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Sample records for activities form n-400

  1. 75 FR 51096 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400... Collection Under Review; Form N- 400, Application for Naturalization; OMB Control No. 1615-0052. The... 60 day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form N-400. Should USCIS decide...

  2. 76 FR 69275 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 400, Application for Naturalization; OMB Control No. 1615-0052... the Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form N-400. U.S. Citizenship...

  3. 75 FR 70277 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 400, Application for Naturalization; OMB Control No. 1615-0052... applicable component of the Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form N-400;...

  4. N400 and the activation of prejudice against rural migrant workers in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Ma, Qingguo; Song, Zhaofeng; Shi, Yisi; Wang, Yi; Pfotenhauer, Lydia

    2011-02-23

    Rural migrant workers (RMWs) are a special social group under the household registration system in China. Although RMWs work in the city, they are not issued a permanent city resident card, and are hardly integrated into the city life. City residents harbour strong negative stereotypes about RMWs. Facing a word-pair comprising a status noun (RMWs vs. Unban workers) followed by an adjective, 16 young participants were required to classify the adjective as being either negative or positive, while the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. An ERP component identified as the N400 was found, and was studied with the question whether its amplitude reflected the effects of prejudice against RMWs. The reaction times to identify the positive adjectives preceded by the nouns pertaining to RMWs were significantly longer than to those preceded by nouns denoting Urban workers. The amplitude of the N400 evoked in RMW-Positive adjective condition was significantly larger than in Urban worker-Positive adjective condition, possibly reflecting the higher conflict when participants identified the adjectives as positive primed by RMWs. These findings revealed that negative stereotypes about RMWs still exist today, although Chinese mainstream media has disseminated positive messages about the RMWs for decades. PMID:21167137

  5. Meaningful Physical Changes Mediate Lexical-Semantic Integration: Top-Down and Form-Based Bottom-Up Information Sources Interact in the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotze, Netaya; Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Models of how the human brain reconstructs an intended meaning from a linguistic input often draw upon the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component as evidence. Current accounts of the N400 emphasise either the role of contextually induced lexical preactivation of a critical word (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008) or the ease of integration into…

  6. 78 FR 17220 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Naturalization, Form N-400; Revision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... collection notice was previously published in the Federal Register on December 20, 2012, at 77 FR 75440... 77 FR 75440. If you need a copy of the information collection instrument with supplementary documents... involvement with terrorism, persecution, torture, or genocide. See, Presidential Proclamation--Suspension...

  7. 77 FR 75440 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Naturalization, Form Number N-400...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Portal Web site at www.Regulations.gov under e-Docket ID number USCIS-2008-0025; (2) by email to..., persecution, torture, or genocide. See, Presidential Proclamation--Suspension of Entry as Immigrants and... Portal site at: http://www.regulations.gov . We may also be contacted at: USCIS, Office of Policy...

  8. A Large N400 but No BOLD Effect – Comparing Source Activations of Semantic Priming in Simultaneous EEG-fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Geukes, Sebastian; Huster, René J.; Wollbrink, Andreas; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Dobel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neurophysiological effects of semantic priming in electroencephalography (EEG) and in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because of differing methodological constraints, the comparability of the observed effects remains unclear. To directly compare EEG and fMRI effects and neural sources of semantic priming, we conducted a semantic word-picture priming experiment while measuring EEG and fMRI simultaneously. The visually presented primes were pseudowords, words unrelated to the target, semantically related words and the identical names of the target. Distributed source analysis of the event-related potentials (ERPs) successfully revealed a large effect of semantic prime-target relatedness (the N400 effect), which was driven by activations in a left-temporal source region. However, no significantly differing activations between priming conditions were found in the fMRI data. Our results support the notion that, for joint interpretations of existing EEG and fMRI studies of semantic priming, we need to fully appreciate the respective methodological limitations. Second, they show that simultaneous EEG-fMRI, including ERP source localization, is a feasible and promising methodological advancement for the investigation of higher-cognitive processes. Third, they substantiate the finding that, compared to fMRI, ERPs are often more sensitive to subtle cognitive effects. PMID:24391871

  9. The N400 as an index of racial stereotype accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Hehman, Eric; Volpert, Hannah I.; Simons, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The current research examined the viability of the N400, an event-related potential (ERP) related to the detection of semantic incongruity, as an index of both stereotype accessibility and interracial prejudice. Participants’ EEG was recorded while they completed a sequential priming task, in which negative or positive, stereotypically black (African American) or white (Caucasian American) traits followed the presentation of either a black or white face acting as a prime. ERP examination focused on the N400, but additionally examined N100 and P200 reactivity. Replicating and extending previous N400 stereotype research, results indicated that the N400 can indeed function as an index of stereotype accessibility in an interracial domain, as greater N400 reactivity was elicited by trials in which the face prime was incongruent with the target trait than when primes and traits matched. Furthermore, N400 activity was moderated by participants’ self-reported explicit bias. More explicitly biased participants demonstrated greater N400 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces. P200 activity was additionally associated with participants’ implicit biases, as more implicitly biased participants similarly demonstrated greater P200 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces. PMID:23386742

  10. The N400 as an index of racial stereotype accessibility.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Eric; Volpert, Hannah I; Simons, Robert F

    2014-04-01

    The current research examined the viability of the N400, an event-related potential (ERP) related to the detection of semantic incongruity, as an index of both stereotype accessibility and interracial prejudice. Participants' EEG was recorded while they completed a sequential priming task, in which negative or positive, stereotypically black (African American) or white (Caucasian American) traits followed the presentation of either a black or white face acting as a prime. ERP examination focused on the N400, but additionally examined N100 and P200 reactivity. Replicating and extending previous N400 stereotype research, results indicated that the N400 can indeed function as an index of stereotype accessibility in an interracial domain, as greater N400 reactivity was elicited by trials in which the face prime was incongruent with the target trait than when primes and traits matched. Furthermore, N400 activity was moderated by participants' self-reported explicit bias. More explicitly biased participants demonstrated greater N400 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces. P200 activity was additionally associated with participants' implicit biases, as more implicitly biased participants similarly demonstrated greater P200 reactivity to stereotypically white traits following black faces than black traits following black faces. PMID:23386742

  11. N400 to lexical ambiguity and semantic incongruity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Dean

    2010-02-01

    Our previous work showed a semantic bias in interpreting ambiguous words in schizophrenia, with disproportionate misinterpretation of subordinate meanings (toast at a wedding). We proposed pre-selection in schizophrenia of dominant-meaning networks at points of lexical ambiguity, thereby misleading thought. This selection bias may be due to semantic memory hyper-priming causing strong associates to dominate cognition. Alternately, later verbal memory maintenance failure may cause weaker associates to fade more quickly than stronger associates from memory due to less initial activation. To further examine this semantic bias, patients and controls were presented short 4 word long sentences (The toast was buttered). The second word was a homograph or unambiguous noun. The last word disambiguated homographs (dominant or subordinate meaning) or was congruent or incongruent with unambiguous nouns. Previously, we showed increasingly larger N400 from unambiguous associates to dominate associates to subordinate associates to unambiguous non-associates in controls. Pre-selection of dominant meanings predicts that schizophrenia patients would show small N400 to dominant associates and as large N400 to subordinate associates as to incongruous endings. Here, controls again showed graded N400 amplitudes. Patients with schizophrenia showed small N400 to congruent and dominant endings and large N400 to subordinate and incongruous endings. These data suggest early pre-selection of dominant associates in schizophrenia. This effect is unlikely solely due to verbal memory maintenance failure, as patients were able to detect incongruity, albeit with a smaller N400 effect, and displayed generally larger N400 to all stimuli. These results suggest alterations in semantic memory associative networks coupled with verbal working memory maintenance decay in schizophrenia. PMID:19819269

  12. DISSOCIATING N400 EFFECTS OF PREDICTION FROM ASSOCIATION IN SINGLE WORD CONTEXTS

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Ellen F.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    When a word is preceded by a supportive context such as a semantically associated word or a strongly constraining sentence frame, the N400 component of the ERP is reduced in amplitude. An ongoing debate is the degree to which this reduction reflects a passive spread of activation across long-term semantic memory representations as opposed to specific predictions about upcoming input. We addressed this question by embedding semantically associated prime-target pairs within an experimental context that encouraged prediction to a greater or lesser degree. The proportion of related items was used to manipulate the predictive validity of the prime for the target while holding semantic association constant. A semantic category probe detection task was used to encourage semantic processing and to preclude the need for a motor response on the trials of interest. A larger N400 reduction to associated targets was observed in the high than the low relatedness proportion condition, consistent with the hypothesis that predictions about upcoming stimuli make a substantial contribution to the N400 effect. We also observed an earlier priming effect (205–240 ms) in the high proportion condition, which may reflect facilitation due to form-based prediction. In sum, the results suggest that predictability modulates N400 amplitude to a greater degree than the semantic content of the context. PMID:23163410

  13. Dissociating N400 effects of prediction from association in single-word contexts.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ellen F; Holcomb, Phillip J; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2013-03-01

    When a word is preceded by a supportive context such as a semantically associated word or a strongly constraining sentence frame, the N400 component of the ERP is reduced in amplitude. An ongoing debate is the degree to which this reduction reflects a passive spread of activation across long-term semantic memory representations as opposed to specific predictions about upcoming input. We addressed this question by embedding semantically associated prime-target pairs within an experimental context that encouraged prediction to a greater or lesser degree. The proportion of related items was used to manipulate the predictive validity of the prime for the target while holding semantic association constant. A semantic category probe detection task was used to encourage semantic processing and to preclude the need for a motor response on the trials of interest. A larger N400 reduction to associated targets was observed in the high than the low relatedness proportion condition, consistent with the hypothesis that predictions about upcoming stimuli make a substantial contribution to the N400 effect. We also observed an earlier priming effect (205-240 msec) in the high-proportion condition, which may reflect facilitation because of form-based prediction. In summary, the results suggest that predictability modulates N400 amplitude to a greater degree than the semantic content of the context. PMID:23163410

  14. Word imageability and N400 in an incidental memory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Nittono, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Maki; Hori, Tadao

    2002-06-01

    High imagery words are memorized better than low imagery words. To examine how these words are processed at encoding, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in an incidental memory paradigm. Frequency-matched high and low imagery words (45 words each) were presented in a random order on a computer screen. Twelve university students were asked to rate the imageability of a word's referent on a five-point scale. High imagery words elicited a larger N400 than low imagery words did. The N400 was more left-lateralized for low imagery words than for high imagery words, suggesting that some neural generators (probably in the right hemisphere) were not involved in the processing of low imagery words. Difference waveforms showed that the N400 was followed by a second negativity (N800), which was also larger for high imagery words and had a scalp distribution similar to that of the N400. Subsequent free recall showed a classical imagery effect that high imagery words were recalled better than low imagery words. These results suggest that the superiority of high imagery words over low imagery words in incidental memory results from more extensive activation of a semantic network distributed across the left and right hemispheres, the latter of which probably deals with imagery-related information that is not activated by low imagery words. PMID:12031296

  15. Parafoveal N400 effect during sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Barber, Horacio A; Doñamayor, Nuria; Kutas, Marta; Münte, Thomas

    2010-07-26

    Research has suggested that during reading, parafoveal information pertaining to the next word in a line might be, at least partially, processed. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine this issue. Volunteers read sentences presented word-by-word at fixation with each word flanked bilaterally on its right by the next word in the sentence and on its left by the preceding word. Infrequently, the right flanker was replaced by a word that was semantically incongruous with the ongoing sentence context. N400 amplitudes to the critical triads were smaller when the right flanker was contextually congruent than incongruent, indicating that parafoveal information was extracted and quickly and incrementally integrated within the evolving sentence representation. PMID:20580772

  16. Parafoveal N400 effect during sentence reading

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Horacio A.; Doñamayor, Nuria; Kutas, Marta; Münte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that during reading, parafoveal information pertaining to the next word in a line might be, at least partially, processed. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine this issue. Volunteers read sentences presented word-by-word at fixation with each word flanked bilaterally on its right by the next word in the sentence and on its left by the preceding word. Infrequently, the right flanker was replaced by a word that was semantically incongruous with the ongoing sentence context. N400 amplitudes to the critical triads were smaller when the right flanker was contextually congruent than incongruent, indicating that parafoveal information was extracted and quickly and incrementally integrated within the evolving sentence representation. PMID:20580772

  17. Contextual Modulation of N400 Amplitude to Lexically Ambiguous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Debra A.; Salisbury, Dean F.

    2004-01-01

    Through much is known about the N400 component, an event-related EEG potential that is sensitive to semantic manipulations, it is unclear whether modulations of N400 amplitude reflect automatic processing, controlled processing, or both. We examined this issue using a semantic judgment task that manipulated local and global contextual cues. Word…

  18. Semantic Processing Disturbance in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of the N400 Component

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kui; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Gong, Qi-yong; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Theoretically semantic processing can be separated into early automatic semantic activation and late contextualization. Semantic processing deficits have been suggested in patients with schizophrenia, however it is not clear which stage of semantic processing is impaired. We attempted to clarify this issue by conducting a meta-analysis of the N400 component. Methods Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis procedure. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software package was used to compute pooled effect sizes and homogeneity. Results Studies favoring early automatic activation produced a significant effect size of −0.41 for the N400 effect. Studies favoring late contextualization generated a significant effect size of −0.36 for the N400 effect, a significant effect size of −0.52 for N400 for congruent/related target words, and a significant effect size of 0.82 for the N400 peak latency. Conclusion These findings suggest the automatic spreading activation process in patients with schizophrenia is very similar for closely related concepts and weakly or remotely related concepts, while late contextualization may be associated with impairments in processing semantically congruent context accompanied by slow processing speed. PMID:22022395

  19. Pitch accent type affects the N400 during referential processing.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Petra B; Baumann, Stefan

    2010-06-23

    Discourse processing depends on semantic memory as well as maintaining and updating of a mental model. Using event-related potentials, we investigated how a referent's information status (new, accessible, given) is processed in combination with three different prosodic realizations (an appropriate accent and two inappropriate accents). The data reveal a biphasic N400-late positivity pattern, indicating that prosodic information affects an early discourse linking stage, during which prominence information reflecting a referent's accessibility is computed (N400), and a later discourse updating stage, during which conflicts between prosodic information and a referent's actual information status are detected (late positivity). Crucially, the data show that the N400 is not only sensitive to lexico-semantic relations but also to discourse accessibility induced by prosodic cues. PMID:20489672

  20. The N400 and the Fourth Grade Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2015-01-01

    While behavioral and educational data characterize a fourth grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented…

  1. N400 ERPs for actions: building meaning in context

    PubMed Central

    Amoruso, Lucía; Gelormini, Carlos; Aboitiz, Francisco; Alvarez González, Miguel; Manes, Facundo; Cardona, Juan F.; Ibanez, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Converging neuroscientific evidence suggests the existence of close links between language and sensorimotor cognition. Accordingly, during the comprehension of meaningful actions, our brain would recruit semantic-related operations similar to those associated with the processing of language information. Consistent with this view, electrophysiological findings show that the N400 component, traditionally linked to the semantic processing of linguistic material, can also be elicited by action-related material. This review outlines recent data from N400 studies that examine the understanding of action events. We focus on three specific domains, including everyday action comprehension, co-speech gesture integration, and the semantics involved in motor planning and execution. Based on the reviewed findings, we suggest that both negativities (the N400 and the action-N400) reflect a common neurocognitive mechanism involved in the construction of meaning through the expectancies created by previous experiences and current contextual information. To shed light on how this process is instantiated in the brain, a testable contextual fronto-temporo-parietal model is proposed. PMID:23459873

  2. Abnormal N400 Responses But Intact Differential Hemispheric Processing of Ambiguity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Dean F

    2009-01-01

    Disordered thinking in schizophrenia may be a consequence of the selection of conceptual associates of dominant meanings of ambiguous words despite contextual information suggesting subordinate meanings are more appropriate. Previous work using short sentences showed a large N400 event-related potential to subordinate meaning associates and a behavioral semantic bias, but results were variable. The current experiment used word pairs to simplify the procedure and to less tax memory maintenance. Furthermore, hemispheric responses were compared, as evidence suggests the left hemisphere may select dominant meanings, while the right hemisphere may keep all possible meanings active. Subjects indicated whether two words (CUE, TARGET) were related. The CUE, presented for 1 second, could be an ambiguous or an unambiguous noun, and the TARGET, presented 1.25 seconds after the onset of the CUE, was a dominant or subordinate associate, or a related or an unrelated word, respectively. The N400-effect was calculated from difference waveforms over 400-600 msec. Groups (23 schizophrenia, 25 matched controls) showed significantly different N400-effects to the words (group x word, p =.04). Controls showed a graded response, with dominant < subordinate < unrelated. Schizophrenia patients showed the largest N400-effect to subordinate associates, with less activity to dominant meaning associates and unrelated words. Both groups showed a right hemisphere distribution to unrelated words and substantial left hemisphere activation to subordinate associates (word x hemisphere, p <.001). These data support a semantic bias in schizophrenia. They also demonstrate a special role of the right hemisphere in maintaining broad homograph meaning hierarchies. This hemispheric specialization appears to be intact in schizophrenia. PMID:20161687

