neurons, but also enhance the effect of transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation on the neuromodulation. The results demonstrate that tFUMS can modulate brain oscillatory activities by stimulating brain tissues.

  13. Active-polarization-controlled long-depth focus generated by orthogonal nanoslit array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lilin; Li, Yuanjie; Sun, Aihui; Xiong, Zhicheng; Liu, Cheng; Kong, Yan; Wang, Shouyu

    2016-08-01

    In order to realize long-range directional excitation and coupling, active-polarization-controlled Bessel beams with an orthogonal nanoslit array are proposed. Excited with left or right circular polarization light, long-depth focus from Bessel beams can be generated with different propagation directions. Moreover, multiple long-depth foci are also designed according to dual-conical phase settings. Proved with numerical simulations, it is considered that the active-polarization-controlled system can be potentially used in future logic photonic and plasmonic systems for optical switching and multichannel coupling.

  14. Enhancement and quenching of high-intensity focused ultrasound cavitation activity via short frequency sweep gaps.

    PubMed

    Hallez, Loïc; Lee, Judy; Touyeras, Francis; Nevers, Aymeric; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-01

    This letter reports on the use of frequency sweeps to probe acoustic cavitation activity generated by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Unprecedented enhancement and quenching of HIFU cavitation activity were observed when short frequency sweep gaps were applied in negative and positive directions, respectively. It was revealed that irrespective of the frequency gap, it is the direction and frequency sweep rate that govern the cavitation activity. These effects are related to the response of bubbles generated by the starting frequency to the direction of the frequency sweep, and the influence of the sweep rate on growth and coalescence of bubbles, which in turn affects the active bubble population. These findings are relevant for the use of HIFU in chemical and therapeutic applications, where greater control of cavitation bubble population is critical. PMID:26584998

  15. Physical activity in patients with heart failure: barriers and motivations with special focus on sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Klompstra, Leonie; Jaarsma, Tiny; Strömberg, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to recommendations for physical activity is low in both male and female patients with heart failure (HF). Men are more physically active than women. In order to successfully promote physical activity, it is therefore essential to explore how much and why HF patients are physically active and if this is related to sex. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate physical activity in HF patients, to describe the factors related to physical activity, and to examine potential barriers and motivations to physical activity with special focus on sex differences. Methods The study had a cross-sectional survey design. HF patients living at home received a questionnaire during May–July 2014, with questions on physical activity (from the Short Form-International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and potential barriers and motivations to physical activity. Results A total of 154 HF patients, 27% women, with a mean age of 70±10 were included. In total, 23% of the patients reported a high level of physical activity, 46% a moderate level, and 34% a low level. Higher education, self-efficacy, and motivation were significantly associated with a higher amount of physical activity. Symptoms or severity of the disease were not related to physical activity. All the potential barriers to exercise were reported to be of importance. Psychological motivations were most frequently rated as being the most important motivation (41%) to be physically active. Physical motivations (33%) and social motivations were rated as the least important ones (22%). Women had significantly higher total motivation to be physically active. These differences were found in social, physical, and psychological motivations. Discussion One-third of the HF patients had a low level of physical activity in their daily life. Severity of the disease or symptoms were not related, whereas level of education, exercise self-efficacy, and motivation were important factors to take into account when

  16. Physical activity in subjects with multiple sclerosis with focus on gender differences: a survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing research that examines gender-issues in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little focus has been placed on gender-issues regarding physical activity. The aim of the present study was to describe levels of physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, fall-related self-efficacy, social support for physical activity, fatigue levels and the impact of MS on daily life, in addition to investigating gender differences. Methods The sample for this cross-sectional cohort study consisted of 287 (84 men; 29.3%) adults with MS recruited from the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects consisting of the self-administrated measurements: Physical Activity Disability Survey – Revised, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Falls- Efficacy Scale (Swedish version), Social Influences on Physical Activity, Fatigue Severity Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Response rate was 58.2%. Results Men were less physically active, had lower self-efficacy for physical activity and lower fall-related self-efficacy than women. This was explained by men being more physically affected by the disease. Men also received less social support for physical activity from family members. The level of fatigue and psychological consequences of the disease were similar between the genders in the total sample, but subgroups of women with moderate MS and relapsing remitting MS experienced more fatigue than men. Conclusions Men were less physically active, probably a result of being more physically affected by the disease. Men being more physically affected explained most of the gender differences found in this study. However, the number of men in the subgroup analyses was small and more research is needed. A gender perspective should be considered in strategies for promoting physical activity in subjects with MS, e.g. men may need more support to be physically active. PMID:24612446

  17. Countering beam divergence effects with focused segmented scintillators for high DQE megavoltage active matrix imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Langechuan; Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Jiang, Hao

    2012-08-01

    The imaging performance of active matrix flat-panel imagers designed for megavoltage imaging (MV AMFPIs) is severely constrained by relatively low x-ray detection efficiency, which leads to a detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of only ∼1%. Previous theoretical and empirical studies by our group have demonstrated the potential for addressing this constraint through the utilization of thick, two-dimensional, segmented scintillators with optically isolated crystals. However, this strategy is constrained by the degradation of high-frequency DQE resulting from spatial resolution loss at locations away from the central beam axis due to oblique incidence of radiation. To address this challenge, segmented scintillators constructed so that the crystals are individually focused toward the radiation source are proposed and theoretically investigated. The study was performed using Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport to examine the modulation transfer function and DQE of focused segmented scintillators with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 60 mm. The results demonstrate that, independent of scintillator thickness, the introduction of focusing largely restores spatial resolution and DQE performance otherwise lost in thick, unfocused segmented scintillators. For the case of a 60 mm thick BGO scintillator and at a location 20 cm off the central beam axis, use of focusing improves DQE by up to a factor of ∼130 at non-zero spatial frequencies. The results also indicate relatively robust tolerance of such scintillators to positional displacements, of up to 10 cm in the source-to-detector direction and 2 cm in the lateral direction, from their optimal focusing position, which could potentially enhance practical clinical use of focused segmented scintillators in MV AMFPIs.

  18. Countering Beam Divergence Effects with Focused Segmented Scintillators for High DQE Megavoltage Active Matrix Imagers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Langechuan; Antonuk, Larry E; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    The imaging performance of active matrix flat-panel imagers designed for megavoltage imaging (MV AMFPIs) is severely constrained by relatively low x-ray detection efficiency, which leads to a detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of only ~1%. Previous theoretical and empirical studies by our group have demonstrated the potential for addressing this constraint through utilization of thick, two-dimensional, segmented scintillators with optically isolated crystals. However, this strategy is constrained by degradation of high-frequency DQE resulting from spatial resolution loss at locations away from the central beam axis due to oblique incidence of radiation. To address this challenge, segmented scintillators constructed so that the crystals are individually focused toward the radiation source are proposed and theoretically investigated. The study was performed using Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport to examine the modulation transfer function and DQE of focused segmented scintillators with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 60 mm. The results demonstrate that, independent of scintillator thickness, the introduction of focusing largely restores spatial resolution and DQE performance otherwise lost in thick, unfocused segmented scintillators. For the case of a 60 mm thick BGO scintillator and at a location 20 cm off the central beam axis, use of focusing improves DQE by up to a factor of ~130 at non-zero spatial frequencies. The results also indicate relatively robust tolerance of such scintillators to positional displacements, of up to 10 cm in the source-to-detector direction and 2 cm in the lateral direction, from their optimal focusing position, which could potentially enhance practical clinical use of focused segmented scintillators in MV AMFPIs. PMID:22854009

  19. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.25(b)(6)) includes approval to engage, either directly or through a subsidiary, in... Nation's social problems. Although the interpretation primarily focuses on low- and moderate-income... remedying our social ills. Section 225.25(b)(6) is intended to provide an opportunity for them to...

  20. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Awards not primarily for research. 650.6 Section 650.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...: Intellectual Property Rights The National Science Foundation claims no rights to any inventions or...

  1. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Awards not primarily for research. 650.6 Section 650.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...: Intellectual Property Rights The National Science Foundation claims no rights to any inventions or...

  2. 45 CFR 650.6 - Awards not primarily for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Awards not primarily for research. 650.6 Section 650.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...: Intellectual Property Rights The National Science Foundation claims no rights to any inventions or...

  3. Inotropes and Inodilators for Acute Heart Failure: Sarcomere Active Drugs in Focus

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, László; Papp, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Acute heart failure (AHF) emerges as a major and growing epidemiological concern with high morbidity and mortality rates. Current therapies in patients with acute heart failure rely on different strategies. Patients with hypotension, hypoperfusion, or shock require inotropic support, whereas diuretics and vasodilators are recommended in patients with systemic or pulmonary congestion. Traditionally inotropic agents, referred to as Ca2+ mobilizers load the cardiomyocyte with Ca2+ and thereby increase oxygen consumption and risk for arrhythmias. These limitations of traditional inotropes may be avoided by sarcomere targeted agents. Direct activation of the cardiac sarcomere may be achieved by either sensitizing the cardiac myofilaments to Ca2+ or activating directly the cardiac myosin. In this review, we focus on sarcomere targeted inotropic agents, emphasizing their mechanisms of action and overview the most relevant clinical considerations. PMID:24785346

  4. Noise focusing and the emergence of coherent activity in neuronal cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, Javier G.; Soriano, Jordi; Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Teller, Sara; Casademunt, Jaume

    2013-09-01

    At early stages of development, neuronal cultures in vitro spontaneously reach a coherent state of collective firing in a pattern of nearly periodic global bursts. Although understanding the spontaneous activity of neuronal networks is of chief importance in neuroscience, the origin and nature of that pulsation has remained elusive. By combining high-resolution calcium imaging with modelling in silico, we show that this behaviour is controlled by the propagation of waves that nucleate randomly in a set of points that is specific to each culture and is selected by a non-trivial interplay between dynamics and topology. The phenomenon is explained by the noise focusing effect--a strong spatio-temporal localization of the noise dynamics that originates in the complex structure of avalanches of spontaneous activity. Results are relevant to neuronal tissues and to complex networks with integrate-and-fire dynamics and metric correlations, for instance, in rumour spreading on social networks.

  5. pH-degradable imidazoquinoline-ligated nanogels for lymph node-focused immune activation.

    PubMed

    Nuhn, Lutz; Vanparijs, Nane; De Beuckelaer, Ans; Lybaert, Lien; Verstraete, Glenn; Deswarte, Kim; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Shukla, Nikunj M; Salyer, Alex C D; Lambrecht, Bart N; Grooten, Johan; David, Sunil A; De Koker, Stefaan; De Geest, Bruno G

    2016-07-19

    Agonists of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are potent activators of the innate immune system and hold promise as vaccine adjuvant and for anticancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, in soluble form they readily enter systemic circulation and cause systemic inflammatory toxicity. Here we demonstrate that by covalent ligation of a small-molecule imidazoquinoline-based TLR7/8 agonist to 50-nm-sized degradable polymeric nanogels the potency of the agonist to activate TLR7/8 in in vitro cultured dendritic cells is largely retained. Importantly, imidazoquinoline-ligated nanogels focused the in vivo immune activation on the draining lymph nodes while dramatically reducing systemic inflammation. Mechanistic studies revealed a prevalent passive diffusion of the nanogels to the draining lymph node. Moreover, immunization studies in mice have shown that relative to soluble TLR7/8 agonist, imidazoquinoline-ligated nanogels induce superior antibody and T-cell responses against a tuberculosis antigen. This approach opens possibilities to enhance the therapeutic benefit of small-molecule TLR agonist for a variety of applications. PMID:27382168

  6. Regulation of Calcitriol Biosynthesis and Activity: Focus on Gestational Vitamin D Deficiency and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Avila, Euclides; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25584965

  7. Regulation of calcitriol biosynthesis and activity: focus on gestational vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Avila, Euclides; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25584965

  8. Removal of daytime thermal deformations in the GBT active surface via out-of-focus holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. R.; Mello, M.; Nikolic, B.; Mason, B. S.; Schwab, F. R.; Ghigo, F. D.; Dicker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    The 100-m diameter Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built with an active surface of 2209 actuators in order to achieve and maintain an accurate paraboloidal shape. While much of the large-scale gravitational deformation of the surface can be described by a finite element model, a significant uncompensated gravitational deformation exists. In recent years, the elevation-dependence of this residual deformation has been successfully measured during benign nighttime conditions using the out-of-focus (OOF) holography technique (Nikolic et al, 2007, A&A 465, 685). Parametrized by a set of Zernike polynomials, the OOF model correction was implemented into the active surface and has been applied during all high frequency observations since Fall 2006, yielding a consistent gain curve that is constant with elevation. However, large-scale thermal deformation of the surface has remained a problem for daytime high-frequency observations. OOF holography maps taken throughout a clear winter day indicate that surface deformations become significant whenever the Sun is above 10 degrees elevation, but that they change slowly while tracking a single source. In this paper, we describe a further improvement to the GBT active surface that allows an observer to measure and compensate for the thermal surface deformation using the OOF technique. In order to support high-frequency observers, "AutoOOF" is a new GBT Astrid procedure that acquires a quick set of in-focus and out-of-focus on-the-fly continuum maps on a quasar using the currently active receiver. Upon completion of the maps, the data analysis software is launched automatically which produces and displays the surface map along with a set of Zernike coefficients. These coefficients are then sent to the active surface manager which combines them with the existing gravitational Zernike terms and FEM in order to compute the total active surface correction. The end-to-end functionality has been tested on the sky at Q-Band and Ka

  9. Integration and test activities for the SUMIRE prime focus spectrograph at LAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madec, F.; Jaquet, Marc; Pascal, Sandrine; Bozier, A.; Le Mignant, David; Vives, S.; Ferrand, D.; Pegot-Ogier, T.; Arthaud, G.; Golebiowski, M.; Sugai, H.; Tamura, N.; Gunn, J.; Smee, S.; Oliveira, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project for Subaru telescope consists in four identical spectrographs feed by 600 fibers each. Each spectrograph is composed by an optical entrance unit that creates a collimated beam and distributes the light to three channels, two visible and one near infrared. We present here the integration process of the first spectrograph channel. The verification requirements, the specific integration requirements and the product tree are the main drivers from the top plan for the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) development process. We then present the AIT flow-down, the details for the AIT processes as well as opto-mechanical alignment procedures and tests setup. In parallel, we are developing and validating dedicated tools to secure and facilitate the AIT activities, as we have to assemble eight visible cameras, integrate and align four fiber slits, integrate and align the components of four spectrographs.

  10. Land Use and Climate Impacts on Fluvial Systems (LUCIFS): A PAGES - Focus 4 (PHAROS) research activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearing, John; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    LUCIFS is a global research program which is concerned with understanding past interactions between climate, human activity and fluvial systems. Its focus is on evaluating the geomorphic impact of humans on landscapes, with a strong emphasis on geomorphological and sedimentological perspectives on mid- to long-term man-landscape interactions. Of particular relevance are aspects of sediment redistribution systems such as non-linear behaviour, the role of system configuration, scale effects, and emergent properties Over the last decade the LUCIFS program has been investigating both contemporary and long-term river response to global change with the principal aims of i)quantifying land use and climate change impacts of river-borne fluxes of water, sediment, C, N and P; ii) identification of key controls on these fluxes at the catchment scale; and iii) identification of the feedback on both human society and biogeochemical cycles of long-term changes in the fluxes of these materials The major scientific tasks of the LUCIFS-program are: • synthesising results of regional case studies • identify regional gaps and encouraging new case studies • addressing research gaps and formulating new research questions • organising workshops and conferences In this paper we present the LUCIFS program within the new PAGES structure. LUCIFS is located in the Focus 4 (PHAROS) dealing with how a knowledge of human-climate-ecosystem interactions in the past can help inform understanding and management today. In conjunction with the other working groups HITE (Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems), LIMPACS (Human Impacts on Lake Ecosystems) and IHOPE (Integrated History of People on Earth) PHAROS aims to compare regional-scale reconstructions of environmental and climatic processes using natural archives, documentary and instrumental data, with evidence of past human activity obtained from historical, paleoecological and archaeological records.

  11. Manipulation of acoustic focusing with an active and configurable planar metasurface transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiajun; Ye, Huapeng; Huang, Kun; Chen, Zhi Ning; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-09-01

    It has a pivotal role in medical science and in industry to concentrate the acoustic energy created with piezoelectric transducers (PTs) into a specific area. However, previous researches seldom consider the focal resolution, whose focal size is much larger than one wavelength. Furthermore, there is to date no such design method of PTs that allows a large degree of freedom to achieve designed focal patterns. Here, an active and configurable planar metasurface PT prototype is proposed to manipulate the acoustic focal pattern and the focal resolution freely. By suitably optimized ring configurations of the active metasurface PT, we demonstrate the manipulation of focal patterns in acoustic far fields, such as the designed focal needle and multi foci. Our method is also able to manipulate and improve the cross-sectional focal resolution from subwavelength to the extreme case: the deep sub-diffraction-limit resolution. Via the acoustic Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral (RSI) cum the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), the free manipulation of focusing properties is achieved in acoustics for the first time. Our approach may offer more initiatives where the strict control of acoustic high-energy areas is demanding.

  12. Does goal setting in activity-focused interventions for children with cerebral palsy influence treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Brogren Carlberg, Eva; Löwing, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Today, treatment for children with cerebral palsy predominantly aims at improving the children's possibilities to perform everyday activities in their natural environment. The activities in focus for intervention are often expressed as specific goals, frequently defined in a collaborative goal-setting process between professionals and parents. The role of goal setting to improve the outcome of the intervention has not been shown in the literature so far. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore if goal setting has an impact on treatment outcome assessed by standardized measures. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched from January 2000 to October 2012, resulting in a final selection of 13 articles, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was assessed and study characteristics were analysed descriptively. Subject characteristics, type of intervention/s, frequency, and intensity of therapy varied largely. Outcome was assessed by standardized outcome measures as well as evaluated through aspects of goal attainment. Most studies showed robust within-group changes according to study-appropriate standardized measures, whereas the between-group comparisons exhibited less consistent differences in outcome. The review does not provide support for a positive effect of goal setting per se on treatment outcome. Studies that specifically measure the effect of goal setting on treatment outcome are needed. PMID:24237280

  13. Manipulation of acoustic focusing with an active and configurable planar metasurface transducer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiajun; Ye, Huapeng; Huang, Kun; Chen, Zhi Ning; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    It has a pivotal role in medical science and in industry to concentrate the acoustic energy created with piezoelectric transducers (PTs) into a specific area. However, previous researches seldom consider the focal resolution, whose focal size is much larger than one wavelength. Furthermore, there is to date no such design method of PTs that allows a large degree of freedom to achieve designed focal patterns. Here, an active and configurable planar metasurface PT prototype is proposed to manipulate the acoustic focal pattern and the focal resolution freely. By suitably optimized ring configurations of the active metasurface PT, we demonstrate the manipulation of focal patterns in acoustic far fields, such as the designed focal needle and multi foci. Our method is also able to manipulate and improve the cross-sectional focal resolution from subwavelength to the extreme case: the deep sub-diffraction-limit resolution. Via the acoustic Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral (RSI) cum the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), the free manipulation of focusing properties is achieved in acoustics for the first time. Our approach may offer more initiatives where the strict control of acoustic high-energy areas is demanding. PMID:25174409

  14. Manipulation of acoustic focusing with an active and configurable planar metasurface transducer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiajun; Ye, Huapeng; Huang, Kun; Chen, Zhi Ning; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    It has a pivotal role in medical science and in industry to concentrate the acoustic energy created with piezoelectric transducers (PTs) into a specific area. However, previous researches seldom consider the focal resolution, whose focal size is much larger than one wavelength. Furthermore, there is to date no such design method of PTs that allows a large degree of freedom to achieve designed focal patterns. Here, an active and configurable planar metasurface PT prototype is proposed to manipulate the acoustic focal pattern and the focal resolution freely. By suitably optimized ring configurations of the active metasurface PT, we demonstrate the manipulation of focal patterns in acoustic far fields, such as the designed focal needle and multi foci. Our method is also able to manipulate and improve the cross-sectional focal resolution from subwavelength to the extreme case: the deep sub-diffraction-limit resolution. Via the acoustic Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral (RSI) cum the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), the free manipulation of focusing properties is achieved in acoustics for the first time. Our approach may offer more initiatives where the strict control of acoustic high-energy areas is demanding. PMID:25174409

  15. Focused campaign increases activity among participants in Nature's Notebook, a citizen science project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants’ activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a national-scale citizen science program. The campaign that we implemented was designed to answer a compelling scientific question. We invited participants in the phenology-observing program, Nature’s Notebook, to track trees throughout the spring of 2012, to ascertain whether the season arrived as early as the anomalous spring of 2010. Consisting of a series of six electronic newsletters and costing our office slightly more than 1 week of staff resources, our effort was successful; compared with previous years, the number of observations collected in the region where the campaign was run increased by 184%, the number of participants submitting observations increased by 116%, and the number of trees registered increased by 110%. In comparison, these respective metrics grew by 25, 55, and 44%, over previous years, in the southeastern quadrant of the United States, where no such campaign was carried out. The campaign approach we describe here is a model that could be adapted by a wide variety of programs to increase engagement and thereby positively influence participant retention.

  16. 75 FR 74061 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups as Used by the Food and Drug Administration (All Food and Drug... for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on focus groups as used by... technology. Focus Groups as Used by the Food and Drug Administration (All FDA- Regulated...

  17. 78 FR 38993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups About Drug Products as Used by the Food and Drug Administration... response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the information collection resulting from focus... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Focus Groups About Drug Products as Used by the...

  18. Family Life Education: Focus on Student Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kinsey B.

    This booklet presents many ideas for involving students in family life education programs. Designed primarily for use by family life educators, it includes such topics as the use of cognitive and affective objectives in family life education, organizing family studies content by generalizations, and focusing on the student as an active learner. It…

  19. Getting kids active by participating in sport and doing It more often: focusing on what matters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    physical activity levels and identify target groups and areas for interventions, program design and policy development. Interventions should focus on improving accessibility to sport programs for all adolescents, providing adequate sport grounds at school, and promoting good sport management practices. Programs and policies encouraging sport participation should address in particular the needs of adolescents living in deprived neighborhoods, those attending coeducational and girls-only schools, and those who are obese. PMID:22788577

  20. Primarily nonlinear effects observed in a driven asymmetrical vibrating wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Roger J.; Macomber, H. Kent; Morrison, Andrew C.; Boucher, Matthew A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to further experimentally explore the wide variety of behaviors exhibited by driven vibrating wires, primarily in the nonlinear regime. When the wire is driven near a resonant frequency, it is found that most such behaviors are significantly affected by the splitting of the resonant frequency and by the existence of a ``characteristic'' axis associated with each split frequency. It is shown that frequency splitting decreases with increasing wire tension and can be altered by twisting. Two methods are described for determining the orientation of characteristic axes. Evidence is provided, with a possible explanation, that each axis has the same orientation everywhere along the wire. Frequency response data exhibiting nonlinear generation of transverse motion perpendicular to the driving direction, hysteresis, linear generation of perpendicular motion (sometimes tubular), and generation of motion at harmonics of the driving frequency are exhibited and discussed. Also reported under seemingly unchanging conditions are abrupt large changes in the harmonic content of the motion that sometimes involve large subharmonics and harmonics thereof. Slow transitions from one stable state of vibration to another and quasiperiodic motions are also exhibited. Possible musical significance is discussed. .

  1. 77 FR 28894 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Register on February 8, 2012, at 77 FR 6573, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS/did not... Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection for Office of... sure to add ``1615-NEW, Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups'' in the subject...

  2. Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans Exoproteins Are Primarily Involved in Heterotrophic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Azad; Pappalardo, Elisa; Hester, Svenja; Thomas, Benjamin; Pretre, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a life-threatening and emerging zoonotic disease with a worldwide annual occurrence of more than 1 million cases. Leptospirosis is caused by spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The mechanisms of disease manifestation in the host remain elusive, and the roles of leptospiral exoproteins in these processes have yet to be determined. Our aim in this study was to assess the composition and quantity of exoproteins of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans and to construe how these proteins contribute to disease pathogenesis. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry of proteins obtained from Leptospira spirochetes cultured in vitro under conditions mimicking infection identified 325 exoproteins. The majority of these proteins are conserved in the nonpathogenic species Leptospira biflexa, and proteins involved in metabolism and energy-generating functions were overrepresented and displayed the highest relative abundance in culture supernatants. Conversely, proteins of unknown function, which represent the majority of pathogen-specific proteins (presumably involved in virulence mechanisms), were underrepresented. Characterization of various L. interrogans exoprotein mutants in the animal infection model revealed host mortality rates similar to those of hosts infected with wild-type L. interrogans. Collectively, these results indicate that pathogenic Leptospira exoproteins primarily function in heterotrophic processes (the processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as nutrient sources) to maintain the saprophytic lifestyle rather than the virulence of the bacteria. The underrepresentation of proteins homologous to known virulence factors, such as toxins and effectors in the exoproteome, also suggests that disease manifesting from Leptospira infection is likely caused by a combination of the primary and potentially moonlight functioning of exoproteins. PMID:25987703

  3. Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans exoproteins are primarily involved in heterotrophic processes.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Azad; Pappalardo, Elisa; Hester, Svenja; Thomas, Benjamin; Pretre, Gabriela; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a life-threatening and emerging zoonotic disease with a worldwide annual occurrence of more than 1 million cases. Leptospirosis is caused by spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The mechanisms of disease manifestation in the host remain elusive, and the roles of leptospiral exoproteins in these processes have yet to be determined. Our aim in this study was to assess the composition and quantity of exoproteins of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans and to construe how these proteins contribute to disease pathogenesis. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry of proteins obtained from Leptospira spirochetes cultured in vitro under conditions mimicking infection identified 325 exoproteins. The majority of these proteins are conserved in the nonpathogenic species Leptospira biflexa, and proteins involved in metabolism and energy-generating functions were overrepresented and displayed the highest relative abundance in culture supernatants. Conversely, proteins of unknown function, which represent the majority of pathogen-specific proteins (presumably involved in virulence mechanisms), were underrepresented. Characterization of various L. interrogans exoprotein mutants in the animal infection model revealed host mortality rates similar to those of hosts infected with wild-type L. interrogans. Collectively, these results indicate that pathogenic Leptospira exoproteins primarily function in heterotrophic processes (the processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as nutrient sources) to maintain the saprophytic lifestyle rather than the virulence of the bacteria. The underrepresentation of proteins homologous to known virulence factors, such as toxins and effectors in the exoproteome, also suggests that disease manifesting from Leptospira infection is likely caused by a combination of the primary and potentially moonlight functioning of exoproteins. PMID:25987703

  4. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng; Angelidaki, Irini; Luo, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased from 19.2 mL H2/gVSS at 37 °C and pH 10-80.1 mL H2/gVSS at 55 °C and pH 10. However, the production of volatile fatty acids (mainly acetate) was higher at 37 °C and pH 10 by comparison with 55 °C and pH 10. Hydrogen consumption due to homoacetogenesis was observed at 37 °C and pH 10 but not 55 °C and pH 10. Higher expression levels of genes relating with homoacetogenesis and lower expression levels of genes relating with hydrogen production were found at 37 °C and pH 10 compared to 55 °C and pH 10. The continuous experiment demonstrated the steady-state hydrogen yield of WAS was comparable to that obtained from batch experiments at 55 °C and pH 10, and homoacetogenesis was still inhibited. However, the steady-state hydrogen yield of WAS (6.5 mL H2/gVSS) was much lower than that (19.2 mL H2/gVSS) obtained from batch experiments at 37 °C and pH 10 due to the gradual enrichment of homoacetogens as demonstrated by qPCR analysis. The high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that the abundance of genus Clostridium, containing several homoacetogens, was 5 times higher at 37 °C and pH 10 than 55 °C and pH 10. PMID:27420808

  5. 75 FR 32161 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ..., product use, and perceptions regarding safety issues. Through participation in certain focus groups... perceptions on the use or pattern of use of a specific product or type of product, including recalled products... of consumer products and product use by providing insight and information into consumer...

  6. 76 FR 62400 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Used by EPA for Economics Projects (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... discussions will vary by project. Title: Focus Groups as used by EPA for Economics Projects (Renewal). ICR...) related to economics projects. Over the next three years, the Agency anticipates embarking on a number...

  7. Nonprofit Organizations and Outcome Measurement: From Tracking Program Activities to Focusing on Frontline Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lehn M.

    2012-01-01

    Why do we continue to see evidence that nonprofit staff feel like outcome measurement is missing important aspects of their work? Based on an analysis of over 1,000 pages of material in 10 outcome measurement guides and a focused literature review of frontline work in three types of nonprofit organizations, this article shows that existing outcome…

  8. Broad Considerations Concerning Electrochemical Electrodes in Primarily Fluid Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jesudason, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    This review is variously a presentation, reflection, synthesis and report with reference to more recent developments of an article – in a journal which has ceased publication – entitled “Some Electrode Theorems with Experimental Corroboration, Inclusive of the Ag/AgCl System” Internet Journal of Chemistry, (http://www.ijc.com), Special Issues: Vol. 2 Article 24 (1999). The results from new lemmas relating charge densities and capacitance in a metallic electrode in equilibrium with an ionic solution are used to explain the data and observed effects due to Esin, Markov, Grahame, Lang and Kohn. Size effects that vary the measured e.m.f. of electrodes due to changes in the electronic chemical potential are demonstrated in experiment and theory implying the need for standardization of electrodes with respect to geometry and size. The widely used Stern modification of the Gouy-Chapman theory is shown to be mostly inapplicable for many of the problems where it is employed. Practical consequences of the current development include the possibility of determining the elusive single-ion activity coefficients of solution ions directly from the expression given by a simplified capacitance theorem, the potential of zero charge and the determination of single ion concentrations of active species in the electrode reactions from cell e.m.f. measurements. PMID:19564949

  9. Cerebral activation focusing on strong tasting food: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Senichiro; Kubota, Fumio; Nisijima, Koichi; Washiya, Sumio; Kato, Satoshi

    2005-02-28

    Very little research has been conducted on taste imagery because of the difficulty of doing so. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe cerebral activation patterns produced in volunteers concentrating on pickled plums (umeboshi), a traditional Japanese food with a strong and sour taste. Activation was observed in the right insula, the bilateral opercula, the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices and the left Broca's area. Activation in the insula (primary gustatory area) was very weak and limited to one side. The activation pattern was similar to that of taste perception. Our results showed that it is possible for humans to imagine tastes. PMID:15706236

  10. An electrically tunable depth-of-field endoscope using a liquid crystal lens as an active focusing element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hung-Shan; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2013-09-01

    An electrically tunable depth-of-field (DOF) endoscope using a liquid crystal lens (LC lens) as an active focusing element is demonstrated. The optical mechanism of the electrically-tunable DOF endoscope adopting a two-mode switching LC lens is introduced. The two-mode switching LC lens provides not only a positive lens power but also a negative lens power. Therefore, we could extend the range of DOF originally from 27 mm ~ 55 mm to 12.4 mm ~ 76.4 mm by using the two-mode switching LC lens as an active focusing element. The detail derivations of the optical mechanism of the endoscopic system adopting a LC lens are invistgated. The more detail experimental results are demonstrated. We believe this study can provide a more detail understanding of an endoscopic system adopting a tunable focusing lens.

  11. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  12. Lack of Active Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Northern Chiapas Focus of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Morales-Castro, Alba L.; Richards, Frank; Peña-Flores, Graciela P.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Prado-Velasco, Gibert

    2010-01-01

    The northern Chiapas onchocerciasis focus has undergone 11 years of ivermectin mass treatment. No evidence of microfilariae in the cornea and/or anterior chamber of the eye or in skin snips was seen in residents examined in 2006 in two sentinel communities (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval [UL 95% CI] = 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively). In children 10 and under, 0 of 305 were found to harbor antibodies to Ov16, a marker of parasite exposure; 0 of 4,400 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected in 2005 contained parasite DNA, giving an UL 95% CI for the infective rate of 0.9/2,000, and an UL 95% CI of the seasonal transmission potential of 1.2 L3/person. These data, assumed to be representative of the focus as a whole, suggest that there is no ongoing transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the northern Chiapas focus. Community-wide treatments with ivermectin were halted in 2008, and a post-treatment surveillance phase was initiated. PMID:20595471

  13. The Animal Exhibits at the Field Museum. Activities for Focused Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickland, Thomas, J.

    Museum visits allow students to see animals from South America, North America, Africa, Asia, and the North Pole without rain, snow, or mosquitoes. This activity guide was developed for teachers, chaperones, and students to use with the animal exhibits in the Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Wing of the Field Museum of Chicago. Activities are designed for…

  14. The Effect of Retrieval Focus and Emotional Valence on the Inferior Frontal Cortex Activity during Autobiographical Recollection

    PubMed Central

    Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

    2013-01-01

    Although available evidence points to a role of the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) in both emotion processing and autobiographical memory (AM) recollection, it is unclear what the role of this region is in emotional AM recollection. The present study investigated whether IFC activity can be influenced by manipulations of the retrieval focus (emotional vs. non-emotional) and whether this influence is similar for AMs with positive and negative emotional valence. Participants were asked to focus either on emotional (Emotion condition) or on non-emotional contextual (Context condition) details during the elaboration of positive and negative AMs, while fMRI data were collected. The study yielded two main findings: (1) Focusing on Emotion compared to Context during AM recollection was associated with increased activity in bilateral IFC, for positive AMs, whereas negative AMs produced similarly high IFC activity during Emotion and Context conditions; (2) There was a hemispheric dissociation in the IFC linked to the experiencing of emotion and the focus of AM recollection, such that the left IFC activity correlated positively with the subjective re-experience of emotion during the Emotion condition, whereas the right IFC activity correlated negatively with the subjective re-experience of emotion during the Context condition, for both positive and negative AMs. Overall, the present findings suggest that IFC’s involvement during the recollection of emotional AMs is susceptible to manipulations of the retrieval focus only in the case of positive AMs, and that this region plays a role in both the enhancement and inhibition of emotional experience during AM recollection. PMID:24379766

  15. Flexibility within working memory and the focus of attention for sequential verbal information does not depend on active maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sandry, Joshua; Schwark, Jeremy D; MacDonald, Justin

    2014-10-01

    The focus of attention seems to be a static element within working memory when verbal information is serially presented, unless additional time is available for processing or active maintenance. Experiment 1 manipulated the reward associated with early and medial list positions in a probe recognition paradigm and found evidence that these nonterminal list positions could be retrieved faster and more accurately if participants were appropriately motivated-without additional time for processing or active maintenance. Experiment 2 used articulatory suppression and demonstrated that the underlying maintenance mechanism cannot be attributed to rehearsal, leaving attentional refreshing as the more likely mechanism. These findings suggest that the focus of attention within working memory can flexibly maintain nonterminal early and medial list representations at the expense of other list representations even when there is not additional time for processing or active maintenance. Maintenance seems to be accomplished through an attentional refreshing mechanism. PMID:24879637

  16. Participation in play activities: a single-case study focusing on a child with obesity experiences.

    PubMed

    Skär, Lisa; Prellwitz, Maria

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how a child with obesity perceived participation in play activities. A single-case study design was chosen to optimize the understanding of the complexities of the research question. A 9-year-old boy diagnosed with obesity was studied. This is a typical case and is studied mainly to provide understanding to the issue. The data were collected from interviews with the boy, his mother and his teacher. Data were also collected through observations and a self-report assessment instrument called Kid Play Profile. The results showed that the boy was ridiculed by his peers and that at times he felt excluded from them, which prevented him from participating in play activities. The boy's experience came from different perceived problems such as lack of friends to play with, his inability to know how to perform in different play activities, and lack of proper support and encouragement from adults. Supporting children to overcome social skills deficits could prevent them from being teased and may have a positive effect on health. To optimize children's participation in play activities, it is important for adults to give them proper support and encouragement. The results were discussed with regard to earlier research, and topics for further research are suggested. PMID:18489691

  17. Aquatic Activities for Middle School Children. A Focus on the Effects of Acid Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Minnesota Sea Grant Program.

    Basic water-related concepts and underlying principles of acid rain are described in this curriculum in a manner that young children can understand. The curriculum consists of activities presented in four units: Background Unit, Earth Science Unit, Life Science Unit, and Extension Unit. The first three units consist of several modules, each module…

  18. Practical Activities that Focus on the Decision-Making Process. TEAL Occasional Papers, Vol. 2, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Nancy

    This paper demonstrates how a diagram of a Safeway supermarket can be the vehicle for a language lesson based on Lawrence's cognitive categories (classification, definition, spatial order, chronological order, generalizations and specifics, and cause and effect). A wide variety of decision-making activities based on this diagram are described.…

  19. What's the Diagnosis? An Inquiry-Based Activity Focusing on Mole-Mass Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2011-01-01

    An inquiry-based mole-to-mass activity is presented associated with the analysis of blood. Students working in groups choose between two medical cases to determine if the "patient" has higher or lower concentrations of minerals than normal. The data are presented such that students must convert moles to mass in order to compare the patient values…

  20. Still Focusing on the "Essential 2:1": Exploring Student Attitudes to Extra-Curricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In order to compete for positional advantage in the graduate labour market students need more than a good degree classification. The evidence suggests that participation in extra-curricular activities (ECAs) can have a significant influence on labour market outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which…

  1. Towards Flexible Learning for Adult Learners in Professional Contexts: An Activity-Focused Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sarah; Gordon, Carole; Ackland, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This article argues for a flexible model of learning for adults which allows them to make choices and contextualise their learning in a manner appropriate to their own professional practice whilst also developing as a member of a learning community. It presents a design based around online "learning activities" which draws on ideas of…

  2. Fragmentation mechanisms of confined co-flowing capillary threads revealed by active flow focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert de Saint Vincent, Matthieu; Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    The control over stationary liquid thread fragmentation in confined co-flows is a key issue for the processing and transport of fluids in (micro-)ducts. Confinement indeed strongly enhances the stability of capillary threads, and also induces steric and hydrodynamic feedback effects on diphasic flows. We investigate the thread-to-droplet transition within the confined environment of a microchannel by using optocapillarity, i.e., interface stresses driven by light, as a wall-free constriction to locally flow focus stable threads in a tunable way, pinch them, and force their fragmentation. Above some flow-dependent onset in optical forcing, we observe a dynamic transition alternating between continuous (thread) and fragmented (droplets) states and show a surprisingly gradual thread-to-droplet transition when increasing the amplitude of the thread constriction. This transition is interpreted as an evolution from a convective to an absolute instability. Depending on the forcing amplitude, we then identify and characterize several stable fragmented regimes of single and multiple droplet periodicity (up to period-8). These droplet regimes build a robust flow-independent bifurcation diagram that eventually closes up, due to the flow confinement, to a monodisperse droplet size, independent of the forcing and close to the most unstable mode expected from the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. This fixed monodispersity can be circumvented by temporally modulating the optocapillary coupling, as we show that fragmentation can then occur either by triggering again the Rayleigh-Plateau instability when the largest excitable wavelength is larger than that of the most unstable mode, or as a pure consequence of a sufficiently strong optocapillary pinching. When properly adjusted, this modulation allows us to avoid the transient reforming and multidisperse regimes, and thereby to reversibly produce stable monodisperse droplet trains of controlled size. By actuating local flow focusing in

  3. Functional analysis of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) β-thymosin: Focus on antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Seo, Jung-Kil; Lee, Min Jeong; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Park, Nam Gyu

    2015-07-01

    An antimicrobial peptide, ∼5 kDa in size, was isolated and purified in its active form from the mantle of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by C18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight analysis revealed 4656.4 Da of the purified and unreduced peptide. A comparison of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of oyster antimicrobial peptide with deduced amino acid sequences in our local expressed sequence tag (EST) database of C. gigas (unpublished data) revealed that the oyster antimicrobial peptide sequence entirely matched the deduced amino acid sequence of an EST clone (HM-8_A04), which was highly homologous with the β-thymosin of other species. The cDNA possessed a 126-bp open reading frame that encoded a protein of 41 amino acids. To confirm the antimicrobial activity of C. gigas β-thymosin, we overexpressed a recombinant β-thymosin (rcgTβ) using a pET22 expression plasmid in an Escherichia coli system. The antimicrobial activity of rcgTβ was evaluated and demonstrated using a bacterial growth inhibition test in both liquid and solid cultures. PMID:25842181

  4. Precursory seismic activity before the 1944 Tonankai (Japan) earthquake: focusing on the downward migration of seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Kiyoo

    1987-08-01

    Based on the latest JMA earthquake catalog, the author investigated seismic activity around the time of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake ( M 7.9, M w 8.1 ) and the 1946 Nankaido earthquake ( M 8.1, M w 8.1 ), which were both great thrust-type earthquakes along the Nankai Trough. For about 20 years before these earthquakes their focal regions had been quiescent (appearance of a seismic gap of the second kind) and the surrounding areas had become increasingly active, forming a doughnut pattern). Several years before these earthquakes occurred seismic activity increased at shallow depths of the area to the north. This activity gradually migrated downwards, and the Tonankai earthquake occurred when it reached its limit (a depth of approximately 70 km). The author has previously reported on several cases of increased activity in the deep seismic plane at a depth of 300-500 km prior to large shallow earthquakes along the Japan Trench (Mogi, 1973). This paper will demonstrate that a similar phenomenon occurs when the depth of the deep seismic plane is only about 70 km. For several years before the Tonankai earthquake there had been a slight increase in seismicity in the area along the trough, which is where the plate subducts. Two or three days before tne earthquake marked ground tilt also proceeded at the northeastern tip of the focal region. It is evident that the Tonankai earthquake was preceded by various long-term and short-term precursory phenomena.

  5. The perceived impacts of monitoring activities on intergovernmental relationships: some lessons from the Ecological Monitoring Network and Water in Focus.

    PubMed

    de Kool, Dennis

    2015-11-01

    An increasing stream of monitoring activities is entering the public sector. This article analyzes the perceived impacts of monitoring activities on intergovernmental relationships. Our theoretical framework is based on three approaches to monitoring and intergovernmental relationships, namely, a rational, a political, and a cultural perspective. Our empirical insights are based on two Dutch case studies, namely, the Ecological Monitoring Network and the Water in Focus reports. The conclusion is that monitoring activities have an impact on intergovernmental relationships in terms of standardizing working processes and methods, formalizing information relationships, ritualizing activities, and developing shared concepts ("common grammar"). An important challenge is to deal with the politicization of intergovernmental relationships, because monitoring reports can also stimulate political discussions about funding, the design of the instrument, administrative burdens, and supervisory relationships. PMID:26471275

  6. Biological activities and potential molecular targets of cucurbitacins: a focus on cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuping; Bao, Jiaolin; Guo, Jiajie; Ding, Qian; Lu, Jinjian; Huang, Mingqing; Wang, Yitao

    2012-09-01

    Cucurbitacin and its derivatives (cucurbitacins) are a class of highly oxidized tetracyclic triterpenoids. They are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, where they act as heterologous chemical pheromones that protect plants from external biological insults. Their bioactivities first attracted attention in the 1960s. Documented data demonstrate that cucurbitacins possess strong pharmacological properties, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects, etc. Several molecular targets for cucurbitacins have been discovered, such as fibrous-actin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, cyclooxygenase-2, etc. The present study summarizes the achievements of the 50 years of research on cucurbitacins. The aim was to systematically analyze their bioactivities with an emphasis on their anticancer effects. Research and development has shed new insight into the beneficial properties of these compounds. PMID:22561419

  7. [Discovery of Novel Biologically Active Compounds of Natural Origin, with a Focus on Anti-tumor Activity].

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    Numerous clinically valuable medicines, including anticancer drugs, have been developed from biologically active natural compounds and their structurally related derivatives. This review discusses novel natural compounds with promising biological activities and those with novel chemical structures. Glaziovianin A, an isoflavone isolated from the leaves of Ateleia glazioviana (Legminosae), inhibited cell cycle progression at the M-phase with an abnormal spindle structure. AU-1 and YG-1, 5β-steroidal glycosides isolated from the whole plants of Agave utahensis and the underground parts of Yucca glauca (Agavaceae), induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells via caspase-3 activation. Lycolicidinol, an alkaloid isolated from the bulbs of Lycoris albiflora (Amaryllidaceae), induced transient autophagy and morphological changes in mitochondria in the early stage of the apoptotic cell death process in HSC-2 cells. Taccasterosides isolated from the rhizomes of Tacca chantrieri (Taccaceae) and stryphnosides isolated from the pericarps of Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Legminosae) are steroidal and triterpene glycosides with unique chemical structures having novel sugar sequences. PMID:26423865

  8. Internal focus of attention in anxiety-sensitive females up-regulates amygdale activity: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, Bettina; Berse, Timo; Stroux, Daniel; Ewert, Adrianna; Konrad, Carsten; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive behavioral models of panic disorder (PD) stress the importance of an increased attentional focus towards bodily symptoms in the onset and maintenance of this debilitating anxiety disorder. In this fMRI mental tracking paradigm, we looked at the effects of focusing one's attention internally (interoception) vs. externally (exteroception) in a well-studied group at risk for PD-that is anxiety-sensitive females (AS-high). We hypothesized that AS-high subjects compared to control subjects will present higher arousal and decreased valence scores during interoception and parallel higher activity in brain areas which are associated with fear and interoception. 24 healthy female students with high levels of anxiety sensitivity and 24 healthy female students with normal levels of anxiety sensitivity serving as control group were investigated by 3 T fMRI. Subjects either focused their attention on their heartbeats (internal condition) or on neutral tones (external condition). Task performance was monitored by reporting the number of heartbeats or tones after each block. State of arousal and emotional valence were also assessed. The high anxiety-sensitive group reported higher arousal scores compared to controls during the course of the experiment. Simultaneously, fMRI results indicated higher activation in anxiety-sensitive participants than in controls during interoception in a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions (thalamus, amygdala, parahippocampus) that overlaps with known fear circuitry structures. In particular, the activity of the right amygdala was up-regulated. Future prospective-longitudinal studies are needed to validate the role of the amygdala for transition to disorder. Attention to internal body functions up-regulates the activity of interoceptive and fear-relevant brain regions in anxiety-sensitive females, a high-risk group for the development of anxiety disorders. PMID:24898851

  9. Rsr1 Focuses Cdc42 Activity at Hyphal Tips and Promotes Maintenance of Hyphal Development in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Pulver, Rebecca; Heisel, Timothy; Gonia, Sara; Robins, Robert; Norton, Jennifer; Haynes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The extremely elongated morphology of fungal hyphae is dependent on the cell's ability to assemble and maintain polarized growth machinery over multiple cell cycles. The different morphologies of the fungus Candida albicans make it an excellent model organism in which to study the spatiotemporal requirements for constitutive polarized growth and the generation of different cell shapes. In C. albicans, deletion of the landmark protein Rsr1 causes defects in morphogenesis that are not predicted from study of the orthologous protein in the related yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thus suggesting that Rsr1 has expanded functions during polarized growth in C. albicans. Here, we show that Rsr1 activity localizes to hyphal tips by the differential localization of the Rsr1 GTPase-activating protein (GAP), Bud2, and guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Bud5. In addition, we find that Rsr1 is needed to maintain the focused localization of hyphal polarity structures and proteins, including Bem1, a marker of the active GTP-bound form of the Rho GTPase, Cdc42. Further, our results indicate that tip-localized Cdc42 clusters are associated with the cell's ability to express a hyphal transcriptional program and that the ability to generate a focused Cdc42 cluster in early hyphae (germ tubes) is needed to maintain hyphal morphogenesis over time. We propose that in C. albicans, Rsr1 “fine-tunes” the distribution of Cdc42 activity and that self-organizing (Rsr1-independent) mechanisms of polarized growth are not sufficient to generate narrow cell shapes or to provide feedback to the transcriptional program during hyphal morphogenesis. PMID:23223038

  10. Classical Photoreceptors Are Primarily Responsible for the Pupillary Light Reflex in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Varsha; Srivastava, Ipsit; Palchaudhuri, Shriya; Goel, Manvi; Sinha-Mahapatra, Sumit K.; Dhingra, Narender K.

    2016-01-01

    Pupillary light reflex (PLR) is an important clinical tool to assess the integrity of visual pathways. The available evidence suggests that melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) mediate PLR—driven by the classical photoreceptors (rods and cones) at low irradiances and by melanopsin activation at high irradiances. However, genetic or pharmacological elimination of melanopsin does not completely abolish PLR at high irradiances, raising the possibility that classical photoreceptors may have a role even at high irradiances. Using an inducible mouse model of photoreceptor degeneration, we asked whether classical photoreceptors are responsible for PLR at all irradiances, and found that the PLR was severely attenuated at all irradiances. Using multiple approaches, we show that the residual PLR at high irradiances in this mouse was primarily from the remnant rods and cones, with a minor contribution from melanopsin activation. In contrast, in rd1 mouse where classical photoreceptor degeneration occurs during development, the PLR was absent at low irradiances but intact at high irradiances, as reported previously. Since mRGCs receive inputs from classical photoreceptors, we also asked whether developmental loss of classical photoreceptors as in rd1 mouse leads to compensatory takeover of the high-irradiance PLR by mRGCs. Specifically, we looked at a distinct subpopulation of mRGCs that express Brn3b transcription factor, which has been shown to mediate PLR. We found that rd1 mouse had a significantly higher proportion of Brn3b-expressing M1 type of mRGCs than in the inducible model. Interestingly, inducing classical photoreceptor degeneration during development also resulted in a higher proportion of Brn3b-expressing M1 cells and partially rescued PLR at high irradiances. These results suggest that classical photoreceptors are primarily responsible for PLR at all irradiances, while melanopsin activation makes a minor contribution at very high irradiances

  11. Focusing on Increasing Velocity during Heavy Resistance Knee Flexion Exercise Boosts Hamstring Muscle Activity in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-01-01

    Background. Muscle strength is markedly reduced in stroke patients, which has negative implications for functional capacity and work ability. Different types of feedback during strength training exercises may alter neuromuscular activity and functional gains. Objective. To compare levels of muscle activity during conditions of blindfolding and intended high contraction speed with a normal condition of high-intensity knee flexions. Methods. Eighteen patients performed unilateral machine knee flexions with a 10-repetition maximum load. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the quadrics and hamstring muscles and normalized to maximal EMG (nEMG) of the nonparetic limb. Results. For the paretic leg, the speed condition showed higher values of muscle activity compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for both biceps femoris and semitendinosus. Likewise, the speed condition showed higher co-contraction values compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for the vastus lateralis. No differences were observed between exercise conditions for the nonparetic leg. Conclusion. Chronic stroke patients are capable of performing heavy resistance training with intended high speed of contraction. Focusing on speed during the concentric phase elicited higher levels of muscle activity of the hamstrings compared to normal and blindfolded conditions, which may have implications for regaining fast muscle strength in stroke survivors. PMID:27525118

  12. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  13. Nrf2 activation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: a focus on its role in mitochondrial bioenergetics and function.

    PubMed

    Esteras, Noemí; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Abramov, Andrey Y

    2016-05-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor well-known for its function in controlling the basal and inducible expression of a variety of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. As part of its cytoprotective activity, increasing evidence supports its role in metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics and function. Neurodegenerative diseases are excellent candidates for Nrf2-targeted treatments. Most neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia and Friedreich's ataxia are characterized by oxidative stress, misfolded protein aggregates, and chronic inflammation, the common targets of Nrf2 therapeutic strategies. Together with them, mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative disorders. The recently recognized ability of Nrf2 to regulate intermediary metabolism and mitochondrial function makes Nrf2 activation an attractive and comprehensive strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. This review aims to focus on the potential therapeutic role of Nrf2 activation in neurodegeneration, with special emphasis on mitochondrial bioenergetics and function, metabolism and the role of transporters, all of which collectively contribute to the cytoprotective activity of this transcription factor. PMID:26812787

  14. Focusing on Increasing Velocity during Heavy Resistance Knee Flexion Exercise Boosts Hamstring Muscle Activity in Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Muscle strength is markedly reduced in stroke patients, which has negative implications for functional capacity and work ability. Different types of feedback during strength training exercises may alter neuromuscular activity and functional gains. Objective. To compare levels of muscle activity during conditions of blindfolding and intended high contraction speed with a normal condition of high-intensity knee flexions. Methods. Eighteen patients performed unilateral machine knee flexions with a 10-repetition maximum load. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the quadrics and hamstring muscles and normalized to maximal EMG (nEMG) of the nonparetic limb. Results. For the paretic leg, the speed condition showed higher values of muscle activity compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for both biceps femoris and semitendinosus. Likewise, the speed condition showed higher co-contraction values compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for the vastus lateralis. No differences were observed between exercise conditions for the nonparetic leg. Conclusion. Chronic stroke patients are capable of performing heavy resistance training with intended high speed of contraction. Focusing on speed during the concentric phase elicited higher levels of muscle activity of the hamstrings compared to normal and blindfolded conditions, which may have implications for regaining fast muscle strength in stroke survivors. PMID:27525118

  15. Design, synthesis and biological activity of new polyenolic inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases: a focus on chemically-modified curcumins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ying; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Hambardjieva, Elena; Vranková, Kveta; Golub, Lorne M; Johnson, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are essential for the degradation and turnover of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and, when pathologically elevated, mediate connective tissue loss (including bone destruction) in various inflammatory and other diseases. Tetracyclines (TCs) are known inhibitors of mammalian-derived MMPs, and non-antibiotic formulations of Doxycycline are FDA-approved to treat periodontitis and the chronic inflammatory skin disease, rosacea. Because the C-11/ C-12 diketonic moiety of the tetracyclines is primarily responsible, through zinc-binding, for MMP inhibition, we have uniquely modified curcumin as a "core" molecule, since it contains a similar enolic system and is known to have beneficial effects in diseases where connective-tissue loss occurs. Specifically we have developed new congeners which exhibit improved zinc-binding and solubility, and potent reduction of excessive MMP levels and activity. We now describe a series of curcuminoid bi- and tri-carbonylmethanes in which all of these properties are substantially improved. An N-phenylaminocarbonyl derivative of bis-demethoxycurcumin (CMC2.24) was selected as the "lead" substance because it showed superior potency in vitro (i.e., the lowest IC(50)) against a series of neutral proteases (MMPs) associated with tissue erosion. Moreover, CMC2.24 administered to diabetic rats orally (30mg/kg), reduced the secretion of pathologically-excessive levels of MMP-9 to normal in cultured peritoneal macrophages with no evidence of toxicity. Thus, this (and other similar novel) compound(s) may be useful in various diseases of connective-tissue loss. PMID:22830350

  16. The therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic virus Delta24-RGD in a murine glioma model depends primarily on antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kleijn, Anne; Kloezeman, Jenneke; Treffers-Westerlaken, Elike; Fulci, Giulia; Leenstra, Sieger; Dirven, Clemens; Debets, Reno; Lamfers, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses selectively lyse tumor cells, making these agents a promising treatment modality for glioma. Accumulating data suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the anti-glioma activity of oncolytic viruses. In an immune competent glioma model, the therapeutic effect of the oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD was found to depend primarily on antitumor immune responses. PMID:25941622

  17. Duration of hexobarbital-induced sleep and monoamine oxidase activities in rat brain: Focus on the behavioral activity and on the free-radical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Tseilikman, Vadim E; Kozochkin, Denis A; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Downey, H Fred; Tseilikman, Olga B; Misharina, Maria E; Nikitina, Anna A; Komelkova, Maria V; Lapshin, Maxim S; Kondashevskaya, Marina V; Lazuko, Svetlana S; Kusina, Oxana V; Sahabutdinov, Marat V

    2016-04-01

    The present study is focused on the relationship between monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and hepatic content of cytochrome P450 (CYP), which reflects the status of microsomal oxidation. For vital integrative evaluation of hepatic microsomal oxidation in rats, the hexobarbital sleep test was used, and content of CYP was measured in hepatic microsomes. Rats with short hexobarbital sleep time (SHST) had higher content of microsomal CYP than rats with long hexobarbital sleep time (LHST). Whole brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities, serotonin and carbonylated protein levels were higher in SHST than in LHST rats. MAO-A and MAO-B activities were higher in brain cortex of SHST rats; MAO-A activity was higher only in hypothalamus and medulla of LHST. The same brain regions of LHST rats had higher concentrations of carbonylated proteins and lipid peroxidation products than in SHST rats. MAO activity was correlated with microsomal oxidation phenotype. Rats with higher hepatic content of CYP had higher activities of MAO-A and MAO-B in the brain and higher plasma serotonin levels than rats with lower microsomal oxidation. In conclusion, data obtained in this study showed a correlation between MAO activity and microsomal oxidation phenotype. PMID:26689857

  18. The activation of tissue factor by high intensity focused ultrasound—a pathway to acoustic-biochemical hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinmai; Barber, Frank E.; Morrissey, James H.; Church, Charles C.

    2006-05-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is believed to have great potential for inducing hemostasis in severely bleeding trauma victims. The addition of HIFU-activated biomolecular substances to the blood during treatment could significantly reduce the time required to achieve hemostasis, but such substances must remain inactive everywhere except at the site of injury. The integral-membrane protein, tissue factor (TF), is by far the most potent known trigger for the blood clotting cascade. We propose to employ liposomes with the extracellular domain of TF facing the lumen ("encrypted TF") to allow the TF molecules to be introduced into the blood stream without causing systemic activation of coagulation. HIFU sonication at the site of injury will be used to break up the liposomes and thereby expose TF to the plasma, thus combining the hemostatic potential of HIFU along with an increase in the rate of clot formation triggered by TF. In our initial studies we have produced a range of concentrations of liposomes containing encrypted TF in a buffer solution and exposed them to ultrasound at a number of different intensity levels and duty cycles. Clotting assays were performed to determine the level of the desired effect of the ultrasound. The results suggest that HIFU can be effective in exposing active TF from the encrypted liposomes to accelerate blood clotting at the site of exposure.

  19. The erythropoietin receptor transmembrane region is necessary for activation by the Friend spleen focus-forming virus gp55 glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Zon, L I; Moreau, J F; Koo, J W; Mathey-Prevot, B; D'Andrea, A D

    1992-01-01

    The erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R), a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily, can be activated by binding either erythropoietin (EPO) or gp55, the Friend spleen focus-forming virus glycoprotein. The highly specific interaction between gp55 and EPO-R triggers cell proliferation and thereby causes the first stage of Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia. We have generated functional chimeric receptors containing regions of the EPO-R and the interleukin-3 receptor (AIC2A polypeptide), a related cytokine receptor which does not interact with gp55. All chimeric receptors were expressed at similar levels, had similar binding affinities for EPO, and conferred EPO-dependent cell growth. Only those chimeric receptors which contained the EPO-R transmembrane region were activated by gp55. These results demonstrate that the transmembrane region of the EPO-R is critical for activation by gp55. In addition, analysis of a soluble, secreted EPO-R and cysteine point mutants of the EPO-R show that the extracytoplasmic region of the EPO-R specifically interacts with gp55. Images PMID:1320192

  20. Retinol induces morphological alterations and proliferative focus formation through free radical-mediated activation of multiple signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gelain, Daniel Pens; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Castro, Mauro Antonio Alves; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Toxicity of retinol (vitamin A) has been previously associated with apoptosis and/or cell malignant transformation. Thus, we investigated the pathways involved in the induction of proliferation, deformation and proliferative focus formation by retinol in cultured Sertoli cells of rats. Methods: Sertoli cells were isolated from immature rats and cultured. The cells were subjected to a 24-h treatment with different concentrations of retinol. Parameters of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity were analyzed. The effects of the p38 inhibitor SB203580 (10 μmol/L), the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L), the Akt inhibitor LY294002 (10 μmol/L), the ERK inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L) the pan-PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (10 μmol/L) and the PKA inhibitor H89 (1 μmol/L) on morphological and proliferative/transformation-associated modifications were studied. Results: Retinol (7 and 14 μmol/L) significantly increases the reactive species production in Sertoli cells. Inhibition of p38, JNK, ERK1/2, Akt, and PKA suppressed retinol-induced [3H]dT incorporation into the cells, while PKC inhibition had no effect. ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition also blocked retinol-induced proliferative focus formation in the cells, while Akt and JNK inhibition partially decreased focus formation. ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition hindered transformation-associated deformation in retinol-treated cells, while other treatments had no effect. Conclusion: Our results suggest that activation of multiple kinases is responsible for morphological and proliferative changes associated to malignancy development in Sertoli cells by retinol at the concentrations higher than physiological level. PMID:22426700

  1. Self-Capacitating Activities of Mothers' Clubs of Primarily Indigenous Membership in Bolivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felty, Amelia Smith

    A case study was conducted of the organized, cooperative efforts of women in six communities in Bolivia. From December 1978 through January 1988, visits were made to women's organizations called "mothers' clubs." Effects of club membership on members, their families, and their communities were examined. A research review showed that: (1) women can…

  2. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases. PMID:27043533

  3. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities.

    PubMed

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases. PMID:27043533

  4. Pathway-focused bioassays and transcriptome analysis contribute to a better activity monitoring of complex herbal remedies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcriptome analysis in combination with pathway-focused bioassays is suggested to be a helpful approach for gaining deeper insights into the complex mechanisms of action of herbal multicomponent preparations in living cells. The polyherbalism based concept of Tibetan and Ayurvedic medicine considers therapeutic efficacy through multi-target effects. A polyherbal Indo-Tibetan preparation, Padma 28, approved by the Swiss drug authorities (Swissmedic Nr. 58436), was applied to a more detailed dissection of mechanism of action in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Cell-free and cell-based assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Genome-wide expression profiling was done by applying Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Affymetrix arrays. Pathway- and network-oriented analysis elucidated the affected biological processes. The results were validated using reporter gene assays and quantitative real-time PCR. Results To reveal the direct radical scavenging effects of the ethanolic extract of the Indo-Tibetan polyherbal remedy Padma 28, an in vitro oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) was employed, which resulted in a peroxyl-radical scavenging activity of 2006 ± 235 μmol TE/g. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of Padma 28 was analysed in living HepG2 cells, by measuring its scavenging potential against radical induced ROS. This formulation showed a considerable antioxidant capacity by significantly reducing ROS levels in a dose-dependent manner. Integrated transcriptome analysis revealed a major influence on phase I and phase II detoxification and the oxidative stress response. Selected target genes, such as heme oxygenase 1, were validated in qPCR experiments. Network analysis showed 18 interrelated networks involved in important biological functions such as drug and bio-molecule metabolism, molecular transport and cellular communication. Some molecules are part of signaling cascades that are active during development and morphogenesis or

  5. Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus. Methodology Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Center reporting prior to 2013 focused primarily on descriptive statistics (frequencies and means) of student and faculty behaviors. The goal of the analyses reported here and in "Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus" is to understand the engagement of part-time or contingent faculty in various activities that…

  6. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and

  7. Non-destructive assay of fissile materials through active neutron interrogation technique using pulsed neutron (plasma focus) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, B. S.; Kaushik, T. C.; Andola, Sanjay; Ramniranjan; Rout, R. K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D. B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ramakumar, K. L.; Gupta, S. C.; Sinha, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    Pulsed neutrons emitted from a plasma focus (PF) device have been used for the first time for the non-destructive assay of 235U content in different chemical forms (oxide and metal). The PF device generates (1.2±0.3)×109 D-D fusion neutrons per shot with a pulse width of 46±5 ns. The method involves the measurement of delayed neutrons from an irradiated sample 50 ms after exposure to the neutron pulse for a time of about 100 s in the multichannel scaling (MCS) mode. The calibration of the active interrogation delayed neutron counter (AIDNEC) system was carried out by irradiating U3O8 samples of varying amounts (0.1-40 g) containing enriched 235U (14.8%) in the device. The delayed neutrons were monitored using a bank of six 3He detectors. The sensitivity of the system was found to be about 100 counts/s/g over the accumulation time of 25 s per neutron pulse of ˜109. The detection limit of the system is estimated to be 18 mg of 235U. The system can be suitably modified for applications toward non-destructive assay of fissile content in waste packets.

  8. Temporal evolution of pump beam self-focusing at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; Pedersen, T.; Mishin, E.; Starks, M.; Gerken-Kendall, E.; Sentman, D.; Oyama, S.; Watkins, B.

    2007-08-01

    On 4 February 2005 the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility was operated at 2.85 MHz to produce artificial optical emissions in the ionosphere while passing through the second electron gyroharmonic. All-sky optical recordings were performed with 15 s integration, alternating between 557.7 and 630 nm. We report the first optical observations showing the temporal evolution of large-scale pump wave self-focusing in the magnetic zenith, observed in the 557.7 nm images. These clearly show that the maximum intensity was not reached after 15 s of pumping, which is unexpected since the emission delay time is <1 s, and that the optical signature had intensified in a much smaller region within the beam after 45 s of pumping. In addition, adjacent regions within the beam lost intensity. Radar measurements indicate a plasma depletion of ~1% near the HF reflection altitude. Ray tracing of the pump wave through the plasma depletion region, which forms a concave reflecting radio wave mirror, reproduces the optical spatial morphology. A radio wave flux density gain of up to ~30 dB may occur. In addition, the ray trace is consistent with the observed artificial optical emissions for critical plasma frequencies down to ~0.5 MHz below the pump frequency.

  9. cis-Active elements of Friend spleen focus-forming virus: from disease induction to disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Baum, C; Hunt, N; Hildinger, M; Eckert, H G; Zaehres, H; Richters, A; John, J; Löhler, J; Ostertag, W

    1998-01-01

    The polycythemic strain of the Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFVp) is a replication-defective, acutely transforming retrovirus inducing a bistage erythroleukemia in susceptible mice. The first stage of the disease is an acute polyclonal erythroblastosis induced by the proliferation-promoting effect of gp55. gp55 is expressed from a spliced subgenomic message of SFFVp and stimulates the cellular receptor for erythropoietin. Using a selectable SFFVp that otherwise mimics the specificity of the disease, we demonstrate that the kinetics of the polyclonal expansion depends on the transcriptional strength of the retroviral cis-active elements. By exchanging gp55 for apathogenic genes, we show that SFFVp enhancer and splice signals can be successfully utilized for the development of retroviral vectors mediating very efficient transgene expression in hematopoietic cells. Apathogenic selectable SFFVp-based vectors carrying distinct enhancer alterations are a valuable tool to analyze transcriptional control of leukemia viruses in the absence of oncogenic proteins. Moreover they might have therapeutic potential. PMID:9587397

  10. Wavelet-transform-based active imaging of cavitation bubbles in tissues induced by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runna; Xu, Shanshan; Hu, Hong; Huo, Rui; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    Cavitation detection and imaging are essential for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapies. In this paper, an active cavitation imaging method based on wavelet transform is proposed to enhance the contrast between the cavitation bubbles and surrounding tissues. The Yang-Church model, which is a combination of the Keller-Miksis equation with the Kelvin-Voigt equation for the pulsations of gas bubbles in simple linear viscoelastic solids, is utilized to construct the bubble wavelet. Experiments with porcine muscles demonstrate that image quality is associated with the initial radius of the bubble wavelet and the scale. Moreover, the Yang-Church model achieves a somewhat better performance compared with the Rayleigh-Plesset-Noltingk-Neppiras-Poritsky model. Furthermore, the pulse inversion (PI) technique is combined with bubble wavelet transform to achieve further improvement. The cavitation-to-tissue ratio (CTR) of the best tissue bubble wavelet transform (TBWT) mode image is improved by 5.1 dB compared with that of the B-mode image, while the CTR of the best PI-based TBWT mode image is improved by 7.9 dB compared with that of the PI-based B-mode image. This work will be useful for better monitoring of cavitation in HIFU-induced therapies. PMID:27586712

  11. Time-Referenced Effects of an Internal vs. External Focus of Attention on Muscular Activity and Compensatory Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hossner, Ernst-Joachim; Ehrlenspiel, Felix

    2010-01-01

    The paralysis-by-analysis phenomenon, i.e., attending to the execution of one's movement impairs performance, has gathered a lot of attention over recent years (see Wulf, 2007, for a review). Explanations of this phenomenon, e.g., the hypotheses of constrained action (Wulf et al., 2001) or of step-by-step execution (Masters, 1992; Beilock et al., 2002), however, do not refer to the level of underlying mechanisms on the level of sensorimotor control. For this purpose, a “nodal-point hypothesis” is presented here with the core assumption that skilled motor behavior is internally based on sensorimotor chains of nodal points, that attending to intermediate nodal points leads to a muscular re-freezing of the motor system at exactly and exclusively these points in time, and that this re-freezing is accompanied by the disruption of compensatory processes, resulting in an overall decrease of motor performance. Two experiments, on lever sequencing and basketball free throws, respectively, are reported that successfully tested these time-referenced predictions, i.e., showing that muscular activity is selectively increased and compensatory variability selectively decreased at movement-related nodal points if these points are in the focus of attention. PMID:21833285

  12. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Nemazanyy, Ivan . E-mail: nemazanyy@imbg.org.ua; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T. . E-mail: i.gout@ucl.ac.uk

    2006-03-24

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy {beta} and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy {alpha}. The transcript specific for CoASy {beta} was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy {beta}. In contrast to CoASy {alpha}, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy {beta} is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation.

  13. Targeted Drug Delivery with Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening Using Acoustically-Activated Nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cherry C.; Sheeran, Paul S.; Wu, Shih-Ying; Olumolade, Oluyemi O.; Dayton, Paul A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2013-01-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of systemically administered microbubbles has been shown to locally, transiently and reversibly increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thus allowing targeted delivery of therapeutic agents in the brain for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Currently, microbubbles are the only agents that have been used to facilitate the FUS-induced BBB opening. However, they are constrained within the intravascular space due to their micron-size diameters, limiting the delivery effect at or near the microvessels. In the present study, acoustically-activated nanodroplets were used as a new class of contrast agents to mediate FUS-induced BBB opening in order to study the feasibility of utilizing these nanoscale phase-shift particles for targeted drug delivery in the brain. Significant dextran delivery was achieved in the mouse hippocampus using nanodroplets at clinically relevant pressures. Passive cavitation detection was used in the attempt to establish a correlation between the amount of dextran delivered in the brain and the acoustic emission recorded during sonication. Conventional microbubbles with the same lipid shell composition and perfluorobutane core as the nanodroplets were also used to compare the efficiency of FUS-induced dextran delivery. It was found that nanodroplets had a higher BBB opening pressure threshold but a lower stable cavitation threshold than microbubbles, suggesting that contrast agent-dependent acoustic emission monitoring was needed. More homogeneous dextran delivery within the targeted hippocampus was achieved using nanodroplets without inducing inertial cavitation or compromising safety. Our results offered a new means of developing the FUS-induced BBB opening technology for potential extravascular targeted drug delivery in the brain, extending the potential drug delivery region beyond the cerebral vasculature. PMID:24096019

  14. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering. PMID:26720411

  15. A gene-centric analysis of activated partial thromboplastin time and activated protein C resistance using the HumanCVD focused genotyping array

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Tom R; Lowe, Gordon DO; Lawlor, Debbie A; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Day, Ian NM

    2013-01-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is an important routine measure of intrinsic blood coagulation. Addition of activated protein C (APC) to the aPTT test to produce a ratio, provides one measure of APC resistance. The associations of some genetic mutations (eg, factor V Leiden) with these measures are established, but associations of other genetic variations remain to be established. The objective of this work was to test for association between genetic variants and blood coagulation using a high-density genotyping array. Genetic association with aPTT and APC resistance was analysed using a focused genotyping array that tests approximately 50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nearly 2000 cardiovascular candidate genes, including coagulation pathway genes. Analyses were conducted on 2544 European origin women from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. We confirm associations with aPTT at the coagulation factor XII (F12)/G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) and kininogen 1 (KNG1)/histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) loci, and identify novel SNPs at the ABO locus and novel locus kallikrein B (KLKB1)/F11. In addition, we confirm association between APC resistance and factor V Leiden mutation, and identify novel SNP associations with APC resistance in the HRG and F5/solute carrier family 19 member 2 (SLC19A2) regions. In conclusion, variation at several genetic loci influences intrinsic blood coagulation as measured by both aPTT and APC resistance. PMID:23188048

  16. Brainstem structures are primarily affected in an experimental model of severe scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Cash, Diana; Drumond, Luciana Estefani; de Souza E Rezende, Gustavo Henrique; Massensini, André Ricardo; Williams, Steve Charles Rees; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Mesquita, Michel Bernanos Soares

    2014-01-01

    Severe scorpion envenoming (SSE) is more frequent in children and is characterized by systemic dysfunctions with a mortality rate of up to 9%. Recent evidence shows that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a key role in triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE. The age-dependent role of the CNS in SSE lethality may be summarized in 3 hypotheses: (1) the shown increased blood brain barrier permeability of infants to the toxins would especially and primarily compromise neurovegetative control areas, (2) the neurons within these areas have high affinity to the toxins, and (3) the neurovascular interaction is such that SSE metabolically compromises proper function of toxin-targeted areas. A pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to evaluate localized hemodynamic changes in relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) for 30 min after the injection of TsTX, the most lethal toxin from the venom of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. The brainstem showed significant rCBV reduction 1 min after TsTX administration, whereas rostral brain areas had delayed increase in rCBV (confirmed by laser Doppler measurements of cortical cerebral blood flow). Moreover, metabolic activity by 14C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography showed the highest relative increase at the brainstem. To test whether TsTX has high affinity to brainstem neurons, the lateral ventricle was injected with Alexa Fluor 568 TsTX. Although some neurons showed intense fluorescence, the labeling pattern suggests that specific neurons were targeted. Altogether, these results suggest that brainstem areas involved in neurovegetative control are most likely within the primary structures triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE. PMID:24105889

  17. Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H; Jenkins, Larry W; Switzer, Robert C; Bauman, Richard A; Tong, Lawrence C; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Bayir, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian; Jackson, Edwin K; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2011-06-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal exposure of 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) (positive phase duration ∼ 4 msec). Using an IACUC-approved protocol, isoflurane-anesthetized rats were placed in a steel wedge (to shield the body) 7 feet inside the end of the tube. The left side faced the blast wave (with head-only exposure); the wedge apex focused a Mach stem onto the rat's head. The insult produced ∼ 25% mortality (due to impact apnea). Surviving and sham rats were perfusion-fixed at 24 h, 72 h, or 2 weeks post-blast. Neuropathologic evaluations were performed utilizing hematoxylin and eosin, amino cupric silver, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains for amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), ED1, and rat IgG. Multifocal axonal degeneration, as evidenced by staining with amino cupric silver, was present in all blast-exposed rats at all time points. Deep cerebellar and brainstem white matter tracts were most heavily stained with amino cupric silver, with the morphologic staining patterns suggesting a process of diffuse axonal injury. Silver-stained sections revealed mild multifocal neuronal death at 24 h and 72 h. GFAP, ED1, and Iba1 staining were not prominently increased, although small numbers of reactive microglia were seen within areas of neuronal death. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability (as measured by IgG staining) was seen at 24 h and primarily affected the contralateral cortex. Axonal injury was the most prominent feature during the initial 2 weeks following blast exposure, although degeneration of other neuronal processes was also present

  18. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  19. Two DNA glycosylases in Esherichia coli which release primarily 3-methyladenine

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.; Yang, C.; Goldthwait, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two enzymes have been partially purified from Escherichia coli and designated 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases I and II. The apparent molecular weight of glycosylase I is 20,000, and that of II is 27,000. Glycosylase I releases 3-methyladenine (3-MeA) while II releases 3-MeA, 3-methylguanine (3-MeG), 7-methylguanine (7-MeG), and 7-methyladenine (7-MeA). The rate of release of 3-MeA by glycosylase II is 30 times that of 7-MeG. Glycosylase I is missing in mutants tag 1 and tag 2. In crude extracts, the 3-MeA activity of II is approximately 10% of the total 3-MeA activity. A 50% inactivation at 48/sup 0/C required 5 min for I and 65 min for II. The 3-MeA and 7-MeG activities of the glycosylase II preparation could not be separated by isoelectric focusing, by chromatography of DEAE, Sephadex G-100, phosphocellulose, DNA-cellulose, or carboxymethylcellulose, or by heating at 50/sup 0/C.

  20. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. Identity-Related Influences on the Success of Minority Workers in Primarily Nonminority Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Keith; Khoo, Gillian

    1991-01-01

    Reviews literature at the micro- (individual, interpersonal, and small group) and macro- (organizational, societal, and cultural) levels relating to the experiences and outcomes of minorities in work settings populated primarily by members of the majority. Uses Tajfel and Turner's Social Identity Theory as an organizational and integrative…

  2. Autism and Developmental Screening in a Public, Primary Care Setting Primarily Serving Hispanics: Challenges and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Gayle C.; Smith, Karen S.; Rosen, Nila; Anderson, Meredith C.; Grether, Judith K.; Coolman, Richard B.; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We implemented screening of children 16-30 months of age (n = 1,760) from a typically under-served, primarily Hispanic, population, at routine pediatric appointments using the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) and Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Screen positive rates of 26 and 39%, respectively, were higher than previous reports.…

  3. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  4. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  5. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  6. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  7. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  8. 12 CFR 208.7 - Prohibition against use of interstate branches primarily for deposit production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition against use of interstate branches primarily for deposit production. 208.7 Section 208.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) General...

  9. 12 CFR 208.7 - Prohibition against use of interstate branches primarily for deposit production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against use of interstate branches primarily for deposit production. 208.7 Section 208.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) General...

  10. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID ACTIVITY IN THE FEMALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid activity in the female rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations.

    Goldman JM, Laws SC, Balchak SK, Cooper RL, Kavlock RJ.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National H...

  11. Changes in Psychosocial Factors and Physical Activity Frequency among Third- to Eighth-Grade Girls Who Participated in a Developmentally Focused Youth Sport Program: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debate, Rita D.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Zwald, Marissa; Huberty, Jennifer; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous physiological, psychological, and academic benefits of physical activity (PA), declines in PA levels among girls have been observed over the last decade. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the short-term changes pertaining to Girls on the Run and Girls on Track developmentally focused youth sport…

  12. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS].