  3. The N400 as a snapshot of interactive processing: evidence from regression analyses of orthographic neighbor and lexical associate effects

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Linking print with meaning tends to be divided into subprocesses, such as recognition of an input's lexical entry and subsequent access of semantics. However, recent results suggest that the set of semantic features activated by an input is broader than implied by a view wherein access serially follows recognition. EEG was collected from participants who viewed items varying in number and frequency of both orthographic neighbors and lexical associates. Regression analysis of single item ERPs replicated past findings, showing that N400 amplitudes are greater for items with more neighbors, and further revealed that N400 amplitudes increase for items with more lexical associates and with higher frequency neighbors or associates. Together, the data suggest that in the N400 time window semantic features of items broadly related to inputs are active, consistent with models in which semantic access takes place in parallel with stimulus recognition. PMID:20624252

  4. Graded effects of regularity in language revealed by N400 indices of morphological priming.

    PubMed

    Kielar, Aneta; Joanisse, Marc F

    2010-07-01

    Differential electrophysiological effects for regular and irregular linguistic forms have been used to support the theory that grammatical rules are encoded using a dedicated cognitive mechanism. The alternative hypothesis is that language systematicities are encoded probabilistically in a way that does not categorically distinguish rule-like and irregular forms. In the present study, this matter was investigated more closely by focusing specifically on whether the regular-irregular distinction in English past tenses is categorical or graded. We compared the ERP priming effects of regulars (baked-bake), vowel-change irregulars (sang-sing), and "suffixed" irregulars that display a partial regularity (suffixed irregular verbs, e.g., slept-sleep), as well as forms that are related strictly along formal or semantic dimensions. Participants performed a visual lexical decision task with either visual (Experiment 1) or auditory prime (Experiment 2). Stronger N400 priming effects were observed for regular than vowel-change irregular verbs, whereas suffixed irregulars tended to group with regular verbs. Subsequent analyses decomposed early versus late-going N400 priming, and suggested that differences among forms can be attributed to the orthographic similarity of prime and target. Effects of morphological relatedness were observed in the later-going time period, however, we failed to observe true regular-irregular dissociations in either experiment. The results indicate that morphological effects emerge from the interaction of orthographic, phonological, and semantic overlap between words. PMID:19803689

  5. RP and N400 ERP components reflect semantic violations in visual processing of human actions.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica

    2009-08-14

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the visual processing of actions belonging to the typical human repertoire. Two hundred and sixty coloured pictures representing persons differing in number, age and gender, engaged in simple actions, were presented to 23 right-handed students. Perception of meaningful actions (e.g., young woman trying shoes in shop) was contrasted with perception of actions lacking an understandable goal (e.g., businesswoman balancing on one foot in desert). The results indicated early recognition of comprehensible behaviour in the form of an enhanced posterior "recognition potential" (RP) (N250), which was followed by a larger negativity (N400) in response to incongruent actions. The results suggest that incoming visual information regarding human gestures is processed similarly to linguistic inputs from a conceptual point of view, thus eliciting a posterior RP when the action code is visually recognized and comprehended, and a later N400 when the action is not recognized or is difficult to integrate with previous knowledge. PMID:19427368

  6. Separable Processes Before, During, and After the N400 Elicited by Previously Inferred and New Information: Evidence from Time-Frequency Decompositions

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vaughn R.; Bernat, Edward M.; van den Broek, Paul; Collins, Paul F.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2012-01-01

    Successful comprehension during reading often requires inferring information not explicitly presented. This information is readily accessible when subsequently encountered, and a neural correlate of this is an attenuation of the N400 event-related potential (ERP). We used ERPs and time-frequency (TF) analysis to investigate neural correlates of processing inferred information after a causal coherence inference had been generated during text comprehension. Participants read short texts, some of which promoted inference generation. After each text, they performed lexical decisions to target words that were unrelated or inference-related to the preceding text. Consistent with previous findings, inference-related words elicited an attenuated N400 relative to unrelated words. TF analyses revealed unique contributions to the N400 from activity occurring at 1–6 Hz (theta) and 0–2 Hz (delta), supporting the view that multiple, sequential processes underlie the N400. PMID:23165117

  7. Non-native phonemes in adult word learning: evidence from the N400m

    PubMed Central

    Dobel, Christian; Lagemann, Lothar; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2009-01-01

    Newborns are equipped with a large phonemic inventory that becomes tuned to one's native language early in life. We review and add new data about how learning of a non-native phoneme can be accomplished in adults and how the efficiency of word learning can be assessed by neurophysiological measures. For this purpose, we studied the acquisition of the voiceless, bilabial fricative /Φ/ via a statistical-learning paradigm. Phonemes were embedded in minimal pairs of pseudowords, differing only with respect to the fricative (/aΦo/ versus /afo/). During learning, pseudowords were combined with pictures of objects with some combinations of pseudowords and pictures occurring more frequently than others. Behavioural data and the N400m component, as an index of lexical activation/semantic access, showed that participants had learned to associate the pseudowords with the pictures. However, they could not discriminate within the minimal pairs. Importantly, before learning, the novel words with the sound /Φ/ showed smaller N400 amplitudes than those with native phonemes, evidencing their non-word status. Learning abolished this difference indicating that /Φ/ had become integrated into the native category /f/, instead of establishing a novel category. Our data and review demonstrate that native phonemic categories are powerful attractors hampering the mastery of non-native contrasts. PMID:19933141

  8. Cross-modal symbolic processing can elicit either an N2 or a protracted N2/N400 response.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Oren; Le Pelley, Mike E; Jack, Bradley N; Luque, David; Whitford, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    A cross-modal symbolic paradigm was used to elicit EEG activity related to semantic incongruence. Twenty-five undergraduate students viewed pairings of visual lexical cues (e.g., DOG) with congruent (50% of trials) or incongruent (50%) auditory nonlexical stimuli (animal vocalizations; e.g., sound of a dog woofing or a cat meowing). In one condition, many different pairs of congruent/incongruent stimuli were shown, whereas in a second condition only two pairs of stimuli were repeatedly shown. A typical N400-like pattern of incongruence-related activity (including activity in the N2 time window) was evident in the condition using many stimuli, whereas the incongruence-related activity in the two-stimuli condition was confined to differential N2-like activity. A supplementary analysis excluded stimulus characteristics as the source of this differential activity between conditions. We found that a single individual performing a fixed task can demonstrate either a protracted N400-like pattern of activity or a more temporally focused N2-like pattern of activity in response to the same stimulus, which suggests that the N2 may be a precursor to the protracted N400 response. PMID:27006093

  9. Once is Enough: N400 Indexes Semantic Integration of Novel Word Meanings from a Single Exposure in Context

    PubMed Central

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Kutas, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of contextual constraint on the integration of novel word meanings into semantic memory. Adults read strongly or weakly constraining sentences ending in known or unknown (novel) words as scalp-recorded electrical brain activity was recorded. Word knowledge was assessed via a lexical decision task in which recently seen known and unknown word sentence endings served as primes for semantically related, unrelated, and synonym/identical target words. As expected, N400 amplitudes to target words preceded by known word primes were reduced by prime-target relatedness. Critically, N400 amplitudes to targets preceded by novel primes also varied with prime-target relatedness, but only when they had initially appeared in highly constraining sentences. This demonstrates for the first time that fast-mapped word representations can develop strong associations with semantically related word meanings and reveals a rapid neural process that can integrate information about word meanings into the mental lexicon of young adults. PMID:23125559

  10. Is the N400 effect a neurophysiological index of associative relationships?

    PubMed

    Ortu, Daniele; Allan, Kevin; Donaldson, David I

    2013-08-01

    The N400 is one of the most widely studied ERP components and has come to be viewed as an index of the semantic processing that relates distinct stimuli. In this study, we examine whether the N400 is sensitive to the associative relationship between distinct stimuli, and not the degree to which the stimuli share semantic features. We used previously established norms to parametrically vary the strength of linguistic association between words within word-pairs, while holding constant their degree of semantic congruency. This manipulation allowed us to compare N400s elicited by unrelated prime-target word-pairs (e.g. mirror-thumb) with N400s generated by related prime-target word-pairs of either moderate (e.g. camera-lens) or high (e.g. cherry-tree) degrees of association. We observed that larger N400 effects occurred for highly associated versus moderately associated pairs despite the fact that no differences in terms of semantic congruency existed between pairs belonging to the highly and moderately associated conditions. These findings demonstrate that the N400 can be modulated by associative relationships quite independently of semantics, and suggest that the N400 effect reflects processes sensitive to the contiguity of distinct elements within one's past experience and not their semantic properties per se. PMID:23707682

  11. Follow-up of N400 in the Rehabilitation of First-episode Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Yang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Pan, Wen; Yin, Guang-Zhong; Dong, Ri-Xia; Gai, Hai-Jun; Ye, Gang; Yang, Jian-Gong; Yuan, Ying; Pan, Neng-Rong; Li, Wei-Qin; Xu, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Xing-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The N400 component of event-related potentials (ERP) has recently drawn widespread attention at home and abroad. This study was to explore the relationship between N400 changes and risperidone treatment and rehabilitation in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Methods: ERP component N400 was recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments, in 58 FES before and 6 months, 15 months after risperidone treatment, and in 62 normal controls. The patients’ syndromes were assessed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). And the stimuli are Chinese sentences with matching (congruent) or mismatching (incongruent) ending words. Results: N400 latencies were prolonged, and amplitudes were decreased in Cz, Pz, Fz, C3, C4, in FES compared with in NC, before treatment. The prolonged N400 latencies and decreased amplitudes were negatively correlated with the patients’ positive scale and total scale of PANSS. There are significant differences of N400 amplitudes and latencies in 6 months and 15 months follow-up after treatment. Before treatment, 6 months and 15 months after treatment, N400 latencies are 446 ± 35 ms, 440 ± 37 ms, 414 ± 31 ms (F = 9.72, P < 0.01) in incongruent situation; N400 amplitudes are 5.2 ± 4.6 μV, 5.7 ± 4.8 μV, 7.3 ± 5.0 μV (F = 2.06, P > 0.05) in congruent situation, and 8.5 ± 5.9 μV, 10.1 ± 5.0 μV, 11.9 ± 7.0 μV (F = 3.697, P < 0.05) in incongruent situation. Conclusions: N400 could be used to predict the effects of treatment of schizophrenia to some degree. The linguistic and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia can be improved by antipsychotic drugs. PMID:26265616

  12. Is Semantic Processing During Sentence Reading Autonomous or Controlled? Evidence from the N400 Component in a Dual Task Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hohlfeld, Annette; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Sommer, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The present study contributes to the discussion on the automaticity of semantic processing. Whereas most previous research investigated semantic processing at word level, the present study addressed semantic processing during sentence reading. A dual task paradigm was combined with the recording of event-related brain potentials. Previous research at word level processing reported different patterns of interference with the N400 by additional tasks: attenuation of amplitude or delay of latency. In the present study, we presented Spanish sentences that were semantically correct or contained a semantic violation in a critical word. At different intervals preceding the critical word a tone was presented that required a high-priority choice response. At short intervals/high temporal overlap between the tasks mean amplitude of the N400 was reduced relative to long intervals/low temporal overlap, but there were no shifts of peak latency. We propose that processing at sentence level exerts a protective effect against the additional task. This is in accord with the attentional sensitization model (Kiefer & Martens, 2010), which suggests that semantic processing is an automatic process that can be enhanced by the currently activated task set. The present experimental sentences also induced a P600, which is taken as an index of integrative processing. Additional task effects are comparable to those in the N400 time window and are briefly discussed. PMID:26203312

  13. Semantic memory processing is enhanced in preadolescents breastfed compared to those formula-fed as infants: An ERP N400 study of sentential semantic congruity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies comparing child cognitive development and brain activity during cognitive functions between children who were fed breast milk (BF), milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF) have not been reported. We recorded event-related scalp potentials reflecting semantic processing (N400 ERP) from 20 homo...

  14. [Electrophysiology and schizophrenic vulnerability: the N400 component as endophenotype candidate?].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Faugere, M; Naudin, J; Besson, M; Vion-Dury, J

    2013-04-01

    Research on early stages of schizophrenia aims to provide early, objective, and stable markers of vulnerability. In this review, we first briefly describe the notion of such markers, or endophenotypes, notably in terms of stability, specificity and heritability. Among other empirical approaches, event-related potentials (ERPs) have been recently considered as putative endophenotypes. The N400 component is an event-related brain potential classically elicited during semantic processing, as suggested by a growing body of empirical studies with a large variety of paradigms. We provide here a short account of its typical descriptions and the interpretations of its functional significance. Then we describe the main current results about schizophrenic alterations of the N400 component. Two levels of semantic processing (automatic spreading and controlled mechanisms) are disturbed in schizophrenia, even if the underlying mechanisms remain unclear or discussed. Several controversial issues may also need further research, such as the influence of symptomatology and evolution of schizophrenia. Another crucial topic concerns the putative schizophrenic specificity, and only little is known about possible alterations of N400 in affective disorders. We discuss the notion of heritability, mainly explored in current literature among people with schizotypal personality. Finally, even if N400 studies contribute to a better understanding of linguistic disturbances in schizophrenia, it appears difficult to consider the N400 component as a relevant schizophrenic endophenotype, given the current paucity of results on its stability, its heritability (clinical and genetic vulnerability) and its schizophrenic specificity. PMID:23540257

  15. Reduced Resource Optimization in Male Alcoholics: N400 in a Lexical Decision Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Roopesh, Bangalore N; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Kamarajan, Chella; Chorlian, David B.; Pandey, Ashwini K; Porjesz, Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Background Event Related Potential (ERP) studies have highlighted some measures, notably P3 amplitude, that are associated with both state and trait deficits in alcoholism, while studies examining N400 amplitude in alcoholism are few. The present study aims to examine changes in the N400 component, an electrophysiological correlate of semantic priming, in event-related potentials from a lexical decision task in 87 alcohol dependent subjects and 57 community controls. Method Each subject was presented with 300 stimuli sequentially in a quasi-randomized design, where 150 stimuli were words and 150 were non-words. The subjects made a lexical decision indicating the word/nonword status with a button press. Among the words, 50 words (primed) were always preceded by their antonyms (prime, n=50), whereas the remaining 50 words were unrelated. N400 amplitude and latency measures were compiled from ERPs to the primed and unprimed words. Corresponding reaction time and response characteristics were also analyzed. Results Control subjects revealed a significant attenuation of the N400 response to the primed word when compared to the unprimed word. Significantly less attenuation was observed in alcohol dependent subjects. No significant group differences were seen for latency and behavioral measures. All subjects had slower RT for unprimed words compared to primed words; however significantly less reaction time savings between the unprimed and primed condition was noted for alcoholics. Conclusion These results suggest a reduced flexibility in the cognitive networks and a lack of resource optimization in alcoholics. The reduced attenuation of N400 during the primed condition in the alcohol dependent subjects may reflect an inability to engage similar neuronal substrates associated with semantic relatedness as seen in the controls. As diminished N400 attenuation during priming is observed in both alcoholics and high risk subjects, it may be a marker of risk and a good

  16. These lemons are sour: Investigating the influence of demonstrative determiners on the N400 complex.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; Maienborn, Claudia; Kaup, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Demonstrative determiners create a joint focus of attention of speaker and hearer on a particular set of entities in a given context. Despite their omnipresence, very little is known with regard to the online integration of demonstrative determiners during comprehension. Here we investigated whether the N400 reflects meaning differences introduced by determiners. We analyzed whether previously established differences - between correct, contingent, world-knowledge and semantic violations in bare plural generic sentences - were modified by the addition of demonstrative determiners. Off-line ratings suggested that the correct sentences in the generic version (e.g. Zebras are stripy) become less sensible when adding a demonstrative determiner (e.g. These zebras are stripy). In contrast, contingent sentences - that is, sentences with predicates that are true for a subgroup of exemplars but not for all - become more sensible than correct sentences if a demonstrative determiner is added (e.g. These trousers are stripy). Both semantic and world-knowledge violations slightly improve in sensibility if demonstrative determiners are added (These ladybirds/journeys are stripy). None of these differences was reflected in the N400 amplitude. Instead, the previous findings using the bare plural generic sentences were fully replicated, showing largest N400 amplitudes for semantic violations, followed by contingent and world-knowledge violations and finally the correct sentences. This suggests that demonstrative determiners are not automatically integrated during meaning comprehension. Implications with respect to the processes that are reflected in the N400 will be discussed. PMID:27461788

  17. Examining the N400m in affectively negative sentences: A magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Linden; Perry, Conrad; Goodin, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoencephalography was used to examine the effect on the N400m of reading words that create emotional violations in sentences. The beginnings of the sentences were affectively negative and were completed with either a negative congruous, positive incongruous, or neutral incongruous adjective (e.g., "My mother was killed and I felt bad/great/normal"). The task conditions were also manipulated to favor semantic over affective processing. Compared to the sentences with the congruous negative adjectives, the results of sensor space analysis showed that there was an N400m effect with the sentences with the neutral but not positive adjectives, despite both types of sentences containing an emotional violation. Source localization results showed a similar pattern where the sentences with the incongruous positive versus congruous negative adjectives showed no significant N400m effect in the temporal and frontal areas examined, but the sentences with the incongruous neutral versus incongruous positive adjectives in the temporal areas did, particularly the left middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that (a) the N400m effect was likely to be caused by the incongruous neutral adjectives being comparatively harder to integrate into a negative emotional context than the incongruous positive ones, (b) emotional context created by the negative sentence stems caused deeper semantic processing of the incongruous positive adjectives to be bypassed, and (c) negative affective context was generated from reading the sentences even in task conditions where it has not been generated with isolated words. PMID:26787447

  18. Semantic Memory and Verbal Working Memory Correlates of N400 to Subordinate Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Dean F.

    2004-01-01

    N400 is an event-related brain potential that indexes operations in semantic memory conceptual space, whether elicited by language or some other representation (e.g., drawings). Language models typically propose three stages: lexical access or orthographic- and phonological-level analysis; lexical selection or word-level meaning and associate…

  19. Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

  20. A Lexical Basis for N400 Context Effects: Evidence from MEG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ellen; Almeida, Diogo; Hines, Paul C.; Poeppel, David

    2009-01-01

    The electrophysiological response to words during the "N400" time window (approximately 300-500 ms post-onset) is affected by the context in which the word is presented, but whether this effect reflects the impact of context on "access" of the stored lexical information itself or, alternatively, post-access "integration" processes is still an open…

  1. N400-like Potentials and Reaction Times Index Semantic Relations between Highly Repeated Individual Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renoult, Louis; Debruille, J. Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The N400 ERP is an electrophysiological index of semantic processing. Its amplitude varies with the semantic category of words, their concreteness, or whether their meaning matches that of a preceding context. The results of a number of studies suggest that these effects could be markedly reduced or suppressed for stimuli that are repeated.…

  2. Thirty years and counting: Finding meaning in the N400 component of the event related brain potential (ERP)

    PubMed Central

    Kutas, Marta; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2014-01-01

    We overview the discovery, characterization, and evolving use of the N400, an event-related brain potential response linked to meaning processing. We describe the elicitation of N400s by an impressive range of stimulus types -- including written, spoken, and signed (pseudo)words, drawings, photos, and videos of faces, objects and actions, sounds, and mathematical symbols -- and outline the sensitivity of N400 amplitude (as its latency is remarkably constant) to linguistic and nonlinguistic manipulations. We emphasize the effectiveness of the N400 as a dependent variable for examining almost every aspect of language processing, and highlight its expanding use to probe semantic memory and to determine how the neurocognitive system dynamically and flexibly uses bottom-up and top-down information to make sense of the world. We conclude with different theories of the N400’s functional significance and offer an N400-inspired re-conceptualization of how meaning processing might unfold. PMID:20809790

  3. Electrophysiological correlates of cross-linguistic semantic integration in hearing signers: N400 and LPC.

    PubMed

    Zachau, Swantje; Korpilahti, Pirjo; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Ervast, Leena; Heinänen, Kaisu; Suominen, Kalervo; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2014-07-01

    We explored semantic integration mechanisms in native and non-native hearing users of sign language and non-signing controls. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a semantic decision task for priming lexeme pairs. Pairs were presented either within speech or across speech and sign language. Target-related ERP responses were subjected to principal component analyses (PCA), and neurocognitive basis of semantic integration processes were assessed by analyzing the N400 and the late positive complex (LPC) components in response to spoken (auditory) and signed (visual) antonymic and unrelated targets. Semantically-related effects triggered across modalities would indicate a similar tight interconnection between the signers׳ two languages like that described for spoken language bilinguals. Remarkable structural similarity of the N400 and LPC components with varying group differences between the spoken and signed targets were found. The LPC was the dominant response. The controls׳ LPC differed from the LPC of the two signing groups. It was reduced to the auditory unrelated targets and was less frontal for all the visual targets. The visual LPC was more broadly distributed in native than non-native signers and was left-lateralized for the unrelated targets in the native hearing signers only. Semantic priming effects were found for the auditory N400 in all groups, but only native hearing signers revealed a clear N400 effect to the visual targets. Surprisingly, the non-native signers revealed no semantically-related processing effect to the visual targets reflected in the N400 or the LPC; instead they appeared to rely more on visual post-lexical analyzing stages than native signers. We conclude that native and non-native signers employed different processing strategies to integrate signed and spoken semantic content. It appeared that the signers׳ semantic processing system was affected by group-specific factors like language

  4. Reduced N400 semantic priming effects in adult survivors of paediatric and adolescent traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Knuepffer, C; Murdoch, B E; Lloyd, D; Lewis, F M; Hinchliffe, F J

    2012-10-01

    The immediate and long-term neural correlates of linguistic processing deficits reported following paediatric and adolescent traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood. Therefore, the current research investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during a semantic picture-word priming experiment in two groups of highly functioning individuals matched for various demographic variables and behavioural language performance. Participants in the TBI group had a recorded history of paediatric or adolescent TBI involving injury mechanisms associated with diffuse white matter pathology, while participants in the control group never sustained any insult to the brain. A comparison of N400 Mean Amplitudes elicited during three experimental conditions with varying semantic relatedness between the prime and target stimuli (congruent, semantically related, unrelated) revealed a significantly smaller N400 response in the unrelated condition in the TBI group, indicating residual linguistic processing deviations when processing demands required the quick detection of a between-category (unrelated) violation of semantic expectancy. PMID:22819620

  5. Empathy predicts false belief reasoning ability: evidence from the N400.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Heather J; Cane, James E; Douchkov, Michelle; Wright, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Interpreting others' actions relies on an understanding of their current mental state. Emerging research has begun to identify a number of factors that give rise to individual differences in this ability. We report an event-related brain potential study where participants (N = 28) read contexts that described a character having a true belief (TB) or false belief (FB) about an object's location. A second sentence described where that character would look for the object. Critically, this sentence included a sentence-final noun that was either consistent or inconsistent with the character's belief. Participants also completed the Empathy Quotient questionnaire. Analysis of the N400 revealed that when the character held a TB about the object's location, the N400 waveform was more negative-going for belief inconsistent vs belief consistent critical words. However, when the character held an FB about the object's location the opposite pattern was found. Intriguingly, correlations between the N400 inconsistency effect and individuals' empathy scores showed a significant correlation for FB but not TB. This suggests that people who are high in empathy can successfully interpret events according to the character's FB, while low empathizers bias their interpretation of events to their own egocentric view. PMID:25326041

  6. Empathy predicts false belief reasoning ability: evidence from the N400

    PubMed Central

    Cane, James E.; Douchkov, Michelle; Wright, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting others’ actions relies on an understanding of their current mental state. Emerging research has begun to identify a number of factors that give rise to individual differences in this ability. We report an event-related brain potential study where participants (N = 28) read contexts that described a character having a true belief (TB) or false belief (FB) about an object’s location. A second sentence described where that character would look for the object. Critically, this sentence included a sentence-final noun that was either consistent or inconsistent with the character’s belief. Participants also completed the Empathy Quotient questionnaire. Analysis of the N400 revealed that when the character held a TB about the object’s location, the N400 waveform was more negative-going for belief inconsistent vs belief consistent critical words. However, when the character held an FB about the object’s location the opposite pattern was found. Intriguingly, correlations between the N400 inconsistency effect and individuals’ empathy scores showed a significant correlation for FB but not TB. This suggests that people who are high in empathy can successfully interpret events according to the character’s FB, while low empathizers bias their interpretation of events to their own egocentric view. PMID:25326041

  7. Font Effects of Chinese Characters and Pseudo-Characters on the N400: Evidence for an Orthographic Processing View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Caixia; Wang, Quanhong

    2012-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a Chinese character decision task to examine whether N400 amplitude is modulated by stimulus font. Results revealed large negative-going ERPs in an N400 time window of 300-500 ms to stimuli presented in degraded Xing Kai Ti (XKT) font compared with more intact Song Ti (ST) font regardless…

  8. Beyond the N400: complementary access to early neural correlates of novel metaphor comprehension using combined electrophysiological and haemodynamic measurements.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sabrina; Rapp, Alexander M; Haeußinger, Florian B; Ernst, Lena H; Hamm, Friedrich; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2014-04-01

    The simultaneous application of different neuroimaging methods combining high temporal and spatial resolution can uniquely contribute to current issues and open questions in the field of pragmatic language perception. In the present study, comprehension of novel metaphors was investigated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with the simultaneous acquisition of electroencephalography (EEG)/event-related potentials (ERPs). For the first time, we investigated the effects of figurative language on early electrophysiological markers (P200, N400) and their functional relationship to cortical haemodynamic responses within the language network (Broca's area, Wernicke's area). To this end, 20 healthy subjects judged 120 sentences with respect to their meaningfulness, whereby phrases were either literal, metaphoric, or meaningless. Our results indicated a metaphor-specific P200 reduction and a linear increase of N400 amplitudes from literal over metaphoric to meaningless sentences. Moreover, there were metaphor related effects on haemodynamic responses accessed with NIRS, especially within the left lateral frontal cortex (Broca's area). Significant correlations between electrophysiological and haemodynamic responses indicated that P200 reductions during metaphor comprehension were associated with an increased recruitment of neural activity within left Wernicke's area, indicating a link between variations in neural activity and haemodynamic changes within Wernicke's area. This link may reflect processes related to interindividual differences regarding the ability to classify novel metaphors. The present study underlines the usefulness of simultaneous NIRS measurements in language paradigms - especially for investigating the functional significance of neurophysiological markers that have so far been rarely examined - as these measurements are easily and efficiently realizable and allow for a complementary examination of neural activity and associated metabolic

  9. FN400 potentials are functionally identical to N400 potentials and reflect semantic processing during recognition testing

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Joel L.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    The “F” in FN400 denotes a more frontal scalp distribution relative to the morphologically similar N400 component—a distinction consistent with the hypothesized distinct roles of FN400 in familiarity memory versus N400 in language. However, no direct comparisons have substantiated these assumed dissimilarities. To this end, we manipulated short-term semantic priming during a recognition test. Semantic priming effects on N400 were indistinguishable from memory effects at the same latency, and semantic priming strongly modulated the “FN400,” despite having no influence on familiarity memory. Thus, no evidence suggested either electrophysiological or functional differences between the N400 and FN400, and findings were contrary to the linking of the “FN400” to familiarity. Instead, it appears that semantic/conceptual priming (reflected in the N400) occurs during recognition tests, and is frequently (mis)labeled as FN400 and attributed to familiarity. PMID:20701709

  10. The relationship of language and emotion: N400 support for an embodied view of language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Chwilla, Dorothee J; Virgillito, Daniele; Vissers, Constance Th W M

    2011-09-01

    According to embodied theories, the symbols used by language are meaningful because they are grounded in perception, action, and emotion. In contrast, according to abstract symbol theories, meaning arises from the syntactic combination of abstract, amodal symbols. If language is grounded in internal bodily states, then one would predict that emotion affects language. Consistent with this, advocates of embodied theories propose a strong link between emotion and language [Havas, D., Glenberg, A. M., & Rinck, M. Emotion simulation during language comprehension. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 436-441, 2007; Niedenthal, P. M. Embodying emotion. Science, 316, 1002-1005, 2007]. The goal of this study was to test abstract symbol vs. embodied views of language by investigating whether mood affects semantic processing. To this aim, we induced different emotional states (happy vs. sad) by presenting film clips that displayed fragments from a happy movie or a sad movie. The clips were presented before and during blocks of sentences in which the cloze probability of mid-sentence critical words varied (high vs. low). Participants read sentences while ERPs were recorded. The mood induction procedure was successful: Participants watching the happy film clips scored higher on a mood scale than those watching the sad clips. For N400, mood by cloze probability interactions were obtained. The N400 cloze effect was strongly reduced in the sad mood compared with the happy mood condition. Furthermore, a difference in late positivity was only present for the sad mood condition. The mood by semantic processing interaction observed for N400 supports embodied theories of meaning and challenges abstract symbol theories that assume that processing of word meaning reflects a modular process. PMID:20849229

  11. Examining the N400 semantic context effect item-by-item: relationship to corpus-based measures of word co-occurrence.

    PubMed

    Van Petten, Cyma

    2014-12-01

    With increasing availability of digital text, there has been an explosion of computational methods designed to turn patterns of word co-occurrence in large text corpora into numerical scores expressing the "semantic distance" between any two words. The success of such methods is typically evaluated by how well they predict human judgments of similarity. Here, I examine how well corpus-based methods predict amplitude of the N400 component of the event-related potential (ERP), an online measure of lexical processing in brain electrical activity. ERPs elicited by the second words of 303 word pairs were analyzed at the level of individual items. Three corpus-based measures (mutual information, distributional similarity, and latent semantic analysis) were compared to a traditional measure of free association strength. In a regression analysis, corpus-based and free association measures each explained some of the variance in N400 amplitude, suggesting that these may tap distinct aspects of word relationships. Lexical factors of concreteness of word meaning, word frequency, number of semantic associates, and orthographic similarity also explained variance in N400 amplitude at the single-item level. PMID:25448377

  12. The Social N400 effect: how the presence of other listeners affects language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Gardner, Tom; Stoner, Cat

    2015-02-01

    During conversation, it is necessary to keep track of what others can and cannot understand. Previous research has focused largely on understanding the time course along which knowledge about interlocutors influences language comprehension/production rather than the cognitive process by which interlocutors take each other's perspective. In addition, most work has looked at the effects of knowledge about a speaker on a listener's comprehension, and not on the possible effects of other listeners on a participant's comprehension process. In the current study, we introduce a novel joint comprehension paradigm that addresses the cognitive processes underlying perspective taking during language comprehension. Specifically, we show that participants who understand a language stimulus, but are simultaneously aware that someone sitting next to them does not understand the same stimulus, show an electrophysiological marker of semantic integration difficulty (i.e., an N400-effect). Crucially, in a second group of participants, we demonstrate that presenting exactly the same sentences to the participant alone (i.e. without a co-listener) results in no N400-effect. Our results suggest that (1) information about co-listeners as well as the speaker affect language comprehension, and (2) the cognitive process by which we understand what others comprehend mirrors our own language comprehension processes. PMID:24825307

  13. N400 modulation by categorical or associative interference in a famous face naming task.

    PubMed

    Germain-Mondon, Véronique; Silvert, Laetitia; Izaute, Marie

    2011-09-01

    It is controversial whether the organization of biographical information relating to known persons is categorical or associative. To shed light on semantic organization, researchers have studied semantic access of proper names using priming or interference paradigms with associated and/or category-specific primes or distractors, in recognition, familiarity or naming tasks. Depending on the task, categorical and/or associative effects have been obtained. In order to disambiguate those conflicting results, in the present event-related potentials (ERP) study, we capitalized on the fact that the N400 component is sensitive to the congruity of a stimulus with the current semantic context. We used an interference paradigm with delayed naming, in which a celebrity face target and a proper name distractor (auditory stimulus) were either associated or belonged to the same category (in the control condition, the face was preceded by a white noise). The results showed an associative interference effect with a more negative N400 component for associated name distractors than in the other conditions. These results are consistent not only with a categorical organization but also with an associative organization of biographical information for people. PMID:21798317