    PubMed

    Popov, N V; Udovikov, A I; Eroshenko, G A; Karavaeva, T B; Yakovlev, S A; Porshakov, A M; Zenkevich, E S; Kutyrev, V V

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that in 1923-2014 the sharp aggravations of the epizootic situation of plague in the area of its Caspian sandy natural focus after long interepizootic periods are in time with the ups of the Caspian Sea in the extrema of 11-year solar cycles. There were cases of multiple manifestations of plague in the same areas in the epizootic cycles of 1946-1954, 1979-1996, 2001, and 2013-2014. The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations. PMID:27029140

  13. Tsunami focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only

  14. Instrument Measures Shift In Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimle, Lawrence J.

    1992-01-01

    Optical components tested at wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. Focus-shift-measuring instrument easy to use. Operated in lighted room, without having to make delicate adjustments while peering through microscope. Measures distance along which focal point of converging beam of light shifted by introduction of nominally plane parallel optical component into beam. Intended primarily for measuring focus shifts produced by windows and filters at wavelengths from 120 to 1,100 nanometers. Portable, compact, and relatively inexpensive for degree of precision.

  15. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, BA; Jones, A; Biggs, BK; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8–14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. Methods This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Results Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) “very easy” or “easy” to use. Conclusion The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies. PMID:27042382

  16. Demographic and Practice Characteristics of Psychiatrists who Primarily Treat Patients with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Ivan D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Svikis, Dace S.; Fitek, Diana J.; Marcus, Steven C.; Pincus, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the sociodemographic and practice characteristics of psychiatrists whose caseloads consist primarily of patients with Substance Use Disorders (SUD). A. survey instrument was completed by a random sample of 865 psychiatrists. Study groups were defined as high-SUD providers if psychiatrists reported having 51% or more patients with SUD (n = 92) and non-SUD providers as those who reported not having any patients with SUD (n = 128). High-SUD providers tended to be younger, more likely to graduate from international medical schools, have larger caseloads, work more hours per week, and have a higher proportion of inpatients and publicly funded patients than non-SUD providers. Results suggest that psychiatrists who primarily treat patients with SUD are in their early careers and treat patients with more clinical, psychosocial, and economic disadvantages. The implications of these findings for psychiatry training programs and policy makers will be discussed. PMID:12851014

  17. Pharmacometric Approaches to Personalize Use of Primarily Renally Eliminated Antibiotics in Preterm and Term Neonates.

    PubMed

    Wilbaux, Mélanie; Fuchs, Aline; Samardzic, Janko; Rodieux, Frédérique; Csajka, Chantal; Allegaert, Karel; van den Anker, Johannes N; Pfister, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Sepsis remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, and, as a consequence, antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed drugs in this vulnerable patient population. Growth and dynamic maturation processes during the first weeks of life result in large inter- and intrasubject variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antibiotics. In this review we (1) summarize the available population PK data and models for primarily renally eliminated antibiotics, (2) discuss quantitative approaches to account for effects of growth and maturation processes on drug exposure and response, (3) evaluate current dose recommendations, and (4) identify opportunities to further optimize and personalize dosing strategies of these antibiotics in preterm and term neonates. Although population PK models have been developed for several of these drugs, exposure-response relationships of primarily renally eliminated antibiotics in these fragile infants are not well understood, monitoring strategies remain inconsistent, and consensus on optimal, personalized dosing of these drugs in these patients is absent. Tailored PK/PD studies and models are useful to better understand relationships between drug exposures and microbiological or clinical outcomes. Pharmacometric modeling and simulation approaches facilitate quantitative evaluation and optimization of treatment strategies. National and international collaborations and platforms are essential to standardize and harmonize not only studies and models but also monitoring and dosing strategies. Simple bedside decision tools assist clinical pharmacologists and neonatologists in their efforts to fine-tune and personalize the use of primarily renally eliminated antibiotics in term and preterm neonates. PMID:26766774

  18. EFL Teaching in the Amazon Region of Ecuador: A Focus on Activities and Resources for Teaching Listening and Speaking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Paul F.; Ochoa, Cesar A.; Cabrera, Paola A.; Castillo, Luz M.; Quinonez, Ana L.; Solano, Lida M.; Espinosa, Franklin O.; Ulehlova, Eva; Arias, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    Research on teaching listening and speaking skills has been conducted at many levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current implementation of classroom and extracurricular activities, as well as the use of educational resources for teaching both skills in public senior high schools in the Amazon region of Ecuador, particularly in…

  19. A New Approach toward Digital Storytelling: An Activity Focused on Writing Self-Efficacy in a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yan; Park, Hyungsung; Baek, Youngkyun

    2011-01-01

    Recently, computer technology and multimedia elements have been developed and integrated into teaching and learning. Entertainment-based learning environments can make learning contents more attractive, and thus can lead to learners' active participation and facilitate learning. A significant amount of research examines using video editing…

  20. Electrophoretic Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic focusing is a new method of continuous flow electrophoresis that introduces precision flow control to achieve high resolution separations. The electric field is applied perpendicular to an incoming sample lamina and buffer but also perpendicular to the broad faces of the thin rectangular chamber. A uniform fluid cross-flow then enters and exits the separation chamber through the same broad faces which are porous. A balance is achieved by adjusting either the electric field or the cross-flow so the desired sample fraction with its specific migration velocity encounters an opposing flow of the same velocity. Applying an electric field transverse to the incoming sample lamina and opposing this field with a carefully configured buffer flow, a sample constituent can be selected and focused into a narrow stream for subsequent analysis. Monotonically changing either electric field or buffer cross-flow will yield a scan of all constituents of the sample. Stopping the scan increases the collection time for minor constituents to improve their analysis. Using the high voltage gradients and/or cross-flow to rapidly deflect extraneous sample through the porous screens and into either of the side (purge) chambers, the selected sample is focused in the center plane of the separation chamber and collected without contact or interaction with the separation chamber walls. Results will be presented on the separation of a range of materials including dyes, proteins, and monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Sources of sample dispersion inherent in other electrokinetic techniques will be shown to be negligible for a variety of sample concentrations, buffer properties and operating conditions.

  1. Dynamic changes of integrated backscatter, attenuation coefficient and bubble activities during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyuan; Wan, Mingxi; Zhong, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Liao, Zhenzhong; Liu, Huanqing; Wang, Supin

    2009-11-01

    This paper simultaneously investigated the transient characteristics of integrated backscatter (IBS), attenuation coefficient and bubble activities as time traces before, during and after HIFU treatment, with different HIFU parameters (acoustic power and duty cycle) in both transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and freshly excised bovine livers. These dynamic changes of acoustic parameters and bubble activities were correlated with the visualization of lesion development selected from photos, conventional B-mode ultrasound images and differential IBS images over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired by a modified diagnostic ultrasound scanner to estimate the changes of mean IBS and attenuation coefficient averaged in the lesion region, and to construct the differential IBS images and B-mode ultrasound images simultaneously. Bubble activities over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment were investigated by the passive cavitation detection (PCD) method and the changes in subharmonic and broadband noise were correlated with the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation coefficient. When HIFU was switched on, IBS and attenuation coefficient increased with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode and differential IBS image. At the same time, the level of subharmonic and broadband noise rose abruptly. Then, there was an initial decrease in the attenuation coefficient, followed by an increase when at lower HIFU power. As the lesion appeared, IBS and attenuation coefficient both increased rapidly to a value twice that of normal. Then the changes in IBS and attenuation coefficient showed more complex patterns, but still showed a slower trend of increases with lesion development. Violent bubble activities were visible in the gel and were evident as strongly echogenic regions in the differential IBS images and B-mode images simultaneously. This was detected by a dramatic high level of subharmonic and broadband

  2. Volcanology and volcanic activity with a primary focus on potential hazard impacts for the Hawaii geothermal project

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B.; Delaney, P.T.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews published references about potential volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii that are pertinent to drilling and operating geothermal wells. The first two sections of this annotated bibliography list the most important publications that describe eruptions of Kilauea volcano, with special emphasis on activity in and near the designated geothermal subzones. References about historic eruptions from Mauna Loa`s northeast rift zone, as well as the most recent activity on the southern flank of dormant Mauna Kea, adjacent to the Humu`ula Saddle are described. The last section of this annotated bibliography lists the most important publications that describe and analyze deformations of the surface of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes.

  3. GPU accelerated fully space and time resolved numerical simulations of self-focusing laser beams in SBS-active media

    SciTech Connect

    Mauger, Sarah; Colin de Verdière, Guillaume; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    A computer cluster equipped with Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is used for simulating nonlinear optical wave packets undergoing Kerr self-focusing and stimulated Brillouin scattering in fused silica. We first recall the model equations in full (3+1) dimensions. These consist of two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations for counterpropagating optical beams closed with a source equation for light-induced acoustic waves seeded by thermal noise. Compared with simulations on a conventional cluster of Central Processing Units (CPUs), GPU-based computations allow us to use a significant (16 times) larger number of mesh points within similar computation times. Reciprocally, simulations employing the same number of mesh points are between 3 and 20 times faster on GPUs than on the same number of classical CPUs. Performance speedups close to 45 are reported for isolated functions evaluating, e.g., the optical nonlinearities. Since the field intensities may reach the ionization threshold of silica, the action of a defocusing electron plasma is also addressed.

  4. In Vivo Anti-Candida Activity of Phenolic Extracts and Compounds: Future Perspectives Focusing on Effective Clinical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Candida species have increasingly deserved a special attention among the medical community. In spite of the presence of Candida species as a human commensal, alarming rates of local and systemic infections have been observed, varying from moderate to severe impact. Currently available antifungal drugs have progressively lost their effectiveness, pointing urgently the problem of the microorganisms with acquired-resistance. Natural matrices are secularly used for numerous purposes, being inclusive and highly effective as antimicrobials. Increasing evidence gives a particular emphasis to the contribution of phenolic extracts and related individual compounds. In vitro studies clearly confirm their prominent effects, but the confirmation through in vivo studies, including the involved mechanisms of action, is not so much deepened. Therefore, the present report aims to provide extensive knowledge about all these aspects, highlighting the most efficient phytochemical formulations, including therapeutic doses. Further studies need to be incited to deepen knowledge on this area, namely, focused on clinical trials to provide safer and more effective antimicrobials than the current ones. PMID:26380266

  5. Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

    2010-10-01

    A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 μF) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a short-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ν = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.

  6. Sleep Patterns of a Primarily Obese Sample of Treatment-Seeking Children

    PubMed Central

    Graef, Danielle M.; Janicke, David M.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the sleep patterns and the role of day of the week and school break in these patterns within a primarily obese sample of children. Methods: Participants included 143 obese children (8-12 years) and their parents initiating treatment in a weight-management study in a community-based setting. Demographics, anthropometrics, and objectively measured sleep (i.e., with use of Sensewear Armbands) were collected prior to treatment. Results: Sleep duration was insufficient in our sample, as approximately 88% obtained less than 8 hours of sleep (mean = 6.92, standard deviation = 0.85). Those with lower total sleep time included older children, those identified as African American (compared to those identified as Caucasian), and those identified as Non-Hispanic (compared to those identified as Hispanic). Children on school break initiated sleep later than those in school the week of measurement. Children woke later on weekends and when on school break. There were no differences in day of the week or school break in predicting child sleep duration and total wake time (p's > 0.05). Conclusions: This study is one of the first to examine sleep patterns within a primarily obese sample of treatment-seeking rural children. There is a need for research to develop a better understanding of how sleep may affect health functioning and weight management, as well as quality of life and psychosocial functioning of children who are overweight or obese. Clinical Trials Information: Title of trial: Extension Family Lifestyle Intervention Project (E-FLIP for Kids). Clinical-Trials.gov identifier: NCT01820338. NIH/NIDDK Grant #: 1R18DK082374-01. Citation: Graef DM, Janicke DM, McCrae CS. Sleep patterns of a primarily obese sample of treatment-seeking children. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1111-1117. PMID:25317092

  7. Characterization of Lesion Formation and Bubble Activities during High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation using Temperature-Derived Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Kumon, Ronald E.; Deng, Cheri X.

    2013-01-01

    Successful high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal tissue ablation relies on accurate information of the tissue temperature and tissue status. Often temperature measurements are used to predict and monitor the ablation process. In this study, we conducted HIFU ablation experiments with ex vivo porcine myocardium tissue specimens to identify changes in temperature associated with tissue coagulation and bubble/cavity formation. Using infrared (IR) thermography and synchronized bright-field imaging with HIFU applied near the tissue surface, parameters derived from the spatiotemporal evolution of temperature were correlated with HIFU-induced lesion formation and overheating, of which the latter typically results in cavity generation and/or tissue dehydration. Emissivity of porcine myocardium was first measured to be 0.857 ± 0.006 (n = 3). HIFU outcomes were classified into non-ablative, normal lesion, and overheated lesion. A marked increase in the rate of temperature change during HIFU application was observed with lesion formation. A criterion using the maximum normalized second time derivative of temperature change provided 99.1% accuracy for lesion identification with a 0.05 s−1 threshold. Asymmetric temperature distribution on the tissue surface was observed to correlate with overheating and/or bubble generation. A criterion using the maximum displacement of the spatial location of the peak temperature provided 90.9% accuracy to identify overheated lesion with a 0.16 mm threshold. Spatiotemporal evolution of temperature obtained using IR imaging allowed determination of the cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C (CEM43) for lesion formation to be 170 min. Similar temperature characteristics indicative of lesion formation and overheating were identified for subsurface HIFU ablation. These results suggest that parameters derived from temperature changes during HIFU application are associated with irreversible changes in tissue and may provide useful

  8. Characterization of Lesion Formation and Bubble Activities during High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation using Temperature-Derived Parameters.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Kumon, Ronald E; Deng, Cheri X

    2013-09-01

    Successful high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal tissue ablation relies on accurate information of the tissue temperature and tissue status. Often temperature measurements are used to predict and monitor the ablation process. In this study, we conducted HIFU ablation experiments with ex vivo porcine myocardium tissue specimens to identify changes in temperature associated with tissue coagulation and bubble/cavity formation. Using infrared (IR) thermography and synchronized bright-field imaging with HIFU applied near the tissue surface, parameters derived from the spatiotemporal evolution of temperature were correlated with HIFU-induced lesion formation and overheating, of which the latter typically results in cavity generation and/or tissue dehydration. Emissivity of porcine myocardium was first measured to be 0.857 ± 0.006 (n = 3). HIFU outcomes were classified into non-ablative, normal lesion, and overheated lesion. A marked increase in the rate of temperature change during HIFU application was observed with lesion formation. A criterion using the maximum normalized second time derivative of temperature change provided 99.1% accuracy for lesion identification with a 0.05 s(-1) threshold. Asymmetric temperature distribution on the tissue surface was observed to correlate with overheating and/or bubble generation. A criterion using the maximum displacement of the spatial location of the peak temperature provided 90.9% accuracy to identify overheated lesion with a 0.16 mm threshold. Spatiotemporal evolution of temperature obtained using IR imaging allowed determination of the cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C (CEM 43) for lesion formation to be 170 min. Similar temperature characteristics indicative of lesion formation and overheating were identified for subsurface HIFU ablation. These results suggest that parameters derived from temperature changes during HIFU application are associated with irreversible changes in tissue and may provide useful

  9. Characterization of lesion formation and bubble activities during high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation using temperature-derived parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Kumon, Ronald E.; Deng, Cheri X.

    2013-09-01

    Successful high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal tissue ablation relies on accurate information of the tissue temperature and tissue status. Often temperature measurements are used to predict and monitor the ablation process. In this study, we conducted HIFU ablation experiments with ex vivo porcine myocardium tissue specimens to identify changes in temperature associated with tissue coagulation and bubble/cavity formation. Using infrared (IR) thermography and synchronized bright-field imaging with HIFU applied near the tissue surface, parameters derived from the spatiotemporal evolution of temperature were correlated with HIFU-induced lesion formation and overheating, of which the latter typically results in cavity generation and/or tissue dehydration. Emissivity of porcine myocardium was first measured to be 0.857 ± 0.006 (n = 3). HIFU outcomes were classified into non-ablative, normal lesion, and overheated lesion. A marked increase in the rate of temperature change during HIFU application was observed with lesion formation. A criterion using the maximum normalized second time derivative of temperature change provided 99.1% accuracy for lesion identification with a 0.05 s-1 threshold. Asymmetric temperature distribution on the tissue surface was observed to correlate with overheating and/or bubble generation. A criterion using the maximum displacement of the spatial location of the peak temperature provided 90.9% accuracy to identify overheated lesion with a 0.16 mm threshold. Spatiotemporal evolution of temperature obtained using IR imaging allowed determination of the critical cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C (CEM43) for lesion formation to be 170 min. Similar temperature characteristics indicative of lesion formation and overheating were identified for subsurface HIFU ablation. These results suggest that parameters derived from temperature changes during HIFU application are associated with irreversible changes in tissue and may provide

  10. Results of the EBMT activity survey 2005 on haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: focus on increasing use of unrelated donors.

    PubMed

    Gratwohl, A; Baldomero, H; Frauendorfer, K; Urbano-Ispizua, A; Niederwieser, D

    2007-01-01

    This EBMT activity report documents the haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) activity in Europe in 2005. It provides numbers of HSCT by indication, donor type and stem cell source, lists the new practice of planned double transplants with allogeneic after autologous HSCT and concentrates on the increasing role of unrelated transplants over the last years. In 2005, there were 24,168 first HSCT, 8890 allogeneic (37%), 15,278 autologous (63%) and 3773 additional re- or multiple transplants reported from 597 centres in 43 participating countries. Main indications were leukaemias (7404 (31%; 82% allogeneic)); lymphomas (13,825 (57%; 89% autologous)); solid tumours (1655 (7%; 92% autologous)) and non-malignant disorders (1131 (5%; 93% allogeneic)). A total of 671 planned allogeneic after autologous HSCT were reported; the majority for myeloma (52%), lymphoma (28%) and acute myeloid leukaemia (11%). Compared to 2004, there was a 20% increase in allogeneic HSCT; numbers of autologous HSCT remained constant. The most noticeable increase was in unrelated HSCT, which comprise 41% of all allogeneic HSCT. Unrelated HSCT were preferentially performed for leukaemias and in countries with high income according to World Bank criteria. These data illustrate the current experience in Europe and form the basis for patient counselling and decisions making at health care institutions. PMID:17213849

  11. "My hair or my health:" Overcoming barriers to physical activity in African American women with a focus on hairstyle-related factors.

    PubMed

    Huebschmann, Amy G; Campbell, Lucille Johnson; Brown, Candace S; Dunn, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity disparities among African American (AA) women may be related to sociocultural barriers, including difficulties with restyling hair after exercise. We sought to identify physical activity barriers and facilitators in AA women with a focus on sociocultural factors related to hairstyle maintenance. Participants (n = 51) were AA women aged 19-73 years who completed valid surveys and participated in structured focus groups, stratified by age and physical activity levels, from November 2012 to February 2013. The Constant Comparison method was used to develop qualitative themes for barriers and facilitators. The most frequently reported general physical activity barrier among exercisers was "lack of money" (27%) and among non-exercisers was "lack of self-discipline" (57%). A hairstyle-related barrier of "sweating out my hairstyle" was reported by 7% of exercisers and 29% of non-exercisers. This hairstyle-related barrier included the need for extra time and money to restyle hair due to perspiration. Hairstyle-related facilitators included: prioritizing health over hairstyle and high self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration. Participants were interested in resources to simplify hairstyle maintenance. AA women whose hairstyle is affected by perspiration may avoid physical activity due to time and financial burdens. Increasing self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration may help to overcome this barrier. PMID:26495938

  12. Mechanism of mitochondrial uncouplers, inhibitors, and toxins: focus on electron transfer, free radicals, and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Pozos, Robert S; Somanathan, Ratnasamy; Shangari, Nandita; O'Brien, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    The biology of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is summarized. Our approach to the mechanism of uncouplers, inhibitors, and toxins is based on electron transfer (ET) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Extensive supporting evidence, which is broadly applicable, is cited. ROS can be generated either endogenously or exogenously. Generally, the reactive entities arise via redox cycling by ET functionalities, such as, quinones (or precursors), metal compounds, imines (or iminiums), and aromatic nitro compounds (or reduced metabolites). In most cases, the ET functions are formed metabolically. The toxic substances belong to many categories, e.g., medicinals, industrial chemicals, abused drugs, and pesticides. Structure-activity relationships are presented from the ET-ROS perspective, and also quantitatively. Evidence for the theoretical framework is provided by the protective effect of antioxidants. Among other topics addressed are proton flux, membrane pores, and apoptosis. There is support for the thesis that mitochondrial insult may contribute to illnesses and aging. PMID:16248817

  13. Detection systems for mass spectrometry imaging: a perspective on novel developments with a focus on active pixel detectors.

    PubMed

    Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-15

    Instrumental developments for imaging and individual particle detection for biomolecular mass spectrometry (imaging) and fundamental atomic and molecular physics studies are reviewed. Ion-counting detectors, array detection systems and high mass detectors for mass spectrometry (imaging) are treated. State-of-the-art detection systems for multi-dimensional ion, electron and photon detection are highlighted. Their application and performance in three different imaging modes--integrated, selected and spectral image detection--are described. Electro-optical and microchannel-plate-based systems are contrasted. The analytical capabilities of solid-state pixel detectors--both charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips--are introduced. The Medipix/Timepix detector family is described as an example of a CMOS hybrid active pixel sensor. Alternative imaging methods for particle detection and their potential for future applications are investigated. PMID:23239313

  14. Active and passive shielding design optimization and technical solutions for deep sensitivity hard x-ray focusing telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaguti, G.; Pareschi, G.; Ferrando, P.; Caroli, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Foschini, L.; Basso, S.; Del Sordo, S.; Fiore, F.; Bonati, A.; Lesci, G.; Poulsen, J. M.; Monzani, F.; Stevoli, A.; Negri, B.

    2005-08-01

    The 10-100 keV region of the electromagnetic spectrum contains the potential for a dramatic improvement in our understanding of a number of key problems in high energy astrophysics. A deep inspection of the universe in this band is on the other hand still lacking because of the demanding sensitivity (fraction of μCrab in the 20-40 keV for 1 Ms integration time) and imaging (≈ 15" angular resolution) requirements. The mission ideas currently being proposed are based on long focal length, grazing incidence, multi-layer optics, coupled with focal plane detectors with few hundreds μm spatial resolution capability. The required large focal lengths, ranging between 8 and 50 m, can be realized by means of extendable optical benches (as foreseen e.g. for the HEXITSAT, NEXT and NuSTAR missions) or formation flight scenarios (e.g. Simbol-X and XEUS). While the final telescope design will require a detailed trade-off analysis between all the relevant parameters (focal length, plate scale value, angular resolution, field of view, detector size, and sensitivity degradation due to detector dead area and telescope vignetting), extreme attention must be dedicated to the background minimization. In this respect, key issues are represented by the passive baffling system, which in case of large focal lengths requires particular design assessments, and by the active/passive shielding geometries and materials. In this work, the result of a study of the expected background for a hard X-ray telescope is presented, and its implication on the required sensitivity, together with the possible implementation design concepts for active and passive shielding in the framework of future satellite missions, are discussed.

  15. 49 CFR 37.171 - Equivalency requirement for demand responsive service operated by private entities not primarily...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.171... responsive service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. A private entity not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people which operates...

  16. 49 CFR 37.171 - Equivalency requirement for demand responsive service operated by private entities not primarily...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.171... responsive service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. A private entity not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people which operates...

  17. 49 CFR 37.171 - Equivalency requirement for demand responsive service operated by private entities not primarily...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.171... responsive service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. A private entity not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people which operates...

  18. 49 CFR 37.171 - Equivalency requirement for demand responsive service operated by private entities not primarily...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.171... responsive service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. A private entity not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people which operates...

  19. 49 CFR 37.107 - Acquisition of passenger rail cars by private entities primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.107 Section 37.107 Transportation... entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a) A private entity which is primarily engaged in the business of transporting people and whose operations affect commerce, which makes...

  20. 49 CFR 37.171 - Equivalency requirement for demand responsive service operated by private entities not primarily...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.171... responsive service operated by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. A private entity not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people which operates...

  1. Decisive Data Sets in Phylogenomics: Lessons from Studies on the Phylogenetic Relationships of Primarily Wingless Insects

    PubMed Central

    Meusemann, Karen; Meyer, Benjamin; Borner, Janus; Petersen, Malte; Aberer, Andre J.; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Walzl, Manfred G.; Minh, Bui Quang; von Haeseler, Arndt; Ebersberger, Ingo; Pass, Günther; Misof, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the primarily wingless insects are still considered unresolved. Even the most comprehensive phylogenomic studies that addressed this question did not yield congruent results. To get a grip on these problems, we here analyzed the sources of incongruence in these phylogenomic studies by using an extended transcriptome data set. Our analyses showed that unevenly distributed missing data can be severely misleading by inflating node support despite the absence of phylogenetic signal. In consequence, only decisive data sets should be used which exclusively comprise data blocks containing all taxa whose relationships are addressed. Additionally, we used Four-cluster Likelihood Mapping (FcLM) to measure the degree of congruence among genes of a data set, as a measure of support alternative to bootstrap. FcLM showed incongruent signal among genes, which in our case is correlated neither with functional class assignment of these genes nor with model misspecification due to unpartitioned analyses. The herein analyzed data set is the currently largest data set covering primarily wingless insects, but failed to elucidate their interordinal phylogenetic relationships. Although this is unsatisfying from a phylogenetic perspective, we try to show that the analyses of structure and signal within phylogenomic data can protect us from biased phylogenetic inferences due to analytical artifacts. PMID:24140757

  2. The EBMT activity survey 2006 on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: focus on the use of cord blood products.

    PubMed

    Gratwohl, A; Baldomero, H; Frauendorfer, K; Rocha, V; Apperley, J; Niederwieser, D

    2008-04-01

    This report describes the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) activity in Europe in 2006 by indication, donor type and stem cell source. It illustrates differences compared to previous years and concentrates on the use of cord blood transplants. In 2006, there were 25 050 first HSCT, 9661 allogeneic (39%), 15 389 autologous (61%) and 3690 additional re- or multiple transplants reported from 605 centers in 43 participating countries. Main indications were leukemias (7963 (32%; 85% allogeneic)); lymphomas (14 169 (56%; 89% autologous)); solid tumors (1564 (6%; 95% autologous)); non-malignant disorders (1242 (5%; 90% allogeneic)) and non-classified 'others' (112 (1%)). There was an increase in allogeneic HSCT of 9% when compared to 2005, while autologous HSCT numbers remained similar. There were 544 allogeneic cord blood HSCT, which corresponds to 5% of all allogeneic HSCT. The majority, 67%, were used for patients with leukemia. The highest percentage of cord blood transplants, 27%, was seen for inherited disorders of metabolism. No autologous cord blood transplants were reported. The highest increase in allogeneic HSCT was observed for AML, which comprises 31% of all allogeneic HSCT. Numbers of autologous HSCT remained similar in most main indications. This data provide an update of the current HSCT experience in Europe. PMID:18084334

  3. Efficacy of viral clearance methods used in the manufacture of activated prothrombin complex concentrates: focus on AUTOPLEX T.

    PubMed

    Horwith, G; Revie, D R

    1999-09-01

    Various methods are described for the elimination of infectious viruses from activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCCs) and for the analysis of the final products (AUTOPLEX T and FEIBA VH). Viruses of concern in human plasma-derived products are enveloped (hepatitis B and C, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) and nonenveloped (hepatitis A and parvovirus B19). Donated blood used for AUTOPLEX T is screened for antihepatitis C, HBsAg, anti-HIV types 1 and 2, and p24 antigen. Plasma pools utilized for raw materials are also tested by PCR for HIV and hepatitis C virus. Partial virus inactivation and partitioning are achieved by purification of the aPCC. Further reduction of virus infectivity is accomplished by lyophilization and dry-heat treatment. Each step undergoes virus elimination validation studies in which a relevant sample is 'spiked' with the appropriate virus or model virus. The total reduction in virus from raw material to final product can then be calculated. For AUTOPLEX T the cumulative log10 reduction factors for several viruses vary from 4.2 to 14.3. This ensures an exceptionally high margin of safety. Definitive evidence for product safety was obtained by clinical observation of treated patients. The viral inactivation process of AUTOPLEX T involves a four-tier viral safety program, including Cohn alcohol fractionation and dry-heat treatment, in place of the two-stage vapour-heating process for FEIBA. PMID:10597384

  4. Green chemistry focus on optimization of silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM) and mosquitocidal activity: Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini

    2015-10-01

    There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control. PMID:26010566

  5. Focus: Economic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie T.; Odorzynski, Sandra J.; Schug, Mark C.; Watts, Michael

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly personalized…

  6. Focus: International Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gerald J.; Watts, Michael W.; Wentworth, Donald R.

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly personalized…

  7. Vector-Host Interactions of Culiseta melanura in a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Southeastern Virginia.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Goudarz; Armstrong, Philip M; Abadam, Charles F; Akaratovic, Karen I; Kiser, Jay P; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2015-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern USA. Culiseta (Cs.) melanura is the primary vector of EEEV in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-Atlantic region. The objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of Cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in enzootic amplification of EEEV, 2) assess spatial and temporal patterns of virus activity during a season of intense virus transmission, and 3) investigate the potential role of Cs. melanura in epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans and equines. Accordingly, we collected mosquitoes at 55 sites in Suffolk, Virginia in 2013, and identified the source of blood meals in engorged mosquitoes by nucleotide sequencing PCR products of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We also examined field-collected mosquitoes for evidence of infection with EEEV using Vector Test, cell culture, and PCR. Analysis of 188 engorged Cs. melanura sampled from April through October 2013 indicated that 95.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5% obtained blood meals from avian, mammalian, and reptilian hosts, respectively. American Robin was the most frequently identified host for Cs. melanura (42.6% of blood meals) followed by Northern Cardinal (16.0%), European Starling (11.2%), Carolina Wren (4.3%), and Common Grackle (4.3%). EEEV was detected in 106 mosquito pools of Cs. melanura, and the number of virus positive pools peaked in late July with 22 positive pools and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) infection rate of 4.46 per 1,000 mosquitoes. Our findings highlight the importance of Cs. melanura as a regional EEEV vector based on frequent feeding on virus-competent bird species. A small proportion of blood meals acquired from mammalian hosts suggests the possibility that this species may occasionally

  8. Vector-Host Interactions of Culiseta melanura in a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Southeastern Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Goudarz; Armstrong, Philip M.; Abadam, Charles F.; Akaratovic, Karen I.; Kiser, Jay P.; Andreadis, Theodore G.

    2015-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern USA. Culiseta (Cs.) melanura is the primary vector of EEEV in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-Atlantic region. The objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of Cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in enzootic amplification of EEEV, 2) assess spatial and temporal patterns of virus activity during a season of intense virus transmission, and 3) investigate the potential role of Cs. melanura in epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans and equines. Accordingly, we collected mosquitoes at 55 sites in Suffolk, Virginia in 2013, and identified the source of blood meals in engorged mosquitoes by nucleotide sequencing PCR products of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We also examined field-collected mosquitoes for evidence of infection with EEEV using Vector Test, cell culture, and PCR. Analysis of 188 engorged Cs. melanura sampled from April through October 2013 indicated that 95.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5% obtained blood meals from avian, mammalian, and reptilian hosts, respectively. American Robin was the most frequently identified host for Cs. melanura (42.6% of blood meals) followed by Northern Cardinal (16.0%), European Starling (11.2%), Carolina Wren (4.3%), and Common Grackle (4.3%). EEEV was detected in 106 mosquito pools of Cs. melanura, and the number of virus positive pools peaked in late July with 22 positive pools and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) infection rate of 4.46 per 1,000 mosquitoes. Our findings highlight the importance of Cs. melanura as a regional EEEV vector based on frequent feeding on virus-competent bird species. A small proportion of blood meals acquired from mammalian hosts suggests the possibility that this species may occasionally

  9. N170 Changes Show Identifiable Chinese Characters Compete Primarily with Faces Rather than Houses

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cong; He, Weiqi; He, Huamin; Ren, Guofang; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Hong; Luo, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Character processing is a crucial cognitive skill that is highly emphasized and industriously cultivated in contemporary society. In the present study, using a competition paradigm, we examined the electrophysiological correlates of different relationships between Chinese characters and faces and between Chinese characters and houses during early visual processing. We observed that identifiable Chinese characters compete primarily with faces rather than houses at an early visual processing stage, with a significantly reduced N170 for faces but not for houses, when they were viewed concurrently with identifiable characters relative to when they were viewed concurrently with unidentifiable characters. Consistent with our previous study, there was a significant increase in N170 after characters have been learned, indicating a modulatory effect of Chinese character identification level on N170 amplitude. Furthermore, we found an enlarged N170 in response to faces compared to houses, indicating that the neural mechanisms for processing faces and houses are different at an early visual processing stage. PMID:26779073

  10. The electromagnetic Ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, W. H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-08-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield as spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev E 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by ser action near the centers of active galaxies.

  11. The electromagnetic ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostick, W. H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-01-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield as spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev E 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by ser action near the centers of active galaxies.

  12. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  13. Is urea formation regulated primarily by acid-base balance in vivo?

    PubMed

    Halperin, M L; Chen, C B; Cheema-Dhadli, S; West, M L; Jungas, R L

    1986-04-01

    Large quantities of ammonium and bicarbonate are produced each day from the metabolism of dietary protein. It has recently been proposed that urea synthesis is regulated by the need to remove this large load of bicarbonate. The purpose of these experiments was to test whether the primary function of ureagenesis in vivo is to remove ammonium or bicarbonate. The first series of rats were given a constant acid load as hydrochloric acid or ammonium chloride; individual rats received a constant nitrogen load at a time when their plasma acid-base status ranged from normal (pH 7.4, 28 mM HCO3) to severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.9, 6 mM HCO3). Urea plus ammonium excretions and the blood urea, glutamine, and ammonium concentrations were monitored with time. Within the constraints of non-steady-state conditions, the rate of urea synthesis was constant and the plasma glutamine and ammonium concentrations also remained constant; thus it appears that the rate of urea synthesis was not primarily regulated by the acid-base status of the animal in vivo over a wide range of plasma ammonium concentrations. In quantitative terms, the vast bulk of the ammonium load was converted to urea over 80 min; only a small quantity of ammonium appeared as circulating glutamine or urinary ammonium. Urea synthesis was proportional to the nitrogen load. A second series of rats received sodium bicarbonate; urea synthesis was not augmented by a bicarbonate load. We conclude from these studies that the need to dispose of excess bicarbonate does not primarily determine the rate of ureagenesis in vivo. The data support the classical view that ureagenesis is controlled by the quantity of ammonium to be removed. PMID:3083695

  14. Dysfunctional Activation and Brain Network Profiles in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Focus on the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate during Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Burgess, Ashley; Hong, Ella; Rix, Carrie; Arnold, Paul D; Hanna, Gregory L; Rosenberg, David R

    2015-01-01

    Brain network dysfunction is emerging as a central biomarker of interest in psychiatry, in large part, because psychiatric conditions are increasingly seen as disconnection syndromes. Understanding dysfunctional brain network profiles in task-active states provides important information on network engagement in an experimental context. This in turn may be predictive of many of the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. Here we investigated brain network profiles in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), contrasting them with a group of age-comparable controls. Network interactions were assessed during simple working memory: in particular, we focused on the modulation by the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of cortical, striatal, and thalamic regions. The focus on the dACC was motivated by its hypothesized role in the pathophysiology of OCD. However, its task-active network signatures have not been investigated before. Network interactions were modeled using psychophysiological interaction, a simple directional model of seed to target brain interactions. Our results indicate that OCD is characterized by significantly increased dACC modulation of cortical, striatal, and thalamic targets during working memory, and that this aberrant increase in OCD patients is maintained regardless of working memory demand. The results constitute compelling evidence of dysfunctional brain network interactions in OCD and suggest that these interactions may be related to a combination of network inefficiencies and dACC hyper-activity that has been associated with the phenotype. PMID:25852529

  15. Dysfunctional Activation and Brain Network Profiles in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Focus on the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate during Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Burgess, Ashley; Hong, Ella; Rix, Carrie; Arnold, Paul D.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Brain network dysfunction is emerging as a central biomarker of interest in psychiatry, in large part, because psychiatric conditions are increasingly seen as disconnection syndromes. Understanding dysfunctional brain network profiles in task-active states provides important information on network engagement in an experimental context. This in turn may be predictive of many of the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. Here we investigated brain network profiles in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), contrasting them with a group of age-comparable controls. Network interactions were assessed during simple working memory: in particular, we focused on the modulation by the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of cortical, striatal, and thalamic regions. The focus on the dACC was motivated by its hypothesized role in the pathophysiology of OCD. However, its task-active network signatures have not been investigated before. Network interactions were modeled using psychophysiological interaction, a simple directional model of seed to target brain interactions. Our results indicate that OCD is characterized by significantly increased dACC modulation of cortical, striatal, and thalamic targets during working memory, and that this aberrant increase in OCD patients is maintained regardless of working memory demand. The results constitute compelling evidence of dysfunctional brain network interactions in OCD and suggest that these interactions may be related to a combination of network inefficiencies and dACC hyper-activity that has been associated with the phenotype. PMID:25852529

  16. Habitat-specific environmental conditions primarily control the microbiomes of the coral Seriatopora hystrix.

    PubMed

    Pantos, Olga; Bongaerts, Pim; Dennis, Paul G; Tyson, Gene W; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2015-09-01

    Reef-building corals form complex relationships with a range of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea, fungi and the unicellular microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium, which together form the coral holobiont. These symbionts are known to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on their coral host, but little is known about what the governing factors of these relationships are, or the interactions that exist between the different members of the holobiont and their environment. Here we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate how archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the widespread scleractinian coral Seriatopora hystrix are influenced by extrinsic (reef habitat and geographic location) and intrinsic (host genotype and Symbiodinium subclade) factors. Bacteria dominate the microbiome of S. hystrix, with members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes being the most predominant in all samples. The richness and evenness of these communities varied between reef habitats, but there was no significant difference between distinct coral host lineages or corals hosting distinct Symbiodinium subclades. The coral microbiomes correlated to reef habitat (depth) and geographic location, with a negative correlation between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, driven by the key members of both groups (Rhodobacteraceae and Hahellaceae, respectively), which showed significant differences between location and depth. This study suggests that the control of microbial communities associated with the scleractinian coral S. hystrix is driven primarily by external environmental conditions rather than by those directly associated with the coral holobiont. PMID:25668159

  17. Dehaloperoxidase-Hemoglobin from Amphitrite ornata Is Primarily a Monomer in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    M Thompson; S Franzen; M Davis; R Oliver; j Krueger; J Tredup; C Chang; J Khan; E Baldwin

    2011-12-31

    The crystal structures of the dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin from A. ornata (DHP A) each report a crystallographic dimer in the unit cell. Yet, the largest dimer interface observed is 450 {angstrom}{sup 2}, an area significantly smaller than the typical value of 1200-2000 {angstrom}{sup 2} and in contrast to the extensive interface region of other known dimeric hemoglobins. To examine the oligomerization state of DHP A in solution, we used gel permeation by fast protein liquid chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Gel permeation experiments demonstrate that DHP A elutes as a monomer (15.5 kDa) and can be separated from green fluorescent protein, which has a molar mass of 27 kDa, near the 31 kDa expected for the DHP A dimer. By SAXS, we found that DHP A is primarily monomeric in solution, but with a detectable level of dimer (10%), under all conditions studied up to a protein concentration of 3.0 mM. These concentrations are likely 10-100-fold lower than the K{sub d} for dimer formation. Additionally, there was no significant effect either on the overall conformation of DHP A or its monomer-dimer equilibrium upon addition of the DHP A inhibitor, 4-iodophenol.