  14. Abnormal N400 word repetition effects in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shiaohui; Wong, Ling M.; Schneider, Andrea; Seritan, Andreea; Niese, Adam; Yang, Jin-Chen; Laird, Kelsey; Teichholtz, Sara; Khan, Sara; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, a neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles (55–200 CGG repeats) of the FMR1 gene, affects many carriers in late-life. Patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome typically have cerebellar ataxia, intranuclear inclusions in neurons and astrocytes, as well as cognitive impairment. Dementia can also be present with cognitive deficits that are as severe as in Alzheimer’s disease, however frontosubcortical type impairment is more pronounced in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. We sought to characterize the P600 and N400 word repetition effects in patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, using an event-related potential word repetition paradigm with demonstrated sensitivity to very early Alzheimer’s disease. We hypothesized that the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome-affected participants with poor declarative verbal memory would have pronounced abnormalities in the P600 repetition effect. In the event-related potential experiment, subjects performed a category decision task whilst an electroencephalogram was recorded. Auditory category statements were each followed by an associated visual target word (50% ‘congruous’ category exemplars, 50% ‘incongruous’ nouns). Two-thirds of the stimuli (category statement–target word pairs) were repeated, either at short-lag (∼10–40 s) or long-lag (∼100–140 s). The N400 and P600 amplitude data were submitted to split-plot analyses of variance. These analyses of variance showed a highly significant reduction of the N400 repetition effect (F = 22.5, P < 0.001), but not of the P600 repetition effect, in mild fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (n = 32, mean age = 68.7, mean Mini-Mental State Examination score = 26.8). Patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome had significantly smaller late positive amplitude (550–800 ms post-stimulus onset) to congruous words (P = 0

  15. Patients with MCI and N400 or P600 abnormalities are at very high risk for conversion to dementia

    PubMed Central

    Olichney, J.M.; Taylor, J.R.; Gatherwright, J.; Salmon, D.P.; Bressler, A.J.; Kutas, M.; Iragui-Madoz, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought cognitive event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers of disease progression and subsequent conversion to dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Background Two ERP components, the P600 and N400, are sensitive to abnormal episodic/declarative memory and semantic processing. When congruous category-exemplars are repeated, smaller P600s (relative to initial presentation) are normally elicited. Repetitions of semantically incongruous words yield smaller N400 amplitude. In mild Alzheimer disease (AD), abnormalities of both the N400 and P600 repetition effects are present, suggesting a wide-spread failure of synaptic plasticity. Methods Patients with amnestic MCI (n = 32) were longitudinally studied annually with an ERP paradigm in which semantically congruous (50%) and incongruous target words are repeated 10 to 140 seconds after initial presentation. ERP data were analyzed to contrast MCI-to-AD converters (within 3 years) vs nonconverters, using split-plot analyses of variance. Results A statistically significant P600 congruous word repetition effect was found only in the nonconverter group (F = 9.9, p = 0.005 vs MCI converters). This effect correlated with verbal memory measures. Repetition of incongruous words produced a significant N400 amplitude attenuation (across right-hemisphere sites) in nonconverters, but not in converters. Patients with MCI with abnormal/reduced N400 or P600 word repetition effects had an 87 to 88% likelihood of dementia within 3 years while those with normal/spared N400 and P600 repetition effects had only an 11 to 27% likelihood. Conclusions Abnormalities of the P600 or N400 in mild cognitive impairment are associated with an increased risk of subsequent conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD). These event-related potential components may offer useful biomarkers for the detection and staging of very early AD. PMID:18077800

  16. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  17. The Fixation Distance to the Stimulus Influences ERP Quality: An EEG and Eye Tracking N400 Study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Martínez, Estefanía; Parise, Eugenio; Strandvall, Tommy; Reid, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    In a typical visual Event Related Potential (ERP) study, the stimulus is presented centrally on the screen. Normally an ERP response will be measured provided that the participant directs their gaze towards the stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess how the N400 component of an ERP was affected when the stimulus was presented in the foveal, parafoveal or peripheral vision of the participant's visual field. Utilizing stimuli that have previously produced an N400 response to action incongruities, the same stimuli sequences were presented at 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° of visual angle from a fixation location. In addition to the EEG data, eye tracking data were recorded to act as a fixation control method and to allow for eye artifact detection. The results show a significant N400 effect in the right parieto-temporal electrodes within the 0° visual angle condition. For the other conditions, the N400 effect was reduced (4°) or not present (8° and 12°). Our results suggest that the disappearance of the N400 effect with eccentricity is due to the fixation distance to the stimulus. However, variables like attentional allocation could have also had an impact on the results. This study highlights the importance of presenting a stimulus within the foveal vision of the participant in order to maximize ERP effects related to higher order cognitive processes. PMID:26222059

  18. The Fixation Distance to the Stimulus Influences ERP Quality: An EEG and Eye Tracking N400 Study

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Martínez, Estefanía; Parise, Eugenio; Strandvall, Tommy; Reid, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    In a typical visual Event Related Potential (ERP) study, the stimulus is presented centrally on the screen. Normally an ERP response will be measured provided that the participant directs their gaze towards the stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess how the N400 component of an ERP was affected when the stimulus was presented in the foveal, parafoveal or peripheral vision of the participant’s visual field. Utilizing stimuli that have previously produced an N400 response to action incongruities, the same stimuli sequences were presented at 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° of visual angle from a fixation location. In addition to the EEG data, eye tracking data were recorded to act as a fixation control method and to allow for eye artifact detection. The results show a significant N400 effect in the right parieto-temporal electrodes within the 0° visual angle condition. For the other conditions, the N400 effect was reduced (4°) or not present (8° and 12°). Our results suggest that the disappearance of the N400 effect with eccentricity is due to the fixation distance to the stimulus. However, variables like attentional allocation could have also had an impact on the results. This study highlights the importance of presenting a stimulus within the foveal vision of the participant in order to maximize ERP effects related to higher order cognitive processes. PMID:26222059

  19. ERP correlates of priming in language and stimulus equivalence: evidence of similar N400 effects in absence of semantic content.

    PubMed

    Tabullo, Angel; Yorio, Alberto; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    Semantic priming has been widely observed at both behavioral and electrophysiological levels as reductions in response times and N400 magnitudes respectively. However, the possibility that stimulus relations derived from associative learning elicit N400 priming effects comparable to those found in language has not been properly addressed yet. Equivalence relations emerge after establishing a set of arbitrary and intra-experimentally defined relations through associative learning, thus allowing the study of derived stimulus relations in the absence of semantic content. The present study aimed to compare ERP correlates of priming in semantically related words and pseudowords related through equivalence. We found similar behavioral and N400 effects when comparing unrelated vs related prime-target pairs in language and stimulus equivalence tasks, suggesting that priming engages at least partially overlapping neural mechanisms in both contexts. In addition, we found a posteriorly distributed late positivity in the semantic priming task only, which may be reflecting language-specific processing. PMID:25795314

  20. Morphosyntax can modulate the N400 component: Event related potentials to gender-marked post-nominal adjectives

    PubMed Central

    Guajardo, Lourdes F.; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential studies of grammatical gender agreement often report a left anterior negativity (LAN) when agreement violations occur. Some studies have shown that during sentence comprehension gender violations can also interact with semantic processing to modulate a negativity associated with processing meaning – the N400. Given that the LAN and N400 overlap in time, they are identified by their scalp distributions and purported functional roles. Critically, grammatical gender violations also elicit a right posterior positivity that can overlap temporally with and potentially affect the scalp distribution of the LAN/N400. We measured the effect of grammatical gender violations in the LAN/N400 window and late positive component (LPC) during comprehension of Spanish sentences. A post-nominal adjective could either make sense or not, and either agree or disagree in gender with the preceding noun. We observed a negativity to gender agreement violations in the LAN/N400 window (300–500 ms post stimulus onset) that was smaller than the semantic-congruity N400, but overlapped with it in time and distribution. The early portion of the LPC to gender violations was modulated by sentence constraint, occurring as early as 450ms in highly constraining sentences. A subadditive interaction occurred at the later portion of the LPC with equivalent effects for single and double violations (gender and semantics), reflecting a general stage of reprocessing. Overall, our data support models of language comprehension whereby both semantic and morphosyntactic information can affect processing at similar time points. PMID:24462934

  1. N400 Deficits from Semantic Matching of Pictures in Probands and First-Degree Relatives from Multiplex Schizophrenia Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Seidel; Ibanez, Agustin; Martin, Migdyrai; Bobes, Maria Antonieta; Reyes, Adnelys; Mendoza, Raul; Bravo, Tania; Dominguez, Mayelin; Sosa, Mitchell Valdes

    2009-01-01

    Endophenotypes is one emerging strategy in schizophrenia research that is being used to identify the functional importance of genetically transmitted, brain-based deficits present in this disease. Currently, event-related potentials (ERPs) are timely used in this search. Several ERPs, including N400, present deficits in relation to schizophrenia.…

  2. Two Sides of Meaning: The Scalp-Recorded N400 Reflects Distinct Contributions from the Cerebral Hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Wlotko, Edward W.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2013-01-01

    The N400, a component of the event-related potential (ERP) associated with the processing of meaning, is sensitive to a wide array of lexico-semantic, sentence-level, and discourse-level manipulations across modalities. In sentence contexts, N400 amplitude varies inversely and nearly linearly with the predictability of a word in its context. However, recent theories and empirical evidence from studies employing the visual half-field technique (to selectively bias processing to one cerebral hemisphere) suggest that the two hemispheres use sentence context information in different ways. Thus, each hemisphere may not respond to manipulations of contextual predictability in an equivalent manner. This possibility was investigated by recording ERPs while presenting [in the left and right visual fields (VFs)] sentence-final words that varied over the full range of sentence-level predictability. RVF/left hemisphere items were facilitated (as evidenced by reduced N400 amplitudes) over a broader range of predictability compared with LVF/right hemisphere items, although both strongly predictable and completely unexpected items evoked similar responses in each VF/hemisphere. Further, the pattern of N400 amplitudes over the full range of predictability significantly differed from a linear response function for both VFs/hemispheres. This suggests that the N400 response recorded with standard central field presentation comprises different contributions from both cerebral hemispheres, neither of which on its own is sensitive to contextual predictability in an evenly graded manner. These data challenge the notion of a singular or unitary mode of comprehension and instead support the view that the left and right hemispheres instantiate unique, complementary language comprehension architectures in parallel. PMID:23630506

  3. Multiple active forms of thrombin. IV. Relative activities of meizothrombins

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, M.F.; Mann, K.G. )

    1990-06-25

    The prothrombin activation intermediates meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) (meizothrombin that has been autoproteolyzed to remove fragment 1) have been obtained in a relatively pure, active form with minimal autolysis, making them suitable for enzymatic characterization. When compared at equimolar concentrations, alpha-thrombin, fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin, meizothrombin(desF1), and meizothrombin have approximately 100, 100, 10, and 1% activity, respectively, toward the macromolecular substrates factor V, fibrinogen, and platelets. The difference in activity of these four enzymes cannot be attributed to alterations in the catalytic triad, as all four enzymes have nearly identical catalytic efficiency toward the chromogenic substrate S2238. Further, the ability of meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) to activate protein C was 75% of the activity exhibited by alpha-thrombin or fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin. All four enzymes bind to thrombomodulin, as judged by the enhanced rate of protein C activation upon preincubation of the enzymes with thrombomodulin. The extent of rate enhancement varied, with meizothrombin/thrombomodulin exhibiting only 50% of the alpha-thrombin/thrombomodulin rate. This difference in rate is not due to a decreased affinity of the meizothrombin for thrombomodulin since the apparent dissociation constants for the alpha-thrombin-thrombomodulin complex and the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex are virtually identical. The difference in the observed rate is due in part to the higher Km for protein C exhibited by the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex. Incubation of the thrombomodulin-enzyme complex with phospholipid vesicles caused an increase in the protein C activation rates. The kinetic constants for protein C activation in the presence of phospholipid are virtually identical for these enzyme-thrombomodulin complexes.

  4. Lag-length effect on repetition priming of famous and unfamiliar faces: evidence from N250r and N400.

    PubMed

    Nie, Aiqing; Li, Minye; Ye, Jingheng

    2016-07-01

    Previous event-related potentials research has reliably identified two repetition priming components in faces, the N250r and the N400, which are believed to reflect, respectively, the accessing to the stored structural representations and the semantic retrieval. However, the effect of lags longer than immediate repetition and shorter than 3 min on the two components has not been described as yet, and the interaction between lag length and familiarity is unclear. The current experiment aims to address these issues. In this experiment, famous and unfamiliar faces were represented after short, medium, or long lags, and participants were required to decide whether each face was known or not. The data showed that the frontal N250r, rather than the temporal counterpart, persisted to the medium lag case for famous faces; for unfamiliar faces, no N250r was observed. The frontal N400 was more regulated by lag length than the centroparietal counterpart. These results suggest that the frontal N250r and the frontal N400 are affected by the lag length; moreover, the former is more sensitive to the pre-experimental familiarity of faces. PMID:27254393

  5. 76 FR 42129 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... FY2010. We are requesting a two year approval for the form anticipating Government Paperwork Elimination... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form (Form...

  6. Neural network with formed dynamics of activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dunin-Barkovskii, V.L.; Osovets, N.B.

    1995-03-01

    The problem of developing a neural network with a given pattern of the state sequence is considered. A neural network structure and an algorithm, of forming its bond matrix which lead to an approximate but robust solution of the problem are proposed and discussed. Limiting characteristics of the serviceability of the proposed structure are studied. Various methods of visualizing dynamic processes in a neural network are compared. Possible applications of the results obtained for interpretation of neurophysiological data and in neuroinformatics systems are discussed.

  7. 75 FR 26782 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I- 864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review; Form I- 864, Affidavit of...

  8. Silk microgels formed by proteolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sangram K; Dash, Mamoni; Chiellini, Federica; Kaplan, David L; Chiellini, Emo

    2013-09-01

    The proteolytic enzyme α-chymotrypsin selectively cleaves the amorphous regions of silk fibroin protein (SFP) and allows the crystalline regions to self-assemble into silk microgels (SMGs) at physiological temperature. These microgels consist of lamellar crystals in the micrometer scale, in contrast to the nanometer-scaled crystals in native silkworm fibers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zeta potential results demonstrated that α-chymotrypsin utilized only the non-amorphous domains or segments of the heavy chain of SFP to form negatively charged SMGs. The SMGs were characterized in terms of size, charge, structure, morphology, crystallinity, swelling kinetics, water content and thermal properties. The results suggest that the present technique of preparing SMGs by α-chymotrypsin is simple and efficient, and that the prepared SMGs have useful features for studies related to biomaterial and pharmaceutical needs. This process is also an easy way to obtain the amorphous peptide chains for further study. PMID:23756227

  9. A funny thing happened on the way to articulation: N400 attenuation despite behavioral interference in picture naming

    PubMed Central

    Blackford, Trevor; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    We measured Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and naming times to picture targets preceded by masked words (stimulus onset asynchrony: 80 ms) that shared one of three different types of relationship with the names of the pictures: (1) Identity related, in which the prime was the name of the picture (“socks” – ), (2) Phonemic Onset related, in which the initial segment of the prime was the same as the name of the picture (“log” – ), and (3) Semantically related in which the prime was a co–category exemplar and associated with the name of the picture (“cake” – ). Each type of related picture target was contrasted with an Unrelated picture target, resulting in a 3 × 2 design that crossed Relationship Type between the word and the target picture (Identity, Phonemic Onset and Semantic) with Relatedness (Related and Unrelated). Modulation of the N400 component to related (versus unrelated) pictures was taken to reflect semantic processing at the interface between the picture's conceptual features and its lemma, while naming times reflected the end product of all stages of processing. Both attenuation of the N400 and shorter naming times were observed to pictures preceded by Identity related (versus Unrelated) words. No ERP effects within 600 ms, but shorter naming times, were observed to pictures preceded by Phonemic Onset related (versus Unrelated) words. An attenuated N400 (electrophysiological semantic priming) but longer naming times (behavioral semantic interference) were observed to pictures preceded by Semantically related (versus Unrelated) words. These dissociations between ERP modulation and naming times suggest that (a) phonemic onset priming occurred late, during encoding of the articulatory response, and (b) semantic behavioral interference was not driven by competition at the lemma level of representation, but rather occurred at a later stage of production. PMID:22245030

  10. 76 FR 61725 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form; (Form DHS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Federal Register on July 18, 2011 at 76 FR 42129, for a 60-day public comment period. No comments were... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...-7001), Online Ombudsman Form DHS-7001 AGENCY: Office of the Citizenship and Immigration...