  18. Habitat-specific environmental conditions primarily control the microbiomes of the coral Seriatopora hystrix

    PubMed Central

    Pantos, Olga; Bongaerts, Pim; Dennis, Paul G; Tyson, Gene W; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Reef-building corals form complex relationships with a range of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea, fungi and the unicellular microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium, which together form the coral holobiont. These symbionts are known to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on their coral host, but little is known about what the governing factors of these relationships are, or the interactions that exist between the different members of the holobiont and their environment. Here we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate how archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the widespread scleractinian coral Seriatopora hystrix are influenced by extrinsic (reef habitat and geographic location) and intrinsic (host genotype and Symbiodinium subclade) factors. Bacteria dominate the microbiome of S. hystrix, with members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes being the most predominant in all samples. The richness and evenness of these communities varied between reef habitats, but there was no significant difference between distinct coral host lineages or corals hosting distinct Symbiodinium subclades. The coral microbiomes correlated to reef habitat (depth) and geographic location, with a negative correlation between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, driven by the key members of both groups (Rhodobacteraceae and Hahellaceae, respectively), which showed significant differences between location and depth. This study suggests that the control of microbial communities associated with the scleractinian coral S. hystrix is driven primarily by external environmental conditions rather than by those directly associated with the coral holobiont. PMID:25668159

  19. The integrated dayside merging rate is controlled primarily by the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    2016-05-01

    An argument is presented to support the view that the rate of merging between the geomagnetic field and the interplanetary magnetic field across the dayside magnetosphere is controlled primarily by the solar wind parameters. The controlling parameters are the solar wind electric field in the Earth's frame of reference and the solar wind magnetosonic fast mode Mach number. These factors control to first order the total amount of magnetic flux that is carried by the magnetosheath flow to the dayside merging region. We argue that the global dayside merging rate is governed by the amount of flux that is delivered to the dayside merging line by the magnetosheath flow. The ionospheric conductance also plays an important role by modulating the shape of the magnetospheric obstacle around which the magnetosheath flow is deflected. The local conditions at the magnetopause, especially changes in magnetospheric plasma density will affect the local reconnection rate, but not the global dayside merging rate because to change the global merging rate the entire pattern of magnetosheath flow must be changed. The conceptual model presented here can explain how dayside merging depends on solar wind values, including both linear and nonlinear dependencies, through the application of a single, unifying perspective, without the need for ad hoc mechanisms that limit the dayside merging rate.

  20. Floral biology of two Vanilloideae (Orchidaceae) primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees.

    PubMed

    Pansarin, E R; Pansarin, L M

    2014-11-01

    Vanilloideae comprises 15 genera distributed worldwide, among which are Vanilla and Epistephium (tribe Vanilleae). Based on field and laboratory investigations, the pollination biology of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum was analysed. The former was surveyed in a semi-deciduous mesophytic forest at the biological reserve of Serra do Japi and in a marshy forest at the city of Pradópolis, southeastern Brazil. The latter was examined in rocky outcrop vegetation in the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil. In the studied populations, the tubular flowers of V. dubia and E. sclerophyllum were pollinated by bees. Pollen was deposited on either their scutellum (V. dubia) or scutum (E. sclerophyllum). The mentum region of V. dubia is dry, whereas that of E. sclerophyllum presents a small quantity of dilute nectar. Flowers of E. sclerophyllum are scentless, while those of V. dubia are odoriferous. Although V. dubia is self-compatible, it needs a pollinator to produce fruit. In contrast, E. sclerophyllum sets fruit through spontaneous self-pollination, but biotic pollination also occurs. Both species are primarily adapted to pollination by euglossine bees. Pollination by Euglossina seems to have occurred at least twice during the evolution of Vanilleae. Furthermore, shifts between rewarding and reward-free flowers and between autogamous and allogamous species have been reported among vanillas. PMID:24739080

  1. Dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin from Amphitrite ornata is primarily a monomer in solution.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew K; Franzen, Stefan; Davis, Michael F; Oliver, Ryan C; Krueger, Joanna K

    2011-04-14

    The crystal structures of the dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin from A. ornata (DHP A) each report a crystallographic dimer in the unit cell. Yet, the largest dimer interface observed is 450 Å(2), an area significantly smaller than the typical value of 1200-2000 Å(2) and in contrast to the extensive interface region of other known dimeric hemoglobins. To examine the oligomerization state of DHP A in solution, we used gel permeation by fast protein liquid chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Gel permeation experiments demonstrate that DHP A elutes as a monomer (15.5 kDa) and can be separated from green fluorescent protein, which has a molar mass of 27 kDa, near the 31 kDa expected for the DHP A dimer. By SAXS, we found that DHP A is primarily monomeric in solution, but with a detectable level of dimer (~10%), under all conditions studied up to a protein concentration of 3.0 mM. These concentrations are likely 10-100-fold lower than the K(d) for dimer formation. Additionally, there was no significant effect either on the overall conformation of DHP A or its monomer-dimer equilibrium upon addition of the DHP A inhibitor, 4-iodophenol. PMID:21417234

  2. Evaluation of lead exposure in workers at secondary lead smelters in South Korea: with focus on activity of erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Hun; Lee, Choong Ryed; Park, Dong Uk; Yang, Jeong Sun; Park, In Jeong; Lee, Kwang Yong; Lee, MiYoung; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Sohn, Nam-Seok; Cho, Young Sook; Lee, NaRoo; Chung, Ho Keun

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate lead exposure among secondary lead-smelting workers with a focus on erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) activity, blood lead concentration (PbB), activity of P5N and other biological variables were examined in 88 exposed workers in five secondary lead smelters and in 24 non-exposed workers in Korea. All of the mean values of air lead concentration (PbA) in the three processes, scrap pretreatment, blast furnace smelting, and refining and casting of the secondary lead smelters, markedly exceeded 0.05 mg/m3. In this survey, 29 (97%) of 30 air samples for lead exceeded 0.05 mg/m3. The highest mean PbA and PbB values were found in the section of blast furnace smelting. All of the mean PbB values in all the sections were higher than 30 microg/dl. PbB of 71 (81%) of the 88 exposed workers exceeded 30 microg/dl. In 31 (35%) of the exposed workers, PbB was above 60 microg/dl. Compared with the non-exposed group, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in the exposed group was significantly increased, whereas erythrocyte P5N activity and activity of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were significantly inhibited. Erythrocyte P5N activity had valid biological correlation with PbB and with other biological variables, such as ALAD activity or ZPP. Lead exposure affected hemoglobin levels via inhibition of P5N activity, as well as the heme biosynthetic pathway, in the high-exposure state. PMID:11886093

  3. Use of delayed gamma rays for active non-destructive assay of 235U irradiated by pulsed neutron source (plasma focus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram; Kaushik, T. C.; Rout, R. K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D. B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, B. S.; Ramakumar, K. L.; Gupta, S. C.

    2014-07-01

    A pulsed neutron source based on plasma focus device has been used for active interrogation and assay of 235U by monitoring its delayed high energy γ-rays. The method involves irradiation of fissile material by thermal neutrons obtained after moderation of a burst of neutrons emitted upon fusion of deuterium in plasma focus (PF) device. The delayed gamma rays emitted from the fissile material as a consequence of induced fission were detected by a large volume sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector. The detector is coupled to a data acquisition system of 2k input size with 2k ADC conversion gain. Counting was carried out in pulse height analysis mode for time integrated counts up to 100 s while the temporal profile of delayed gamma has been obtained by counting in multichannel scaling mode with dwell time of 50 ms. To avoid the effect of passive (natural) and active (from surrounding materials) backgrounds, counts have been acquired for gamma energy between 3 and 10 MeV. The lower limit of detection of 235U in the oxide samples with this set-up is estimated to be 14 mg.

  4. Alkylphenol Activity against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis: A Focus on the Antifungal Activity of Thymol, Eugenol and O-Methyl Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, Raquel O S; Morais, Selene M; Brito, Erika H S; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Lima, Ynayara C; Brasil, Nilce V G P S; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing search for new antifungal compounds due to the side effects of conventional antifungal drugs and fungal resistance. The aims of this study were to test in vitro the activity of thymol, eugenol, estragole and anethole and some O-methyl-derivatives (methylthymol and methyleugenol) against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for both Candida spp. and M. canis were found by subculturing each fungal suspension on potato dextrose agar. Thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyl-eugenol, anethole, estragole and griseofulvin respectively, presented the following MIC values against M. canis: 4.8-9.7; 78-150; 39; 78-150; 78-150; 19-39 µg/mL and 0.006-2.5 mg/mL. The MFC values for all compounds ranged from 9.7 to 31 µg/mL. Concerning Candida spp, thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyleugenol, anethole, estragole and amphotericin, respectively, showed the following MIC values: 39; 620-1250; 150-620; 310-620; 620; 620-1250 and 0.25-2.0 mg/mL. The MFC values varied from 78 to 2500 µg/mL. All tested compounds thus showed in vitro antifungal activity against Candida spp. and M. canis. Therefore, further studies should be carried out to confirm the usefulness of these alkylphenols in vivo. PMID:25134762

  5. Bleomycin, unlike other male-mouse mutagens, is most effective in spermatogonia, inducing primarily deletions.

    PubMed

    Russell, L B; Hunsicker, P R; Kerley, M K; Johnson, D K; Shelby, M D

    2000-08-21

    Dominant-lethal tests [P.D. Sudman, J.C. Rutledge, J.B. Bishop, W.M. Generoso, Bleomycin: female-specific dominant lethal effects in mice, Mutat. Res. 296 (1992) 205-217] had suggested that Bleomycin sulfate (Blenoxane), BLM, might be a female-specific mutagen. While confirming that BLM is indeed a powerful inducer of dominant-lethal mutations in females that fails to induce such mutations in postspermatogonial stages of males, we have shown in a specific-locus test that BLM is, in fact, mutagenic in males. This mutagenicity, however, is restricted to spermatogonia (stem-cell and differentiating stages), for which the specific-locus mutation rate differed significantly (P<0.008) from the historical control rate. In treated groups, dominant mutations, also, originated only in spermatogonia. With regard to mutation frequencies, this germ-cell-stage pattern is different from that for radiation and for any other chemical studied to date, except ethylnitrosourea (ENU). However, the nature of the spermatogonial specific-locus mutations differentiates BLM from ENU as well, because BLM induced primarily (or, perhaps, exclusively) multilocus deletions. Heretofore, no chemical that induced specific-locus mutations in spermatogonia did not also induce specific-locus as well as dominant-lethal mutations in postspermatogonial stages, making the dominant lethal test, up till now, predictive of male mutagenicity in general. The BLM results now demonstrate that there are chemicals that can induce specific-locus mutations in spermatogonia without testing positive in postspermatogonial stages. Thus, BLM, while not female-specific, is unique, (a) in its germ-cell-stage specificity in males, and (b) in inducing a type of mutation (deletions) that is atypical for the responding germ-cell stages (spermatogonia). PMID:10946246

  6. Species sorting and seasonal dynamics primarily shape bacterial communities in the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Wang, Ping; Phillips, Jane; Cotner, James B; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial community structure (BCS) in freshwater ecosystems varies seasonally and due to physicochemical gradients, but metacommunity structure of a major river remains understudied. Here we characterize the BCS along the Mississippi River and contributing rivers in Minnesota over three years using Illumina next-generation sequencing, to determine how changes in environmental conditions as well as inputs from surrounding land and confluences impacted community structure. Contributions of sediment to water microbial diversity were also evaluated. Long-term variation in community membership was observed, and significant shifts in relative abundances of major freshwater taxa, including α-Proteobacteria, Burkholderiales, and Actinomycetales, were observed due to temporal and spatial variations. Environmental parameters (e.g. temperature, rainfall, and nutrient concentrations) primarily contributed to differences in phyla abundances (88% of variance), with minimal influence from spatial distance alone (<1% of variance). Furthermore, an annually-recurrent BCS was observed in late summer, further suggesting that seasonal dynamics strongly influence community composition. Sediment communities differed from those in the water, but contributed up to 50% to community composition in the water column. Among water sampling sites, 34% showed significant variability in BCS of replicate samples indicating variability among riverine communities due to heterogeneity in the water column. Results of this study highlight the need for a better understanding of spatial and temporal variations in riverine bacterial diversity associated with physicochemical gradients and reveal how communities in sediments, and potentially other environmental reservoirs, impact waterborne BCS. Techniques used in this study may prove useful to determine sources of microbes from sediments and soils to waterways, which will facilitate best management practices and total maximum daily load determinations

  7. Focus on stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Broeck, Christian; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Seifert, Udo

    2016-02-01

    We introduce the thirty papers collected in this ‘focus on’ issue. The contributions explore conceptual issues within and around stochastic thermodynamics, use this framework for the theoretical modeling and experimental investigation of specific systems, and provide further perspectives on and for this active field.

  8. 49 CFR 37.101 - Purchase or lease of vehicles by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.101 Section 37.101 Transportation... entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a) Application. This section... business of transporting people, in which a solicitation for the vehicle is made after August 25, 1990....

  9. 49 CFR 37.101 - Purchase or lease of vehicles by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.101 Section 37.101 Transportation... entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a) Application. This section... business of transporting people, in which a solicitation for the vehicle is made after August 25, 1990....

  10. 49 CFR 37.101 - Purchase or lease of vehicles by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.101 Section 37.101 Transportation... entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a) Application. This section... business of transporting people, in which a solicitation for the vehicle is made after August 25, 1990....

  11. 49 CFR 37.101 - Purchase or lease of vehicles by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.101 Section 37.101 Transportation... entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a) Application. This section... business of transporting people, in which a solicitation for the vehicle is made after August 25, 1990....

  12. 49 CFR 37.101 - Purchase or lease of vehicles by private entities not primarily engaged in the business of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.101 Section 37.101 Transportation... entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a) Application. This section... business of transporting people, in which a solicitation for the vehicle is made after August 25, 1990....

  13. [The Present Status of, and Issues Related to, Mental Health Activities in the Ishinomaki Region, with a Focus on Outreach Activities].

    PubMed

    Hara, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was a colossal event, registering a magnitude of 9.0 and causing huge tsunami that in some places were more than 40 meters in height. As of March 31, 2014, the number of dead nationwide stood at 15,882, while 2,668 persons were listed as missing; 3,089 other deaths have also been classified as being disaster-related. There were 5,500 victims in the Ishinomaki area alone. The disaster, comprising the earthquake itself, the subsequent tsunami, fires, and the nuclear power plant accident, was a combined natural and man-made catastrophe of epic proportions, affecting a broad, underpopulated region. Those hit by the disaster were affected not only by the loss of life, but also the loss of homes and livelihoods. These people experience psychological stress, fear, and anxiety as a result of lifestyle and environmental changes associated with moving from evacuation areas to prefab temporary housing, or the homes of parents, siblings, relatives, friends, or acquaintances, followed by attempts to rebuild their own homes. Other changes, such as the loss of employment, the transition to new workplaces, or having to change schools, also take a psychological and emotional toll. Delays in the construction of new housing and the resulting prolongation of life as evacuees only serve to increase anxiety and the sense of stagnation. With the above as a backdrop, the author will report on activities being conducted by his organization, particularly outreach efforts. PMID:26524874

  14. Lateralized delay period activity marks the focus of spatial attention in working memory: evidence from somatosensory event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2015-04-29

    The short-term retention of sensory information in working memory (WM) is known to be associated with a sustained enhancement of neural activity. What remains controversial is whether this neural trace indicates the sustained storage of information or the allocation of attention. To evaluate the storage and attention accounts, we examined sustained tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA component) of the event-related potential. The tCDA manifests over somatosensory cortex contralateral to task-relevant tactile information during stimulus retention. Two tactile sample sets (S1, S2) were presented sequentially, separated by 1.5 s. Each set comprised two stimuli, one per hand. Human participants memorized the location of one task-relevant stimulus per sample set and judged whether one of these locations was stimulated again at memory test. The two relevant pulses were unpredictably located on the same hand (stay trials) or on different hands (shift trials). Initially, tCDA components emerged contralateral to the relevant S1 pulse. Sequential loading of WM enhanced the tCDA after S2 was presented on stay trials. On shift trials, the tCDA's polarity reversed after S2 presentation, resulting in delay activity that was now contralateral to the task-relevant S2 pulse. The disappearance of a lateralized neural trace for the relevant S1 pulse did not impair memory accuracy for this stimulus on shift trials. These results contradict the storage account and suggest that delay period activity indicates the sustained engagement of an attention-based rehearsal mechanism. In conclusion, somatosensory delay period activity marks the current focus of attention in tactile WM. PMID:25926447

  15. Lateralized Delay Period Activity Marks the Focus of Spatial Attention in Working Memory: Evidence from Somatosensory Event-Related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Eimer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The short-term retention of sensory information in working memory (WM) is known to be associated with a sustained enhancement of neural activity. What remains controversial is whether this neural trace indicates the sustained storage of information or the allocation of attention. To evaluate the storage and attention accounts, we examined sustained tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA component) of the event-related potential. The tCDA manifests over somatosensory cortex contralateral to task-relevant tactile information during stimulus retention. Two tactile sample sets (S1, S2) were presented sequentially, separated by 1.5 s. Each set comprised two stimuli, one per hand. Human participants memorized the location of one task-relevant stimulus per sample set and judged whether one of these locations was stimulated again at memory test. The two relevant pulses were unpredictably located on the same hand (stay trials) or on different hands (shift trials). Initially, tCDA components emerged contralateral to the relevant S1 pulse. Sequential loading of WM enhanced the tCDA after S2 was presented on stay trials. On shift trials, the tCDA's polarity reversed after S2 presentation, resulting in delay activity that was now contralateral to the task-relevant S2 pulse. The disappearance of a lateralized neural trace for the relevant S1 pulse did not impair memory accuracy for this stimulus on shift trials. These results contradict the storage account and suggest that delay period activity indicates the sustained engagement of an attention-based rehearsal mechanism. In conclusion, somatosensory delay period activity marks the current focus of attention in tactile WM. PMID:25926447

  16. Passerine Exposure to Primarily PCDFs and PCDDs in the River Floodplains Near Midland, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Seston, Rita M.; Coefield, Sarah J.; Plautz, Stephanie C.; Tazelaar, Dustin L.; Shotwell, Melissa S.; Bradley, Patrick W.; Kay, Denise P.; Giesy, John P.

    2009-01-01

    House wren (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) tissues collected in study areas (SAs) downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) contained concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) greater than in upstream reference areas (RAs) in the region. The sum of concentrations of PCDD/DFs (ΣPCDD/DFs) in eggs of house wrens and eastern bluebirds from SAs were 4- to 22-fold greater compared to those from RAs, whereas concentrations in tree swallow eggs were similar among areas. Mean concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and sum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (ΣTEQsWHO-Avian), based on 1998 WHO avian toxic equivalency factors, in house wren and eastern bluebird eggs ranged from 860 (430) to 1500 (910) ng/kg wet weight (ww) and 470 (150) to 1100 (510) ng/kg ww, respectively, at the most contaminated study areas along the Tittabawassee River, whereas mean concentrations in tree swallow eggs ranged from 280 (100) to 760 (280) ng/kg ww among all locations. Concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs in nestlings of all studied species at SAs were 3- to 50-fold greater compared to RAs. Mean house wren, tree swallow, and eastern bluebird nestling concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and ΣTEQsWHO-Avian ranged from 350 (140) to 610 (300) ng/kg ww, 360 (240) to 1100 (860) ng/kg ww, and 330 (100) to 1200 (690) ng/kg ww, respectively, at SAs along the Tittabawassee River. Concentrations of ΣTEQsWHO-Avian were positively correlated with ΣPCDD/DF concentrations in both eggs and nestlings of all species studied. Profiles of relative concentrations of individual congeners were dominated by furan congeners (69–84%), primarily 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, for all species at SAs on the Tittabawassee and Saginaw rivers but were dominated by dioxin congeners at upstream RAs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10

  17. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    PubMed

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect. PMID:21940195

  18. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (12 U.S.C. 1843(c)(8)) and § 225.25(b)(6) of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.25(b)(6)) includes...) to enable bank holding companies to take an active role in the quest for solutions to the...

  19. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.25(b)(6)) includes approval to engage, either directly or through a subsidiary, in... § 225.25(b)(6) to enable bank holding companies to take an active role in the quest for solutions to...

  20. Primarily Physics, Investigations in Sound, Light and Heat for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS PRIMARILY FOR METAL FINISHING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  2. Prostanoids regulate angiogenesis acting primarily on IP and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Khuyen Gia; Allison, Sarah; Murray, Michael; Petrovic, Nenad

    2015-09-01

    Angiogenesis is regulated by numerous activators and inhibitors, including prostanoids. Although many studies have identified their roles in inflammation, regulatory functions of prostanoids in angiogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we compared the activation of angiogenesis in vitro by two prostanoids with important vascular roles: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) - thought to be the most important prostanoid activator of angiogenesis - and prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin or PGI2), whose receptors are predominantly expressed in endothelial cells. Both of these prostanoids activate G-protein coupled receptors: EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 by PGE2 and IP by prostacyclin. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to characterize two pivotal pro-angiogenic processes in vitro: cell migration (using the matrigel droplet assay developed in our laboratory) and "tube formation" (a widely accepted method of assessing formation of blood vessel precursors). The suppression of cell migration and tube formation by the IP-specific antagonist CAY10441 was more extensive (~80%) than by the EP4-specific antagonist L-161,982 (~20%). AH6809, an antagonist of EP1, EP2 and EP3 receptors did not significantly suppress angiogenesis. Expression of the pro-angiogenic receptors KDR and Tie-2 in HUVECs was preferentially suppressed by antagonism of IP and EP4 receptors, respectively. EP4 and IP receptor agonists elicited biphasic actions on angiogenic processes in which there was activation at low concentration, and rapid desensitization at high concentrations - a characteristic common to many G-protein coupled receptors. Together these findings suggest that the prostacyclin-IP pathway plays a major role in the regulation of pro-angiogenic processes in HUVECs. PMID:26188701

  3. Glycogen Repletion in Brown Adipose Tissue upon Refeeding Is Primarily Driven by Phosphorylation-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Carmean, Christopher M.; Huang, Y. Hanna; Brady, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is generally thought to take place through passive, substrate-driven activation of glycogenesis rather than programmatic shifts favoring or opposing the storage and/or retention of glycogen. This perception exists despite a growing body of evidence suggesting that BAT glycogen storage is actively regulated by covalent modification of key glycogen-metabolic enzymes, protein turnover, and endocrine hormone signaling. Members of one such class of covalent-modification regulators, glycogen-binding Phosphoprotein Phosphatase-1 (PP1)-regulatory subunits (PPP1Rs), targeting PP1 to glycogen-metabolic enzymes, were dynamically regulated in response to 24 hr of starvation and/or 24 hr of starvation followed by ad libitum refeeding. Over-expression of the PPP1R Protein Targeting to Glycogen (PTG), under the control of the aP2 promoter in mice, inactivated glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and enhanced basal- and starvation-state glycogen storage. Total interscapular BAT glycogen synthase and the constitutive activity of GS were conditionally affected. During starvation, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) levels and the relative phosphorylation of Akt (p-Ser-473-Akt) were both increased in PTG-overexpressing (Tg) mice, suggesting that elevated glycogen storage during starvation modifies broader cellular metabolic pathways. During refeeding, Tg and WT mice reaccumulated glycogen similarly despite altered GS and GP activities. All observations during refeeding suggest that the phosphorylation states of GS and GP are not physiologically rate-controlling, despite there being a clear balance of endogenous kinase- and phosphatase activities. The studies presented here reveal IBAT glycogen storage to be a tightly-regulated process at all levels, with potential effects on nutrient sensing in vivo. PMID:27213961

  4. Antigen Specificity of γδ T Cells Depends Primarily on the Flanking Sequences of CDR3δ*

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xueyan; Guo, Yang; Chen, Hui; Xu, Chunping; Zhang, Huiyuan; Hu, Hongbo; Cui, Lianxian; Ba, Denian; He, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The structural basis that determines the specificity of γδ T cell receptor (TCR) recognition remains undefined. Our previous data show that the complementary determining region of human TCRδ (CDR3δ) is critical to ligand binding. Here we used linear and configurational approaches to examine the roles of V, N-D-N, or J regions in CDR3δ-mediated antigen recognition. Surprisingly, we found that the binding activities of CDR3δ from different γδ TCRs to their target tissues and ligands depend on the conserved flanking sequences (V and J) but not as much on the D region of CDR3δ fragment. We further defined the key residues in the V and J regions of CDR3δ fragments, including the cysteine residue in the V fragment and the leucine residue in the J fragment that determine their ligand binding specificity. Our results demonstrate that TCRδ primarily uses conserved flanking regions to bind ligands. This finding may provide an explanation for the limited number of γδ TCR ligands that have as yet been identified. PMID:19666468

  5. CO2 leakage-induced vegetation decline is primarily driven by decreased soil O2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-04-15

    To assess the potential risks of carbon capture and storage (CCS), studies have focused on vegetation decline caused by leaking CO2. Excess soil CO2 caused by leakage can affect soil O2 concentrations and soil pH, but how these two factors affect plant development remains poorly understood. This hinders the selection of appropriate species to mitigate potential negative consequences of CCS. Through pot experiments, we simulated CO2 leakage to examine its effects on soil pH and soil O2 concentrations. We subsequently assessed how maize growth responded to these changes in soil pH and O2. Decreased soil O2 concentrations significantly reduced maize biomass, and explained 69% of the biomass variation under CO2 leakage conditions. In contrast, although leaked CO2 changed soil pH significantly (from 7.32 to 6.75), it remained within the optimum soil pH range for maize growth. This suggests that soil O2 concentration, not soil pH, influences plant growth in these conditions. Therefore, in case of potential CO2 leakage risks, hypoxia-tolerant species should be chosen to improve plant survival, growth, and yield. PMID:26899305

  6. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  7. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites ‘‘dominate’’ food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites’ roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites’ feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic

  8. What practices do parents perceive as effective or ineffective in promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and less sitting in children: parent focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support parents in improving the health of their young children, examples of effective parenting practices for a healthy diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are needed. This study explores perceived effective and ineffective parenting practices in difficult situations concerning raising healthy children and investigates their relationship with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The current study is formative work to inform the content of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Four focus groups were conducted between June and October 2012 at worksites during lunch break. A total of 21 unrelated parents of primary schoolchildren (6 fathers, 15 mothers) participated. A short written questionnaire introduced typical difficult situations derived from parental anecdotal reports, concerning healthy diet, PA and SB. These situations formed the backbone for the subsequent focus group discussion. In October 2012, discussions were audio-recorded and analyzed in Nvivo to identify key response items using thematic analysis. Results Parents experienced explaining why the child should behave healthily, monitoring, being consistent, offering alternatives, reacting empathetically, modeling, motivating, increasing intrinsic value and availability, and using time-out as effective practices, whereas anger was considered ineffective. Opinions were mixed about the effectiveness of giving as much freedom as possible, obliging, rewarding and punishing, and setting rules and agreements. Parenting practices were consistent with principles from both SDT and SCT. Conclusions Parents identified numerous perceived effective practices to respond to their child’s health-related behavior. Since many of them coincide with the evidence base and the success of a parenting program depends upon the degree to which parents’ concerns and motivations are integrated into the program design, important opportunities are created for future

  9. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  10. Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rainforests

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Z. H.; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere both in liquid and non-liquid forms. The physical state affects the available physical and chemical mechanisms of growth and reactivity, ultimately affecting the number, size, and composition of the atmospheric particle population. Herein, the physical state, including the response to relative humidity (RH), was investigated on-line and in real time for PM (< 1 μm) over the tropical rain forest of central Amazonia during both the wet and dry seasons of 2013. The results show that the PM was liquid for RH > 80% across 296 to 300 K. These results, in conjunction with the distributions of RH and temperature in Amazonia, imply that near-surface submicron PM in Amazonia is liquid most of the time. The observations are consistent with laboratory experiments showing that PM produced by isoprene photo-oxidation is liquid across these meteorological conditions. The findings have implications for the mechanisms of new particle production in Amazonia, the growth of submicron particles and hence dynamics of the cloud life cycle, and the sensitivity of these processes to anthropogenic activities. An approach for inclusion of particle physical state in chemical transport models is presented.

  11. Gesture Frequency Linked Primarily to Story Length in 4-10-Year Old Children's Stories.

    PubMed

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marentette, Paula; Navarro, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that older children gesture more while telling a story than younger children. This increase in gesture use has been attributed to increased story complexity. In adults, both narrative complexity and imagery predict gesture frequency. In this study, we tested the strength of three predictors of children's gesture use in a narrative context: age, narrative complexity (measured by discourse connectors), and use of imagery (measured by story length). French-, Spanish-, and English-speaking children between 4 and 10 years participated in this study. Including these three groups allows us to test for the generalizability of our results and for cross-linguistic differences in gesture frequency. All the children watched cartoons and retold the story. The results showed that the length of the story was a significant predictor of children's gesture rate while age and discourse connectors were not. There were no differences between language groups. One possible in interpretation of these results is that children's gesture frequency is strongly linked to activation of imagery. PMID:25430692

  12. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA DECREASES NOS3 EXPRESSION PRIMARILY VIA RHO/RHO KINASE IN THE THICK ASCENDING LIMB

    PubMed Central

    Ramseyer, Vanesa; Hong, Nancy; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate Na+ reabsorption by thick ascending limbs (THALs) induces hypertension. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase type 3 (NOS3 or eNOS) inhibits NaCl reabsorption by THALs. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) decreases NOS3 expression in endothelial cells and contributes to increases in blood pressure. However, the effects of TNF-α on THAL NOS3 and the signaling cascade are unknown. TNF-α activates several signaling pathways including Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) which is known to reduce NOS3 expression in endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that TNF-α decreases NOS3 expression via Rho/ROCK in rat THAL primary cultures. THAL cells were incubated with either vehicle or 1 nmol/L TNF-α for 24 hrs and NOS3 expression was measured by Western blot. TNF-α decreased NOS3 expression by 51±6% (p<0.002) and blunted stimulus-induced NO production. A 10-minutes treatment with TNF-α stimulated RhoA activity by 60±23% (p<0.04). Inhibition of Rho GTPase with 0.05 μg/mL C3 exoenzyme blocked TNF-α-induced reductions in NOS3 expression by 30±8% (p<0.02). Inhibition of ROCK with 10 μmol/L H-1152 blocked TNF-α-induced decreases in NOS3 expression by 66±15 % (p<0.001). Simultaneous inhibition of Rho and ROCK had no additive effect. Myosin light chain kinase, NO, protein kinase C, mitogen-activated kinase kinase, c-Jun amino terminal kinases and Rac-1 were also not involved in TNF-α-induced decreases in NOS3 expression. We conclude that TNF-α decreases NOS3 expression primarily via Rho/ROCK in rat THALs. These data suggest that some of the beneficial effects of ROCK inhibitors in hypertension could be due to the mitigation of TNF-α-induced reduction in NOS3 expression. PMID:22566503

  13. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution.

    PubMed

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-10-24

    A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au_NRsd) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au_NRsd was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au_NRsd and Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au_NRsd was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10(7) in magnitude, which increased ≈10(12) in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au_NRsd. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10(-3) to 10(-12)M) in water or milk solution upon Au_NRsd or Ag NPs/Au_NRsd were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm(-1) for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm(-1) was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au_NRsd) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au_NRsd) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au_NRsd and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au_NRsd is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for screening MEL in complex matrices such as adulteration in e.g., food and pharmaceutical products. PMID:24120168

  14. Basolateral Uptake of Nucleosides by Sertoli Cells Is Mediated Primarily by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David M.; Evans, Kristen K.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Dantzler, William H.; Wright, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport. PMID:23639800

  15. Do cholinesterase inhibitors act primarily on attention deficit? A naturalistic study in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Bracco, Laura; Bessi, Valentina; Padiglioni, Sonia; Marini, Sandro; Pepeu, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Attention is the first non-memory domain affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD), before deficits in language and visuo-spatial function, and it is claimed that attention deficits are responsible for the difficulties with daily living in early demented patients. The aim of this longitudinal study in a group of 121 Caucasian, community-dwelling, mild-to-moderate AD patients (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score >17) was to detect which cognitive domains were most affected by the disease and whether one year treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors was more effective in preserving attention than memory. All subjects were evaluated by a neuropsychological battery including global measurements (MMSE, Information-Memory-Concentration Test) and tasks exploring verbal long-term memory, language, attention, and executive functions. The comparison between two evaluations, made 12 months apart, shows statistically significant differences, indicating deterioration compared to baseline, in the following tests: MMSE (with no gender differences), Composite Memory Score, Short Story Delayed Recall, Trail-Making Test A, Semantic Fluency Test, and Token Test. Conversely, there were no differences in the two evaluations of the Digit Span, Corsi Tapping Test, Short Story Immediate Recall, and Phonemic Fluency Tests. It appears that the treatment specifically attenuated the decline in tests assessing attention and executive functions. A stabilization of the ability to pay attention, with the ensuing positive effects on executive functions, recent memory, and information acquisition which depend on attention, appears to be the main neuropsychological mechanism through which the activation of the cholinergic system, resulting from cholinesterase inhibition, exerts its effect on cognition. PMID:24577458

  16. Maize Centromere Structure and Evolution: Sequence Analysis of Centromeres 2 and 5 Reveals Dynamic Loci Shaped Primarily by Retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Patrice S.; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Shi, Jinghua; Gao, Zhi; Han, Fangpu; Lee, Hyeran; Xu, Ronghui; Allison, Jamie; Birchler, James A.; Jiang, Jiming; Dawe, R. Kelly; Presting, Gernot G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive and general approach for mapping centromeres and present a detailed characterization of two maize centromeres. Centromeres are difficult to map and analyze because they consist primarily of repetitive DNA sequences, which in maize are the tandem satellite repeat CentC and interspersed centromeric retrotransposons of maize (CRM). Centromeres are defined epigenetically by the centromeric histone H3 variant, CENH3. Using novel markers derived from centromere repeats, we have mapped all ten centromeres onto the physical and genetic maps of maize. We were able to completely traverse centromeres 2 and 5, confirm physical maps by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and delineate their functional regions by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with anti-CENH3 antibody followed by pyrosequencing. These two centromeres differ substantially in size, apparent CENH3 density, and arrangement of centromeric repeats; and they are larger than the rice centromeres characterized to date. Furthermore, centromere 5 consists of two distinct CENH3 domains that are separated by several megabases. Succession of centromere repeat classes is evidenced by the fact that elements belonging to the recently active recombinant subgroups of CRM1 colonize the present day centromeres, while elements of the ancestral subgroups are also found in the flanking regions. Using abundant CRM and non-CRM retrotransposons that inserted in and near these two centromeres to create a historical record of centromere location, we show that maize centromeres are fluid genomic regions whose borders are heavily influenced by the interplay of retrotransposons and epigenetic marks. Furthermore, we propose that CRMs may be involved in removal of centromeric DNA (specifically CentC), invasion of centromeres by non-CRM retrotransposons, and local repositioning of the CENH3. PMID:19956743

  17. Activation of signaling pathways following localized delivery of systemically administered neurotrophic factors across the blood-brain barrier using focused ultrasound and microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baseri, Babak; Choi, James J.; Deffieux, Thomas; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Olumolade, Oluyemi; Small, Scott A.; Morrison, Barclay, III; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-04-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to have broad neuroprotective effects in addition to its therapeutic role in neurodegenerative disease. In this study, the efficacy of delivering exogenous BDNF to the left hippocampus is demonstrated in wild-type mice (n = 7) through the noninvasively disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) using focused ultrasound (FUS). The BDNF bioactivity was found to be preserved following delivery as assessed quantitatively by immunohistochemical detection of the pTrkB receptor and activated pAkt, pMAPK, and pCREB in the hippocampal neurons. It was therefore shown for the first time that systemically administered neurotrophic factors can cross the noninvasively disrupted BBB and trigger neuronal downstream signaling effects in a highly localized region in the brain. This is the first time that the administered molecule is tracked through the BBB and localized in the neuron triggering molecular effects. Additional preliminary findings are shown in wild-type mice with two additional neurotrophic factors such as the glia-derived neurotrophic factor (n = 12) and neurturin (n = 2). This further demonstrates the impact of FUS for the early treatment of CNS diseases at the cellular and molecular level and strengthens its premise for FUS-assisted drug delivery and efficacy.

  18. Pulsed High–Intensity-focused US and Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA) Versus TPA Alone for Thrombolysis of Occluded Bypass Graft in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Pritchard, William F.; Amalou, Hayet; Linguraru, Marius; Chiesa, Oscar A.; Adams, Joshua D.; Gacchina, Carmen; Wesley, Robert; Maruvada, Subha; McDowell, Briana; Frenkel, Victor; Karanian, John W.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prosthetic arteriovenous or arterial-arterial bypass grafts can thrombose and be resistant to revascularization. A thrombosed bypass graft model was created to evaluate the potential therapeutic enhancement and safety profile of pulsed high-intensity-focused ultrasound (pHIFU) on pharmaceutical thrombolysis. Materials and Methods In swine, a right carotid-carotid expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass graft was surgically constructed, containing a 40% stenosis at its distal end to induce graft thrombosis. The revascularization procedure was performed 7 days after surgery. After model development and dose response experiments (n = 11), two cohorts were studied: pHIFU with tissue plasminogen activator (TPA; n = 4) and sham pHIFU with TPA (n = 3). The experiments were identical in both groups except no energy was delivered in the sham pHIFU group. Serial angiograms were obtained in all cases. The area of graft opacified by contrast medium on angiograms was quantified with digital image processing software. A blinded reviewer calculated the change in the graft area opacified by contrast medium and expressed it as a percentage, representing percentage of thrombolysis. Results Combining pHIFU with 0.5 mg of TPA resulted in a 52% ± 4% increase in thrombolysis on angiograms obtained at 30 minutes, compared with a 9% ± 14% increase with sham pHIFU and 0.5 mg TPA (P = .003). Histopathologic examination demonstrated no differences between the groups. Conclusions Thrombolysis of occluded bypass grafts was significantly increased when combining pHIFU and TPA versus sham pHIFU and TPA. These results suggest that application of pHIFU may augment thrombolysis with a reduced time and dose. PMID:22609287

  19. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  20. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178.337 Section 178.337 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178.337 Section 178.337 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  2. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178.337 Section 178.337 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  3. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178.337 Section 178.337 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  4. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178.337 Section 178.337 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-10-01

    Control of quantum phenomena has grown from a dream to a burgeoning field encompassing wide-ranging experimental and theoretical activities. Theoretical research in this area primarily concerns identification of the principles for controlling quantum phenomena, the exploration of new experimental applications and the development of associated operational algorithms to guide such experiments. Recent experiments with adaptive feedback control span many applications including selective excitation, wave packet engineering and control in the presence of complex environments. Practical procedures are also being developed to execute real-time feedback control considering the resultant back action on the quantum system. This focus issue includes papers covering many of the latest advances in the field. Focus on Quantum Control Contents Control of quantum phenomena: past, present and future Constantin Brif, Raj Chakrabarti and Herschel Rabitz Biologically inspired molecular machines driven by light. Optimal control of a unidirectional rotor Guillermo Pérez-Hernández, Adam Pelzer, Leticia González and Tamar Seideman Simulating quantum search algorithm using vibronic states of I2 manipulated by optimally designed gate pulses Yukiyoshi Ohtsuki Efficient coherent control by sequences of pulses of finite duration Götz S Uhrig and Stefano Pasini Control by decoherence: weak field control of an excited state objective Gil Katz, Mark A Ratner and Ronnie Kosloff Multi-qubit compensation sequences Y Tomita, J T Merrill and K R Brown Environment-invariant measure of distance between evolutions of an open quantum system Matthew D Grace, Jason Dominy, Robert L Kosut, Constantin Brif and Herschel Rabitz Simplified quantum process tomography M P A Branderhorst, J Nunn, I A Walmsley and R L Kosut Achieving 'perfect' molecular discrimination via coherent control and stimulated emission Stephen D Clow, Uvo C Holscher and Thomas C Weinacht A convenient method to simulate and visually

  6. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of this scalar particle. The…

  7. An altered form of pp60/sup c-src/ is expressed primarily in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Le Beau, J.M.; Wiestler, O.D.; Walter, G.

    1987-11-01

    The expression of two forms of pp60/sup c-scr/, pp60 and pp60/sup +/, was measured in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. Both forms were expressed in the CNS, whereas only pp60 was primarily detected in the peripheral nervous system. Our findings suggest that pp60/sup +/ may play a role in events important to the CNS.

  8. Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Roossink, Frank; Graeff, Pauline de; Pras, Elisabeth; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Zee, Ate G.J. van der

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in {>=}50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

  9. Segregation or "Thinking Black"?: Community Activism and the Development Of Black-Focused Schools in Toronto and London, 1968-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: On January 29, 2008 the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) approved a city-wide Africentric elementary school under their Alternative School policy, sparking a contentious debate. Calls for Black-focused schools also arose in 2008 in London in response to the disengagement of African Caribbean youth. The historical record…

  10. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  11. NASA Budget Focuses on Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    NASA has decided to rebalance its priorities following several years of healthy growth for science, turning its focus instead towards expanding support for manned space exploration, explained NASA Administrator Michael Griffin at a 16 February hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. The Bush Administration has requested $16.8 billion for NASA in Fiscal Year 2007, an increase of 3.2 percent over the previous year. Most of the benefit would go to the exploration program, which would get a 55 percent increase in funding-for a total of $3.9 billion-primarily for the development of the new Crew Exploration Vehicle and Crew Launch Vehicle. The science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007-to $5.3 billion-and then is projected to grow by just one percent per year in 2008-2011.

  12. "How Can We Stay Healthy When You're Throwing All of This in Front of Us?" Findings from Focus Groups and Interviews in Middle Schools on Environmental Influences on Nutrition and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Yang, Y. Wendy; Austin, S. Bryn

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors in school physical and social environments that may facilitate or compete with programs and policies to improve student physical activity and nutrition. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with students, faculty, and staff of two public middle schools. Participants identified numerous aspects of the…

  13. [Facial pain- a rare cause. Impacted lower third molars causing primarily "unclear" facial pain: a case report].

    PubMed

    Gander, Thomas; Dagassan-Berndt, Dorothea; Mascolo, Luana; Kruse, Astrid L; Grätz, Klaus W; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial pain often causes special difficulties to patients and dentists. Numerous differential diagnoses require the utilization of a coordinated diagnostic concept. Often, multiple causes lead to the need for a complex treatment plan. Impacted third molars are a potential cause of a variety of complications. Caries, pulp necrosis, and periapical infection are some of the infrequent causes of such pain. The presented case shows just such a constellation, resulting in primarily "unclear" orofacial pain. A diagnostic sequence generally leads to the correct diagnosis and thereby allows for fast and effective therapy. This shows how important structured diagnostics are, especially in cases of "unclear" pain. PMID:24114596

  14. Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles about educational and school policies, primarily related to equality of educational opportunity. "Texas Legislature Considers Much for Education, Accomplishes Little" (Albert Cortez, Anna Alicia Romero) summarizes educational legislation considered by the Texas legislature in the session ending in June 1997.…

  15. ISG56/IFIT1 is primarily responsible for interferon-induced changes to patterns of parainfluenza virus type 5 transcription and protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Andrejeva, J.; Norsted, H.; Habjan, M.; Thiel, V.; Goodbourn, S.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) induces an antiviral state in cells that results in alterations of the patterns and levels of parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5) transcripts and proteins. This study reports that IFN-stimulated gene 56/IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (ISG56/IFIT1) is primarily responsible for these effects of IFN. It was shown that treating cells with IFN after infection resulted in an increase in virus transcription but an overall decrease in virus protein synthesis. As there was no obvious decrease in the overall levels of cellular protein synthesis in infected cells treated with IFN, these results suggested that ISG56/IFIT1 selectively inhibits the translation of viral mRNAs. This conclusion was supported by in vitro translation studies. Previous work has shown that ISG56/IFIT1 can restrict the replication of viruses lacking a 2′-O-methyltransferase activity, an enzyme that methylates the 2′-hydroxyl group of ribose sugars in the 5′-cap structures of mRNA. However, the data in the current study strongly suggested that PIV5 mRNAs are methylated at the 2′-hydroxyl group and thus that ISG56/IFIT1 selectively inhibits the translation of PIV5 mRNA by some as yet unrecognized mechanism. It was also shown that ISG56/IFIT1 is primarily responsible for the IFN-induced inhibition of PIV5. PMID:23052390

  16. FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schrijvers, Michiel L.; Pattje, Wouter J.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1-T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853-15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi Oxidative Stress Regulator BosR Directly Represses Lipoproteins Primarily Expressed in the Tick during Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Dadhwal, Poonam; Cheng, Zhihui; Zianni, Michael R.; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Liang, Fang Ting; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Differential gene expression is a key strategy adopted by the Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, for adaptation and survival in the mammalian host and the tick vector. Many B. burgdorferi surface lipoproteins fall into two distinct groups according to their expression patterns: one group primarily expressed in the tick and the other group primarily expressed in the mammal. Here, we show that the Fur homologue in this bacterium, also known as Borrelia oxidative stress regulator (BosR), is required for repression of outer surface protein A (OspA) and OspD in the mammal. Furthermore, BosR binds directly to sequences upstream of the ospAB operon and the ospD gene through recognition of palindromic motifs similar to those recognized by other Fur homologues but with a 1-bp variation in the spacer length. Putative BosR-binding sites have been identified upstream of 156 B. burgdorferi genes. Some of these genes share the same expression pattern as ospA and ospD. Most notably, 12 (67%) of the 18 genes previously identified in a genome-wide microarray study to be most significantly repressed in the mammal are among the putative BosR regulon. These data indicate that BosR may directly repress transcription of many genes that are down-regulated in the mammal. PMID:23869590

  18. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-10-01

    A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode was required for application of the sensor for microbial activity measurement, while biofilm-colonized anode was needed for utilizing the sensor for BOD content measurement. The current density of SUMFC sensor equipped with a biofilm-colonized anode showed linear relationship with BOD content, to up to 250 mg/L (∼233 ± 1 mA/m(2)), with a response time of <0.67 h. This sensor could, however, not measure microbial activity, as indicated by the indifferent current produced at varying active microorganisms concentration, which was expressed as microbial adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) concentration. On the contrary, the current density (0.6 ± 0.1 to 12.4 ± 0.1 mA/m(2)) of the SUMFC sensor equipped with a fresh anode showed linear relationship, with active microorganism concentrations from 0 to 6.52 nmol-ATP/L, while no correlation between the current and BOD was observed. It was found that temperature, pH, conductivity, and inorganic solid content were significantly affecting the sensitivity of the sensor. Lastly, the sensor was tested with real contaminated groundwater, where the microbial activity and BOD content could be detected in <3.1 h. The microbial activity and BOD concentration measured by SUMFC sensor fitted well with the one measured by the standard methods, with deviations ranging from 15% to 22% and 6% to 16%, respectively. The SUMFC sensor provides a new way for in situ and quantitative monitoring contaminants content and biological activity during bioremediation process in variety of anoxic aquifers. PMID:21557205

  19. Focus Curriculum Manual; A Focus Dissemination Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resource Associates, Inc., Hastings, Minn.

    This training manual is for use in preparing staff members to use the Focus Model, which is a "school within a school" for disaffected high school students. The material is designed to be used as a resource aid following participation in an in-service workshop. Information is presented to help implement a contracting system to establish and…

  20. Focusing on customer service.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  1. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  2. Focus screen optimization.

    PubMed

    Plummer, W T

    1975-11-01

    Ground glass used for camera focus screens often has far from optimum diffusion properties. An analysis of the function of the focus screen shows that a screen with random (Gaussian) diffusion properties can be constructed with both brightness and focus efficiencies above 84%. These considerations have led to the design of an unusually bright and effective focus screen for the Polaroid SX-70 Land camera. PMID:20155099

  3. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  4. Environmental variability in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy): Focusing on the response of microbial activities and prokaryotic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Gabriella; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Decembrini, Franco; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Maimone, Giovanna; De Pasquale, Francesca; Monticelli, Luis Salvador; Zaccone, Renata; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    The response of both microbial activities and prokaryotic abundances to environmental variability was studied in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy) during two yearly surveys (1997-'98 and 2005-'06). The total enzymatic (leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase) and respiratory activity rates as well as of the abundances of total prokaryotes, culturable heterotrophic bacteria, faecal coliforms and enterococci were measured in surface waters of four brackish ponds, together with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen determinations. The seasonal and interannual patterns of microbial parameters were investigated in relation to environmental variations.

  5. Identification of a residue crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase by focusing on its molecular evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Terumasa; Miyanokoshi, Miki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Wakasugi, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) exists in two forms: a full-length TrpRS and a mini TrpRS. We previously found that human mini, but not full-length, TrpRS is an angiostatic factor. Moreover, it was shown that the interaction between mini TrpRS and the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is crucial for its angiostatic activity. However, the molecular mechanism of the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS is only partly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of truncated (mini) form of TrpRS proteins from human, bovine, or zebrafish on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that both human and bovine mini TrpRSs inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial migration, whereas zebrafish mini TrpRS did not. Next, to identify residues crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS, we prepared several site-directed mutants based on amino acid sequence alignments among TrpRSs from various species and demonstrated that a human mini K153Q TrpRS mutant cannot inhibit VEGF-stimulated HUVEC migration and cannot bind to the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin. Taken together, we conclude that the Lys153 residue of human mini TrpRS is a VE-cadherin binding site and is therefore crucial for its angiostatic activity. PMID:27094087

  6. Evaluation of activity of erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) in lead exposed workers: with focus on the effect on hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yangho; Yoo, Cheol-In; Lee, Choong Ryeol; Lee, Ji Ho; Lee, Hun; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Chang, Seoung-Hoon; Lee, Won-Jin; Hwang, Cheon-Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan

    2002-01-01

    Anemia that accompanies lead poisoning is in part the result of various inhibitory effects of lead on heme biosynthesis. Lead also increases the rate of red blood cell destruction due to the profoundly depressed activities of erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) activities. We studied parameters of the two metabolic pathways in the workers exposed to lead to evaluate P5N in the lead exposed workers and which pathway has an effect on hemoglobin (Hb) level. 29 male workers in the secondary lead smelting as high exposure group, 46 male workers in the manufacturer of inorganic pigment as low exposure group and 56 clerical male workers from another plant as non-exposed group were studied. Activity of P5N, lead concentration in whole blood (PbB), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), Hb, and ferritin were determined. In the present study, P5N activity of nucleotide metabolic pathway correlated with Hb after controlling indices of iron deficiency anemia (ferritin) occurring concurrently and heme biosynthetic pathway (ZPP) in the high exposure group while heme biosynthetic pathway did not correlate with Hb after controlling other two variables in exposure groups. These findings suggest that P5N rather than heme biosynthetic pathway has a major effect on Hb level even in workers without manifest hemolytic anemia. PMID:11926511

  7. Effects of At-Home Reading Activities and Parental Involvement on Classroom Communication Arts Assessments: Focus on the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, George

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation was written collaboratively by Cynthia Warren, Linetta Carter, and George Edwards with the exception of chapter 4 which is the individual effort of the aforementioned researchers. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of at-home reading activities and parental involvement on classroom communication arts assessments…

  8. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  9. Outbreak of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease Primarily Affecting Men Who Have Sex with Men - Southern California, 2016.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Srinivas; Foo, Chelsea; Ngo, Van; Jarashow, Claire; Civen, Rachel; Schwartz, Ben; Holguin, John; Shearer, Eric; Zahn, Matt; Harriman, Kathleen; Winter, Kathleen; Kretz, Cecilia; Chang, How Yi; Meyer, Sarah; MacNeil, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    During March 4-August 11, 2016, 25 outbreak-associated cases of meningococcal disease, including two deaths (8% case-fatality ratio), were reported in Southern California. Twenty-four of the cases were caused by serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (NmC) and one by N. meningitidis with an undetermined serogroup (Figure). On June 24, 2016, in response to this increase in NmC cases, primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles County, the city of Long Beach, and Orange County, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) issued a press release and health advisory, declaring an outbreak of NmC in Southern California (1). PMID:27606798

  10. Due to intravascular multiple sequential scattering, Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy of tissue primarily measures relative red blood cell motion within vessels.

    PubMed

    Carp, Stefan A; Roche-Labarbe, Nadàege; Franceschini, Maria-Angela; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Sakadžić, Sava; Boas, David A

    2011-07-01

    We suggest that Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of tissue blood flow primarily probe relative red blood cell (RBC) motion, due to the occurrence of multiple sequential scattering events within blood vessels. The magnitude of RBC shear-induced diffusion is known to correlate with flow velocity, explaining previous reports of linear scaling of the DCS "blood flow index" with tissue perfusion despite the observed diffusion-like auto-correlation decay. Further, by modeling RBC mean square displacement using a formulation that captures the transition from ballistic to diffusive motion, we improve the fit to experimental data and recover effective diffusion coefficients and velocity de-correlation time scales in the range expected from previous blood rheology studies. PMID:21750779

  11. Investigation of the regulation of transcriptional changes in Ancylostoma caninum larvae following serum activation, with a focus on the insulin-like signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Datu, Bennett J D; Loukas, Alex; Cantacessi, Cinzia; O'Donoghue, Peter; Gasser, Robin B

    2009-02-01

    The exit from dauer in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is under the control of a single amphidial neuron (ASJ) of the insulin-like signalling pathway. Mutations of this pathway have the ability to suppress entry into the dauer stage. It has been postulated that insulin-like signalling plays a significant role in the response to serum stimulation in vitro of the third-stage larvae (L3s) of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. To test for the possible involvement of the insulin-like signalling cascade in the response to serum stimulation, the effects of two signalling stimulants (8-bromo cGMP and arecoline) and four inhibitors, namely 4,7-phenanthroline, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt inhibitor IV and rapamycin on feeding and on levels of selected activation-associated mRNAs in serum-stimulated L3s were explored. L3s of A. caninum were pre-incubated with or without the appropriate inhibitor/agonist. Following serum-stimulation, the feeding activity was assessed. The transcription levels of a number of activation-associated mRNAs linked to particular expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were investigated by reverse transcription, real-time PCR (rtPCR). The treatment of worms with 4,7-phenanthroline completely suppressed feeding and significantly reduced the differential levels of most activation-associated mRNAs, whereas the treatment with cGMP resulted in the resumption of feeding in almost 85% of the L3s and yielded a specific transcriptional profile consistent with that following serum stimulation. The treatment of L3s with arecoline resulted in the resumption of feeding in approximately 85% of L3s, but did not result in a transcriptomic profile consistent with activation. A complete reduction in feeding was recorded in the presence of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (1mM) and resulted in a pronounced dampening of differential transcription in response to serum stimulation for the molecules examined. Akt inhibitor IV resulted in a approximately 70

  12. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Frost Risk model based primarily on freely distributed Earth Observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louka, Panagiota; Petropoulos, George; Papanikolaou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme climatic conditions, such as frost, is a significant tool in successful agricultural management and decision making. Nowadays, with the development of Earth Observation (EO) technology, it is possible to obtain accurately, timely and in a cost-effective way information on the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions, particularly over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. The present study aimed at developing and evaluating a frost risk prediction model, exploiting primarily EO data from MODIS and ASTER sensors and ancillary ground observation data. For the evaluation of our model, a region in north-western Greece was selected as test site and a detailed sensitivity analysis was implemented. The agreement between the model predictions and the observed (remotely sensed) frost frequency obtained by MODIS sensor was evaluated thoroughly. Also, detailed comparisons of the model predictions were performed against reference frost ground observations acquired from the Greek Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) over a period of 10-years (2000-2010). Overall, results evidenced the ability of the model to produce reasonably well the frost conditions, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. Implementation of our proposed frost risk model is based primarily on satellite imagery analysis provided nowadays globally at no cost. It is also straightforward and computationally inexpensive, requiring much less effort in comparison for example to field surveying. Finally, the method is adjustable to be potentially integrated with other high resolution data available from both commercial and non-commercial vendors. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, frost risk mapping, GIS, remote sensing, MODIS, Greece

  13. Surgery of highly eloquent gliomas primarily assessed as non-resectable: risks and benefits in a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, the treatment of choice for high- and low-grade gliomas requires primarily surgical resection to achieve the best survival and quality of life. Nevertheless, many gliomas within highly eloquent cortical regions, e.g., insula, rolandic, and left perisylvian cortex, still do not undergo surgery because of the impending risk of surgery-related deficits at some centers. However, pre and intraoperative brain mapping, intraoperative neuromonitoring (IOM), and awake surgery increase safety, which allows resection of most of these tumors with a considerably low rate of postoperatively new deficits. Methods Between 2006 and 2012, we resected 47 out of 51 supratentorial gliomas (92%), which were primarily evaluated to be non-resectable during previous presentation at another neurosurgical department. Out of these, 25 were glioblastomas WHO grade IV (53%), 14 were anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III (30%), 7 were diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II (15%), and one was a pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I (2%). All data, including pre and intraoperative brain mapping and monitoring (IOM) by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were reviewed and related to the postoperative outcome. Results Awake surgery was performed in 8 cases (17%). IOM was required in 38 cases (81%) and was stable in 18 cases (47%), whereas MEPs changed the surgical strategy in 10 cases (26%). Thereby, gross total resection was achieved in 35 cases (74%). Postoperatively, 17 of 47 patients (36%) had a new motor or language deficit, which remained permanent in 8.5% (4 patients). Progression-free follow-up was 11.3 months (range: 2 weeks – 64.5 months) and median survival was 14.8 months (range: 4 weeks – 20.5 months). Median Karnofsky Performance Scale was 85 before and 80 after surgery). Conclusions In specialized centers, most highly eloquent gliomas are eligible for surgical resection with an acceptable rate of surgery-related deficits; therefore, they should be referred to specialized

  14. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. PMID:25982790

  15. HST Cycle 21 Focus and Optical Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-10-01

    This program is the Cycle 21 implementation of the HST Optical Monitoring Program. The 9 orbits comprising this proposal will utilize ACS {Wide Field channel} and WFC3 {UVIS channel} to observe stellar cluster members in parallel with multiple exposures over an orbit. Phase retrieval performed on the PSF in each image will be used to measure primarily focus, with the ability to explore apparent coma, astigmatism, and third order spherical changes in WFC3. The goals of this program are to:1.} monitor the overall OTA focal length for the purposes of maintaining focus within science tolerances.2.} gain experience with the relative effectiveness of phase retrieval on WFC3/UVIS PSFs.3.} determine focus offset between the imagers and identify any SI-specific focus behavior and dependencies.If need is determined, future visits will be modified to interleave WFC3/IR channel and STIS/CCD focii measurements.

  16. Nimesulide as a downregulator of the activity of the neutrophil myeloperoxidase pathway. Focus on the histoprotective potential of the drug during inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Dapino, P; Pastorino, G; Montagnani, G; Gatti, F; Guidi, G; Dallegri, F

    1993-01-01

    Neutrophils, recruited to tissue sites of inflammation, release a variety of oxidants and enzymes, which are responsible for tissue damage. Among the oxidants released are potent chlorinated compounds, such as hypochlorous acid and chloramines, which induce tissue cell damage and inactivate protease inhibitors, particularly alpha 1-antitrypsin, the specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase. In studying a rational approach to the pharmacological control of neutrophil-mediated tissue injury, we investigated the activity of the anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide. This agent reduced the function of the myeloperoxidase pathway (which generates hypochlorous acid), by exerting a cell-directed inhibitory activity, as shown by measurement of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production. Nimesulide also inactivated hypochlorous acid directly and protected alpha 1-antitrypsin from the neutrophil-mediated oxidation. Thus, neutrophil elastolytic activity may be attenuated by nimesulide-spared alpha 1-antitrypsin. The prevention of oxidative inactivation of alpha 1-antitrypsin by nimesulide strictly correlates with the drug's ability to suppress the extracellular availability of hypochlorous acid. Taken together, these data suggest that nimesulide may prevent tissue injury at sites of inflammation by maintaining natural host protective systems. PMID:7506191

  17. The relationship between physical activity and the living environment: a multi-level analyses focusing on changes over time in environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A M; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether individual-level PA was associated with changes in fear of crime, social cohesion, green spaces, parking facilities, social disorder, and physical disorder that occurred over the past 3 years. In general, in neighborhoods where residents had more favorable perceptions of the environment in 2006, residents were more likely to be physically active in 2009. In addition, improvements between 2006 and 2009 with respect to perceived social cohesion, green spaces, social disorder, and physical disorder were associated with increased odds of being active in 2009. For both the levels in 2006 and trends in the period 2006-2009, the associations were somewhat stronger among women than among men, but associations did not vary by age or length of residence. For several environmental factors, we observed that not only the levels at a certain point in time, but also recent improvements over time were related to PA. These results provide new support for a causal relationship between these environmental factors and PA. PMID:24448404

  18. Parathyroid hormone induces E4bp4 messenger ribonucleic acid expression primarily through cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Ibrahim C; Pirih, Flavia Q; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2004-08-01

    PTH binding to its receptor activates protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and calcium signaling to induce transcription of primary response genes in osteoblasts. Adenovirus E4 promoter-binding protein/nuclear factor regulated by IL-3 (E4BP4/NFIL3), a transcriptional repressor, is a PTH-induced primary response gene in primary mouse osteoblasts (MOBs). Here we investigate the signaling pathway(s) that lead to PTH induction of E4bp4 mRNA expression. Ten and 100 nm PTH induced maximum E4bp4 expression in MOBs. Forskolin (FSK), an adenylate cyclase inducer, 8-bromo-cAMP, a cAMP analog, and phorbol myristate acetate, a PKC activator, increased E4bp4 mRNA levels, whereas ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, had no effect. Pretreatment of cells with 30 microm H89, a PKA inhibitor, strongly inhibited PTH- and FSK-induced E4bp4 expression. In contrast, overnight pretreatment with 1 microm phorbol myristate acetate to down-regulate PKC signaling did not alter PTH and FSK effects. Moreover, PTH (3-34) that does not activate cAMP signaling did not increase E4bp4 expression. Prostaglandin E(2), which signals through cAMP, increased E4bp4 mRNA at all doses, whereas prostaglandin F(2alpha) that primarily activates PKC and calcium signaling, induced E4bp4 only at high doses and fluprostenol that only activates PKC and calcium signaling, had no effect. Finally, 80 microg/kg PTH (1-34) ip injection induced E4bp4 mRNA expression at 1 h in mice. In contrast, 80 microg/kg PTH (3-34) had no effect. Our data suggest that PTH-induced E4bp4 mRNA expression is mediated primarily through cAMP-PKA signaling in vitro and in vivo. In conjunction with our previous report, we hypothesize that E4bp4 attenuates transcription of osteoblastic genes possessing E4bp4 promoter binding sites. PMID:15087429

  19. COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

  20. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Silva, Yanis Ricardo Espinosa; Fernandez, Nelson; Gutierrez, Reynaldo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7%) predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia) sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase. PMID:23778653

  1. An active focus of high prevalence of fogo selvagem on an Amerindian reservation in Brazil. Cooperative Group on Fogo Selvagem Research.

    PubMed

    Hans-Filho, G; dos Santos, V; Katayama, J H; Aoki, V; Rivitti, E A; Sampaio, S A; Friedman, H; Moraes, J R; Moraes, M E; Eaton, D P; Lopez, A L; Hoffman, R G; Fairley, J A; Giudice, G J; Diaz, L A

    1996-07-01

    Fogo Selvagem (FS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by subcorneal vesicles and antidesmoglein-1 autoantibodies. Previous epidemiologic data have linked the onset of FS to exposure to an environmental antigen(s). This investigation describes a unique human settlement with an extraordinarily high prevalence of FS. This community is made up of Amerindians belonging to the Terena tribe, which has settled on the Limao Verde reservation in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. Twenty-six well-characterized FS cases have been identified within a total population of 998, yielding a prevalence of 2.6%. Seventeen of the patients (65 %) were males, and over 50% were older than 30 y of age. The incidence of the disease shows temporal periodicity, i.e., years with several cases of FS alternating with years with no cases. Over one-half of the cases occurred in genetically related family members. Another Terena reservation, the Ipegue/Taunay, located 90 km west of the Limao Verde reservation, was also evaluated as a control group. This reservation, with a population of 2203, had no recorded cases of FS. Thus, the Limao Verde reservation represents a new focus of FS in which the disease exhibits temporal, geographic, and familial clustering. These results suggest that the environmental antigen or antigens precipitating FS are endemic to the Limao Verde reservation. This reservation appears to be an ideal population for carrying out sero-epidemiologic, genetic, and environmental studies aimed at disclosing the etiology of FS. PMID:8752842

  2. Development of orodispersible polymer films containing poorly water soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients with focus on different drug loadings and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Woertz, Christina; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this work was the development of orodispersible films containing different film forming polymers with focus on different drug loadings of two poorly water soluble APIs. Furthermore, physical stability of films was examined at two different storage conditions. Loperamide hydrochloride (LPH) and ibuprofen (IBU) were used as model drugs. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and three different types of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were used as film forming polymers. Suspensions were characterized with respect to their viscosity and particle sedimentation and films regarding their content uniformity, thickness, mass and stability. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the correlation between the wet film thickness, dry film thickness, mass of the films, API fraction in the suspension and the viscosity of the suspensions. The viscosity of the suspensions was dependent on the drug load and the polymer fraction but less so on the type of the utilized polymer. A correlation between the wet film thickness, the solid fraction and the mass of the films was established with an increase in mass by increasing the wet film thickness or the solid fraction. Films containing 50 mg IBU/6 cm(2) film led to acceptable films. Storage experiments did not lead to an AV below 15 in all cases after storage for three and six months, attributed to the storage conditions and the quality of the films. Nevertheless, the development and production of flexible and homogeneous films of LPH and IBU was successfully achieved. PMID:26216415

  3. Influence of complementing a robotic upper limb rehabilitation system with video games on the engagement of the participants: a study focusing on muscle activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Rusák, Zoltán; Horváth, Imre; Ji, Linhong

    2014-12-01

    Efficacious stroke rehabilitation depends not only on patients' medical treatment but also on their motivation and engagement during rehabilitation exercises. Although traditional rehabilitation exercises are often mundane, technology-assisted upper-limb robotic training can provide engaging and task-oriented training in a natural environment. The factors that influence engagement, however, are not fully understood. This paper therefore studies the relationship between engagement and muscle activities as well as the influencing factors of engagement. To this end, an experiment was conducted using a robotic upper limb rehabilitation system with healthy individuals in three training exercises: (a) a traditional exercise, which is typically used for training the grasping function, (b) a tracking exercise, currently used in robot-assisted stroke patient rehabilitation for fine motor movement, and (c) a video game exercise, which is a proliferating approach of robot-assisted rehabilitation enabling high-level active engagement of stroke patients. These exercises differ not only in the characteristics of the motion that they use but also in their method of triggering engagement. To measure the level of engagement, we used facial expressions, motion analysis of the arm movements, and electromyography. The results show that (a) the video game exercise could engage the participants for a longer period than the other two exercises, (b) the engagement level decreased when the participants became too familiar with the exercises, and (c) analysis of normalized root mean square in electromyographic data indicated that muscle activities were more intense when the participants are engaged. This study shows that several sub-factors on engagement, such as versatility of feedback, cognitive tasks, and competitiveness, may influence engagement more than the others. To maintain a high level of engagement, the rehabilitation system needs to be adaptive, providing different exercises to

  4. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Giantsis, Ioannis A; Demir, Samiye; Bon, Marie Claude

    2016-06-01

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) along the outskirts of the city in areas of increased canine leishmania transmission. Six sand fly species (Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus tobbi, Phlebotomus simici, Plebotomus papatasi, Sergentomya minuta and Sergentomya dentata) were identified using both classical and molecular techniques. DNA barcodes were characterized for the first time for two (P. simici and S. dentata) of the six recorded species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the COI gene sequences confirmed the grouping of P. tobbi, P. perniciosus and P. perfiliewi (subgenus Larrousius) and the monophyly of P. simici (subgenus Adlerius). By far the most prevalent species was P. perfiliewi, followed by P. simici and P. tobbi. The largest populations of sand flies were collected from animal facilities, followed by residential areas and open agricultural fields. Peak activity of sand flies overall occurred mid-August to mid-September and then declined sharply in October. Blood meal analysis showed that P. perfiliewi and P. simici feed preferentially on humans (88% & 95%, respectively) but also feed on chickens and goats. When designing a control strategy to alleviate sand fly nuisance in the region of Thessaloniki the following conclusions can be reached from this study: a) August and September are high risk months due to increased sand fly activity levels, b) animal facilities within or adjacent to urban settlements are high risk areas and may act as a maintenance and amplification foci for the vector as well as the parasite, and c) the abundance, ubiquity and feeding behavior of P. perfiliewi and P. simici establishes them as potentially important vectors of Leishmania in the region. PMID:26965171

  5. Long-term secondary prevention programs after cardiac rehabilitation for the reduction of future cardiovascular events: focus on regular physical activity.

    PubMed

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Andrea; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo

    2009-05-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs are recognized as integral to the comprehensive care of patients with coronary heart disease, and as such are recommended in most contemporary clinical practice guidelines. The interventions are aimed at reducing disability, optimizing cardiovascular risk reduction by drug therapy and promoting healthy behavior. Healthy lifestyle habits must be recognized as capable of substantially reducing the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease. This review highlights the recommended components of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs, with special emphasis on regular physical activity. PMID:19450055

  6. Focusing the surgical microscope.

    PubMed

    Socea, Sergiu D; Barak, Yoreh; Blumenthal, Eytan Z

    2015-01-01

    A well-focused operating microscope addresses several needs that are all secondary to the surgeon's need to see clearly at all times. These needs include: the assistant; the sharpness of the video and monitor; as well as field of view, asthenopia, and focusing issues related to zoom, accommodation, and presbyopia. We provide a practical approach to achieve optimal focus that we call the sloping paper calibration method. PMID:25891029

  7. Potential drugs which activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 signaling to prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications: A focus on fumaric acid esters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Jin, Jingpeng; Bai, Tao; Sachleben, Leroy R; Cai, Lu; Zheng, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes and its cardiovascular complications have been a major public health issue. These complications are mainly attributable to a severe imbalance between free radical and reactive oxygen species production and the antioxidant defense systems. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that controls the basal and inducible expression of a battery of antioxidant enzyme genes and other cyto-protective phase II detoxifying enzymes. As a result, Nrf2 has gained great attention as a promising drug target for preventing diabetic cardiovascular complications. And while animal studies have shown that several Nrf2 activators manifest a potential to efficiently prevent the diabetic complications, their use in humans has not been approved due to the lack of substantial evidence regarding safety and efficacy of the Nrf2 activation. We provide here a brief review of a few clinically-used drugs that can up-regulate Nrf2 with the potential of extending their usage to diabetic patients for the prevention of cardiovascular complications and conclude with a closer inspection of dimethyl fumarate and its mimic members. PMID:26044512

  8. Responses of Nigella sativa L. to Zinc Excess: Focus on Germination, Growth, Yield and Yield Components, Lipid and Terpene Metabolism, and Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Marichali, Ahmed; Dallali, Sana; Ouerghemmi, Saloua; Sebei, Houcine; Casabianca, Hervé; Hosni, Karim

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the responses of Nigella sativa L. to elevated zinc concentrations was assessed in pot experiments. Zn excess supply did not affect the germination but drastically reduced radicle elongation. A concentration-dependent reduction in all growth parameters, yield, and yield components was observed. With the increasing Zn concentrations, total lipid contents decreased and changes in fatty composition toward the production of saturated ones were underscored. Despite the reduction in the seeds essential oil yield, a redirection of the terpene metabolism toward the synthesis of oxygenated compounds has been evidenced. A significant increase in the total phenols and flavonoids contents concomitant with improved antioxidant activities has also been found. Collectively, these results highlight the possible use of N. sativa L. in phytoremediation applications, on the one hand, and that Zn excess could represent an excellent alternative to improve the nutritional attributes of this important species, on the other hand. PMID:26853463

  9. [Anti-doping policy development process in the sports world (1968~1999): focusing on IOC activities and passive response from Korea].

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eui-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the anti-doping policy promoted by the IOC historical sociologically focusing on the period from 1968 to 1999. Public opinion surrounding doping control has emerged as a large amount of drug possession by athletes who had participated in the 1952 Olympics was caught, as well as following the accident where an athlete had died during the competition as a result of doping. From 1960, as many doping cases in sports games were exposed, several international organizations proclaimed fight against doping in order to seek a preventive measure. In 1961, the IOC newly established a medical commission within the organization. It was decided to implement doping control and female sex testing at the same time for all athletes who participated in the 1967 Olympics, and they were implemented from 1968 winter and summer Olympic Games. In 1971, the provisions for the tests were prescribed as mandatory on the IOC charter. From 1989, the OCT system was introduced as a measure to overcome limitations of the detection during competition period. As political problems and limitations emerged, WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) was established in 1999 to professionally manage and push for doping control. Female sex testing policy contributed to preventing males from participating in female competition by deceiving their gender to some extent. However, it was abolished due to strong public condemnation such as women's rights issues, social stigma and pain, and gender discrimination debate. In 1984, a doping control center was established in Korea, which enabled drug use or doping in the sports world to emerge to the surface in our society. Korea Sports Council and KOC articles of association that supervise doping related matters of Korean athletes were revised in 1990. The action of inserting doping related issue in the articles of association was taken 20 years after the start of IOC doping policy. Beginning with two international competitions in the 1980s, Korean

  10. Identification of barriers to the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness in Latino farmworkers using activity-oriented, participatory rural appraisal focus group methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat-related illness (HRI) is an important cause of non-fatal illness and death in farmworkers. We sought to identify potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in Latino farmworkers. Methods We conducted three semi-structured focus group discussions with 35 Latino farmworkers in the Central Washington, USA area using participatory rural appraisal techniques. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed in Spanish. Three researchers reviewed and coded transcripts and field notes, and investigator triangulation was used to identify relevant themes and quotes. Results Although the majority of participants in our study reported never receiving formal HRI training, most participants were aware that extreme heat can cause illness and were able to accurately describe HRI symptoms, risk factors, and certain prevention strategies. Four main observations regarding farmworkers’ HRI-relevant beliefs and attitudes were identified: 1) farmworkers subscribe to varying degrees to the belief that cooling treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, with some believing that such treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, and others encouraging the use of such treatments; 2) the desire to lose weight may be reflected in behaviors that promote increased sweating; 3) highly caffeinated energy drinks are preferred to increase work efficiency and maintain alertness; and 4) the location of drinking water at work (e.g. next to restrooms) and whether water is clean, but not necessarily chemically-treated, are important considerations in deciding whether to drink the water provided at worksites. Conclusions We identified potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment related to hydration, certain HRI treatments, clothing use, and the desire to lose weight among Latino farmworkers. Strategies to address potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in this population may include engineering, administrative, and health education and health promotion

  11. Nanoparticles Affect PCR Primarily via Surface Interactions with PCR Components: Using Amino-Modified Silica-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Main Model.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yalong; Cui, Yan; Paoli, George C; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dapeng; Shi, Xianming

    2015-06-24

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs, which can be collected very easily using an external magnetic field) as a model and compared them with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, which have been studied extensively) to reveal the mechanisms by which nanoparticles affect PCR. We found that nanoparticles affect PCR primarily by binding to PCR components: (1) inhibition, (2) specifity, and (3) efficiency and yield of PCR are impacted. (1) Excess nanomaterials inhibit PCR by adsorbing to DNA polymerase, Mg(2+), oligonucleotide primers, or DNA templates. Nanoparticle surface-active groups are particularly important to this effect. (2, a) Nanomaterials do not inhibit nonspecific amplification products caused by false priming as previously surmised. It was shown that relatively low concentrations of nanoparticles inhibited the amplification of long amplicons, and increasing the amount of nanoparticles inhibited the amplification of short amplicons. This concentration phenomenon appears to be the result of the formation of "joints" upon the adsorption of ASMNPs to DNA templates. (b) Nanomaterials are able to inhibit nonspecific amplification products due to incomplete amplification by preferably adsorbing single-stranded incomplete amplification products. (3) Some types of nanomaterials, such as AuNPs, enhance the efficiency and yield of PCR because these types of nanoparticles can adsorb to single-stranded DNA more strongly than to double-stranded DNA. This behavior assists in the rapid and thorough denaturation of double-stranded DNA templates. Therefore, the interaction between the surface of nanoparticles and PCR components is sufficient to explain most of the effects of nanoparticles on PCR. PMID

  12. The Human NK Cell Response to Yellow Fever Virus 17D Is Primarily Governed by NK Cell Differentiation Independently of NK Cell Education.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Nicole; Ivarsson, Martin A; Blom, Kim; Gonzalez, Veronica D; Braun, Monika; Falconer, Karolin; Gustafsson, Rasmus; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Sandberg, Johan K; Michaëlsson, Jakob

    2015-10-01

    NK cells play an important role in the defense against viral infections. However, little is known about the regulation of NK cell responses during the first days of acute viral infections in humans. In this study, we used the live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D as a human in vivo model to study the temporal dynamics and regulation of NK cell responses in an acute viral infection. YFV induced a robust NK cell response in vivo, with an early activation and peak in NK cell function at day 6, followed by a delayed peak in Ki67 expression, which was indicative of proliferation, at day 10. The in vivo NK cell response correlated positively with plasma type I/III IFN levels at day 6, as well as with the viral load. YFV induced an increased functional responsiveness to IL-12 and IL-18, as well as to K562 cells, indicating that the NK cells were primed in vivo. The NK cell responses were associated primarily with the stage of differentiation, because the magnitude of induced Ki67 and CD69 expression was distinctly higher in CD57(-) NK cells. In contrast, NK cells expressing self- and nonself-HLA class I-binding inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors contributed, to a similar degree, to the response. Taken together, our results indicate that NK cells are primed by type I/III IFN in vivo early after YFV infection and that their response is governed primarily by the differentiation stage, independently of killer cell Ig-like receptor/HLA class I-mediated inhibition or education. PMID:26283480

  13. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  14. Human land uses enhance sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes primarily by influencing lake water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Yao, L.; Wang, Z.; Xiong, Z.; Liu, G.