  11. No one way ticket from orthography to semantics in recognition memory: N400 and P200 effects of associations.

    PubMed

    Stuellein, Nicole; Radach, Ralph R; Jacobs, Arthur M; Hofmann, Markus J

    2016-05-15

    Computational models of word recognition already successfully used associative spreading from orthographic to semantic levels to account for false memories. But can they also account for semantic effects on event-related potentials in a recognition memory task? To address this question, target words in the present study had either many or few semantic associates in the stimulus set. We found larger P200 amplitudes and smaller N400 amplitudes for old words in comparison to new words. Words with many semantic associates led to larger P200 amplitudes and a smaller N400 in comparison to words with a smaller number of semantic associations. We also obtained inverted response time and accuracy effects for old and new words: faster response times and fewer errors were found for old words that had many semantic associates, whereas new words with a large number of semantic associates produced slower response times and more errors. Both behavioral and electrophysiological results indicate that semantic associations between words can facilitate top-down driven lexical access and semantic integration in recognition memory. Our results support neurophysiologically plausible predictions of the Associative Read-Out Model, which suggests top-down connections from semantic to orthographic layers. PMID:26921776

  12. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Wioland, Norma; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs) effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise): no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels), or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data), both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data), no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms. PMID:24961195

  13. The phonemic restoration effect reveals pre-N400 effect of supportive sentence context in speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Groppe, David M.; Choi, Marvin; Huang, Tiffany; Schilz, Joseph; Topkins, Ben; Urbach, Thomas P.; Kutas, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The phonemic restoration effect refers to the tendency for people to hallucinate a phoneme replaced by a non-speech sound (e.g., a tone) in a word. This illusion can be influenced by preceding sentential context providing information about the likelihood of the missing phoneme. The saliency of the illusion suggests that supportive context can affect relatively low (phonemic or lower) levels of speech processing. Indeed, a previous event-related brain potential (ERP) investigation of the phonemic restoration effect found that the processing of coughs replacing high versus low probability phonemes in sentential words differed from each other as early as the auditory N1 (120-180 ms post-stimulus); this result, however, was confounded by physical differences between the high and low probability speech stimuli, thus it could have been caused by factors such as habituation and not by supportive context. We conducted a similar ERP experiment avoiding this confound by using the same auditory stimuli preceded by text that made critical phonemes more or less probable. We too found the robust N400 effect of phoneme/word probability, but did not observe the early N1 effect. We did however observe a left posterior effect of phoneme/word probability around 192-224 ms -- clear evidence of a relatively early effect of supportive sentence context in speech comprehension distinct from the N400. PMID:20831863

  14. Antioxidative activity of bound-form phenolics in potato peel.

    PubMed

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Takayuki; Honma, Tamaki; Koga, Hidenori

    2006-06-01

    Free and bound-form phenolics were isolated from potato (cv. Toyoshiro) flesh and peel. The free and bound-form phenolics in the peel showed high DPPH radical scavenging activity, while those in the flesh showed low activity. The total amount of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the free-form phenolics from the peel was highly correlated with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid was identified as the active radical scavenging compound in the bound-form phenolics from the peel. The potato peel may therefore offer an effective source of an antioxidative. PMID:16794331

  15. Incidental Picture Exposure Affects Later Reading: Evidence from the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppens, Leonora C.; Gootjes, Liselotte; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    Language comprehenders form a mental representation of the implied shape of objects mentioned in the text. In the present study, the influence of prior visual experience on subsequent reading was assessed. In two separate phases, participants saw a picture of an object and read a text about the object, suggesting the same or a different shape.…

  16. 76 FR 41279 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on May 4, 2011, at 76 FR 25364, allowing for a 60-day... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities; Form I-864, Form I- 864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W; Extension of an Existing Information Collection;...

  17. 75 FR 51093 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... on May 12, 2010, at 75 FR 26782, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received 2... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I- 864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W; Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

  18. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu Fuel Form Activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL Fuel Form Activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  19. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu Fuel Form Activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL Fuel Form Activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  20. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu fuel form activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL fuel form activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  1. The Processing of Causal and Hierarchical Relations in Semantic Memory as Revealed by N400 and Frontal Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Most current studies investigating semantic memory have focused on associative (ring-emerald) or taxonomic relations (bird-sparrow). Little is known about the question of how causal relations (virus- epidemic) are stored and accessed in semantic memory. The goal of this study was to examine the processing of causally related, general associatively related and hierarchically related word pairs when participants were required to evaluate whether pairs of words were related in any way. The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500ms) elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words. Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700ms) elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words. These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding. PMID:26148338

  2. The Processing of Causal and Hierarchical Relations in Semantic Memory as Revealed by N400 and Frontal Negativity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiuling; Chen, Qingfei; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Most current studies investigating semantic memory have focused on associative (ring-emerald) or taxonomic relations (bird-sparrow). Little is known about the question of how causal relations (virus-epidemic) are stored and accessed in semantic memory. The goal of this study was to examine the processing of causally related, general associatively related and hierarchically related word pairs when participants were required to evaluate whether pairs of words were related in any way. The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms) elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words. Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms) elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words. These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding. PMID:26148338

  3. Form-Focused Discovery Activities in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogeyik, Muhlise Cosgun

    2011-01-01

    Form-focused discovery activities allow language learners to grasp various aspects of a target language by contributing implicit knowledge by using discovered explicit knowledge. Moreover, such activities can assist learners to perceive and discover the features of their language input. In foreign language teaching environments, they can be used…

  4. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S

    2013-02-19

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  5. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S.

    2010-06-01

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  6. N250r and N400 ERP correlates of immediate famous face repetition are independent of perceptual load.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2008-11-01

    It is a matter of considerable debate whether attention to initial stimulus presentations is required for repetition-related neural modulations to occur. Recently, it has been assumed that faces are particularly hard to ignore, and can capture attention in a reflexive manner. In line with this idea, electrophysiological evidence for long-term repetition effects of unattended famous faces has been reported. The present study investigated influences of attention to prime faces on short-term repetition effects in event-related potentials (ERPs). We manipulated attention to short (200 ms) prime presentations (S1) of task-irrelevant famous faces according to Lavie's Perceptual Load Theory. Participants attended to letter strings superimposed on face images, and identified target letters "X" vs. "N" embedded in strings of either 6 different (high load) or 6 identical (low load) letters. Letter identification was followed by probe presentations (S2), which were either repetitions of S1 faces, new famous faces, or infrequent butterflies, to which participants responded. Our ERP data revealed repetition effects in terms of an N250r at occipito-temporal regions, suggesting priming of face identification processes, and in terms of an N400 at the vertex, suggesting semantic priming. Crucially, the magnitude of these effects was unaffected by perceptual load at S1 presentation. This indicates that task-irrelevant face processing is remarkably preserved even in a demanding letter detection task, supporting recent notions of face-specific attentional resources. PMID:18793621

  7. Automatic processing of taxonomic and thematic relations in semantic priming - Differentiation by early N400 and late frontal negativity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingfei; Ye, Chun; Liang, Xiuling; Cao, Bihua; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2014-09-16

    Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical (plant-pine) or taxonomic categories (animal-plant). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categories, which performs external or complementary roles in the same scenario or event (bee-honey). The goal of this study was to explore the processing of hierarchical categories and thematic categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. The Evoked response potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the time course of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 300ms as participants performed a lexical decision task. Six experimental conditions were compared: hierarchical relations (offspring-grandson), internal features (gold-golden), productive relations (bee-honey), script relations (room-tenant), unrelated (star-spoon), and non-word trials (star-derf). We found faster reaction times for related prime-target pairs than unrelated pairs except for productive relations. The ERP data showed that an early N400 effect (200-400ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, a frontal negativity (400-550ms) elicited by productive relations was smaller (more positive) than other related words. We suggest that the smaller frontal negativity in the processing of productive relations indicates their increased salience in knowledge structure compared to less prominent hierarchical relations. Indeed, the allocation of attentional resources and subsequent recruitment of additional memory processing might be two of the hallmarks of thematic relations. PMID:25234647

  8. Pore-forming activity of clostridial binary toxins.

    PubMed

    Knapp, O; Benz, R; Popoff, M R

    2016-03-01

    Clostridial binary toxins (Clostridium perfringens Iota toxin, Clostridium difficile transferase, Clostridium spiroforme toxin, Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin) as Bacillus binary toxins, including Bacillus anthracis toxins consist of two independent proteins, one being the binding component which mediates the internalization into cell of the intracellularly active component. Clostridial binary toxins induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin and are responsible for enteric diseases. Clostridial and Bacillus binary toxins share structurally and functionally related binding components which recognize specific cell receptors, oligomerize, form pores in endocytic vesicle membrane, and mediate the transport of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Binding components retain the global structure of pore-forming toxins (PFTs) from the cholesterol-dependent cytotoxin family such as perfringolysin. However, their pore-forming activity notably that of clostridial binding components is more related to that of heptameric PFT family including aerolysin and C. perfringens epsilon toxin. This review focuses upon pore-forming activity of clostridial binary toxins compared to other related PFTs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. PMID:26278641

  9. Activated and unactivated forms of human erythrocyte aldose reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, S K; Hair, G A; Das, B

    1985-01-01

    Aldose reductase (alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.21) has been partially purified from human erythrocytes by DEAE-cellulose (DE-52) column chromatography. This enzyme is activated severalfold upon incubation with 10 microM each glucose 6-phosphate, NADPH, and glucose. The activation of the enzyme was confirmed by following the oxidation of NADPH as well as the formation of sorbitol with glucose as substrate. The activated form of aldose reductase exhibited monophasic kinetics with both glyceraldehyde and glucose (Km of glucose = 0.68 mM and Km of glyceraldehyde = 0.096 mM), whereas the native (unactivated) enzyme exhibited biphasic kinetics (Km of glucose = 9.0 and 0.9 mM and Km of glyceraldehyde = 1.1 and 0.14 mM). The unactivated enzyme was strongly inhibited by aldose reductase inhibitors such as sorbinil, alrestatin, and quercetrin, and by phosphorylated intermediates such as ADP, glycerate 3-phosphate, glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate, and glycerate 2,3-trisphosphate. The activated form of the enzyme was less susceptible to inhibition by aldose reductase inhibitors and phosphorylated intermediates. PMID:3933003

  10. Channel-Forming Activities in the Glycosomal Fraction from the Bloodstream Form of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Miinalainen, Ilkka J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Michels, Paul A. M.; Antonenkov, Vasily D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycosomes are a specialized form of peroxisomes (microbodies) present in unicellular eukaryotes that belong to the Kinetoplastea order, such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania species, parasitic protists causing severe diseases of livestock and humans in subtropical and tropical countries. The organelles harbour most enzymes of the glycolytic pathway that is responsible for substrate-level ATP production in the cell. Glycolysis is essential for bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei and enzymes comprising this pathway have been validated as drug targets. Glycosomes are surrounded by a single membrane. How glycolytic metabolites are transported across the glycosomal membrane is unclear. Methods/Principal Findings We hypothesized that glycosomal membrane, similarly to membranes of yeast and mammalian peroxisomes, contains channel-forming proteins involved in the selective transfer of metabolites. To verify this prediction, we isolated a glycosomal fraction from bloodstream-form T.brucei and reconstituted solubilized membrane proteins into planar lipid bilayers. The electrophysiological characteristics of the channels were studied using multiple channel recording and single channel analysis. Three main channel-forming activities were detected with current amplitudes 70–80 pA, 20–25 pA, and 8–11 pA, respectively (holding potential +10 mV and 3.0 M KCl as an electrolyte). All channels were in fully open state in a range of voltages ±150 mV and showed no sub-conductance transitions. The channel with current amplitude 20–25 pA is anion-selective (PK+/PCl−∼0.31), while the other two types of channels are slightly selective for cations (PK+/PCl− ratios ∼1.15 and ∼1.27 for the high- and low-conductance channels, respectively). The anion-selective channel showed an intrinsic current rectification that may suggest a functional asymmetry of the channel's pore. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the membrane of glycosomes apparently

  11. NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IS MORE PREVALENT IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Popesso, P.; Genzel, R.; Saintonge, A.; Tacconi, L.; Wuyts, S. E-mail: lutz@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: popesso@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amelie@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: swuyts@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-07-01

    We explore the question of whether low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially found in galaxies that are undergoing a transition from active star formation (SF) to quiescence. This notion has been suggested by studies of the UV-optical colors of AGN hosts, which find them to be common among galaxies in the so-called Green Valley, a region of galaxy color space believed to be composed mostly of galaxies undergoing SF quenching. Combining the deepest current X-ray and Herschel/PACS far-infrared (FIR) observations of the two Chandra Deep Fields with redshifts, stellar masses, and rest-frame photometry derived from the extensive and uniform multi-wavelength data in these fields, we compare the rest-frame U - V color distributions and star formation rate distributions of AGNs and carefully constructed samples of inactive control galaxies. The UV-to-optical colors of AGNs are consistent with equally massive inactive galaxies at redshifts out to z {approx} 2, but we show that such colors are poor tracers of SF. While the FIR distributions of both star-forming AGNs and star-forming inactive galaxies are statistically similar, we show that AGNs are preferentially found in star-forming host galaxies, or, in other words, AGNs are less likely to be found in weakly star-forming or quenched galaxies. We postulate that, among X-ray-selected AGNs of low and moderate accretion luminosities, the supply of cold gas primarily determines the accretion rate distribution of the nuclear black holes.

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  13. Active curcumin nanoparticles formed from a volatile microemulsion template.

    PubMed

    Margulis, K; Srinivasan, S; Ware, M J; Summers, H D; Godin, B; Magdassi, S

    2014-01-01

    We report on biological performance of organic nanoparticles formed by a simple method based on rapid solvent removal from a volatile microemulsion. The particular focus of the study was on testing the suitability of the method for substances soluble in partially water-miscible organic solvents as well as on evaluating the therapeutic activity of the resultant nanoparticles. Curcumin was employed as a model for hydrophobic drug, and, as it is soluble in water-miscible organic solvents, it was successfully incorporated into a new cyclopentanone-water microemulsion system. During rapid solvent removal by spray-drying, the nanometric droplets of the microemulsion were converted into nanoparticles containing amorphous curcumin with the average size of 20.2±3.4 nm, having ζ potential of -36.2 ±1.8 mV. These nanoparticles were dispersible in water and retained the high loading of the active substance. The therapeutic activity of the resulting nanoparticles was demonstrated in a pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. The effective concentration for reducing the metabolic activity was found to be 11.5 μM for nanoparticles compared with 19.5 μM for free curcumin. PMID:25485110

  14. Inclusion bodies and purification of proteins in biologically active forms.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    Even though recombinant DNA technology has made possible the production of valuable therapeutic proteins, its accumulation in the host cell as inclusion body poses serious problems in the recovery of functionally active proteins. In the last twenty years, alternative techniques have been evolved to purify biologically active proteins from inclusion bodies. Most of these remain only as inventions and very few are commercially exploited. This review summarizes the developments in isolation, refolding and purification of proteins from inclusion bodies that could be used for vaccine and non-vaccine applications. The second section involves a discussion on inclusion bodies, how they are formed, and their physicochemical properties. In vivo protein folding in Escherichia coli and kinetics of in vitro protein folding are the subjects of the third and fourth sections respectively. The next section covers the recovery of bioactive protein from inclusion bodies: it includes isolation of inclusion body from host cell debris, purification in denatured state alternate refolding techniques, and final purification of active molecules. Since purity and safety are two important issues in therapeutic grade proteins, the following three sections are devoted to immunological and biological characterization of biomolecules, nature, and type of impurities normally encountered, and their detection. Lastly, two case studies are discussed to demonstrate the sequence of process steps involved. PMID:8939059

  15. Optically active surfaces formed by ion implantation and thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gea, L.A.; Boatner, L.A.; Evans, H.M.; Zuhr, R.

    1996-08-01

    Embedded VO{sub 2} precipitates have been formed in single-crystal sapphire by the ion co-implantation of vanadium and oxygen and subsequent thermal annealing. The embedded VO{sub 2} particles have been shown to exhibit an optical switching behavior that is comparable to that of continuous thin films. In this work, the mechanisms of formation of these optically active particles are investigated. It is shown that precipitation of the vanadium dioxide phase is favored when the thermal treatment is performed on an ion-damaged but still crystalline (rather than amorphized) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The best optical switching behavior is observed in this case, and this behavior is apparently correlated with a more-favorable dispersion of VO{sub 2} small particles inside the matrix.

  16. Chemical Fingerprints of Star Forming Regions and Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan-Pablo

    2010-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and Galactic star-forming regions, using mostly single-dish millimeter observations. I first study the excitation conditions of dense gas in a group of Seyfert galaxies using radiative transfer models (Chapter 2). I then study the galaxy NGC 1068, and try to distinguish signatures of the contributions from the AGN and the starburst ring by incorporating observations of high-J transitions of dense gas tracers (Chapter 3). Later, I venture into the mid-infrared spectral region to study different aspects of the AGN and starburst components in the galaxy NGC 4945 (Chapter 4). In Chapter 5 I delve into theoretical aspects of the dynamical evolution of gas in an AGN torus. I use a 3D hydrodynamic simulation with chemical abundances driven by X-rays. The aim is to understand the effects of X-ray irradiation by the AGN on the temperature, formation and destruction of the molecular gas. I finally explore a Galactic star-forming region, the Omega Nebula, with high resolution single dish observations, to study the properties of the warm gas and to constrain chemical models (Chapters 6 and 7).

  17. 75 FR 16492 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-28, and Form G-28I, Revision of an Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

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  18. Tracking lexical consolidation with ERPs: Lexical and semantic-priming effects on N400 and LPC responses to newly-learned words.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Iske; Takashima, Atsuko; van Hell, Janet G; Janzen, Gabriele; McQueen, James M

    2015-12-01

    Novel words can be recalled immediately and after little exposure, but require a post-learning consolidation period to show word-like behaviour such as lexical competition. This pattern is thought to reflect a qualitative shift from episodic to lexical representations. However, several studies have reported immediate effects of meaningful novel words on semantic processing, suggesting that integration of novel word meanings may not require consolidation. The current study synthesises and extends these findings by showing a dissociation between lexical and semantic effects on the electrophysiological (N400, LPC) response to novel words. The difference in N400 amplitude between novel and existing words (a lexical effect) decreased significantly after a 24-h consolidation period, providing novel support for the hypothesis that offline consolidation aids lexicalisation. In contrast, novel words preceded by semantically related primes elicited a more positive LPC response (a semantic-priming effect) both before and after consolidation, indicating that certain semantic effects can be observed even when words have not been fully lexicalised. We propose that novel meanings immediately start to contribute to semantic processing, but that the underlying neural processes may shift from strategic to more automatic with consolidation. PMID:26476370

  19. 76 FR 30738 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-845 and Form G-845 Supplement, Revision of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... the Federal Register on February 22, 2011, at 76 FR 9805, allowing for a 60-day public comment period... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-845 and Form G- 845 Supplement, Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request...

  20. The Essay: Theory and Pedagogy for an Active Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilker, Paul

    Calling for a radical reexamination of the traditional foundation of composition instruction--the thesis/support form, this book argues that the essay, with its informality, conversational tone, meditative mood, and integration of form and content, is better suited to developmental, epistemological, ideological, and feminist rhetorical…

  1. Once Is Enough: N400 Indexes Semantic Integration of Novel Word Meanings from a Single Exposure in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Kutas, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of contextual constraint on the integration of novel word meanings into semantic memory. Adults read strongly or weakly constraining sentences ending in known or unknown (novel) words as scalp-recorded electrical brain activity was recorded. Word knowledge was assessed via a lexical decision task in which recently seen…

  2. Extensive sugar modification improves triple helix forming oligonucleotide activity in vitro but reduces activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Rowshon; Majumdar, Alokes; Thazhathveetil, Arun Kalliat; Liu, Su-Ting; Liu, Ji-Lan; Puri, Nitin; Cuenoud, Bernard; Sasaki, Shigeki; Miller, Paul S; Seidman, Michael M

    2007-09-01

    We are developing triple helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) for gene targeting. Previously, we synthesized bioactive TFOs containing 2'-O-methylribose (2'-OMe) and 2'-O-aminoethylribose (2'-AE) residues. Active TFOs contained four contiguous 2'-AE residues and formed triplexes with high thermal stability and rapid association kinetics. In an effort to further improve bioactivity, we synthesized three series of TFOs containing the 2'-AE patch and additional ribose modifications distributed throughout the remainder of the oligonucleotide. These were either additional 2'-AE residues, the conformationally locked BNA/LNA ribose with a 2'-O,4'-C-methylene bridge, or the 2'-O,4'-C-ethylene analogue (ENA). The additionally modified TFOs formed triplexes with greater thermal stability than the reference TFO, and some had improved association kinetics. However, the most active TFOs in the biochemical and biophysical assays were the least active in the bioassay. We measured the thermal stability of triplexes formed by the TFOs in each series on duplex targets containing a change in sequence at a single position. The Tm value of the variant sequence triplexes increased as the number of all additional modifications increased. A simple explanation for the failure of the improved TFOs in the bioassay was that the increased affinity for nonspecific targets lowered the effective nuclear concentration. Enhancement of TFO bioactivity will require chemical modifications that improve interaction with the specific targets while retaining selectivity against mismatched sequences. PMID:17691818

  3. A Large Scale (N=400) Investigation of Gray Matter Differences in Schizophrenia Using Optimized Voxel-based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Giuliani, Nicole R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Schretlen, David J.; Pulver, Anne; Cascella, Nicola; Keshavan, Matcheri; Kates, Wendy; Buchanan, Robert; Sharma, Tonmoy; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of MRI images as an automated method of investigating cortical gray matter differences in schizophrenia. However, results from these studies vary widely, likely due to different methodological or statistical approaches. Objective To use VBM to investigate gray matter differences in schizophrenia in a sample significantly larger than any published to date, and to increase statistical power sufficiently to reveal differences missed in smaller analyses. Methods Magnetic resonance whole brain images were acquired from four geographic sites, all using the same model 1.5T scanner and software version, and combined to form a sample of 200 patients with both first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 200 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and scanner location. Gray matter concentration was assessed and compared using optimized VBM. Results Compared to the healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less gray matter concentration in multiple cortical and subcortical regions, some previously unreported. Overall, we found lower concentrations of gray matter in regions identified in prior studies, most of which reported only subsets of the affected areas. Conclusions Gray matter differences in schizophrenia are most comprehensively elucidated using a large, diverse and representative sample. PMID:18378428

  4. STYPu fuel form activities, March 1-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The SRP portion of this report summarizes production STYPuO2 fuel forms for use in radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG's) in the Plutonium Fuel Form (PuFF) Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The PuFF Facility began producing iridium-encapsulated, 62.5-watt STYPuO2 right circular cylinders for GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) RTG's in June 1980; this program was completed in December 1983. The PuFF Facility has been placed in a production readiness mode of operation pending funding of additional heat source programs.

  5. Mechanically driven activation of polyaniline into its conductive form.

    PubMed

    Baytekin, Bilge; Baytekin, H Tarik; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2014-07-01

    Mechanical treatment of polymers produces surface cations and anions which, as demonstrated here for the first time, can drive chemical reactions. In particular, it is shown that such a mechanical treatment transforms nonconductive polyaniline into its conductive form. These results provide a mechanical means of patterning conductive polymers and also coating small polymer objects with conductive polyaniline films preventing accumulation of static electricity. PMID:24824971

  6. Thrombomodulin Binding Selects the Catalytically Active Form of Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Handley, Lindsey D; Treuheit, Nicholas A; Venkatesh, Varun J; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Human α-thrombin is a serine protease with dual functions. Thrombin acts as a procoagulant, cleaving fibrinogen to make the fibrin clot, but when bound to thrombomodulin (TM), it acts as an anticoagulant, cleaving protein C. A minimal TM fragment consisting of the fourth, fifth, and most of the sixth EGF-like domain (TM456m) that has been prepared has much improved solubility, thrombin binding capacity, and anticoagulant activity versus those of previous TM456 constructs. In this work, we compare backbone amide exchange of human α-thrombin in three states: apo, D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone (PPACK)-bound, and TM456m-bound. Beyond causing a decreased level of amide exchange at their binding sites, TM and PPACK both cause a decreased level of amide exchange in other regions including the γ-loop and the adjacent N-terminus of the heavy chain. The decreased level of amide exchange in the N-terminus of the heavy chain is consistent with the historic model of activation of serine proteases, which involves insertion of this region into the β-barrel promoting the correct conformation of the catalytic residues. Contrary to crystal structures of thrombin, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results suggest that the conformation of apo-thrombin does not yet have the N-terminus of the heavy chain properly inserted for optimal catalytic activity, and that binding of TM allosterically promotes the catalytically active conformation. PMID:26468766

  7. Forming a Learning Culture to Promote Fracture Prevention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjalmarson, Helene V.; Strandmark, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore interprofessional experiences of incorporating fracture prevention activities in clinical practice inspired by an empowerment approach. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection consisted primarily of focus groups interviews, systematized and analyzed by the grounded theory method. The study took…

  8. How Lipid Membranes Affect Pore Forming Toxin Activity.

    PubMed

    Rojko, Nejc; Anderluh, Gregor

    2015-12-15

    Pore forming toxins (PFTs) evolved to permeate the plasma membrane of target cells. This is achieved in a multistep mechanism that usually involves binding of soluble protein monomer to the lipid membrane, oligomerization at the plane of the membrane, and insertion of part of the polypeptide chain across the lipid membrane to form a conductive channel. Introduced pores allow uncontrolled transport of solutes across the membrane, inflicting damage to the target cell. PFTs are usually studied from the perspective of structure-function relationships, often neglecting the important role of the bulk membrane properties on the PFT mechanism of action. In this Account, we discuss how membrane lateral heterogeneity, thickness, and fluidity influence the pore forming process of PFTs. In general, lipid molecules are more accessible for binding in fluid membranes due to steric reasons. When PFT specifically binds ordered domains, it usually recognizes a specific lipid distribution pattern, like sphingomyelin (SM) clusters or SM/cholesterol complexes, and not individual lipid species. Lipid domains were also suggested to act as an additional concentration platform facilitating PFT oligomerization, but this is yet to be shown. The last stage in PFT action is the insertion of the transmembrane segment across the membranes to build the transmembrane pore walls. Conformational changes are a spontaneous process, and sufficient free energy has to be available for efficient membrane penetration. Therefore, fluid bilayers are permeabilized more readily in comparison to highly ordered and thicker liquid ordered lipid phase (Lo). Energetically more costly insertion into the Lo phase can be driven by the hydrophobic mismatch between the thinner liquid disordered phase (Ld) and large protein complexes, which are unable to tilt like single transmembrane segments. In the case of proteolipid pores, membrane properties can directly modulate pore size, stability, and even selectivity. Finally

  9. Active Curved Polymers Form Vortex Patterns on Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Jonas; Huber, Lorenz; Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Recent in vitro experiments with FtsZ polymers show self-organization into different dynamic patterns, including structures reminiscent of the bacterial Z ring. We model FtsZ polymers as active particles moving along chiral, circular paths by Brownian dynamics simulations and a Boltzmann approach. Our two conceptually different methods point to a generic phase behavior. At intermediate particle densities, we find self-organization into vortex structures including closed rings. Moreover, we show that the dynamics at the onset of pattern formation is described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  10. Active Curved Polymers Form Vortex Patterns on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Denk, Jonas; Huber, Lorenz; Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-04-29

    Recent in vitro experiments with FtsZ polymers show self-organization into different dynamic patterns, including structures reminiscent of the bacterial Z ring. We model FtsZ polymers as active particles moving along chiral, circular paths by Brownian dynamics simulations and a Boltzmann approach. Our two conceptually different methods point to a generic phase behavior. At intermediate particle densities, we find self-organization into vortex structures including closed rings. Moreover, we show that the dynamics at the onset of pattern formation is described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. PMID:27176542

  11. 75 FR 21013 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

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  12. 76 FR 21913 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

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  13. 75 FR 51095 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

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  14. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  15. Identification of biotransformation products of citalopram formed in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Beretsou, Vasiliki G; Psoma, Aikaterini K; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Aalizadeh, Reza; Fenner, Kathrin; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-10-15

    Citalopram (CTR) is a worldwide highly consumed antidepressant which has demonstrated incomplete removal by conventional wastewater treatment. Despite its global ubiquitous presence in different environmental compartments, little is known about its behaviour and transformation processes during wastewater treatment. The present study aims to expand the knowledge on fate and transformation of CTR during the biological treatment process. For this purpose, batch reactors were set up to assess biotic, abiotic and sorption losses of this compound. One of the main objectives of the study was the identification of the formed transformation products (TPs) by applying suspect and non-target strategies based on liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The complementary use of reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for the identification of polar TPs, and the application of in-house developed quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) prediction models, in addition to the comprehensive evaluation of the obtained MS/MS spectra, provided valuable information to support identification. In total, fourteen TPs were detected and thirteen of them were tentatively identified. Four compounds were confirmed (N-desmethylCTR, CTR amide, CTR carboxylic acid and 3-oxo-CTR) through the purchase of the corresponding reference standard. Probable structures based on diagnostic evidence were proposed for the additional nine TPs. Eleven TPs are reported for the first time. A transformation pathway for the biotransformation of CTR was proposed. The presence of the identified TPs was assessed in real wastewater samples through retrospective analysis, resulting in the detection of five compounds. Finally, the potential ecotoxicological risk posed by CTR and its TPs to different trophic levels of aquatic organisms was evaluated by means of risk quotients. PMID:27459150

  16. Wound healing activity of topical application forms based on ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Mitra, Shankar Kumar; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Indian medicine-Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P < .01), higher collagen content (P < .05) and better skin breaking strength (P < .01) as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations. PMID:19252191

  17. Wound Healing Activity of Topical Application Forms Based on Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Mitra, Shankar Kumar; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P < .01), higher collagen content (P < .05) and better skin breaking strength (P < .01) as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations. PMID:19252191

  18. [L forms of Staphylococcus aureus. Behavior of coagulase, hemolytic and desoxyribonuclease activities and antibiotic sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Loschiavo, F; Giarrizzo, S

    1977-01-01

    L Forms derived from strains of coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, have, on the whole, preserved their DNAsic, haemolitic and coagulastic activities. L. forms showed high resistence to antibiotics acting on the bacterial cell-wall. The sensibility to other antibiotics was, roughly, analogous for the L forms as well as for the bacterial strains ones, with the exception of the clortetraciclin and the diidrostreptomicin, ehich proved to be comparatively more active on the L forms. PMID:614141

  19. Is there a difference between stripy journeys and stripy ladybirds? The N400 response to semantic and world-knowledge violations during sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; Maienborn, Claudia; Kaup, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    The distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge is particularly relevant because it is related to the principle of compositionality during sentence comprehension. Hagoort, Hald, Bastiaansen, and Petersson (2004) challenged the distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge. Here, we investigate how linguistic and non-linguistic violations are processed in a setting adapted from Hagoort et al., whilst in contrast to Hagoort, keeping the critical word identical. In line with the findings by Hagoort et al., our results showed largest N400 amplitudes for semantic violations ('Journeys are stripy'), followed by non-linguistic world-knowledge violations ('Ladybirds are stripy') and contingent sentences ('Trousers are stripy'), and finally by correct sentences ('Zebras are stripy'). Traditional fractional area and relative criterion measures of peak and onset latencies showed no effect of violation type. Interestingly, the semantic violation condition crossed a fixed criterion earlier than the word-knowledge violation condition. In conclusion, our data suggests that the question regarding the distinction between linguistic- and non-linguistic knowledge in terms of language integration remains open. Implications for future studies addressing the difference between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge are discussed. PMID:26812249

  20. Semantic Processing in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Large N400 Mismatch Effects in Brain Responses, Despite Poor Semantic Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kallioinen, Petter; Olofsson, Jonas; Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Sahlén, Birgitta S.; Lyxell, Björn; Engström, Elisabet; Uhlén, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in auditory and phonological processing affect semantic processing in speech comprehension for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. However, little is known about brain responses related to semantic processing in this group. We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in DHH children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs), and in normally hearing controls (NH). We used a semantic priming task with spoken word primes followed by picture targets. In both DHH children and controls, cortical response differences between matching and mismatching targets revealed a typical N400 effect associated with semantic processing. Children with CI had the largest mismatch response despite poor semantic abilities overall; Children with CI also had the largest ERP differentiation between mismatch types, with small effects in within-category mismatch trials (target from same category as prime) and large effects in between-category mismatch trials (where target is from a different category than prime), compared to matching trials. Children with NH and HA had similar responses to both mismatch types. While the large and differentiated ERP responses in the CI group were unexpected and should be interpreted with caution, the results could reflect less precision in semantic processing among children with CI, or a stronger reliance on predictive processing. PMID:27559320

  1. Semantic Processing in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Large N400 Mismatch Effects in Brain Responses, Despite Poor Semantic Ability.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Petter; Olofsson, Jonas; Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Sahlén, Birgitta S; Lyxell, Björn; Engström, Elisabet; Uhlén, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in auditory and phonological processing affect semantic processing in speech comprehension for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. However, little is known about brain responses related to semantic processing in this group. We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in DHH children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs), and in normally hearing controls (NH). We used a semantic priming task with spoken word primes followed by picture targets. In both DHH children and controls, cortical response differences between matching and mismatching targets revealed a typical N400 effect associated with semantic processing. Children with CI had the largest mismatch response despite poor semantic abilities overall; Children with CI also had the largest ERP differentiation between mismatch types, with small effects in within-category mismatch trials (target from same category as prime) and large effects in between-category mismatch trials (where target is from a different category than prime), compared to matching trials. Children with NH and HA had similar responses to both mismatch types. While the large and differentiated ERP responses in the CI group were unexpected and should be interpreted with caution, the results could reflect less precision in semantic processing among children with CI, or a stronger reliance on predictive processing. PMID:27559320

  2. Composition and topology of activity cliff clusters formed by bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-02-24

    The assessment of activity cliffs has thus far mostly focused on compound pairs, although the majority of activity cliffs are not formed in isolation but in a coordinated manner involving multiple active compounds and cliffs. However, the composition of coordinated activity cliff configurations and their topologies are unknown. Therefore, we have identified all activity cliff configurations formed by currently available bioactive compounds and analyzed them in network representations where activity cliff configurations occur as clusters. The composition, topology, frequency of occurrence, and target distribution of activity cliff clusters have been determined. A limited number of large cliff clusters with unique topologies were identified that were centers of activity cliff formation. These clusters originated from a small number of target sets. However, most clusters were of small to moderate size. Three basic topologies were sufficient to describe recurrent activity cliff cluster motifs/topologies. For example, frequently occurring clusters with star topology determined the scale-free character of the global activity cliff network and represented a characteristic activity cliff configuration. Large clusters with complex topology were often found to contain different combinations of basic topologies. Our study provides a first view of activity cliff configurations formed by currently available bioactive compounds and of the recurrent topologies of activity cliff clusters. Activity cliff clusters of defined topology can be selected, and from compounds forming the clusters, SAR information can be obtained. The SAR information of activity cliff clusters sharing a/one specific activity and topology can be compared. PMID:24437577

  3. 76 FR 69276 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336, Revision of a Currently Approved...