    2015-10-01

    Sediment denitrification in lakes alleviates the effects of eutrophication through the removal of nitrogen to the atmosphere as N2O and N2. However, N2O contributes notably to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Human land uses (e.g. agricultural and urban areas) strongly affect lake water quality and sediment characteristics, which, in turn, may regulate lake sediment denitrification and N2O production. In this study, we investigated sediment denitrification and N2O production and their relationships to within-lake variables and watershed land uses in 20 lakes from the Yangtze River basin in China. The results indicated that both lake water quality and sediment characteristics were significantly influenced by watershed land uses. N2O production rates increased with increasing background denitrification rates. Background denitrification and N2O production rates were positively related to water nitrogen concentrations but were not significantly correlated with sediment characteristics and plant community structure. A significant positive relationship was observed between background denitrification rate and percentage of human-dominated land uses (HDL) in watersheds. Structural equation modelling revealed that the indirect effects of HDL on sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes were mediated primarily through lake water quality. Our findings also suggest that although sediments in Yangtze lakes can remove large quantities of nitrogen through denitrification, they may also be an important source of N2O, especially in lakes with high nitrogen content.

  15. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16-17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  16. Bimanual cross-talk during reaching movements is primarily related to response selection, not the specification of motor parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Diedrichsen, Joern; Kennerley, Steven W.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous reaching movements made with the two hands can show a considerable increase in reaction time (RT) when they differ in terms of direction or extent, compared to when the movements involve the same direction and extent. This cost has been attributed to cross-talk in the specification of the motor parameters for the two hands. However, a recent study [Diedrichsen, Hazeltine, Kennerley, & Ivry, (2001). Psychological Science, 12, 493-498] indicates that when reaching movements are cued by the onset of the target endpoint, no compatibility effects are observed. To determine why directly cued movements are immune from interference, we varied the stimulus onset asynchrony for the two movements and used different combinations of directly cued and symbolically cued movements. In two experiments, compatibility effects were only observed when both movements were symbolically cued. No difference was found between compatible and incompatible movements when both movements were directly cued or when one was directly cued and the other was symbolically cued. These results indicate that interference is not related to the specification of movement parameters but instead emerges from processes associated with response selection. Moreover, the data suggest that cross-talk, when present, primarily shortens the RT of the second movement on compatible trials rather than lengthening this RT on incompatible trials.

  17. Effect of thyroid peroxidase antibodies on thyroid-stimulating hormone reference limits in a primarily Latina population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard H; Spencer, Carole A; Montoro, Martin N; Aghajanian, Paola; Goodwin, T Murphy; Miller, Erin A; Petrovic, Ivana; Braverman, Lewis E; Mestman, Jorge H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine the prevalence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and assess its effect on the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) reference range during pregnancy in a primarily Latina population. Serum samples were collected from healthy pregnant women and non-pregnant controls. TSH reference ranges were calculated when TPOAb-positive patients were either included or excluded. A total of 134 pregnant women and 107 non-pregnant controls were recruited. Positive TPOAb titres were found in 23 (17.2%) of the 134 pregnant women, and in 14 (13.1%) of the 107 non-pregnant controls. When the TPOAb-positive women were included in the TSH analysis, the upper reference limit using two different methods was consistently higher: 0–2.2 fold in the non-pregnant women, 2.01–2.78 fold in the first trimester, 3.18–4.7 fold in the second and 1.05–1.42 fold in the third. The lower TSH reference limit was not affected by the inclusion of TPOAb-positive subjects. In conclusion, inclusion of TPOAb-positive patients results in higher upper reference limits during pregnancy.

  18. Identification of gunshots to the head by detection of RNA in backspatter primarily expressed in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Lux, Constantin; Schyma, Christian; Madea, Burkhard; Courts, Cornelius

    2014-04-01

    Traces of backspatter recovered from the inside of the barrel of a gun that was used to deliver suicidal or homicidal contact shots may be a source of valuable forensic evidence and first systematic investigations of the persistence of victim DNA from inside firearms have been presented. The aim of the present study was to include victim RNA in such analyses to determine the origin of tissues in addition and parallel to standard DNA profiling for forensic identification purposes. In a first step, suitable mRNA (C1orf61) and micro-RNAs (miR-124a and miR-124*) that are primarily expressed in brain tissue were selected from potential candidates and confirmed using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Secondly, a co-extraction procedure for RNA and DNA was established and brain differentiability of the selected RNAs was demonstrated via qPCR using samples from experimental shots at ballistic models. In a third step, this procedure was successfully applied to analyse samples from real casework comprising eight cases of suicidal contact shots. In this pilot study, we are first to report the possibility of co-extracting mRNA, miRNA and DNA from ballistic trace samples collected from the inside of firearms and we demonstrate that RNA and DNA based analyses can be performed in parallel to produce informative and highly complementary evidence. PMID:24598119

  19. Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol dependent sample of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PMID:22201219

  20. The Reliability and Validity of Drug Users' Self Reports of Amphetamine Use Among Primarily Heroin and Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Napper, Lucy E.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Johnson, Mark E.; Wood, Michele M.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively few studies have addressed the psychometric properties of self-report measures of amphetamine use. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Risk Behavior Assessment's (RBA) lifetime and recent amphetamine-use questions. To evaluate validity, 4027 out-of-treatment primarily cocaine and heroin users provided urine samples that were compared to self-report data; to evaluate reliability, 218 completed the RBA at two time points, 48 hours apart. In the overall sample, self-reports demonstrated moderately high validity, with a 95% accuracy rate (kappa =.54). When analysis was restricted to recent amphetamine users validity was slightly lower (71.5% accuracy; kappa = .41). Test-retest data indicated good reliability for self-reports of ever having used amphetamine (kappa =.79), and amphetamine use in the past 30 days (.75 < r < .91). Out-of-treatment drug users provided accurate self-reports of amphetamine use. Reliable and valid measures are essential for describing and predicting trends in amphetamine use, evaluating the effectiveness of interventions, and developing policies and programs. PMID:20053503

  1. Focus: Teaching by Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimer, Frances N., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The focus of this bulletin is teaching the various literary genres in the secondary English class. Contents include "The Song Within: An Approach to Teaching Poetry,""Teaching Folk-Rock,""Approaches to Teaching Poetry,""Focus on an Elective Program: Twentieth Century Lyrical Poetry,""Hoffman and Poe: Masters of the Grotesque,""Plays: Shared and…

  2. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  3. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  4. Both cell substratum regulation and hormonal regulation of milk protein gene expression are exerted primarily at the posttranscriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, R.S.; Rosen, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The mechanism by which individual peptide and steroid hormones and cell-substratum interactions regulate milk protein gene expression has been studied in the COMMA-D mammary epithelial cell line. In the presence of insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin, growth of COMMA-D cells on floating collagen gels in comparison with that on a plastic substratum resulted in a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in the relative rate of ..beta..-casein gene transcription but a 37-fold increase in ..beta..-casein mRNA accumulation. In contrast, whey acidic protein gene transcription was constitutive in COMMA-D cells grown on either substratum, but its mRNA was unstable and little intact mature mRNA was detected. Culturing COMMA-D cells on collagen also promoted increased expression of other genes expressed in differentiated mammary epithelial cells, including those encoding ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-casein, transferrin, malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase but decreased the expression of actin and histone genes. Using COMMA-D cells, the authors defined further the role of individual hormones in influencing ..beta..-casein gene transcription. With insulin alone, a basal level of ..beta..-casein gene transcription was detected in COMMA-D cells grown on floating collagen gels. Addition of prolactin but not hydrocortisone resulted in a 2.5- to 3.0-fold increase in ..beta..-casein gene transcription, but both hormones were required to elicit the maximal 73-fold induction in mRNA accumulation. The posttranscriptional effect of hormones on casein mRNA accummulation preceded any detectable changes in the relative rate of transcription. Thus, regulation by both hormones and cell substratum of casein gene expression is exerted primarily at the post transcriptional level.

  5. Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Z H; Zerjal, T; Hurles, M E; Adojaan, M; Alavantic, D; Amorim, A; Amos, W; Armenteros, M; Arroyo, E; Barbujani, G; Beckman, G; Beckman, L; Bertranpetit, J; Bosch, E; Bradley, D G; Brede, G; Cooper, G; Côrte-Real, H B; de Knijff, P; Decorte, R; Dubrova, Y E; Evgrafov, O; Gilissen, A; Glisic, S; Gölge, M; Hill, E W; Jeziorowska, A; Kalaydjieva, L; Kayser, M; Kivisild, T; Kravchenko, S A; Krumina, A; Kucinskas, V; Lavinha, J; Livshits, L A; Malaspina, P; Maria, S; McElreavey, K; Meitinger, T A; Mikelsaar, A V; Mitchell, R J; Nafa, K; Nicholson, J; Nørby, S; Pandya, A; Parik, J; Patsalis, P C; Pereira, L; Peterlin, B; Pielberg, G; Prata, M J; Previderé, C; Roewer, L; Rootsi, S; Rubinsztein, D C; Saillard, J; Santos, F R; Stefanescu, G; Sykes, B C; Tolun, A; Villems, R; Tyler-Smith, C; Jobling, M A

    2000-12-01

    Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift. PMID:11078479

  6. Initial Molecular-Level Response to Artificial Selection for Increased Aerobic Metabolism Occurs Primarily through Changes in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Mateusz; Babik, Wiesław; Radwan, Jacek; Sadowska, Edyta T; Koteja, Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Experimental evolution combined with genome or transcriptome resequencing (Evolve and Resequence) represents a promising approach for advancing our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation. Here, we applied this strategy to investigate the effect of selection on a complex trait in lines derived from a natural population of a small mammal. We analyzed the liver and heart transcriptomes of bank voles (Myodes [=Clethrionomys] glareolus) that had been selected for increased aerobic metabolism. The organs were sampled from 13th generation voles; at that point, the voles from four replicate selected lines had 48% higher maximum rates of oxygen consumption than those from four control lines. At the molecular level, the response to selection was primarily observed in gene expression: Over 300 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the selected and control lines and the transcriptome-wide pattern of expression distinguished selected lines from controls. No evidence for selection-driven changes of allele frequencies at coding sites was found: No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changed frequency more than expected under drift alone and frequency changes aggregated over all SNPs did not separate selected and control lines. Nevertheless, among genes which showed highest differentiation in allele frequencies between selected and control lines we identified, using information about gene functions and the biology of the selected phenotype, plausible targets of selection; these genes, together with those identified in expression analysis, have been prioritized for further studies. Because our selection lines were derived from a natural population, the amount and the spectrum of variation available for selection probably closely approximated that typically found in populations of small mammals. Therefore, our results are relevant to the understanding of the molecular basis of complex adaptations occurring in natural vertebrate populations. PMID:25739734

  7. Organ-Specific Stability of Two Lemna rbcS mRNAs Is Determined Primarily in the Nuclear Compartment.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J. L.; Silverthorne, J.

    1995-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the organ-specific expression of two members of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (rbcS) gene family is post-transcriptionally regulated in Lemna gibba. While both small subunit genes encoding SSU1 and SSU5B were transcribed at comparable levels in root and frond nuclei, SSU1 mRNA accumulated to high levels in both roots and fronds in contrast to SSU5B mRNA, which was of very low abundance in the roots compared with the fronds. In this study, we have used two approaches to pinpoint the step(s) at which SSU1 and SSU5B mRNAs are differentially accumulated in these organs. In the first approach, total nuclear steady state mRNA was isolated from roots and fronds, and the amount of each transcript was measured by RNase protection assays and compared with the transcription rates in isolated nuclei. In the second approach, cordycepin was used to inhibit mRNA synthesis in Lemna fronds or roots, and the rate of decay of each mRNA was measured by RNA gel blot analysis or RNase protection assays. Our findings indicate that the differential accumulation of SSU1 and SSU5B mRNAs in the fronds versus the roots is determined primarily in the nuclear compartment. In addition, SSU1 was found to have a longer half-life in total steady state mRNA than SSU5B had in both organs. This feature probably accounts for SSU1 being the predominantly expressed family member. PMID:12242353

  8. Forty-four years’ experience (1963–2006) in the management of primarily infected hydatid cyst of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Prousalidis, J.; Anthimidis, G.; Fachantidis, E.; Harlaftis, N.; Aletras, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and aim. The aim of this study was to report our 44-year experience (1963–2006) in the management of primarily infected hydatid cyst of the liver. This is a retrospective review of demographic data, clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, surgical management, and long-term outcome of patients treated at our center. Material and methods. There were 77 patients with operated infected liver cysts. In the same period, a total of 460 cases with liver hydatidosis were treated surgically. Of those with suppurated cysts, 27 were men and 50 were women, with a mean age 54.5 years. Results. Clinical manifestations of an abscess were identified in 75% of the patients. In the earlier cases of the study, the diagnosis was made from the clinical picture, laboratory studies, in combination with plain X-ray, hepatic scintigraphy, and in the later cases with US (ultrasonography), CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and ERCP (endoscopic cholangiopangreatography). Abdominal and, rarely, thoracic and abdominal or thoracoabdominal incisions were used. Total cystopericystectomy in 8 patients and partial pericystectomy and proper drainage with one or two drainage tubes of the cystic cavity in the other 69 patients were carried out. Hospital stay was between 13 and 146 days with 5 re-operations. Two patients with grossly suppurated cysts and coexistent medical problems died. The disease recurred in five patients. Conclusions. We conclude that, under good perioperative antibiotic and metabolic coverage, the infected hydatid cysts have to be completely evacuated and properly drained. The application of “conservative” surgical procedures should be preferred. Further studies are needed to solve the clinical and therapeutic problems of this serious complication. PMID:18695754

  9. Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Zoë H.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Hurles, Matthew E.; Adojaan, Maarja; Alavantic, Dragan; Amorim, António; Amos, William; Armenteros, Manuel; Arroyo, Eduardo; Barbujani, Guido; Beckman, Gunhild; Beckman, Lars; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bosch, Elena; Bradley, Daniel G.; Brede, Gaute; Cooper, Gillian; Côrte-Real, Helena B. S. M.; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Evgrafov, Oleg; Gilissen, Anja; Glisic, Sanja; Gölge, Mukaddes; Hill, Emmeline W.; Jeziorowska, Anna; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kayser, Manfred; Kivisild, Toomas; Kravchenko, Sergey A.; Krumina, Astrida; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lavinha, João; Livshits, Ludmila A.; Malaspina, Patrizia; Maria, Syrrou; McElreavey, Ken; Meitinger, Thomas A.; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Mitchell, R. John; Nafa, Khedoudja; Nicholson, Jayne; Nørby, Søren; Pandya, Arpita; Parik, Jüri; Patsalis, Philippos C.; Pereira, Luísa; Peterlin, Borut; Pielberg, Gerli; Prata, Maria João; Previderé, Carlo; Roewer, Lutz; Rootsi, Siiri; Rubinsztein, D. C.; Saillard, Juliette; Santos, Fabrício R.; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Sykes, Bryan C.; Tolun, Aslihan; Villems, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift. PMID:11078479

  10. Inhibitory effects of ursolic acid on osteoclastogenesis and titanium particle-induced osteolysis are mediated primarily via suppression of NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuan; Xiao, Fei; Gu, Xinfeng; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Wang, Wengang; Tang, Tingting; Wang, You; Zhu, Zhenan; Dai, Kerong; Qin, An; Wang, Jinwu

    2015-04-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in a variety of plants, has attracted considerable attention because of its important biological and pharmacological activities. However, its effect on osteoclasts and mechanism of action require further investigation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of UA on osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast-mediated osteolysis in vitro and in vivo, and explored its possible mechanism of action. The results indicated that UA could inhibit receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis and the bone resorptive function of osteoclasts in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Further, UA effectively inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of NFATc1, primarily via the suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling, and partly through the suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Additionally, UA treatment downregulated the expression of NFATc1-regulated osteoclast marker genes. Likewise, UA induced dose-dependent attenuation of titanium (Ti) particle-induced mouse calvarial bone loss, and decreased the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that UA protects against wear particle-induced osteolysis by suppressing osteoclast formation and function. These effects are associated with the inhibition of the NF-κB- and JNK-related signaling pathways. PMID:25681755

  11. Absorption driven focus shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  12. Variability of mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic with a focus on the Svalbard region: a study based on spaceborne active remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioche, G.; Jourdan, O.; Ceccaldi, M.; Delanoë, J.

    2015-03-01

    The Arctic region is known to be very sensitive to climate change. Clouds and in particular mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) remain one of the greatest sources of uncertainties in the modelling of the Arctic response to climate change due to an inaccurate representation of their variability and their quantification. In this study, we present a characterisation of the vertical, spatial and seasonal variability of Arctic clouds and MPCs over the entire Arctic region based on satellite active remote sensing observations. MPC properties in the region of the Svalbard archipelago (78° N, 15° E) are also investigated. The occurrence frequency of clouds and MPCs are determined from CALIPSO/CLOUDSAT measurements processed with the DARDAR retrieval algorithm, which allow for a reliable cloud thermodynamic phase classification (warm liquid, supercooled liquid, ice, mixing of ice and supercooled liquid). Significant differences are observed between MPC properties over the entire Arctic region and over the Svalbard region. Results show that MPCs are encountered all year long, with a minimum occurrence of 30% in winter and 50% during the rest of the year on average over the entire Arctic. Over the Svalbard region, MPC occurrence is more constant with time with larger values (55%) compared to the average observed in the Arctic. MPCs are especially located at low altitudes, below 3000 m, where their frequency of occurrence reaches 90%, particularly during winter, spring and autumn. Moreover, results highlight that MPCs are statistically more frequent above open sea than land or sea ice. The temporal and spatial distribution of MPCs over the Svalbard region seems to be linked to the supply of moister air and warmer water from the North Atlantic Ocean, which contribute to the initiation of the liquid water phase. Over the whole Arctic, and particularly in western regions, the increase of MPC occurrence from spring to autumn could be connected to the sea ice melting. During this period

  13. Variability of the mixed phase in the Arctic with a focus on the Svalbard region: a study based on spaceborne active remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioche, G.; Jourdan, O.; Ceccaldi, M.; Delanoë, J.

    2014-09-01

    The Arctic region is known to be very sensitive to climate change. Clouds and in particular mixed phase clouds (MPC) remain one of the greatest sources of uncertainties in the modeling of the Arctic response to climate change due to an inaccurate representation of their variability and their quantification. In this study, we present a characterization of the vertical, spatial and seasonal variability of Arctic clouds and MPC over the whole Arctic region based on satellite active remote sensing observations. MPC properties in the region of Svalbard archipelago (78° N, 15° E) are also investigated. The occurrence frequency of clouds and MPC are determined from CALIPSO/CLOUDSAT measurements processed with the DARDAR retrieval algorithm which allows for a reliable cloud thermodynamic phase classification (warm liquid, supercooled liquid, ice, mixing of ice and supercooled liquid). Significant differences are observed between MPC variability over the whole Arctic region and over the Svalbard region. Results show that MPC are ubiquitous all along the year, with a minimum occurrence of 30% in winter and 50% during the rest of the year, in average over the whole Arctic. Over the Svalbard region, MPC occurrence is more constant with time with larger values (55%) compared to the average observed in the Arctic. MPC are especially located at low altitudes, below 3000 m, where their frequency of occurrence reaches 90%, in particular during winter, spring and autumn. Moreover, results highlight that MPC statistically prevail over sea. The temporal and spatial distribution of MPC over the Svalbard region seems to be linked to the contribution of moister air and warmer water from the North Atlantic Ocean which contribute to the initiation of the liquid water phase. Over the whole Arctic, and particularly in western regions, the increase of MPC occurrence from spring to autumn could be connected to the sea ice melting. During this period, the open water transports a part of the

  14. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  15. Flat focusing mirror.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y C; Kicas, S; Trull, J; Peckus, M; Cojocaru, C; Vilaseca, R; Drazdys, R; Staliunas, K

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  16. Particle ordering in inertially focused microfluidic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphry, Katherine; Kulkarni, Pandurang; di Carlo, Dino; Edd, Jon; Toner, Mehmet; Morris, Jeffrey; Weitz, David; Stone, Howard

    2008-11-01

    We study inertially driven focusing of particles [1], which has recently been exploited in a controlled fashion in microfluidic devices [2]. In particular, we characterize the focusing as a function of particle and channel Reynolds number by reporting particle position in directions perpendicular to the flow, and a large distance from the fluid inlet. Focusing of dilute suspensions leads to a linear arrangement of particles whose spacing is primarily a function of concentration and channel aspect ratio. All results are compared with simulations, which provide mechanistic insights into particle behavior.[1] G. Segré and A. Silberberg, Nature 189, 209 (1961). [2] D. Di Carlo, D. Irimia, R. G. Tompkins, and M. Toner, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18892 (2007).

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

    2009-09-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents Electronic properties of graphene and graphene nanoribbons with 'pseudo-Rashba' spin-orbit coupling Tobias Stauber and John Schliemann Strained graphene: tight-binding and density functional calculations R M Ribeiro, Vitor M Pereira, N M R Peres, P R Briddon and A H Castro Neto The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fürst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P López-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J González and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square

  18. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered...

  19. 49 CFR 37.103 - Purchase or lease of new non-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.103 Section 37.103...-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a... engaged in the business of transporting people and whose operations affect commerce, in which...

  20. 49 CFR 37.103 - Purchase or lease of new non-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.103 Section 37.103...-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a... engaged in the business of transporting people and whose operations affect commerce, in which...

  1. 49 CFR 37.103 - Purchase or lease of new non-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.103 Section 37.103...-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a... engaged in the business of transporting people and whose operations affect commerce, in which...

  2. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered...

  3. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered...

  4. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered...

  5. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered...

  6. 49 CFR 37.103 - Purchase or lease of new non-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.103 Section 37.103...-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. (a... engaged in the business of transporting people and whose operations affect commerce, in which...

  7. 49 CFR 37.103 - Purchase or lease of new non-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. 37.103 Section 37.103...-rail vehicles by private entities primarily engaged in the business of transporting people. Link to an... people and whose operations affect commerce, in which a solicitation for the vehicle is made (except...

  8. Focusing corner cube

    DOEpatents

    Monjes, J.A.

    1985-09-12

    This invention retortreflects and focuses a beam of light. The invention comprises a modified corner cube reflector wherein one reflective surface is planar, a second reflective surface is spherical, and the third reflective surface may be planar or convex cylindrical.

  9. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  10. Current focusing and steering

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Ben H.; Litvak, Leonid M.

    2008-01-01

    Current steering and current focusing are stimulation techniques designed to increase the number of distinct perceptual channels available to cochlear implant (CI) users by adjusting currents applied simultaneously to multiple CI electrodes. Previous studies exploring current steering and current focusing stimulation strategies are reviewed, including results of research using computational models, animal neurophysiology, and human psychophysics. Preliminary results of additional neurophysiological and human psychophysical studies are presented that demonstrate the success of current steering strategies in stimulating auditory nerve regions lying between physical CI electrodes, as well as current focusing strategies that excite regions narrower than those stimulated using monopolar configurations. These results are interpreted in the context of perception and speech reception by CI users. Disparities between results of physiological and psychophysical studies are discussed. The differences in stimulation used for physiological and psychophysical studies are hypothesized to contribute to these disparities. Finally, application of current steering and focusing strategies to other types of auditory prostheses is also discussed. PMID:18501539

  11. Inertial Focusing in Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Joseph M.; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future. PMID:24905880

  12. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  13. High harmonics focusing undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  14. Planar-focusing cathodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.; Noonan, J.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    Conventional {pi}-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and usually requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design. We have proposed a method for performing emittance compensation using a cathode-region focusing scheme. This technique allows the focusing strength to be adjusted somewhat independently of the on-axis field strength. Beam dynamics calculations indicate performance should be comparable to presently in-use emittance compensation schemes, with a simpler configuration and fewer possibilities for emittance degradation due to the focusing optics. There are several potential difficulties with this approach, including cathode material selection, cathode heating, and peak fields in the gun. We hope to begin experimenting with a cathode of this type in the near future, and several possibilities exist for reducing the peak gradients to more acceptable levels.

  15. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  17. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  18. TRPA1 Is Functionally Expressed Primarily by IB4-Binding, Non-Peptidergic Mouse and Rat Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    expressed primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression. PMID:23133534

  19. Is Father-Child Rough-and-Tumble Play Associated with Attachment or Activation Relationships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Daniel; Dumont, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The activation relationship theory, primarily focused on parental stimulation of risk-taking along with parental control during exploration, predicts that boys will be activated more than girls by their fathers. This theory may explain why fathers engage in rough-and-tumble play (RTP) with children more frequently than mothers, especially with…

  20. Forming a Learning Culture to Promote Fracture Prevention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjalmarson, Helene V.; Strandmark, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore interprofessional experiences of incorporating fracture prevention activities in clinical practice inspired by an empowerment approach. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection consisted primarily of focus groups interviews, systematized and analyzed by the grounded theory method. The study took…

  1. Marine Activity Dynamics (M.A.D.). Unit S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Education Information Center.

    This curriculum guide describes an activity-oriented marine study program, designed for use with middle school children (grade 5). The content focuses primarily upon the life sciences, with some emphasis on chemistry and geology. Following the development of a rationale for the inclusion of marine sciences in the school curriculum, a middle…

  2. 50 CFR 23.62 - What factors are considered in making a finding of not for primarily commercial purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for display in his or her own home. (2) Scientific purposes. The import or introduction from the sea... will conduct an assessment of factors listed in paragraph (d) of this section. For activities involving an anticipated measurable increase in revenue and other economic value associated with the...

  3. Hypoxia-induced cytosolic calcium decrease is mediated primarily by the forward mode of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in smooth muscle cells of fetal ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haifa; Chen, Huiwen; Gao, Wei; Cai, Xiaoman; Sun, Yanjuan; Yin, Meng; Liu, Jinfen

    2009-10-01

    Closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) after birth, essential for postnatal adaptation, is initiated by the transition from hypoxia to normoxia. The current study investigated how hypoxia affects the level of cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in fetal lamb DA smooth muscle cells (DASMCs) and the role of calcium pumps in this process. The [Ca(2+)](i) variation in response to acute hypoxia was determined spectrofluorometrically with fura-3-AM in cultured fetal DASMCs. Interventions using chemicals or solutions including thapsigargin, vanadate, KB-R7943, alkaline PH9.0 solution, or Na(+)-free medium were administered when samples were exposed to acute hypoxia. The results show that [Ca(2+)](i) decreased dramatically under acute hypoxia. This decrease was not attenuated completely by an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (SERCA), a blocker of plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA), or an inhibitor and activator of the reserve mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). In contrast, KT-R9743, an inhibitor of the forward mode of NCX at a high concentration (30 microm), greatly diminished the hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)](i) decrease in fetal DASMCs. These results suggest that a hypoxia-induced Ca(2+) decrease in fetal DASMCs results from cytosolic Ca(2+) efflux mediated primarily by the forward mode of NCX. PMID:19495847

  4. Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Zhong; Zhong , Hanson; Jonathan , Hastings; Jerome , Kao; Chi-Chang , Lenhard; Anthony , Siddons; David Peter , Zhong; Hui

    2009-03-24

    An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

  5. "How can we stay healthy when you're throwing all of this in front of us?" Findings from focus groups and interviews in middle schools on environmental influences on nutrition and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katherine W; Yang, Y Wendy; Austin, S Bryn

    2004-02-01

    This study aimed to identify factors in school physical and social environments that may facilitate or compete with programs and policies to improve student physical activity and nutrition. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with students, faculty, and staff of two public middle schools. Participants identified numerous aspects of the school environments as significant. Competition, teasing and bullying, time, and safety were described as major barriers for students to be physically active during physical education class, on sports teams, and before and after school. The quality of the food served, easy access to nonnutritious snacks, limited time for lunch period, and weight concerns emerged as significant reasons why students do not eat nutritious meals in school. When developing programs and policies to improve the health of students, environmental influences that undermine efforts to improve student health behaviors must be addressed. PMID:14768656

  6. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. PMID:26078330

  7. Imeglimin lowers glucose primarily by amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in high-fat-fed rodents.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel J; Cardone, Rebecca L; Petersen, Max C; Zhang, Dongyan; Fouqueray, Pascale; Hallakou-Bozec, Sophie; Bolze, Sébastien; Shulman, Gerald I; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Kibbey, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Imeglimin is a promising new oral antihyperglycemic agent that has been studied in clinical trials as a possible monotherapy or add-on therapy to lower fasting plasma glucose and improve hemoglobin A1c (1-3, 9). Imeglimin was shown to improve both fasting and postprandial glycemia and to increase insulin secretion in response to glucose during a hyperglycemic clamp after 1-wk of treatment in type 2 diabetic patients. However, whether the β-cell stimulatory effect of imeglimin is solely or partially responsible for its effects on glycemia remains to be fully confirmed. Here, we show that imeglimin directly activates β-cell insulin secretion in awake rodents without affecting hepatic insulin sensitivity, body composition, or energy expenditure. These data identify a primary amplification rather than trigger the β-cell mechanism that explains the acute, antidiabetic activity of imeglimin. PMID:27406738

  8. MULTIMERIN2 binds VEGF-A primarily via the carbohydrate chains exerting an angiostatic function and impairing tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Andreuzzi, Eva; Paulitti, Alice; Tarticchio, Giulia; Todaro, Federico; Colombatti, Alfonso; Mongiat, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process occurring under both physiological and pathological conditions and is a hallmark of cancer. We have recently demonstrated that the extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule MULTIMERIN2 exerts an angiostatic function through the binding to VEGF-A. In this study we identify the region of the molecule responsible for the binding and demonstrate that the interaction involves the carbohydrate chains. MULTIMERIN2 interacts with other VEGF-A isoforms and VEGF family members such as VEGF-B, -C, -D and PlGF-1 suggesting that the molecule may function as a reservoir for different cytokines. In response to VEGF-A165, we show that MULTIMERIN2 impairs the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 at both Y1175 and Y1214 residues, halts SAPK2/p38 activation and negatively affects endothelial cell motility. In addition, MULTIMERIN2 and its active deletion mutant decrease the availability of the VEGFR2 receptor at the EC plasma membrane. The ectopic expression of MULTIMERIN2 or its active deletion mutant led to a striking reduction of tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth. In conclusion, these data pinpoint MULTIMERIN2 as a key angiostatic molecule and disclose the possibility to develop new prognostic tools and improve the management of cancer patients. PMID:26655500

  9. Lifelong Learning. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the need for adult literacy programs, as well as recent innovations in literacy education. "Adult Literacy and Leadership: Current Innovations" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes an adult literacy outreach program in Texas, and discusses the importance of family literacy for parents' involvement in their children's…

  10. Homework. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  11. Young Children. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…

  12. Theme: Focus on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "The More Things Change..." (Connors); "Students--Bored of Education?" (Earle); "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow" (Wesch et al.); "Attitude and the Value of Environment" (Foster); "Fins, Feathers and Fur" (Crank); "Greenhouse as a Focus for Agriscience" (Hurst); and "Agricultural and Environmental Education at Milton Hershey School"…

  13. Focusing on the Invisible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to answer the question of whether or not the design and development of an educational laboratory really changes when the focus is on nanotechnology. It explores current laboratory building trends and the added considerations for building a nanotechnology laboratory. The author leaves the reader with additional points to consider…

  14. Focus on Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenzky, Janet; Maitland, Christine

    2001-01-01

    As a followup to a survey of distance education faculty, the National Education Association conducted two 3-hour focus groups with 12 higher education faculty members in June 2000. The purpose of the groups was to gain more understanding of the complexity of feelings and opinions expressed in a telephone survey conducted in March 2000. The…

  15. Focusing on Mathematical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Laura M.; Conner, AnnaMarie

    2015-01-01

    "Collective argumentation" occurs when a group works together to arrive at a conclusion (supporting it with evidence). Simplistically, this occurs when students give answers to questions and tell how they arrived at the answer, perhaps prompted by a teacher. But collective argumentation can be much richer, with a focus on the process of…

  16. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically lowered dropout…

  17. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  18. Instructional Technology. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on implementing instructional technology in ways that benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Cruising the Web with English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) presents three scenarios using the World Wide Web in…

  19. Focused on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the California Community Colleges Board of Governors formed a task force to chart a roadmap for system-wide focus on student success. The task force identified best practices and designed evidence-based recommendations to ensure student success is a driving theme in colleges. This comprehensive plan, known as the Student Success…

  20. Design-Focused Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an approach to the writing of evaluation questions is outlined and developed which focuses attention on the question of the effectiveness of an educational design for bringing about the learning it is intended to facilitate. The approach develops from the idea that all educational designs rely on instructional alignment, implicitly…

  1. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  2. Focus on First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Shari S.

    The result of a collaboration between the El Paso, Texas, school district and community agencies, the Focus on First Graders program provides early intervention and prevention using a comprehensive approach to providing a variety of services at the school to at-risk first graders from low income families. Teachers and parents were surveyed to…

  3. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, the incoming president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO), Thomas L. Lewis, discusses his goals for the association, the challenges facing optometric education in the next decade, cooperation between ASCO and other professional organizations in optometry, his mentors in the profession, his focus as a…

  4. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An interview with the new president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, John Schoessler, considers issues the president wishes to focus on during his presidency, changes in optometry students over the years, people who influenced his educational ideas, and research currently being conducted at Ohio State University College of…

  5. Quality-Focused Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Robbie Lee

    1993-01-01

    Presents the quality-focused management (QFM) system and explains the departure QFM makes from established community college management practices. Describes the system's self-directed teams engaged in a continuous improvement process driven by customer demand and long-term commitment to quality and cost control. (13 references.) (MAB)

  6. Focus on Rashomon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richie, Donald S., Ed.

    This Film Focus series is a collection of reviews, essays, and commentaries on the Japanese film Rashomon. The plot consists of an attack, a rape, and a robbery, all of which probably occurred during the Middle Ages. Each character relates his own version of what happened, or might have happened, revealing the outward and inner driving forces,…

  7. Bilingual Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on instructional practices, evaluation, and the state of bilingual education. "Effective Implementation of Bilingual Programs: Reflections from the Field" (Abelardo Villarreal, Adela Solis) describes the key characteristics of successful bilingual programs: vision and goals; program leadership; linkage to central office…

  8. Apartheid: Focus on Health

    PubMed Central

    Dines, George B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper focuses on health in the Republic of South Africa and calls not only for technical warfare against disease, poverty, and bigotry but also for attention to predisposing causes of disease and ill health among the African majority. PMID:522192

  9. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  10. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state regulations;…

  11. Focus on Efficient Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Resource Management.

    Compiled as a workshop handbook, this guide presents information to help food service program administrators comply with federal regulations and evaluate and upgrade their operations. Part I discusses requirements of the National School Lunch Program, focusing on the "offer versus serve" method of service enacted in 1976 to reduce waste. After an…

  12. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism. PMID:27362442

  13. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F

    2016-07-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism. PMID:27362442

  14. Attentional Focus Effects as a Function of Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele; Tollner, Thomas; Shea, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the advantages of adopting an external focus would be seen primarily for relatively challenging (postural stability) tasks but not less demanding tasks. To examine this, the authors used balance tasks that imposed increased challenges to maintaining stability. The present results support the…

  15. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  16. The DNA intercalating alkaloid cryptolepine interferes with topoisomerase II and inhibits primarily DNA synthesis in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bonjean, K; De Pauw-Gillet, M C; Defresne, M P; Colson, P; Houssier, C; Dassonneville, L; Bailly, C; Greimers, R; Wright, C; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Tits, M; Angenot, L

    1998-04-14

    Cryptolepine hydrochloride is an indoloquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. It is characterized by a multiplicity of host-mediated biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, and antimalarial properties. To date, the molecular basis for its diverse biological effects remains largely uncertain. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that DNA might correspond to its principal cellular target. Consequently, we studied the strength and mode of binding to DNA of cryptolepine by means of absorption, fluorescence, circular, and linear dichroism, as well as by a relaxation assay using DNA topoisomerases. The results of various optical and gel electrophoresis techniques converge to reveal that the alkaloid binds tightly to DNA and behaves as a typical intercalating agent. In DNAase I footprinting experiments it was found that the drug interacts preferentially with GC-rich sequences and discriminates against homo-oligomeric runs of A and T. This study has also led to the discovery that cryptolepine is a potent topoisomerase II inhibitor and a promising antitumor agent. It stabilizes topoisomerase II-DNA covalent complexes and stimulates the cutting of DNA at a subset of preexisting topoisomerase II cleavage sites. Taking advantage of the fluorescence of the indoloquinoline chromophore, fluorescence microscopy was used to map cellular uptake of the drug. Cryptolepine easily crosses the cell membranes and accumulates selectively into the nuclei rather than in the cytoplasm of B16 melanoma cells. Quantitative analyses of DNA in cells after Feulgen reaction and image cytometry reveal that the drug blocks the cell cycle in G2/M phases. It is also shown that the alkaloid is more potent at inhibiting DNA synthesis rather than RNA and protein synthesis. Altogether, the results provide direct evidence that DNA is the primary target of cryptolepine and suggest that this alkaloid is a valid candidate for the development of tumor

  17. Quantum focusing conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Leichenauer, Stefan; Wall, Aron C.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a universal inequality that unifies the Bousso bound with the classical focusing theorem. Given a surface σ that need not lie on a horizon, we define a finite generalized entropy Sgen as the area of σ in Planck units, plus the von Neumann entropy of its exterior. Given a null congruence N orthogonal to σ , the rate of change of Sgen per unit area defines a quantum expansion. We conjecture that the quantum expansion cannot increase along N . This extends the notion of universal focusing to cases where quantum matter may violate the null energy condition. Integrating the conjecture yields a precise version of the Strominger-Thompson quantum Bousso bound. Applied to locally parallel light-rays, the conjecture implies a novel inequality, the quantum null energy condition, a lower bound on the stress tensor in terms of the second derivative of the von Neumann entropy. We sketch a proof of the latter relation in quantum field theory.