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  4. 76 FR 53144 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336; Revision of a Currently Approved...

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  5. 75 FR 78264 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336, Revision to an Existing Information...

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  6. 76 FR 78674 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470, Revision of a Currently Approved...

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  7. 75 FR 13776 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300; Extension of an Existing Information...

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    2010-03-23

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  9. 75 FR 70278 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600, Extension of a Currently Approved...

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  10. 76 FR 59710 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600; Revision of an Existing Information...

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    2011-09-27

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  13. 75 FR 43535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644, Revision of a Currently Approved...

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    2010-07-26

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  14. 75 FR 5098 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565, Extension of a Currently Approved...

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    2010-02-01

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  15. 75 FR 80835 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565; Extension of an Existing Information...

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    2010-12-23

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  16. 76 FR 39415 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

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  17. 75 FR 30050 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648, Revision of an Existing Information...

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    2010-05-28

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  18. 77 FR 18255 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565; Extension of an Existing Information...

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    2012-03-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565... collection under review; Form N- 565, Application for Replacement Naturalization/Citizenship Document; OMB... until May 29, 2012. During this 60 day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form...

  19. 75 FR 70277 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336, Extension of a Currently Approved...

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    2010-11-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 336, Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization... collection: Form N-336; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will...

  20. 75 FR 51096 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470; Extension of an Existing Information...

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    2010-08-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470... Collection Under Review; Form N- 470, Application To Preserve Residence for Naturalization; OMB Control No... until October 18, 2010. During this 60-day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form...

  1. 77 FR 128 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600, Revision of a Currently Approved...

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    2012-01-03

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  2. 76 FR 28444 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-884, Extension of a Currently Approved...

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    2011-05-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-884... information collection under review: Form G- 884, Request for the Return of Original Documents; OMB Control No... July 18, 2011. During this 60-day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form...

  3. 75 FR 23785 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639; Extension of an Existing Information...

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    2010-05-04

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  4. 76 FR 63322 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-28, Revision of an Approved Information...

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    2011-10-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-28... Collection Under Review: Form G- 28, Notice of Entry of Appearance as Attorney or Accredited Representative... collection techniques, or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission...

  5. 76 FR 24908 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639; Extension of an Existing Information...

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    2011-05-03

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639... Collection Under Review; Form G- 639, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Request; OMB Control No. 1615- 0102.... During this 60 day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form G-639. Should USCIS...

  6. 78 FR 67397 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Short-Form...

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    2013-11-12

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  7. 78 FR 27965 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request Re Forms...

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    2013-05-13

    ... by the PRA. On February 7, 2013 (78 FR 9049), the FDIC solicited public comment for a 60-day period.../04 0.50 30 15 Declaration for Revocable Trust, Form 7200/05 0.50 150 75 Declaration of Independent Activity, Form 7200/06 0.50 5 2.5 Declaration of Independent Activity for Unincorporated 0.50 5...

  8. Dance as a Fitness Activity: The Impact of Teaching Style and Dance Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromel, Karel; Vasendova, Jana; Stratton, Gareth; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed the amount of activity, intensity of activity, and attitudes of participants in Czech high school physical education classes taught using different teaching styles and dance forms. Measurements of heart rate and dance intensity and student surveys indicated that teaching style and dance form significantly impacted the intensity and volume…

  9. In vitro activity of Rutaceae species against the trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Mafezoli, J; Vieira, P C; Fernandes, J B; da Silva, M F; de Albuquerque, S

    2000-11-01

    The activity of crude plant extracts of nine species of Rutaceae against the trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated at 4 mg/ml. Thirty-two crude extracts were tested and eight of them showed significant activity (>80%). The most active extract was obtained from the stems of Pilocarpus spicatus (97.3%). Fractionation of the active crude extracts provided 25 fractions which were tested against the trypomastigote form of T. cruzi at 2 mg/ml. Of these six showed significant activity (>80%). The most active fractions (100%) were obtained from the leaves of Almeidea coerulea (butanol fraction) and Conchocarpus inopinatus (dichloromethane fraction). PMID:11025175

  10. 75 FR 30098 - Reports, Forms and RecordKeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

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  11. 78 FR 26766 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 580); Comment Request; Revision

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    2013-05-08

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  12. 76 FR 52014 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Applicant Information Form (1-783)

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    2011-08-19

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  13. 76 FR 70747 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-90; Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

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    2011-11-15

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    2011-02-22

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  15. 77 FR 16047 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589; Extension of an Existing Information...

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    2012-03-19

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    2011-08-24

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    2012-05-10

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  18. 77 FR 21104 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-694, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

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    2011-04-12

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    2010-11-30

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  1. 76 FR 20362 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-905, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

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    2011-04-12

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

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    2010-03-12

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

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    2011-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-131, Revision of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 131,...

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    2010-04-13

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  8. 75 FR 41216 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

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  9. 75 FR 14179 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-9 CNMI; Revision to an Existing Information...

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    2010-03-24

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    2010-06-09

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

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  12. 77 FR 21105 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-1145, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

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  13. 76 FR 11807 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-646, Extension of a Currently Approved...

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    2011-03-03

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

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  15. 76 FR 11806 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-1145, Extension of a Currently Approved...

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    2011-03-03

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on December 14, 2010, at 75 FR 77890... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-1145... Information Collection Under Review: Form G- 1145, E-Notification of Application/Petition Acceptance;...

  16. 76 FR 48874 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-884, Extension of an Existing Information...

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    2011-08-09

    ... the Federal Register on March 17, 2011, at 76 FR 28444, allowing for a 60- day public comment period... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-884... Collection Under Review: Form G- 884, Request for the Return of Original Document(s). The Department...

  17. 75 FR 5097 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-646, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... 74 FR 58037, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments for this... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-646... Information Collection Under Review: Form G- 646, Sworn Statement of Refugee Applying for Admission to...

  18. 77 FR 33760 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-646, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on March 9, 2012, at 77 FR 14407, allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-646... Information Collection Under Review: Form G- 646, Sworn Statement of Refugee Applying for Admission to...

  19. 75 FR 47822 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on May 4, 2010, at 75 FR 23785, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639... Information Collection Under Review: Form G- 639, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Request; OMB Control...

  20. 75 FR 57049 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card ACTION: Correction to 30-day notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form...

  1. 75 FR 10298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-929; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-929; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30 Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review; Form I-929,...

  2. 76 FR 10387 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-929; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-929; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review; Form I- 929,...

  3. 78 FR 52824 - Proposed Information Collection (Bowel and Bladder Care Billing Form) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Bowel and Bladder Care Billing Form) Activity: Comment Request... evaluate the Bowel and Bladder Care Billing Form used by caregivers of eligible Veterans to document time spent providing services related specifically to bowel and bladder care. DATES: Written comments...

  4. 76 FR 41282 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-363, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-363, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I-...

  5. 76 FR 21912 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-363; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-363... Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information... the Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-363, U.S. Citizenship...

  6. 75 FR 35822 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-363; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-363... Control No. 1615-0022. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services... Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-363; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

  7. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is...

  8. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- ] 68). This request for comment is being...

  9. Effect of chemical form of selenium on tissue glutathione peroxidase activity in developing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Strength, Ralph; Johnson, Janet; White, Marguerite T.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that the stage of development of rats may affect the availability of various forms of selenium for the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the rat was experimentally investigated. One experiment evaluated the availability of selenium as selenite or selenomethionine for GSPHx activity during three developmental states in rats: fetus and 7-day old and 14-day old nursing pups. In all tissues studied, GSHPx activity was highest in the 14-day-old pups whose dams were in the selenomethionine group. Rat pups given intraperitoneal selenite had higher liver and kidney GSHPx activity than pups given the same amount of selenium as intraperitoneal selenomethionine. In a second experiment, all dams were fed the same basal diet and pups were weaned to diets containing one of two levels of selenium and one of three forms of selenium (selenite, selenomethionine, or selenocystine). The results also supported the hypothesis these dietary forms of selenium are differentially available for GSHPx activity.

  10. Differential Expression of Extracellular Lipase and Protease Activities of Mycelial and Yeast Forms in Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Juntachai, Weerapong; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    Malassezia furfur is a dimorphic yeast that is part of the human skin microflora. This fungus is a pathogen of a certain skin diseases, such as pityriasis versicolor, and in rare cases causes systemic infection in neonates. However, the role of dimorphism in the pathogenicity remains unclear. A modified induction medium (IM) was successfully able to induce mycelial growth of M. furfur under both solid and liquid condition. Filamentous elements with branching hyphae were observed when cultured in the IM. Furthermore, addition of bovine fetus serum into the liquid IM did not promote hyphal formation; on the contrary, it retrograded hyphae to the yeast form. Plate-washing assay showed that M. furfur hyphae did not possess the ability of invasive growth. Secretory proteins from both yeast and hyphal forms were isolated, and lipase and protease activities were analyzed. Intriguingly, the hyphal form showed higher activities than those of the yeast form, particularly the protease activity. PMID:26173769

  11. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  12. Differential cellulolytic activity of native-form and C-terminal tagged-form cellulase derived from coptotermes formosanus and expressed in E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endogenous cellulase gene (CfEG3a) of Coptotermes formosanus, an economically important pest termite, was cloned and overexpressed in both native form (nCfEG) and C-terminal His-tagged form (tCfEG) in E.coli. Both forms of recombinant cellulases showed hydrolytic activity on cellulosic substrate...

  13. A transcriptionally active form of GAL4 is phosphorylated and associated with GAL80.

    PubMed Central

    Parthun, M R; Jaehning, J A

    1992-01-01

    The GAL4 activator and GAL80 repressor proteins regulate the expression of yeast genes in response to galactose. A complex of the two proteins isolated from glucose-grown cells is inactive in an in vitro transcription reaction but binds DNA and blocks activation by the GAL4-VP16 chimeric activator. The complex purified from galactose-grown cells contains a mixture of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of GAL4. The galactose-induced form of GAL4 activates in vitro transcription to levels similar to those seen with GAL4-VP16. The induced GAL4 complex is indistinguishable in size and apparent shape from the uninduced complex, consistent with a continued association with GAL80. These results confirm in vivo analyses that correlate GAL4 phosphorylation with galactose induction and support a model of transcriptional activation that does not require GAL80 dissociation. Images PMID:1406674

  14. In situ pore-forming alginate hydrogel beads loaded with in situ formed nano-silver and their catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Hong; Yang, Yajiang

    2016-05-14

    An aqueous mixture of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium alginate (Na-ALG) was added dropwise into an aqueous solution of Ca(NO3)2, leading to the formation of calcium alginate (Ca-ALG) hydrogel beads. Meanwhile Na2CO3 as a pore-forming precursor was transformed in situ into CaCO3 nanoparticles (CaCO3 NPs). SEM images show that CaCO3 NPs aggregates with a size of ∼10 μm were uniformly distributed in the Ca-ALG hydrogel beads. After subsequent erosion using acetic acid, Ca-ALG hydrogel beads with a uniform microporous structure were obtained. The porosity and specific surface area of such in situ pore-formed hydrogel beads are 16 and 14 times higher than those of the beads prepared in the absence of Na2CO3. Additionally, their porous structure can be modulated by varying the amount of Na2CO3. The obtained porous Ca-ALG hydrogel beads were further immersed into an aqueous solution of AgNO3. Under UV irradiation, the Ag(+) ions adsorbed in the Ca-ALG were in situ reduced to Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). SEM and TEM images show that Ag NPs with a size of ∼10 nm were uniformly distributed in the matrix of the hydrogel beads. The loading amount of Ag in the beads can also be modulated by varying the amount of Na2CO3. Furthermore, the resultant Ca-ALG beads loaded with Ag NPs (Ag/Ca-ALG) were used as catalysts. Their catalytic activity was evaluated by using the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol as a model reaction. The rate constant of the reaction in the presence of dry porous Ag/Ca-ALG beads was found to be 36 times higher than that in the presence of beads prepared in the absence of Na2CO3. Such a high catalytic efficiency can be attributed to their porous structure and consequent high Ag-loading capacity. PMID:27093592

  15. Serine substitution for cysteine residues in levansucrase selectively abolishes levan forming activity.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Busby, Stephen J W; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Senthikumar, Velusamy; Bushby, Stephen J W

    2003-10-01

    Levansucrase is responsible for levan formation during sucrose fermentation of Zymomonas mobilis, and this decreases the efficiency of ethanol production. As thiol modifying agents decrease levan formation, a role for cysteine residues in levansucrase activity has been examined using derivatives of Z. mobilis levansucrase that carry serine substitutions of cysteine at positions 121, 151 or 244. These substitutions abolished the levan forming activity of levansucrase whilst only halving its activity in sucrose hydrolysis. Thus, polymerase and hydrolase activities of Z. mobilis levansucrase are separate and have different requirements for the enzyme's cysteine residues. PMID:14584923

  16. [Value of different serological tests in the diagnosis of various forms of active ocular toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Prost, M; Umiński, J

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of results of indirect immunofluorescence and direct agglutination reaction in patients with various forms of ocular toxoplasmosis showed that these reactions have a limited value in diagnostics of this condition. One can define a sure diagnosis of active ocular toxoplasmosis when the titre of these reactions are higher than 512. The ELISA IgM reaction is specific for the active form of this disease. The sensitivity of this reaction amounts 43-50%. In cases of iridocyclitis the results of the serological tests were similar to those of the control group; this confirms the hypothesis that the inflammation is evoked by an allergic reaction. PMID:1635369

  17. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  18. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Dale L.; Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei

    1995-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  19. 77 FR 31033 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 19, 2012, at 77 FR 16047, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

  20. 77 FR 27474 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648... Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond,...

  1. 77 FR 34052 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-102; Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on February 28, 2012 at 77 FR 12070, allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-102... Document. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will...

  2. 75 FR 65022 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-698, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    .... The information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 23, 2010, at 75 FR... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-698... Resident; OMB Control No. 1615-0035. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and...

  3. 77 FR 34398 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ..., 2012, at 77 FR 18255, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565... Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office...

  4. 77 FR 3485 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-129F, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Federal Register on October 28, 2011, at 76 FR 66944, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-129F... Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following...

  5. 77 FR 27474 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-687; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-687...-687. The Department Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has...-687; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  6. 77 FR 2560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-90, Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... previously published in the Federal Register on November 15, 2011, at 76 FR 70747, allowing for a 60-day... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-90... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

  7. 77 FR 3484 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Federal Register on October 28, 2011, at 76 FR 66944, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914... Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following...

  8. 76 FR 31971 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-212; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... on March 16, 2011, at 76 FR 14419, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received no... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-212.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection...

  9. 75 FR 65022 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-751, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 30, 2010, at 75 FR 37821, allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-751.... 1615- 0038. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)...

  10. 77 FR 34053 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-590, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 12, 2012, at 77 FR 14535, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-590... of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

  11. 76 FR 72209 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300; Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... the Federal Register on August 24, 2011 at 76 FR 52961, allowing for a 60-day public comment period... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300... Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the...