  18. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  19. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  20. Focus on quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchleitner, Andreas; Burghardt, Irene; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Scholes, Gregory D.; Schwarz, Ulrich T.; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Wellens, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Technologies which convert light into energy, and vice versa, rely on complex, microscopic transport processes in the condensed phase, which obey the laws of quantum mechanics, but hitherto lack systematic analysis and modeling. Given our much improved understanding of multicomponent, disordered, highly structured, open quantum systems, this ‘focus on’ collection collects cutting-edge research on theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum transport in truly complex systems as defined, e.g., by the macromolecular functional complexes at the heart of photosynthesis, by organic quantum wires, or even photovoltaic devices. To what extent microscopic quantum coherence effects can (be made to) impact on macroscopic transport behavior is an equally challenging and controversial question, and this ‘focus on’ collection provides a setting for the present state of affairs, as well as for the ‘quantum opportunities’ on the horizon.

  1. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  2. Focus on Fractals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Tim K.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a three-lesson unit that uses fractal geometry to measure the coastline of Massachusetts. Two lessons provide hands-on activities utilizing compass and grid methods to perform the measurements and the third lesson analyzes and explains the results of the activities. (MDH)

  3. The weapon focus effect on memory for female versus male perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Pickel, Kerri L

    2009-08-01

    Previous research suggests that weapons are often inconsistent with the schema activated by eyewitnesses, which leads them to attend to weapons more than they would to neutral objects. Therefore an especially strong weapon focus effect should occur when a perpetrator holds an object primarily associated with the opposite rather than the same gender. As predicted, a handgun reduced the accuracy of witnesses' descriptions of a female perpetrator more than descriptions of a male perpetrator (Experiment 1). Additionally, memory for a female perpetrator was more severely impaired if she carried a folding knife as opposed to a knitting needle, but the reverse was true when the perpetrator was male (Experiment 2). Finally, the weapon focus effect was eliminated for perpetrators of both genders if witnesses saw them as dangerous individuals (Experiment 3). PMID:19536689

  4. Conducting the Computer-Mediated Focus Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban, Kenneth A.

    The growing popularity of focus group measurements can be traced to any one of four factors: (1) the economics associated with focus groups; (2) the speed at which data can now be collected; (3) the need to understand customer motivations; and (4) the desire to improve subsequent qualitative research activities and programs. Market researchers are…

  5. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African-American community.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Fontenot Molaison, Elaine; Blakely Reed, Vickie; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, noncontrolled, pre-/post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of a CBPR intervention in achieving improvements in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, biological measures, and diet. Conducted in 2010, this multicomponent lifestyle intervention included motivational enhancement, social support provided by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, and monthly nutrition and physical activity education sessions. Of 269 enrolled participants, 94% were African American and 85% were female. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed models using maximum likelihood estimation. From baseline to 6 months, blood pressure decreased significantly: mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure decreased from 126.0 ± 19.1 to 119.6 ± 15.8 mm Hg, P=0.0002; mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.2 ± 12.3 to 78.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Sugar intake also decreased significantly as compared with baseline (by approximately 3 tsp; P<0.0001). Time differences were not apparent for any other measures. Results from this study suggest that CBPR efforts are a viable and effective strategy for implementing nonpharmacologic, multicomponent, lifestyle interventions that can help address the persistent racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension treatment and control. Outcome findings help fill gaps in the literature for effectively translating lifestyle interventions to reach and engage African-American communities to reduce the burden of hypertension. PMID:24534602

  6. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs. PMID:27489504

  7. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs. PMID:27489504

  8. Focus on the Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    Describes historical accounts of the manipulation and importance of the Earth and its mineral resources. A foldout, "Out of the Rock," provides a collection of activities and information that helps make integration of the aforementioned concepts easy. (ZWH)

  9. Focusing on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lagassa, G.

    1993-01-01

    With increased relicensing activity and a federal emphasis on safety, dam repair and refurbishment is a growing business. Providers of goods and services are gearing up to meet the dam repair and rehabilitation needs that result.

  10. Transverse field focused system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1986-01-01

    A transverse field focused (TFF) system for transport or acceleration of an intense sheet beam of negative ions in which a serial arrangement of a plurality of pairs of concentric cylindrical-arc electrodes is provided. Acceleration of the sheet beam can be achieved by progressively increasing the mean electrode voltage of successive electrode pairs. Because the beam is curved by the electrodes, the system can be designed to transport the beam through a maze passage which is baffled to prevent line of sight therethrough. Edge containment of the beam can be achieved by shaping the side edges of the electrodes to produce an electric force vector directed inwardly from the electrode edges.

  11. Digital focusing schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; Trolinger, James D.; L'Esperance, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Since its invention in the 19th century, schlieren imaging has been an essential method for studying many aerodynamic effects, particularly convection and shock waves, but the classical method using parabolic mirrors is extremely difficult to set up and very expensive for large fields of view. Focusing schlieren methods have made large- area schlieren more feasible but have tended to be difficult to align and set up, limiting their utility in many applications We recently developed an alternative approach which utilizes recent advances in digital display technology to produce simpler schlieren system that yields similar sensitivity with greater flexibility.

  12. Dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device

    DOEpatents

    James, Conrad D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark S.

    2010-05-11

    A dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device uses interdigitated microelectrodes to provide a spatially non-uniform electric field in a fluid that generates a dipole within particles in the fluid. The electric field causes the particles to either be attracted to or repelled from regions where the electric field gradient is large, depending on whether the particles are more or less polarizable than the fluid. The particles can thereby be forced into well defined stable paths along the interdigitated microelectrodes. The device can be used for flow cytometry, particle control, and other process applications, including cell counting or other types of particle counting, and for separations in material control.

  13. Proliferating cells in psoriatic dermis are comprised primarily of T cells, endothelial cells, and factor XIIIa+ perivascular dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morganroth, G.S.; Chan, L.S.; Weinstein, G.D.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Determination of the cell types proliferating in the dermis of patients with psoriasis should identify those cells experiencing activation or responding to growth factors in the psoriatic dermal milieu. Toward that end, sections of formalin-fixed biopsies obtained from 3H-deoxyuridine (3H-dU)-injected skin of eight psoriatic patients were immunostained, followed by autoradiography. Proliferating dermal cells exhibit silver grains from tritium emissions. The identity of the proliferating cells could then be determined by simultaneous visualization with antibodies specific for various cell types. UCHL1+ (CD45RO+) T cells (recall antigen-reactive helper T-cell subset) constituted 36.6 +/- 3.1% (mean +/- SEM, n = 6) of the proliferating dermal cells in involved skin, whereas Leu 18+ (CD45RA+) T cells (recall antigen naive T-cell subsets) comprised only 8.7 +/- 1.5% (n = 6). The Factor XIIIa+ dermal perivascular dendritic cell subset (24.9 +/- 1.5% of proliferating dermal cells, n = 6) and Factor VIII+ endothelial cells represented the two other major proliferating populations in lesional psoriatic dermis. Differentiated tissue macrophages, identified by phase microscopy as melanophages or by immunostaining with antibodies to Leu M1 (CD15) or myeloid histiocyte antigen, comprised less than 5% of the proliferating population in either skin type. In addition to calculating the relative proportions of these cells to each other as percent, we also determined the density of cells, in cells/mm2 of tissue. The density of proliferating cells within these populations was increased in involved versus uninvolved skin: UCHL1+, 9.0 +/- 1.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.6 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor XIIIa+, 6.0 +/- 0.7 cells/mm2 versus 1.5 +/- 0.5 cells/mm2, p less than 0.01; Factor VIII+, 5.5 +/- 1.4 cells/mm2 versus 0.0 cells/mm2, p less than 0.05.

  14. Protein: A nutrient in focus.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Clairmont, Stephanie; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Tremblay, Angelo; Elango, Rajavel

    2015-08-01

    Protein is an essential component of a healthy diet and is a focus of research programs seeking to optimize health at all stages of life. The focus on protein as a nutrient often centers on its thermogenic and satiating effect, and when included as part of a healthy diet, its potential to preserve lean body mass. A growing body of literature, including stable isotope based studies and longer term dietary interventions, suggests that current dietary protein recommendations may not be sufficient to promote optimal muscle health in all populations. A protein intake moderately higher than current recommendations has been widely endorsed by many experts and working groups and may provide health benefits for aging populations. Further, consuming moderate amounts of high-quality protein at each meal may optimally stimulate 24-h muscle protein synthesis and may provide a dietary platform that favors the maintenance of muscle mass and function while promoting successful weight management in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary protein has the potential to serve as a key nutrient for many health outcomes and benefits might be increased when combined with adequate physical activity. Future studies should focus on confirming these health benefits from dietary protein with long-term randomized controlled studies. PMID:26197807

  15. Isoelectric focusing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.; Egen, N. B.; Mosher, R. A.; Twitty, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of space electrophoresis is conditioned by the fact that all electrophoretic techniques require the suppression of gravity-caused convection. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a powerful variant of electrophoresis, in which amphoteric substances are separated in a pH gradient according to their isoelectric points. A new apparatus for large scale IEF, utilizing a recycling principle, has been developed. In the ground-based prototype, laminar flow is provided by a series of parallel filter elements. The operation of the apparatus is monitored by an automated array of pH and ultraviolet absorption sensors under control of a desk-top computer. The apparatus has proven to be useful for the purification of a variety of enzymes, snake venom proteins, peptide hormones, and other biologicals, including interferon produced by genetic engineering techniques. In planning for a possible space apparatus, a crucial question regarding electroosmosis needs to be addressed To solve this problem, simple focusing test modules are planned for inclusion in an early Shuttle flight.

  16. Focus on the Rashba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  17. A flexible business focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-11-01

    The challenge of sourcing equipment to meet customer needs around the world remains a prerequisite for boiler and CFB manufacturers as they strive to maintain a strong business presence in key markets. Boiler vendors are learning to meet their targets based upon what the market is, not what they hope it will become. An elastic equipment supply strategy is bolstering new business activity for internationally active boiler and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) vendors. Techniques such as flexible sourcing and expanded scope capability are helping suppliers gain market advantage in new global growth areas.

  18. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-05-17

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period focused on organizing and hosting three fall technology transfer meetings that will be held in Wyoming, Texas, and Pennsylvania. In addition, work has started on developing the 2004 SWC request-for-proposals which will be released during the next reporting period. During this reporting period, the efforts were focused primarily on the organizing the SWC fall technology transfer meetings.

  19. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuszewski, Michał J.; Bujak, Renata; Daghir, Emilia

    Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is a widespread technique for the analysis of peptides and proteins in biological samples. CIEF is used to separate mixtures of compounds on the basis of differences in their isoelectric point. Aspects of sample preparation, capillary selection, zone mobilization procedures as well as various detection modes used have been described and discussed. Moreover CIEF, coupled to various types of detection techniques (MALDI or LIF), has increasingly been applied to the analysis of variety different high-molecular compounds. CIEF is considered as a highly specific analytical method which may be routinely used in the separation of rare hemoglobin variants. In addition, the application of CIEF in proteomic field have been discussed on the examples of analyses of glycoproteins and immunoglobins due to the meaning in clinical diagnostic.

  20. Retroreflection Focusing Schlieren System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heineck, James T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A retroreflective type focusing schlieren system which permits the light source to be positioned on the optic side of the system is introduced. The system includes an extended light source, as opposed to a point source, located adjacent to a beam splitter which projects light through the flow field onto a reflecting grating in the form of a grid which generates sheets of light that are directed back through the flow field and the beam splitter onto a primary lens behind which is located a cut-off grid having a grid pattern which corresponds to the grid pattern of the reflecting grating. The cut-off grid is adjustably positioned behind the primary lens and an image plane for imaging the turbulence is adjustably located behind the cut-off grid.

  1. Alliance-focused training.

    PubMed

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach. PMID:25150677

  2. Focus on PTEN Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez Brito, Miriam; Goulielmaki, Evangelia; Papakonstanti, Evangelia A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) as a tumor suppressor has been for a long time attributed to its lipid phosphatase activity against PI(3,4,5)P3, the phospholipid product of the class I PI3Ks. Besides its traditional role as a lipid phosphatase at the plasma membrane, a wealth of data has shown that PTEN can function independently of its phosphatase activity and that PTEN also exists and plays a role in the nucleus, in cytoplasmic organelles, and extracellularly. Accumulating evidence has shed light on diverse physiological functions of PTEN, which are accompanied by a complex regulation of its expression and activity. PTEN levels and function are regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally, and post-translationally. PTEN is also sensitive to regulation by its interacting proteins and its localization. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate the expression and enzymatic activity of PTEN and its role in human diseases. PMID:26284192

  3. [Focus on Reading Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, J. David, Ed.; Pringle, Dorothy A., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This journal issue provides information for those involved in making decisions about basal readers. It includes guidelines for establishing a textbook selection committee and for examining instructional materials, a discussion of the adoption of nonsexist textbooks, and reviews of four basal reading series. Regular columns present activity ideas…

  4. Parental Involvement. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains seven articles about meaningful participation by parents, particularly Hispanic and other minority parents, in the education of their children. "Parents Reclaiming Their Schools: New Initiative Brings Parents Together for Better Schools" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes objectives and activities of a Texas-based coalition…

  5. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  6. Focusing on flu

    PubMed Central

    Short, Mary B; Middleman, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine. Results: Participants were generally found to be knowledgeable about influenza and to have positive attitudes toward receiving the vaccine via SLIP. Students were more willing to participate in a SLIP if it were low cost or free, less time-consuming than going to a doctor, and if they felt they could trust vaccinators. Overall, high school and middle school students ranked the benefits of SLIP similarly to each other. Methods: Focus groups using nominal group method were conducted with middle and high school students in a large, urban school district. Responses were recorded by each school, and then, responses were ranked across all participating schools for each question. Conclusions: A wide range of issues are important to middle and high school students when considering participation in SLIPs including convenience, public health benefits, trust in the program, program safety, and sanitary issues. Further research will be needed regarding the generalizability of these findings to larger populations of students. PMID:24018398

  7. Focusing on flu

    PubMed Central

    Middleman, Amy B.; Short, Mary B.; Doak, Jean S.

    2012-01-01

    School-located immunization programs (SLIP) will only be successful if parents consent to their children's participation. It is critical to understand parent perspectives regarding the factors that make them more or less likely to provide that consent. Organizations creating SLIPs will be able to capitalize on the aspects of SLIPs that parents appreciate, and address and correct issues that may give rise to parent concerns. This study involved five focus groups among the parents of school students in a large, urban school district. Findings highlight the broad range of concepts important to parents when considering participation in a SLIP. The safety and trust issues regarding vaccines in general that are so important to parents are also important to parents when considering participation in a SLIP. Effective communication strategies that include assurances regarding tracking of information and the competence and experience of immunizers will be helpful when addressing parents regarding SLIPs. In addition, parents were very cognizant of and positive regarding the public health benefits associated with SLIPs. Further study among larger populations of parents will further refine these ideas and aid in the development of successful influenza vaccine SLIPs that directly address and communicate with parents about the issues most important to them. PMID:23095868

  8. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  9. Recent developments: Washington focus

    SciTech Connect

    1990-05-01

    Congress continued to work on the budget during April with small breaks to attend Earth Day activities to acknowledge the public`s growing environmental conscience. The House Budget Committee once again raised to 100 percent the portion of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) budget to be funded through user fees. However, the Senate Budget Committee authorized continuation of the current 45-percent user fee funding. The full House approved the budget resolution on May 1. The Senate may act sometime in May.

  10. Time Use Differences in Activity Participation among Children 4-5 Years Old with and without the Risk of Developing Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mong-Lin; Ziviani, Jenny; Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood are associated with the way in which children engage in daily activities. Research, to date, on conduct problems in relation to time use has primarily focused on school aged children and their participation in discrete activities such as watching TV and sport. The purpose of the present study is to determine if…

  11. Using Interviews and Peer Pairs to Better Understand How School Environments Affect Young Children's Playground Physical Activity Levels: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Anne-Maree; Yeatman, Heather; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken

    2012-01-01

    School break times provide a daily opportunity for children to be active; however, research indicates this time is underutilized. Reasons for low children's playground activity levels have primarily focused on physical barriers. This research aimed to contribute to physical environmental findings affecting children's playground physical activity…

  12. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated. PMID:26486330

  13. Stress wave focusing transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  14. SIAM Workshop: Focus on Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-12

    The Fourth SlAM Graduate Student Focus on Diversity workshop was held on July 12, 2000 at the Westin Rio Mar Hotel in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. The Department of Energy provided partial support for this event. The day-long workshop consisted of several different activities. The meeting opened with a discussion of some data collected by the American Mathematical Society on Ph.D.'s awarded in the U.S. to citizens and non-citizens, further classified as blacks, latinos, asians and native americans. The activity continued with nine technical talks by underrepresented minority graduate students, informal luncheon and pizza breaks to foster social interaction, and an evening forum chaired by Dr. Richard Tapia (Rice University) in which issues related to the participation of minorities in national meetings and proposal writing where discussed. These sessions were open to the entire SIAM community and served to highlight the progress, achievements, and aspirations of the workshop participants. The students attended as well the three SlAM plenary talks during the day and the community lecture in the evening. The activity had a lively participation of students and representatives from various academic institutions and sponsoring agencies. In particular, we had the participation of 24 undergraduate students from the Mathematics REU program of the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.

  15. Mathematics Learning in Groups: Analyzing Equity in Two Cooperative Activity Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmonde, Indigo

    2009-01-01

    Many mathematics classrooms use cooperative learning to support equitable learning environments for all students. Past research in the field has focused primarily on increasing achievement rather than on contexts that support equitable interactions. This year-long study in 3 secondary mathematics classes compares 2 activity structures--a group…

  16. Critical Access Hospitals and Retail Activity: An Empirical Analysis in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lara; Whitacre, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper takes an empirical approach to determining the effect that a critical access hospital (CAH) has on local retail activity. Previous research on the relationship between hospitals and economic development has primarily focused on single-case, multiplier-oriented analysis. However, as the efficacy of federal and state-level rural…

  17. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  18. Remediating Sellafield - A New Focus for the Site

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N. D.

    2003-02-24

    The structure of the ownership and management of nuclear liabilities on civil sites in the United Kingdom is undergoing fundamental change. The UK Government will take responsibility for the liabilities on the UKAEA, BNFL Sellafield and Capenhurst sites and the Magnox Generation sites. When fully implemented the accountability for long term strategy will rest with the new Government Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), and contracts will be placed on M&O contractors to manage the site and implement the liabilities discharge plans. At Sellafield whilst the commercial reprocessing and MOX contracts continue, it is clear that the overall focus of the site has changed to remediation. Until the NDA is established the task of undertaking the planning is the responsibility of BNFL. To address this task the Site Remediation Team has been established. The production of the Sellafield Lifecycle Baseline Plan requires the existing long term decommissioning and waste management plans (primarily produced for provisioning purposes) together with several other specific strategies to be combined and developed into a coordinated and optimized plan for the remediation of the Sellafield Site, recognizing the ongoing reprocessing, MOX manufacture and long term fuel storage activities. An important principle within the plan is to achieve early hazard reduction whilst demonstrating value for money. The paper will address the scale of the remediation challenge and the process being followed to develop the necessary strategy. The paper will appeal to those involved in managing remediation of large, complex and interdependent nuclear sites.

  19. Active turbulence in active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.

  20. Manganese Neurotoxicity: A Focus on the Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Erikson, Keith M.; Thompson, Khristy; Aschner, Judy; Aschner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal found in all tissues, and it is required for normal amino acid, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. While Mn deficiency is extremely rare in humans, toxicity due to overexposure of Mn is more prevalent. The brain appears to be especially vulnerable. Mn neurotoxicity is most commonly associated with occupational exposure to aerosols or dusts that contain extremely high levels (> 1-5 mg Mn/m3) of Mn, consumption of contaminated well water, or parenteral nutrition therapy in patients with liver disease or immature hepatic functioning such as the neonate. This review will focus primarily on the neurotoxicity of Mn in the neonate. We will discuss putative transporters of the metal in the neonatal brain and then focus on the implications of high Mn exposure to the neonate focusing on typical exposure modes (e.g., dietary and parenteral). Although Mn exposure via parenteral nutrition is uncommon in adults, in premature infants, it is more prevalent, so this mode of exposure becomes salient in this population. We will briefly review some of the mechanisms of Mn neurotoxicity and conclude with a discussion of ripe areas for research in this underreported area of neurotoxicity. PMID:17084903

  1. Novelty in hypertension in children and adolescents: focus on hypertension during the first year of life, use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, role of physical activity in prevention and treatment, simple carbohydrates and uric acid as risk factors.

    PubMed

    Strambi, Mirella; Giussani, Marco; Ambruzzi, Maria Amalia; Brambilla, Paolo; Corrado, Ciro; Giordano, Ugo; Maffeis, Claudio; Maringhin, Silvio; Matteucci, Maria Chiara; Menghetti, Ettore; Salice, Patrizia; Schena, Federico; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Valerio, Giuliana; Viazzi, Francesca; Virdis, Raffaele; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    The present article intends to provide an update of the article "Focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents" published in 2013 (Spagnolo et al., Ital J Pediatr 39:20, 2013) in this journal. This revision is justified by the fact that during the last years there have been several new scientific contributions to the problem of hypertension in pediatric age and during adolescence. Nevertheless, for what regards some aspects of the previous article, the newly acquired information did not require substantial changes to what was already published, both from a cultural and from a clinical point of view. We felt, however, the necessity to rewrite and/or to extend other parts in the light of the most recent scientific publications. More specifically, we updated and extended the chapters on the diagnosis and management of hypertension in newborns and unweaned babies, on the use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and on the usefulness of and indications for physical activity. Furthermore, we added an entirely new section on the role that simple carbohydrates (fructose in particular) and uric acid may play in the pathogenesis of hypertension in pediatric age. PMID:27423331

  2. SM3B NICMOS Focus Check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A. B.; Schneider, G.; Roye, E.; Malhotra, S.

    2002-06-01

    We report determinations of the NICMOS foci following cool down of the NICMOS detectors after installation and activation of the NICMOS Cooling System (NCS). A focus sweep in all three cameras executed on May 3, 2002 (program ID: 8977). Visual inspection of the data indicated that a small amount of coma had been introduced since January 1999. Phase retrieval (STScI) and encircled energy (University of Arizona) measurements were used to determine the best focus positions. The results of the two methods compared quite favorably with each other. Adjustments to the current Pupil Alignment Mechanism (PAM) positions were implemented on May 9, 2002 for Camera 1 & 2 (PAM1 & PAM2). No focus adjustments were implemented for Camera 3 (PAM3) or for the Camera 2 coronagraphic focus (PAMC). Adjustment of the intermediate focus position between Camera 1 & 2 (PAMI) will be managed starting during week 2002.133 by SMS.

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  4. Focus on sustainability.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R J; Godiksen, L; Hansen, G; Gustafson, D J; Brinkerhoff, D W; Ingle, M D; Rounds, T; Wing, H

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, sustainability has become one of the most critical concepts in international development and is having a dramatic impact on the way development is conceptualized and carried out. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is incorporating this concept into its programs and projects. Factors encouraging sustainability of projects and programs include host government policies that support or constrain program objectives, national and/or local commitment to project goals, managerial leadership that helps shape improved policies, collaboration at all staff levels in program management, financial resources that cover program operational costs, appropriate program technology, integration of the program with the social and cultural setting of the country, community involvement in the program, sound environmental management, technical assistance oriented to transferring skills and increasing institutional capacity, perception by the host country that the project is "effective," training provided by the project to transfer skill needed for capacity-building, integration of the program into existing institutional framework, and external political, economic and environmental factors. Impediments to sustainability are often inherent in the donor agency's programming process. This includes the implicit assumption that program objectives can be accomplished in a relatively short time frame, when in fact capacity-building requires a lengthy commitment. USAID professionals are pressured to show near-term results which emphasize outputs rather than purpose and goal-level accomplishments achievable only after extensive effort. The emphasis on obligating money and on the project paper as a sales document leads project designers to talk with a great deal more certainty about project results than is warranted by the complex development situation. Uncertainty and flexibility should be designed into projects so activities and objects can change as more

  5. Dual focus diffractive optical element with extended depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Katsuhiro; Shimizu, Isao

    2014-09-01

    A dual focus property and an extended depth of focus were verified by a new type of diffractive lens displaying on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices. This type of lens is useful to read information on multilayer optical discs and tilted discs. The radial undulation of the phase groove on the diffractive lens gave the dual focus nature. The focal extension was performed by combining the dual focus lens with the axilens that was invented for expanding the depth of focus. The number of undulations did not affect the intensity along the optical axis but the central spot of the diffraction pattern.

  6. Focus issue introduction: space-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Li, Guifang; Karlsson, Magnus; Liu, Xiang; Quiquempois, Yves

    2014-12-29

    Since the publication of the first focus issue [Opt. Express 19(11), 2011], single-fiber transmission capacity has eclipsed the 1 Pb/s mark. All aspects related to space-division multiplexing including fiber, passive components [(de)multiplexer, couplers], active components (EDFA and Raman amplifiers), switching and routing elements (ROADM and WSS), as well as transmission and networking have progressed rapidly. This focus issue is intended to bring together the most up-to-date research in space-division multiplexing, including fibers, passive and active components, transmission systems and networking. PMID:25607215

  7. Focusators for laser-branding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  8. The Optimal Conditions for Form-Focused Instruction: Method, Target Complexity, and Types of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-eun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates optimal conditions for form-focused instruction (FFI) by considering effects of internal (i.e., timing and types of FFI) and external (i.e., complexity and familiarity) variables of FFI when it is offered within a primarily meaning-focused context of adult second language (L2) learning. Ninety-two Korean-speaking…

  9. Investigating Form-Focused Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of form-focused instruction research, defines what is meant by form-focused instruction, and discusses the main research methods that have been used to investigate form-focused instruction in terms of a broad distinction between confirmatory and interpretive research. (Author/VWL)

  10. Focusing Electron Beams at SLAC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a set of magnets that focus high-energy electron and positron beams causing them to collide, annihilate each other, and generate new particles. Explains how dipoles bend the beam, how quadrupoles focus the beam, how the focal length is calculated, and the superconducting final focus. (MDH)

  11. The Potentials and Pitfalls of Microarrays in Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Focus on Human Filarial Infections.

    PubMed

    Kwarteng, Alexander; Ahuno, Samuel Terkper

    2016-01-01

    Data obtained from expression microarrays enables deeper understanding of the molecular signatures of infectious diseases. It provides rapid and accurate information on how infections affect the clustering of gene expression profiles, pathways and networks that are transcriptionally active during various infection states compared to conventional diagnostic methods, which primarily focus on single genes or proteins. Thus, microarray technologies offer advantages in understanding host-parasite interactions associated with filarial infections. More importantly, the use of these technologies can aid diagnostics and helps translate current genomic research into effective treatment and interventions for filarial infections. Studying immune responses via microarray following infection can yield insight into genetic pathways and networks that can have a profound influence on the development of anti-parasitic vaccines. PMID:27600086

  12. Predicting contrast in sentences with and without focus marking.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Katy

    2014-10-01

    How do we know when a contrast is coming? This study explores the prediction of parallel contrastive phrases, especially NPs, in sentences with and without overt focus marking. A written sentence-completion questionnaire with clauses followed by the conjunction "but" compared unmarked initial clauses to ones with the focus marker "only" on the subject or object. Both conditions with "only" elicited more contrasts overall than the condition without focus marking, and many of the contrasts were with the focus-marked NP. While the baseline (no-only) condition had full clauses for half of the completions, subject focus increased clausal completions and object focus increased negative ellipsis completions ("not"+NP structures), both changes in syntax which make a contrast with the marked NP easy. The production of negative ellipsis sentences primarily in the object-focus condition suggests that the object bias of these sentences in comprehension could relate to their being used more frequently with this meaning. Finally, the overall pattern of results shows that overt marking of contrastive focus increases continuations with contrasts, and the conjunction "but" does not reliably predict explicitly-stated contrasts within a sentence without overt focus marking. PMID:25177047

  13. Predicting contrast in sentences with and without focus marking

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy

    2014-01-01

    How do we know when a contrast is coming? This study explores the prediction of parallel contrastive phrases, especially NPs, in sentences with and without overt focus marking. A written sentence-completion questionnaire with clauses followed by the conjunction “but” compared unmarked initial clauses to ones with the focus marker “only” on the subject or object. Both conditions with “only” elicited more contrasts overall than the condition without focus marking, and many of the contrasts were with the focus-marked NP. While the baseline (no-only) condition had full clauses for half of the completions, subject focus increased clausal completions and object focus increased negative ellipsis completions (“not”+NP structures), both changes in syntax which make a contrast with the marked NP easy. The production of negative ellipsis sentences primarily in the object-focus condition suggests that the object bias of these sentences in comprehension could relate to their being used more frequently with this meaning. Finally, the overall pattern of results shows that overt marking of contrastive focus increases continuations with contrasts, and the conjunction “but” does not reliably predict explicitly-stated contrasts within a sentence without overt focus marking. PMID:25177047

  14. Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Laser filamentation in gases is often carried out in the laboratory with focusing optics to better stabilize the filament, whereas real-world applications of filaments frequently involve collimated or near-collimated beams. It is well documented that geometrical focusing can alter the properties of laser filaments and, consequently, a transition between a collimated and a strongly focused filament is expected. Nevertheless, this transition point has not been identified. Here, we propose an analytical method to determine the transition, and show that it corresponds to an actual shift in the balance of physical mechanisms governing filamentation. In high-NA conditions, filamentation is primarily governed by geometrical focusing and plasma effects, while the Kerr nonlinearity plays a more significant role as NA decreases. We find the transition between the two regimes to be relatively insensitive to the intrinsic laser parameters, and our analysis agrees well with a wide range of parameters found in published literature. PMID:25434678

  15. Form-Focused Instruction: Isolated or Integrated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Lightbown, Patsy M.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that form-focused instruction helps learners in communicative or content-based instruction to learn features of the target language that they may not acquire without guidance. The subject of this article is the role of instruction that is provided in separate (isolated) activities or within the context of…

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  17. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers’ Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Joan R.; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J.; Deal, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11–12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11–12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor’s recommendation), and place (doctors’ offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9–13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  18. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers' Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joan R; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J; Deal, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11-12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11-12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor's recommendation), and place (doctors' offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9-13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  19. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2006-02-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2003 to May 31, 2004 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN is coordinating activities and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. To this end, the KRN primarily focuses on maintaining communication networks among private and public watershed improvement groups in the Columbia River Basin. The KRN willing shares its resources with these groups. The 2003-2004 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out through Watershed Coordinator position. The highly successful Kootenai River Network Annual General Meeting in Bonners Ferry in May 2003 demonstrated the tremendous gains that the Kootenai River Network has made in trans-boundary networking of watershed issues and accomplishments. The Annual General Meeting included seventy five participants representing more than forty US and Canadian citizen groups, tribes, first nations, agencies, ministries, businesses and private land owners from Montana, British Columbia, Idaho and Alberta. The International Restoration Tour in July 2004 featured the Grave Creek and Therriault Wetlands restoration projects in Montana and the Sand Creek and Wolf Creek restoration projects in British Columbia. The tour was attended by more than thirty people representing US and Canadian Federal and State/Provincial agencies, schools, colleges, conservation groups, private land owners, consultants, tribes, first nations, and politicians. These exciting trans-boundary successes encouraged the KRN to establish half-time Watershed Coordinator positions in both the United

  20. Nonlinear focusing of DNA macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumin, Leonid L.; Peltek, Sergey E.; Zilberstein, Gleb V.

    2001-08-01

    The present paper reports the nonlinear electrophoretic focusing techniques developed after an original idea by Chacron and Slater [Phys. Rev. E 56, 3436 (1997)]. Focusing of DNA molecules is achieved in an alternating nonuniform electric field, created in a wedge gel with hyperbolic boundaries. The fractions separated on such a wedge retained their rectilinear shape during the electrophoresis. Experiments with gel electrophoresis confirm the possibility of a noticeable nonlinear focusing of DNA molecules.

  1. Knowledge focus via software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Donald E.

    2001-09-01

    The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents <;A article="1367-2630/5/1/117">Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau

  4. Doing Focus-on-Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod; Basturkmen, Helen; Loewen, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    Considers the rationale for using a focus on form approach to teaching form as opposed to the more traditional focus on forms approach where linguistic features are treated sequentially. Describes methodological options for attending to form in communication. (Author/VWL)

  5. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  6. Multidimensional Clusters of CD4+ T Cell Dysfunction Are Primarily Associated with the CD4/CD8 Ratio in Chronic HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Noyan, Kajsa; Nowak, Piotr; Sönnerborg, Anders; Lund, Ole; Karlsson, Annika C.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection provokes a myriad of pathological effects on the immune system where many markers of CD4+ T cell dysfunction have been identified. However, most studies to date have focused on single/double measurements of immune dysfunction, while the identification of pathological CD4+ T cell clusters that is highly associated to a specific biomarker for HIV disease remain less studied. Here, multi-parametric flow cytometry was used to investigate immune activation, exhaustion, and senescence of diverse maturation phenotypes of CD4+ T cells. The traditional method of manual data analysis was compared to a multidimensional clustering tool, FLOw Clustering with K (FLOCK) in two cohorts of 47 untreated HIV-infected individuals and 21 age and sex matched healthy controls. In order to reduce the subjectivity of FLOCK, we developed an “artificial reference”, using 2% of all CD4+ gated T cells from each of the HIV-infected individuals. Principle component analyses demonstrated that using an artificial reference lead to a better separation of the HIV-infected individuals from the healthy controls as compared to using a single HIV-infected subject as a reference or analyzing data manually. Multiple correlation analyses between laboratory parameters and pathological CD4+ clusters revealed that the CD4/CD8 ratio was the preeminent surrogate marker of CD4+ T cells dysfunction using all three methods. Increased frequencies of an early-differentiated CD4+ T cell cluster with high CD38, HLA-DR and PD-1 expression were best correlated (Rho = -0.80, P value = 1.96×10−11) with HIV disease progression as measured by the CD4/CD8 ratio. The novel approach described here can be used to identify cell clusters that distinguish healthy from HIV infected subjects and is biologically relevant for HIV disease progression. These results further emphasize that a simple measurement of the CD4/CD8 ratio is a useful biomarker for assessment of combined CD4+ T cell dysfunction in chronic HIV

  7. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  8. Innovative Interactive Visitor Experiences Focused on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettvin, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Science Center has adopted a multi-pronged approach to introduce visitors to the concepts of climate change and linkages to human behavior in an informal science education setting. We leverage key fixed exhibit assets derived from collaborations with NOAA: Science on a Sphere and an exhibit kiosk showcasing local CO2 measurements that are adjacent on our exhibit floor. NOAA PMEL Scientists deployed a sensor at the top of the Space Needle that measures variability in atmospheric CO2 over Seattle; the kiosk showcases these near-real-time, daily, weekly and monthly measurements as well as similar observations from a NOAA buoy near Aberdeen, Washington. Displays of these data enable visitors to see first-hand varying CO2 levels in urban and remote marine environments as well as seasonal cycling. It also reveals quantifiable increases in CO2 levels over a relatively short time (~5 years). Trained interpreters help visitors understand linkages between personal behavior and corresponding CO2 footprints. Interpreters discuss connections between local and regional CO2 measurements displayed on the kiosk, and global Sphere datasets including NOAA Carbon Tracker, changing arctic sea ice coverage and sea level rise projections. Portable Discovery Carts, consisting of props and interactive, hands-on activities provide a platform for facilitated interpretation on a series of topics. We have developed two climate focused carts: 'Sinks and Sources' that examines materials and activities that produce and absorb carbon, and 'Ocean Acidification' that shows how absorption of atmospheric CO2 is changing ocean composition and its habitability for marine life. These carts can be deployed anywhere on the exhibit floor but are primarily used adjacent to the Sphere and the kiosk, making it possible to have a range of conversations about global and local CO2 levels, linkages to individual and collective behaviour and associated implications. Additional collaborations with members of

  9. CDP: application of focus drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, S.; Bauer, J.; Haak, U.; Schulz, K.; Old, G.; Matthus, E.

    2009-01-01

    The achievement of a depth of focus required for stable process conditions is one of the biggest challenges in modern optical photolithography. There are several ways of improving the depth of focus. For line/space layers, for instance, application of RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology) using scattering bars, phaseshift masks or optimized illumination systems have shown good results. For contact and via layers the depth of focus is limited and critical, due to the structure size of the holes, alternating pattern density and wafer topology. A well known method of improving the depth of focus for contact and via layers is called focus latitude enhancement exposure (FLEX) [1-3]. With FLEX, several focal planes are being exposed, i.e. each during a separate exposure step. The main drawback is low throughput, as the total processing time rises which each additional exposure. In this paper, we investigate Nikon's CDP (continuous depth of focus expansion procedure) [4]. The CDP option is applicable to modern scanning exposure tools [4-5]. A schematic view of the procedure is shown in Fig. 1. The CDP value or CDP amplitude defines the tilt of the wafer and thus the range of focus in the resist, as the focus plane migrates through the resist during the exposure. The main advantage of CDP, compared to FLEX, is higher throughput, since focal planes are defined within a single exposure. A non-CDP exposure may result in varying aerial images within resist thickness, therefore leading to decreased image contrast within out-of-focus planes. As shown in Fig. 1 the averaged aerial images of a CDP exposure induce better image contrast throughout the resist layer and therefore increase the focus window.

  10. HLA-DQ primarily confers protection and HLA-DR susceptibility in type I (Insulin-dependent) diabetes studied in population-based affected families and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kockum, I. Univ. of Lund Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm ); Wassmuth, R. ); Holmberg, E. ); Michelsen, B. ); Lernmark, A. Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm )

    1993-07-01

    The association between HLA-DR and -DQ and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in a defined high-incidence area was analyzed in a total of 58 population-based patients, representing 77% of IDDM patients with age at onset below 16 years, and in 92 unrelated parents in control families without IDDM. HLA haplotypes were confirmed by analyzing first-degree relatives in both groups. Seven different methods were used to analyze risk: (1) odds ratio, (2) absolute risk, (3) haplotype relative risk, (4) transcomplementation relative risk, (5) relative predisposing effects, (6) stratification analysis, and (7) test of predisposing allele on haplotype. DQB1*0302 indicated somewhat higher risk than did DR4, while DR3 had a higher risk than DQB1*0201; however, the 95% confidence intervals of the risk estimates overlapped. The positive association between IDDM and the DQB1*0201-DQA1*0501-DR3 haplotype seems to be due to DR3 or to an unknown linked gene. More important, DQA1*0301 was present among 93% of the patients, and this allele in various transcomplementation combinations with DQBL alleles showed closer association to IDDM than did any other alleles. The strong negative association of the DQB1*0602 allele also in the presence of either DR4 or DQBI*0302 or both suggests that, in a high-risk population for IDDM, HLA-DQ primarily confers protection, perhaps by induction of tolerance. Consistent with known functions, HLA-DR may primarily confer susceptibility, perhaps by induction of autoreactive T lymphocytes. 67 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Engaging Undergraduates in a Unique Neuroscience Research Opportunity: A Collaborative Research Experience Between a Primarily Undergraduate Institution (PUI) and a Major Research Institution

    PubMed Central

    Kreitzer, Matthew A.; Malchow, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a unique undergraduate research and teaching collaboration between investigators at two institutions, one a relatively small, primarily undergraduate institution and the other a large, urban research-intensive university. The program incorporates three major facets. First, undergraduates participate in a weekly collaborative lab meeting involving instructors from both institutions and held via remote video. Student-led discussions and presentations dominate these meetings, and the unique format promotes novel interactions between students and instructors. Second, students carry out investigative studies centered on understanding the role extracellular pH dynamics play in regulating neuronal processing. Students carry out studies on isolated neurons and glia throughout the fall and spring semesters, and primarily use a noninvasive electrophysiological technique, termed self-referencing, for extracellular pH measurements. The technique is relatively simple and readily learned and employed by undergraduates, while still being powerful enough to provide novel and meaningful research results. The research component is expanded for several students each summer who are selected to participate in summer research with both PIs and graduate students at the major research institution. Finally results gathered during the year and over the summer are disseminated at institutional symposia, undergraduate neuroscience symposia, national society meetings, and in submitted journal manuscripts. Preliminary observations and findings over three years support the aim of this research experience; to create a productive environment that facilitates deep-level understanding of neurophysiological concepts at the undergraduate level and promotes intellectual development while cultivating an excitement for scientific inquiry in the present and future. PMID:24319396

  12. Prime focus instrument of prime focus spectrograph for Subaru telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Braun, David F.; Schwochert, Mark A.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Kimura, Masahiko; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Reiley, Daniel J.; Mao, Peter; Fisher, Charles D.; Tamura, Naoyuki; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Chou, Richard C.-Y.; Takato, Naruhisa; Sugai, Hajime; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Ueda, Akitoshi

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph design for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capability of Hyper SuprimeCam (HSC). The prime focus unit of PFS called Prime Focus Instrument (PFI) provides the interface with the top structure of Subaru telescope and also accommodates the optical bench in which Cobra fiber positioners are located. In addition, the acquisition and guiding (AG) cameras, the optical fiber positioner system, the cable wrapper, the fiducial fibers, illuminator, and viewer, the field element, and the telemetry system are located inside the PFI. The mechanical structure of the PFI was designed with special care such that its deflections sufficiently match those of the HSC's Wide Field Corrector (WFC) so the fibers will stay on targets over the course of the observations within the required accuracy.

  13. HST Focus in SMOV4: Strategy for OTA adjustment & SI Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallo, M.; van der Marel, R.; Cox, C.; Hartig, G.; Niemi, S.-M.

    2010-12-01

    This report documents in summary the observatory-level effort to produce optimal focus during Servicing Mission Observatory Verification 4 (SMOV4). It describes the extrapolation of monitor data available prior to SMOV4, and the resulting decision to adjust the HST Secondary Mirror +3 μm away from the Primary in concert with the active optical alignment of WFC3 and COS in order to maximize image quality and confocality among the instruments. It also provides the historical HST focus dataset used for such long term focus predictions.

  14. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  15. Giving the Teacher a Voice: Perceptions Regarding the Barriers and Enablers Associated with the Implementation of Smart Moves (Compulsory Physical Activity) within Primary State Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Wayne; Anderton, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The specific focus of this study is to explore Queensland (Australia) state school generalist teachers' perceptions regarding the barriers and enablers associated with the implementation of the Smart Moves (compulsory physical activity) policy in the primary classroom setting. This study sought to primarily add to the literature on, and…

  16. Computer-mediated focus groups.

    PubMed

    Walston, J T; Lissitz, R W

    2000-10-01

    This article discusses the feasibility and effectiveness of computer-mediated (CM) focus groups. The study describes technological and practical considerations the authors learned from conducting such groups and reports on a comparison of the reactions of CM and face-to-face (FTF) participants in focus groups discussing academic dishonesty. The results suggest that the CM environment, in comparison to FTF, may lessen members' concern about what the moderator thinks of them and discourage participants from withholding embarrassing information. The article concludes with a list of suggestions for this technique and a discussion of the potential advantages and limitations associated with CM focus groups. PMID:11183483

  17. Taking a "Future Focus" in Education--What Does It Mean? An NZCER Working Paper from the Future-Focussed Issues in Education (FFI) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolstad, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This working paper describes some of the ideas underpinning NZCER's Future-Focused Issues (FFI) project. There is a variety of ways to interpret what it means to take a "future focus" in education. This paper explains why the FFI project has focused primarily on concepts specifically mentioned in relation to "future focus" in "The New Zealand…

  18. 3D hydrodynamic focusing microfluidics for emerging sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Michael A; Boyd, Darryl A; Mott, David R; Ligler, Frances S

    2015-05-15

    While the physics behind laminar flows has been studied for 200 years, understanding of how to use parallel flows to augment the capabilities of microfluidic systems has been a subject of study primarily over the last decade. The use of one flow to focus another within a microfluidic channel has graduated from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional process and the design principles are only now becoming established. This review explores the underlying principles for hydrodynamic focusing in three dimensions (3D) using miscible fluids and the application of these principles for creation of biosensors, separation of cells and particles for sample manipulation, and fabrication of materials that could be used for biosensors. Where sufficient information is available, the practicality of devices implementing fluid flows directed in 3D is evaluated and the advantages and limitations of 3D hydrodynamic focusing for the particular application are highlighted. PMID:25041926

  19. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  20. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  1. Wolter Optics for Neutron Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildner, D. F. R.; Gubarev, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing optics based on Wolter optical geometries developed for x-ray grazing incidence beams can be designed for neutron beams. Wolter optics are formed by grazing incidence reflections from two concentric conic sections (for example, a paraboloid and a hyperboloid). This has transformed observational X-ray astronomy by increasing the sensitivity by many orders of magnitude for research in astrophysics and cosmology. To increase the collection area, many reflecting mirrors of different diameters are nested with a common focal plane. These mirrors are fabricated using nickel-electroformed replication techniques. We apply these ideas to neutron focusing using nickel mirrors. We show an initial test of a conical mirror using a beam of cold neutrons. key words: electroformed nickel replication, focusing optics, grazing angle incidence, mirror reflection, neutron focusing, Wolter optics

  2. Simulations of neutralized final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to drive an inertial fusion target or study high energy density physics with heavy ion beams, the beam radius must be focused to < 3 mm and the pulse length must be compressed to < 10 ns. The conventional scheme for temporal pulse compression makes use of an increasing ion velocity to compress the beam as it drifts and beam space charge to stagnate the compression before final focus. Beam compression in a neutralizing plasma does not require stagnation of the compression, enabling a more robust method. The final pulse shape at the target can be programmed by an applied velocity tilt. In this paper, neutralized drift compression is investigated. The sensitivity of the compression and focusing to beam momentum spread, plasma, and magnetic field conditions is studied with realistic driver examples. Using the 3D particle-in-cell code, we examine issues associated with self-field generation, stability, and vacuum-neutralized transport transition and focusing.

  3. Isoelectric Focusing in a Drop

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Noah G.; Hayes, Mark A.; Garcia, Antonio A.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split—resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3–10) in ampholyte buffers and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by non-invasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements. PMID:21117663

  4. Focusing light through living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellekoop, I. M.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissues such as skin, fat or cuticle are non-transparent because inhomogeneities in the tissue scatter light. We demonstrate experimentally that light can be focused through turbid layers of living tissue, in spite of scattering. Our method is based on the fact that coherent light forms an interference pattern, even after hundreds of scattering events. By spatially shaping the wavefront of the incident laser beam, this interference pattern was modified to make the scattered light converge to a focus. In contrast to earlier experiments, where light was focused through solid objects, we focused light through living pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. We discuss a dynamic wavefront shaping algorithm that follows changes due to microscopic movements of scattering particles in real time. We relate the performance of the algorithm to the measured timescale of the changes in the speckle pattern and analyze our experiment in the light of Laser Doppler flowmetry. Applications in particle tracking, imaging, and optical manipulation are discussed.

  5. Oculometer focus and mirror control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic focusing system designed around an ultrasonic range measurement is described. Besides maintaining the focus, subject distance is a by-product which could lighten the NOVA computational effort. An automatic head tracking unit is also discussed. It is intended to reduce the search time required when track is lost. An X-Y ultrasonic measurement is also made in this design to control the deflection mirrors.

  6. A continuous plasma final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1990-02-01

    Scaling laws are set down for a plasma cell used for transport, focusing and current neutralization of fine, intense, relativistic electron beams. It is found that there exists a minimum beam spot size, {sigma}{sub min} {approximately} {epsilon}{sub n}(I{sub A}/{gamma}I){sup 1/2}, in such a focusing system. Propagation issues, including channel formation, synchrotron radiation, beam ionization and instabilities, are discussed. Three numerical examples are considered. 38 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Focus compensation techniques for reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeough, J.; Glavich, T.

    1979-01-01

    To maintain optimum resolution under varying environmental conditions, a focusing compensation system has been developed. The system is capable of detecting not only changes in pressure (altitude) and the general lens temperature but also the radial thermal gradients in the lens. Theoretical considerations show that the lens is most affected by these factors. The developed system uses a laser measurement system with environmental sensors to generate a focus correction for environment and range changes.

  8. Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups.

    PubMed Central

    Kitzinger, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say. Images p301-a PMID:7633241

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Stacie J; Singh, Shree R; Yilma, Abebayehu N; Waffo, Alain B; Subbarayan, Praseetha; Dixit, Saurabh; Taha, Murtada A; Cambridge, Chino D; Dennis, Vida A

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) potentiates T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP), characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm), zeta potential (−14.30 mV), apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1) and interleukin (IL)-12p40 (Th1/Th17) than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2) cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgG2a (Th1) than IgG1 (Th2) rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund’s adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C. trachomatis vaccine. The capacity of PLGA-rMOMP to trigger primarily Th1 immune responses in mice promotes it as a highly desirable candidate nanovaccine against C. trachomatis. PMID:23785233

  10. Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Ammerman, Emily; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Research on language in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) has been fueled by persistent theoretical controversies for two decades. These shifted from initial focus on dissociations between language and cognition functions, to examining the paradox of socio-communicative impairments despite high sociability and relatively proficient…

  11. AXAF SIM focus mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tananbaum, H. D.; Whitbeck, E.

    1994-02-01

    The design requirements and initial design concept for the AXAF-I Science Instrument Module (SIM) were reviewed at Ball on September 29, 1993. The concept design SIM focus mechanism utilizes a planetary gearset, with redundant motors, to drive a large ring (called 'main housing bearing') via a spur gearset. This large drive ring actuates three tangent bar links (called 'push rods'), which in turn actuate three levers (called 'pin levers'). Each of the three pin levers rotates an 'eccentric pin,' which in turn moves the base of a bipod flexure in both the radial (normal to optical axis) and axial (focus along optical axis) directions. Three bipod flexures are employed, equally spaced at 120 degrees apart, the base of each being translated in the two directions as described above. A focus adjustment is made by rotating the drive ring, which drives the push rods and therefore the pin levers, which in turn rotate the eccentric pins, finally imparting the two motions to the base of each of the bipod flexures. The axial translation (focus adjustment) of the focused structure is the sum of the direct axial motion plus axial motion which comes from uniformly squeezing the three bipod bases radially inward. SAO documented the following concerns regarding the focus mechanism in memo WAP-FY94-001, dated October 7, 1993: (1) The focus adjustment depends, in large part, on the structural properties (stiffnesses and end fixities) of the bipod flexures, push rods, pin levers and eccentric pins. If these properties are not matched very well, then lateral translations as well as unwanted rotations of the focussed structure will accompany focus motion. In addition, the stackup of linkage tolerances and any nonuniform wear in the linkages will result in the same unwanted motions. Thermal gradients will also affect these motions. At the review Ball did not present supporting analyses to support their choice of this design concept. (2) The proposed 'primary' method of measuring focus

  12. AXAF SIM focus mechanism study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H. D.; Whitbeck, E.

    1994-01-01

    The design requirements and initial design concept for the AXAF-I Science Instrument Module (SIM) were reviewed at Ball on September 29, 1993. The concept design SIM focus mechanism utilizes a planetary gearset, with redundant motors, to drive a large ring (called 'main housing bearing') via a spur gearset. This large drive ring actuates three tangent bar links (called 'push rods'), which in turn actuate three levers (called 'pin levers'). Each of the three pin levers rotates an 'eccentric pin,' which in turn moves the base of a bipod flexure in both the radial (normal to optical axis) and axial (focus along optical axis) directions. Three bipod flexures are employed, equally spaced at 120 degrees apart, the base of each being translated in the two directions as described above. A focus adjustment is made by rotating the drive ring, which drives the push rods and therefore the pin levers, which in turn rotate the eccentric pins, finally imparting the two motions to the base of each of the bipod flexures. The axial translation (focus adjustment) of the focused structure is the sum of the direct axial motion plus axial motion which comes from uniformly squeezing the three bipod bases radially inward. SAO documented the following concerns regarding the focus mechanism in memo WAP-FY94-001, dated October 7, 1993: (1) The focus adjustment depends, in large part, on the structural properties (stiffnesses and end fixities) of the bipod flexures, push rods, pin levers and eccentric pins. If these properties are not matched very well, then lateral translations as well as unwanted rotations of the focussed structure will accompany focus motion. In addition, the stackup of linkage tolerances and any nonuniform wear in the linkages will result in the same unwanted motions. Thermal gradients will also affect these motions. At the review Ball did not present supporting analyses to support their choice of this design concept. (2) The proposed 'primary' method of measuring focus

  13. Focus cues affect perceived depth

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Simon J.; Akeley, Kurt; Ernst, Marc O.; Banks, Martin S.

    2007-01-01

    Depth information from focus cues—accommodation and the gradient of retinal blur—is typically incorrect in three-dimensional (3-D) displays because the light comes from a planar display surface. If the visual system incorporates information from focus cues into its calculation of 3-D scene parameters, this could cause distortions in perceived depth even when the 2-D retinal images are geometrically correct. In Experiment 1 we measured the direct contribution of focus cues to perceived slant by varying independently the physical slant of the display surface and the slant of a simulated surface specified by binocular disparity (binocular viewing) or perspective/texture (monocular viewing). In the binocular condition, slant estimates were unaffected by display slant. In the monocular condition, display slant had a systematic effect on slant estimates. Estimates were consistent with a weighted average of slant from focus cues and slant from disparity/texture, where the cue weights are determined by the reliability of each cue. In Experiment 2, we examined whether focus cues also have an indirect effect on perceived slant via the distance estimate used in disparity scaling. We varied independently the simulated distance and the focal distance to a disparity-defined 3-D stimulus. Perceived slant was systematically affected by changes in focal distance. Accordingly, depth constancy (with respect to simulated distance) was significantly reduced when focal distance was held constant compared to when it varied appropriately with the simulated distance to the stimulus. The results of both experiments show that focus cues can contribute to estimates of 3-D scene parameters. Inappropriate focus cues in typical 3-D displays may therefore contribute to distortions in perceived space. PMID:16441189

  14. Estrogen receptor is not primarily responsible for altered responsiveness of ovalbumin mRNA induction in the oviduct from genetically selected high- and low-albumen chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, T; Hiramatsu, H; Park, H M; Okumura, J; Kawashima, M; Miyoshi, S

    1997-04-01

    The role of estrogen receptor on ovalbumin mRNA induction by steroid hormones was investigated in primary cultures of oviduct cells from estrogen-stimulated immature chicks of genetically selected high- and low-albumen egg laying lines (H- and L-lines). In experiment 1, the extent of ovalbumin mRNA induction and changes in estrogen and progesterone receptors were compared between the oviduct cells from H- and L-lines with or without steroid hormones in the culture medium. In experiment 2, the effect of estrogen receptor gene transfection on the induction of ovalbumin mRNA was studied in the oviduct cells from the L-line chicks. The results showed a close correlation of the changes in ovalbumin mRNA with the numbers of nuclear and total estrogen receptors in the oviduct cells but not with the numbers of nuclear and total progesterone receptors. Estrogen receptor gene transfection induced ovalbumin mRNA to a moderate extent in the absence of the steroid hormones. To our surprise, however, estrogen receptor gene transfection apparently suppressed the ovalbumin mRNA responsiveness to estrogen to a considerable extent. It was concluded, therefore, that the extent of estrogen receptor expression might not be primarily responsible for the differences in responsiveness to steroid hormones of oviduct cells from genetically selected H- and L-line chickens. PMID:9149392

  15. The yeast rapid tRNA decay pathway primarily monitors the structural integrity of the acceptor and T-stems of mature tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, Joseph M.; Lane, Elizabeth A.; Chernyakov, Irina; D'Silva, Sonia; Phizicky, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    tRNAs, like other RNAs, are subject to quality control steps during and after biosynthesis. We previously described a rapid tRNA degradation (RTD) pathway in which the 5′–3′ exonucleases Rat1 and Xrn1 degrade mature tRNAVal(AAC) in yeast mutants lacking m7G and m5C, and mature tRNASer(CGA) in mutants lacking Um and ac4C. To understand how the RTD pathway selects substrate tRNAs among different tRNAs lacking the same modifications, we used a genetic screen to examine tRNASer(CGA) variants. Our results suggest that RTD substrate recognition in vivo depends primarily on the stability of the acceptor and T-stems, and not the anti-codon stem, and does not necessarily depend on modifications, since fully modified tRNAs are subject to RTD if appropriately destabilized. We found that weaker predicted stability of the acceptor and T-stems of tRNAs is strongly correlated with RTD sensitivity, increased RNase T2 sensitivity of this region of the tRNA in vitro, and increased exposure of the 5′ end to phosphatase. We also found that purified Xrn1 selectively degrades RTD substrate tRNAs in vitro under conditions in which nonsubstrates are immune. These results suggest that tRNAs have evolved not only for accurate translation, but for resistance to attack by RTD. PMID:21632824

  16. Human milk miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary gland resulting in unique miRNA profiles of fractionated milk

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-01-01

    Human milk (HM) contains regulatory biomolecules including miRNAs, the origin and functional significance of which are still undetermined. We used TaqMan OpenArrays to profile 681 mature miRNAs in HM cells and fat, and compared them with maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma, and bovine and soy infant formulae. HM cells and PBMCs (292 and 345 miRNAs, respectively) had higher miRNA content than HM fat and plasma (242 and 219 miRNAs, respectively) (p < 0.05). A strong association in miRNA profiles was found between HM cells and fat, whilst PBMCs and plasma were distinctly different to HM, displaying marked inter-individual variation. Considering the dominance of epithelial cells in mature milk of healthy women, these results suggest that HM miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary epithelium, whilst the maternal circulation may have a smaller contribution. Our findings demonstrate that unlike infant formulae, which contained very few human miRNA, HM is a rich source of lactation-specific miRNA, which could be used as biomarkers of the performance and health status of the lactating mammary gland. Given the recently identified stability, uptake and functionality of food- and milk-derived miRNA in vivo, HM miRNA are likely to contribute to infant protection and development. PMID:26854194

  17. Abnormalities in larvae from the once-largest Pacific herring population in Washington State result primarily from factors independent of spawning location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.; Wittouck, J.; Stick, K.; Kocan, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Among larvae from populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii in Washington State those from Cherry Point have consistently demonstrated abnormalities indicative of distress, including low weights and lengths at hatch, increased prevalences of skeletal abnormalities, and shorter survival times in food deprivation studies. The biomass of adult, prespawn Pacific herring at Cherry Point declined from 13,606 metric tons in 1973 to a record low 733 metric tons in 2000. However, correlation of larval abnormalities with adult recruitment was weak, indicating that the larval abnormalities did not directly cause the decline. Larval abnormalities originated primarily from factors independent of conditions at the spawning location because they were not reproduced by incubation of foreign zygotes along the Cherry Point shoreline but were reproduced after the development of indigenous zygotes in controlled laboratory conditions. Although the precise cause of the abnormalities was not determined, recent zoographic trends in elevated natural mortality among adult Pacific herring and resulting reduced age structures may be involved. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  18. Peripheral blood cells from weight-losing cancer patients control the hepatic acute phase response by a primarily interleukin-6 dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    O'Riordain, M G; Falconer, J S; Maingay, J; Fearon, K C; Ross, J A

    1999-10-01

    Cancer cachexia is associated with an elevated hepatic acute phase protein response, poor outcome and elevated cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This study investigates the mechanism by which PBMC can induce a hepatic acute phase response. Supernatants from the peripheral blood cells of cancer patients induced significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) from hepatocytes (198+/-21 ng ml-1) than did supernatants from healthy controls (64+/-20, p<0.005). CRP production in vitro correlated with IL-6 production by PBMC from patients with pancreatic cancer (r=0.76, p<0.0001). This C-reactive protein production was reduced by 84% using neutralising antibody to IL-6 (p<0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between PBMC-induced hepatocyte C-reactive protein production and survival (r=-0.45, p<0.01). PBMC from cancer patients induce the hepatic acute phase response via a primarily IL-6-dependent mechanism. PMID:10493968

  19. Multi-focus cluster labeling.

    PubMed

    Eikvil, Line; Jenssen, Tor-Kristian; Holden, Marit

    2015-06-01

    Document collections resulting from searches in the biomedical literature, for instance, in PubMed, are often so large that some organization of the returned information is necessary. Clustering is an efficient tool for organizing search results. To help the user to decide how to continue the search for relevant documents, the content of each cluster can be characterized by a set of representative keywords or cluster labels. As different users may have different interests, it can be desirable with solutions that make it possible to produce labels from a selection of different topical categories. We therefore introduce the concept of multi-focus cluster labeling to give users the possibility to get an overview of the contents through labels from multiple viewpoints. The concept for multi-focus cluster labeling has been established and has been demonstrated on three different document collections. We illustrate that multi-focus visualizations can give an overview of clusters along axes that general labels are not able to convey. The approach is generic and should be applicable to any biomedical (or other) domain with any selection of foci where appropriate focus vocabularies can be established. A user evaluation also indicates that such a multi-focus concept is useful. PMID:25869415

  20. Focusing on Pronouns: Consequences of Subjecthood, Pronominalisation, and Contrastive Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2011-01-01

    We report two visual-world eye-tracking experiments that investigated the effects of subjecthood, pronominalisation, and contrastive focus on the interpretation of pronouns in subsequent discourse. By probing the effects of these factors on real-time pronoun interpretation, we aim to contribute to our understanding of how topicality-related…

  1. Fast and precise continuous focusing with focus tunable lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casutt, Selina; Bueeler, Michael; Blum, Mark; Aschwanden, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Focusing in milliseconds without translational mechanics involved is possible with electrically tunable lenses. Fast shape-changing lenses enable fast imaging systems which can focus at distances from infinity to a few centimeters with a high optical quality. Furthermore, rapid laser processing in three dimensions is realized without mechanical translation of the focusing lens or the sample. With tunable lenses the entire optics can be made compact, robust and abrasion-free. Different configurations are discussed, how to integrate the tunable lens in the optical path. For machine vision applications, the achievable optical quality depends on the chosen combination of the tunable lens with a fixed focal length lens and a camera. It is recommended to use a fixed focus lens with a short distance between the stop position and the front of the lens. Furthermore, important points are presented how to achieve optimal performance in laser processing applications such as orientation and position of the tunable lens and the diameter of the beam incident on the lens. Additionally, different approaches will be discussed for monitoring the focal length of the tunable lens. The focal length of the tunable lens is sensitive to temperature changes, as the lens material is a fluid. However, in contrast to conventional lenses, the focal length of the tunable lens can be corrected electrically. For that purpose, the tunable lens exhibits an integrated temperature sensor for temperature compensation. Also optical feedback solutions will be presented for applications requiring highest precision and tracking of the absolute focal length value.

  2. Customer-focused planning: Demonstration project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    George, S.S. )

    1992-12-01

    To succeed in the increasingly competitive and dynamic markets in which they operate, electric utilities are focusing ever greater attention on understanding and meeting customer needs. EPRI's Customer Focused Planning (CFP) project was established to develop concepts and tools that will help utilities enhance their commitment to customer service. The project team conducted a series of interviews and meetings with participating utilities to collaboratively implement crucial steps in the CFP process. Although there is no unique set of tools or single management approach for improving product and service delivery, customer-focused companies have at least five ideals in common. They (1) define goals and objectives in concrete terms, (2) extend the planning boundaries of the organization to include all members of the energy services infrastructure, (3) painstakingly link functional activities directly to customer needs, (4) incorporate the customer's voice in new product/ service design, and (5) align performance measures with customer needs. In addition, customer-focused companies use a variety of methods to improve customer satisfaction and company performance. These methods include conducting market research, developing market processes such as demand-side management contracting or bidding to reveal customer preferences, and involving customers more directly in the planning process. This report summarizes two brief demonstration projects conducted as part of EPRI's CFP project, one at Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) and one at PSI Energy. The CECo project emphasized developing customer-focused performance measures for telephone inquiries. The PSI Energy project involved a one-day workshop underscoring two important CFP elements-understanding customer wants and explicitly linking those wants to utility activities.

  3. A continuous plasma final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1989-11-01

    Scaling laws are set down for a plasma cell used for transport, focusing and current neutralization of fine, intense, relativistic electron beams. It is found that there exists a minimum beam spot size, {sigma}{sub min} {approximately} {var epsilon}{sub n}(I{sub A}/{gamma}I){sup 1/2}, in such a focusing system. Propagation issues, including channel formation, synchrotron radiation, beam ionization and instabilities, are discussed. Numerical examples are given for a proof-of-principle experiment at KEK, an application for luminosity enhancement at the SLC, and a hypothetical TeV electron-positron collider. For a TeV collider, it is found that the effect of ion-motion on focusing, and the effect of Buneman instability on current neutralization must be considered. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  5. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  6. A Focus on Body Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Hayes

    1978-01-01

    The concept of gymnastics as body management gives unity of purpose to all forms of gymnastic activity and provides the substance of a rationale for increased opportunities for all children to participate in gymnastic activity. (JD)

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF CATECHOLAMINERGIC AND PEPTIDERGIC CELLS IN THE GERBIL MEDIAL AMYGADALA, CAUDAL PREOPTIC AREA AND CAUDAL BED NUCLEI OF THE STRIA TERMINALIS WITH A FOCUS ON AREAS ACTIVATED AT EJACULATION

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Danielle A.; Yahr, Pauline

    2010-01-01

    The posterodorsal preoptic nucleus (PdPN), lateral part of the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd) and medial part of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNm) are activated at ejaculation in male gerbils as assessed by Fos expression. We sought to immunocytochemically visualize substance P (SP), cholecystokinin (CCK), oxytocin, vasopressin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a catecholaminergic marker, in the mating-activated cells, but the need for colchicine precluded behavioral testing. Instead, we detailed distributions of cells containing these molecules in the medial amygdala, caudal preoptic area and caudal bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and quantified their densities in the PdPN, MPNm and lateral MeApd for comparison to densities previously assessed for mating-activated efferents from these sites. TH cells were as dense in the PdPN and lateral MeApd as activated efferents to the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. In the lateral MeApd, TH cells were grouped where cells activated at ejaculation are clustered and where CCK cells form a ball. Lateral MeApd CCK cells and PdPN SP cells were as dense as activated efferents to the principal BST. Oxytocinergic PdPN cells and SP cells in the MPNm were as dense as mating-activated efferents to the lateral MeApd. If some oxytocin cells in the PdPN project to the neurohypophysis, as in rats, they could be a source of the oxytocin secreted at ejaculation. Since gerbils are monogamous and biparental, it was also interesting that, unlike monogamous prairie voles, they had few TH cells in the MeApd or dorsal BST, resembling promiscuous rats, hamsters and meadow voles. PMID:21087661

  8. Distribution of catecholaminergic and peptidergic cells in the gerbil medial amygdala, caudal preoptic area and caudal bed nuclei of the stria terminalis with a focus on areas activated at ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Danielle A; Yahr, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The posterodorsal preoptic nucleus (PdPN), lateral part of the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd) and medial part of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNm) are activated at ejaculation in male gerbils as assessed by Fos expression. We sought to immunocytochemically visualize substance P (SP), cholecystokinin (CCK), oxytocin, vasopressin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a catecholaminergic marker, in the mating-activated cells, but the need for colchicine precluded behavioral testing. Instead, we detailed distributions of cells containing these molecules in the medial amygdala, caudal preoptic area and caudal bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and quantified their densities in the PdPN, MPNm and lateral MeApd for comparison to densities previously assessed for mating-activated efferents from these sites. TH cells were as dense in the PdPN and lateral MeApd as activated efferents to the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. In the lateral MeApd, TH cells were grouped where cells activated at ejaculation are clustered and where CCK cells form a ball. Lateral MeApd CCK cells and PdPN SP cells were as dense as activated efferents to the principal BST. Oxytocinergic PdPN cells and SP cells in the MPNm were as dense as mating-activated efferents to the lateral MeApd. If some oxytocin cells in the PdPN project to the neurohypophysis, as in rats, they could be a source of the oxytocin secreted at ejaculation. Since gerbils are monogamous and biparental, it was also interesting that, unlike monogamous prairie voles, they had few TH cells in the MeApd or dorsal BST, resembling promiscuous rats, hamsters and meadow voles. PMID:21087661

  9. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasta, A. M.; Ramírez-Piscina, L.; Sancho, J. M.; Lindenberg, K.

    2013-04-01

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, and obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate ˜t-1/2 to very close to the perfect mixing rate, ˜t-1.

  10. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  11. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    PubMed

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention. PMID:26873022

  12. Very low adequacy of micronutrient intakes by young children and women in rural Bangladesh is primarily explained by low food intake and limited diversity.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hotz, Christine; Lewis, Bess; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H

    2013-02-01

    Documentation of micronutrient intake inadequacies among developing country populations is important for planning interventions to control micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to quantify micronutrient intakes by young children and their primary female caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We measured 24-h dietary intakes on 2 nonconsecutive days in a representative sample of 480 children (ages 24-48 mo) and women in 2 subdistricts of northern Bangladesh by using 12-h weighed food records and subsequent 12-h recall in homes. We calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of usual intakes of 11 micronutrients and an overall mean PA, and evaluated dietary diversity by counting the total number of 9 food groups consumed. The overall adequacy of micronutrient intakes was compared to dietary diversity scores using correlation and multivariate regression analyses. The overall mean prevalence of adequacy of micronutrient intakes for children was 43% and for women was 26%. For children, the prevalence of adequate intakes for each of the 11 micronutrients ranged from a mean of 0 for calcium to 95% for vitamin B-6 and was <50% for iron, calcium, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. For women, mean or median adequacy was <50% for all nutrients except vitamin B-6 and niacin and was <1% for calcium, vitamin A, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. The mean PA (MPA) was correlated with energy intake and dietary diversity, and multivariate models including these variables explained 71-76% of the variance in MPA. The degree of micronutrient inadequacy among young children and women in rural Bangladesh is alarming and is primarily explained by diets low in energy and little diversity of foods. PMID:23256144

  13. The elevation of apoB in hypercholesterolemic patients is primarily attributed to the relative increase of apoB/Lp-PLA2

    PubMed Central

    Tellis, Constantinos C.; Moutzouri, Eliza; Elisaf, Moses; Wolfert, Robert L.; Tselepis, Alexandros D.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Plasma Lp-PLA2 is mainly associated with apolipoprotein (apo)B-containing lipoproteins, primarily with low density lipoproteins (LDLs). Importantly, only a proportion of circulating lipoproteins contain Lp-PLA2. We determined the plasma levels of Lp-PLA2-bound apoB (apoB/Lp-PLA2) in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. The effect of simvastatin therapy was also addressed. The plasma apoB/Lp-PLA2 concentration in 50 normolipidemic controls and 53 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia at baseline and at 3 months posttreatment with simvastatin (40 mg/day) was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of the apoB-containing lipoproteins that do not bind Lp-PLA2 [apoB/Lp-PLA2(−)] was calculated by subtracting the apoB/Lp-PLA2 from total apoB. The apoB/Lp-PLA2 levels were 3.6-fold higher, while apoB/Lp-PLA2(−) were 1.3-fold higher in patients compared with controls. After 3 months of simvastatin treatment apoB/Lp-PLA2 and apoB/Lp-PLA2(−) levels were reduced by 52% and 33%, respectively. The elevation in apoB-containing lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic patients is mainly attributed to the relative increase in the proatherogenic apoB/Lp-PLA2, while simvastatin reduces these particles to a higher extent compared with apoB/Lp-PLA2(−). Considering that Lp-PLA2 is proatherogenic, the predominance of apoB/Lp-PLA2 particles in hypercholesterolemic patients may contribute to their higher atherogenicity and incidence of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24092915

  14. Coronary vasomotor responses to isometric handgrip exercise are primarily mediated by nitric oxide: a noninvasive MRI test of coronary endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Hays, Allison G; Iantorno, Micaela; Soleimanifard, Sahar; Steinberg, Angela; Schär, Michael; Gerstenblith, Gary; Stuber, Matthias; Weiss, Robert G

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO) is a defining characteristic of nondiseased arteries, and abnormal endothelial NO release is both a marker of early atherosclerosis and a predictor of its progression and future events. Healthy coronaries respond to endothelial-dependent stressors with vasodilatation and increased coronary blood flow (CBF), but those with endothelial dysfunction respond with paradoxical vasoconstriction and reduced CBF. Recently, coronary MRI and isometric handgrip exercise (IHE) were reported to noninvasively quantify coronary endothelial function (CEF). However, it is not known whether the coronary response to IHE is actually mediated by NO and/or whether it is reproducible over weeks. To determine the contribution of NO, we studied the coronary response to IHE before and during infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA, 0.3 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), a NO-synthase inhibitor, in healthy volunteers. For reproducibility, we performed two MRI-IHE studies ~8 wk apart in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Changes from rest to IHE in coronary cross-sectional area (%CSA) and diastolic CBF (%CBF) were quantified. l-NMMA completely blocked normal coronary vasodilation during IHE [%CSA, 12.9 ± 2.5 (mean ± SE, placebo) vs. -0.3 ± 1.6% (l-NMMA); P < 0.001] and significantly blunted the increase in flow [%CBF, 47.7 ± 6.4 (placebo) vs. 10.6 ± 4.6% (l-NMMA); P < 0.001]. MRI-IHE measures obtained weeks apart strongly correlated for CSA (P < 0.0001) and CBF (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the normal human coronary vasoactive response to IHE is primarily mediated by NO. This noninvasive, reproducible MRI-IHE exam of NO-mediated CEF promises to be useful for studying CAD pathogenesis in low-risk populations and for evaluating translational strategies designed to alter CAD in patients. PMID:25820391

  15. Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Schutzler, Scott; Schrader, Amy; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick; Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Ferrando, Arny A.

    2014-01-01

    To examine whole body protein turnover and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) following ingestions of protein in mixed meals at two doses of protein and two intake patterns, 20 healthy older adult subjects (52–75 yr) participated in one of four groups in a randomized clinical trial: a level of protein intake of 0.8 g (1RDA) or 1.5 g·kg−1·day−1 (∼2RDA) with uneven (U: 15/20/65%) or even distribution (E: 33/33/33%) patterns of intake for breakfast, lunch, and dinner over the day (1RDA-U, 1RDA-E, 2RDA-U, or 2RDA-E). Subjects were studied with primed continuous infusions of l-[2H5]phenylalanine and l-[2H2]tyrosine on day 4 following 3 days of diet habituation. Whole body protein kinetics [protein synthesis (PS), breakdown, and net balance (NB)] were expressed as changes from the fasted to the fed states. Positive NB was achieved at both protein levels, but NB was greater in 2RDA vs. 1RDA (94.8 ± 6.0 vs. 58.9 ± 4.9 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0001), without effects of distribution on NB. The greater NB was due to the higher PS with 2RDA vs. 1RDA (15.4 ± 4.8 vs. −18.0 ± 8.4 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0018). Consistent with PS, MPS was greater with 2RDA vs. 1RDA, regardless of distribution patterns. In conclusion, whole body net protein balance was greater with protein intake above recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g protein·kg−1·day−1) in the context of mixed meals, without demonstrated effects of protein intake pattern, primarily through higher rates of protein synthesis at whole body and muscle levels. PMID:25352437

  16. Water deficit in field-grown Gossypium hirsutum primarily limits net photosynthesis by decreasing stomatal conductance, increasing photorespiration, and increasing the ratio of dark respiration to gross photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chastain, Daryl R; Snider, John L; Collins, Guy D; Perry, Calvin D; Whitaker, Jared; Byrd, Seth A

    2014-11-01

    Much effort has been expended to improve irrigation efficiency and drought tolerance of agronomic crops; however, a clear understanding of the physiological mechanisms that interact to decrease source strength and drive yield loss has not been attained. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms contributing to inhibition of net carbon assimilation under drought stress, three cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum were grown in the field under contrasting irrigation regimes during the 2012 and 2013 growing season near Camilla, Georgia, USA. Physiological measurements were conducted on three sample dates during each growing season (providing a broad range of plant water status) and included, predawn and midday leaf water potential (ΨPD and ΨMD), gross and net photosynthesis, dark respiration, photorespiration, and chlorophyll a fluorescence. End-of-season lint yield was also determined. ΨPD ranged from -0.31 to -0.95MPa, and ΨMD ranged from -1.02 to -2.67MPa, depending upon irrigation regime and sample date. G. hirsutum responded to water deficit by decreasing stomatal conductance, increasing photorespiration, and increasing the ratio of dark respiration to gross photosynthesis, thereby limiting PN and decreasing lint yield (lint yield declines observed during the 2012 growing season only). Conversely, even extreme water deficit, causing a 54% decline in PN, did not negatively affect actual quantum yield, maximum quantum yield, or photosynthetic electron transport. It is concluded that PN is primarily limited in drought-stressed G. hirsutum by decreased stomatal conductance, along with increases in respiratory and photorespiratory carbon losses, not inhibition or down-regulation of electron transport through photosystem II. It is further concluded that ΨPD is a reliable indicator of drought stress and the need for irrigation in field-grown cotton. PMID:25151126

  17. Fine tuning of 4,6-bisphenyl-2-(3-alkoxyanilino)pyrimidine focusing on the activity-sensitive aminoalkoxy moiety for a therapeutically useful inhibitor of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE).

    PubMed

    Han, Young Taek; Kim, Kyeojin; Son, Dohyun; An, Hongchan; Kim, Hee; Lee, Jeeyeon; Park, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Jeewoo; Suh, Young-Ger

    2015-02-01

    Through the fine tuning of the activity-sensitive aminoalkoxy moiety of 4,6-bisphenyl-2-(3-alkoxyanilino)pyrimidine as a novel inhibitor of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), the tertiary amine was elucidated as an essential part associated with RAGE inhibition. On the basis of this finding, a 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyrrolidine analog 12o was identified as a therapeutically useful RAGE inhibitor with improved activity and solubility. Molecular modeling studies predicted that the improved inhibitory activity is induced by additional hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen atom of the pyrrolidine ring and Arg48 and by an interaction between the dimethylamino-substituent of the pyrrolidine moiety and a relatively hydrophobic groove in the RAGE binding site. PMID:25533401

  18. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk student…

  19. World History. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

    This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

  20. Strategy and Focus: Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The six articles in this focused journal issue are concerned with literature teaching on the secondary and college level. The titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "Aesthetic Reading and Teaching: 'Candide' Revisited" (Michael G. Gauthier); (2) "Discovery: The Role of Subjective Response in Initiating the Literature Discussion"…