  12. 77 FR 3486 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-539, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... previously published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2011, at 76 FR 66946, allowing for a 60-day... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-539... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

  13. 76 FR 28128 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... comment period was published on September 13, 2010 (75 FR 55627-55628). DATES: Comments must be submitted... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  14. 75 FR 52541 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-243, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 9, 2010, at 75 FR 32799, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-243, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  15. 76 FR 69275 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-192, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... the Federal Register on August 12, 2011, at 76 FR 50239, allowing for a 60- day public comment period... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-192, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  16. 77 FR 23734 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-361, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ..., 2012, at 77 FR 9259, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-361, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  17. 75 FR 52541 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-865, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on June 9, 2010, at 75 FR 32801, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-865, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  18. 76 FR 43335 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-765, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2011, at 76 FR 21912 allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-765, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  19. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53). 761.205 Section 761.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS...

  20. 75 FR 57480 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs And Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... the Customs Declaration. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork...

  1. 75 FR 71452 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 57480) on September 21, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment period... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION:...

  2. 76 FR 11805 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-134, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 14, 2010, at 75 FR 77891, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-134... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

  3. 75 FR 71451 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2010, at 75 FR 51096... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470... Control No. 1615-0056. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  4. 76 FR 75892 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-690; Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... collection notice was previously published in the Federal Register on August 19, 2011, at 76 FR 51996... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-690... 1615-0032. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)...

  5. 75 FR 12249 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-134, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... the Federal Register on November 12, 2009, at 74 FR 58302 allowing for a 60-day public comment period... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-134... Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has submitted the...

  6. 75 FR 65500 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-360, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 30, 2010, at 75 FR 37820... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-360... Control No. 1615-0020. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  7. 76 FR 37059 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Form FNS-339...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Form FNS-339, Federal-State Supplemental Nutrition Program(s) Agreement AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  8. Chemical forms of selenium affect glutatione peroxidase activity in human Caco-2 cell model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bioavailability of selenium (Se) is complicated because there are multiple naturally occurring chemical forms of this element in nature. Assessing the ability of a Se source to restore GPX1 activity in laboratory animals and humans is the most commonly used method. To search for an alternative (...

  9. 75 FR 5099 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648... No. 1615-0060. ] The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services... practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate of the burden of the collection...

  10. 78 FR 28820 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... same docket, which was subsequently published in the Federal Register on 4/25/2013 (78 FR 24402). SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment...

  11. 78 FR 45919 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... the Federal Register (78 FR 28820, 5/16/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request... the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507(a)(1)(D), the Federal...

  12. 77 FR 41796 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Monthly Report on Naturalization Papers, Form N-4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Monthly Report on Naturalization Papers, Form N-4; Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of...

  13. 77 FR 13136 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-134; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-134; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Affidavit of...

  14. Relationship between phosphorus forms and phosphatase activity in soils amended with poultry manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Up to 80% of the phosphorus (P) in poultry manure (PM) can be present in organic forms that require mineralization via phosphatase enzymes prior to plant utilization. To determine the correlation between soil P distribution and phosphatase activity we sequentially extracted two Maine soils amended...

  15. 78 FR 46597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate (2 Forms)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  18. 75 FR 3245 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Aircraft/Vessel Report (Form I-92)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  20. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AN ACTIVATED FORM OF UO$sub 2$

    DOEpatents

    Polissar, M.J.

    1957-09-24

    A process for producing a highly active form of UO/sub 2/ characterized both by rapid oxidation in air and by rapid chlorination with CCl/sub 4/ vapor at an elevated temperature is reported. In accordance with the process, commercial UO/sub 2/, is subjected to a series of oxidation-reduction operations to produce a form of UC/sub 2/ of enhanced reactivity. By treatimg commercial UO/sub 2/ at a temperature between 335 and 485 deg C with methane, then briefly with an oxygen containing gas and followimg this by a second treatment with a methane containing gas, the original relatively stable charge of UO/sub 2/ will be transformed into an active form of UO/sub 2/.

  1. Formation scheme and antioxidant activity of a novel Maillard pigment, pyrrolothiazolate, formed from cysteine and glucose.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kyoko; Terasawa, Naoko; Murata, Masatsune

    2016-06-15

    We recently identified 6-hydroxy-3[R],7a[S]-dimethyl-7-oxo-2,3-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole-3-calboxylic acid, a novel pyrrolothiazole derivative carrying a carboxy group and named pyrrolothiazolate, as a Mallard pigment formed from l-cysteine and d-glucose. Here we described the formation of its enantiomer, the plausible formation scheme of pyrrolothiazolate, and its antioxidant activity. When d-cysteine was used instead of l-cysteine in the reaction mixture, the enantiomer of pyrrolothiazolate was obtained. The carbon at position 1 of glucose was incorporated into two methyl groups of pyrrolothiazolate. The pigment was considered to be formed through 1-deoxyglucosone (1-DG). The dehydrated isomer of 1-DG would be condensed with the thiol and amino groups of cysteine. This condensate was dehydrated and cyclized to form pyrrolothiazolate. This compound was an antioxidant showing radical scavenging activity. PMID:26987433

  2. Activated RSC-nucleosome complex and persistently altered form of the nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Y; Cairns, B R; Zhang, M; Kornberg, R D

    1998-07-10

    RSC, an abundant, essential chromatin-remodeling complex, related to SWI/SNF complex, binds nucleosomes and naked DNA with comparable affinities, as shown by gel shift analysis. The RSC-nucleosome complex is converted in the presence of ATP to a slower migrating form. This activated complex exhibits greatly increased susceptibility to endo- and exonucleases but retains a full complement of histones. Activation persists in the absence of ATP, and on removal of RSC, the nucleosome is released in an altered form, with a diminished electrophoretic mobility, greater sedimentation rate, and marked instability at elevated ionic strength. The reaction is reversible in the presence of RSC and ATP, with conversion of the altered form back to the nucleosome. PMID:9674424

  3. Nascent Integrin Adhesions Form on All Matrix Rigidities after Integrin Activation.

    PubMed

    Changede, Rishita; Xu, Xiaochun; Margadant, Felix; Sheetz, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Integrin adhesions assemble and mature in response to ligand binding and mechanical factors, but the molecular-level organization is not known. We report that ∼100-nm clusters of ∼50 β3-activated integrins form very early adhesions under a wide variety of conditions on RGD surfaces. These adhesions form similarly on fluid and rigid substrates, but most adhesions are transient on rigid substrates. Without talin or actin polymerization, few early adhesions form, but expression of either the talin head or rod domain in talin-depleted cells restores early adhesion formation. Mutation of the integrin binding site in the talin rod decreases cluster size. We suggest that the integrin clusters constitute universal early adhesions and that they are the modular units of cell matrix adhesions. They require the association of activated integrins with cytoplasmic proteins, in particular talin and actin, and cytoskeletal contraction on them causes adhesion maturation for cell motility and growth. PMID:26625956

  4. 76 FR 31972 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-508 and Form I-508F, Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ..., Exemptions and Immunities; OMB Control No. 1615-0025. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship..., Privileges, Exemptions and Immunities. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

  5. Binary Toxin Subunits of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Are Monomeric and Form Heterodimers after In Vitro Activation

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Yeu Khai; Torres, Jaume; Boonserm, Panadda

    2016-01-01

    The binary toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been successfully used for controlling mosquito-transmitted diseases. An activation step shortens both subunits BinA and BinB before their interaction with membranes and internalization in midgut cells, but the precise role of this activation step is unknown. Herein, we show conclusively using three orthogonal biophysical techniques that protoxin subunits form only monomers in aqueous solution. However, in vitro activated toxins readily form heterodimers. This oligomeric state did not change after incubation of these heterodimers with detergent. These results are consistent with the evidence that maximal toxicity in mosquito larvae is achieved when the two subunits, BinA and BinB, are in a 1:1 molar ratio, and directly link proteolytic activation to heterodimerization. Formation of a heterodimer must thus be necessary for subsequent steps, e.g., interaction with membranes, or with a suitable receptor in susceptible mosquito species. Lastly, despite existing similarities between BinB C-terminal domain with domains 3 and 4 of pore-forming aerolysin, no aerolysin-like SDS-resistant heptameric oligomers were observed when the activated Bin subunits were incubated in the presence of detergents or lipidic membranes. PMID:27341696

  6. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Boerje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-12-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

  7. [Biophysical aspects of biological activity structure--strain calcium carbonat in micellar form].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V I; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V; Savostikova, O N; Alekseeva, A V; P'ianzina, I P

    2013-01-01

    Results of the study of electrochemical and structural state of phase of associated water in the solutions of structurally stressed calcium carbonate in the micellar form are reported. On the base on the comparison of structural--physical changes of activated water with the data on the activity of bioluminiscentic "Ecolyum" microorganisms in their noncontact activation the electronic mechanism of the effect of activated water on cellular metabolism is substantiated The use of "Micellate of calcium" possessing non-contact electron-donor action on cellular structures was shown to permit to compensate the deficit of electrons and thereby to restore the activities of reductases and iron-containing peptides required for the production of regulatory ROS and alteration in redox state of the intracellular environment. PMID:24624817

  8. Integration of active pharmaceutical ingredient solid form selection and particle engineering into drug product design.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, Martyn David; Marziano, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This review seeks to offer a broad perspective that encompasses an understanding of the drug product attributes affected by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) physical properties, their link to solid form selection and the role of particle engineering. While the crucial role of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solid form selection is universally acknowledged in the pharmaceutical industry, the value of increasing effort to understanding the link between solid form, API physical properties and drug product formulation and manufacture is now also being recognised. A truly holistic strategy for drug product development should focus on connecting solid form selection, particle engineering and formulation design to both exploit opportunities to access simpler manufacturing operations and prevent failures. Modelling and predictive tools that assist in establishing these links early in product development are discussed. In addition, the potential for differences between the ingoing API physical properties and those in the final product caused by drug product processing is considered. The focus of this review is on oral solid dosage forms and dry powder inhaler products for lung delivery. PMID:25677227

  9. [Effect of different nitrogen forms and ratio on growth and active ingredient content of Platycodon grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yun-jing; Wang, Kang-cai; Niu, Ling-hui; Li, Ke; Su, Yun-yun

    2015-10-01

    To providing evidence about nitrogen adequate application of Platycodon grandiflorum, the pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen on the growth, physiological metabolism and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The activity of NR, GS and SOD, POD and CAT were determined. And the nitrate and ammonium nitrogen content, photosynthetic characteristics, active components of P. grandiflorum were determined. The results showed that the nitrate nitrogen content and P. biomass reached its maximum value, when NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N was 0: 100, the activity of NR. The activity of GS was the highest at the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25:75 and ammonium nitrogen content was the highest at 75:25. The activity of SOD decreased and then increased with the increasing of NO3(-) -N. At the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75, the activity of CAT had its maximum value and the content of MDA had the minimum value. At the same time, the content of platycodon D was the highest at this treatment. The studies had shown that different nitrogen forms and ratio had a significant effect on the characteristics of photosynthetic physiology, nitrogen metabolism and resistance adjustment, growth and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75 was a suitable ratio of nitrogen forms for the growth of P. Grandiflorum and accumulating the content of platycodon D. PMID:26975097

  10. An ELISA method detecting the active form of suPAR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolei; Xu, Mingming; Huang, Hailong; Mazar, Andrew; Iqbal, Zafar; Yuan, Cai; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-11-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) exists in a number of formats in human plasma, including soluble uPAR (suPAR) and uPAR fragments. We developed an ELISA method to detect specifically the active form suPAR, which binds to its natural ligand uPA. The intra CV and inter CV of this ELISA assay is 8.5% and 9.6% respectively, and the assay can recover 99.74% of added recombinant suPAR from 10% plasma. This assay is quite sensitive, capable of detecting down to 15pg/ml of suPAR, and can measure suPAR concentrations in the range of 0.031-8ng/ml with high linear relationship. Plasma samples from pregnant women were also measured for the active form of suPAR with this assay, giving an averaged level of 1.39ng/ml, slightly higher than the level of pooled plasma from healthy donors (0.96ng/ml). This study demonstrates the feasibility to measure the active form of suPAR, which will likely have value in clinical applications. PMID:27591605

  11. Crystallization and preliminary analysis of active nitroalkane oxidase in three crystal forms.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Akanksha; Valley, Michael P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F; Orville, Allen M

    2004-08-01

    Nitroalkane oxidase (NAO), a flavoprotein cloned and purified from Fusarium oxysporum, catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, with the production of H2O2 and nitrite. In this paper, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of active nitroalkane oxidase are described. The first crystal form belongs to a trigonal space group (either P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.8, c = 487.0 A) and diffracts to at least 1.6 A resolution. Several data sets were collected using 2theta and kappa geometry in order to obtain a complete data set to 2.07 A resolution. Solvent-content and Matthews coefficient analysis suggests that crystal form 1 contains two homotetramers per asymmetric unit. Crystal form 2 (P2(1)2(1)2(1); a = 147.3, b = 153.5, c = 169.5 A) and crystal form 3 (P3(1) or P3(2); a = b = 108.9, c = 342.5 A) are obtained from slightly different conditions and also contain two homotetramers per asymmetric unit, but have different solvent contents. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from selenomethionine-enriched NAO (SeMet-NAO) in crystal form 3 and will be used for phasing. PMID:15272176

  12. 76 FR 46781 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 1 and FERC Form 1F); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... to providing this information, such as administrative costs and the cost for information technology... 5 1 116 580 Total 243,438 The total estimated annual cost burden to respondents on the FERC Form 1 is $12,385,758 (242,858 hours x $51/hour \\3\\). The average cost per respondent is $59,262. \\3\\...

  13. 76 FR 53144 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-508 and Form I-508F, Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 2, 2011, at 76 FR 31972..., Exemptions and Immunities. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services..., Privileges, Exemptions and Immunities. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

  14. Cyclotron production of ``very high specific activity'' platinum radiotracers in No Carrier Added form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birattari, C.; Bonardi, M.; Groppi, F.; Gini, L.; Gallorini, M.; Sabbioni, E.; Stroosnijder, M. F.

    2001-12-01

    At the "Radiochemistry Laboratory" of Accelerators and Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, LASA, several production and quality assurance methods for short-lived and high specific activity radionuclides, have been developed. Presently, the irradiations are carried out at the Scanditronix MC40 cyclotron (K=38; p, d, He-4 and He-3) of JRC-Ispra, Italy, of the European Community, while both chemical purity and specific activity determination are carried out at the TRIGA MARK II research reactor of University of Pavia and at LASA itself. In order to optimize the irradiation conditions for platinum radiotracer production, both thin- and thick-target excitation function of natOs(α,xn) nuclear reactions were measured. A very selective radiochemical separation to obtain Pt radiotracers in No Carrier Added form, has been developed. Both real specific activity and chemical purity of radiotracer, have been determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. An Isotopic Dilution Factor (IDF) of the order of 50 is achieved.

  15. Linear Closed-form Solution and Finite-element Analysis of an Active Tensegrity Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmeť, Stanislav; Platko, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Results of the linear closed form solution of an active or adaptive tensegrity unit, as well as its numerical analysis using finite element method are presented in the paper. The shape of the unit is an octahedral cell with a square base and it is formed by thirteen members (four bottom and four top cables, four edge struts and one central strut). The central strut is designed as an actuator that allows for an adjustment of the shape of the unit which leads to changes of tensile forces in the cables. Due to the diagonal symmetry of the 3D tensegrity unit the closed-form analysis is based on the 2D solution of the equivalent planar biconvex cable system with one central strut under a vertical point load.

  16. Determination of the active form of the tetranuclear copper sulfur cluster in nitrous oxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Esther M; Dell'Acqua, Simone; Ramos, Susana; Pauleta, Sofia R; Moura, Isabel; Solomon, Edward I

    2014-01-15

    N2OR has been found to have two structural forms of its tetranuclear copper active site, the 4CuS Cu(Z)* form and the 4Cu2S Cu(Z) form. EPR, resonance Raman, and MCD spectroscopies have been used to determine the redox states of these sites under different reductant conditions, showing that the Cu(Z)* site accesses the 1-hole and fully reduced redox states, while the Cu(Z) site accesses the 2-hole and 1-hole redox states. Single-turnover reactions of N2OR for Cu(Z) and Cu(Z)* poised in these redox states and steady-state turnover assays with different proportions of Cu(Z) and Cu(Z)* show that only fully reduced Cu(Z)* is catalytically competent in rapid turnover with N2O. PMID:24364717

  17. Active heterodimers are formed from human DNA topoisomerase II alpha and II beta isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Biersack, H; Jensen, S; Gromova, I; Nielsen, I S; Westergaard, O; Andersen, A H

    1996-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II is a nuclear enzyme essential for chromosome dynamics and DNA metabolism. In mammalian cells, two genetically and biochemically distinct topoisomerase II forms exist, which are designated topoisomerase II alpha and topoisomerase II beta. In our studies of human topoisomerase II, we have found that a substantial fraction of the enzyme exists as alpha/beta heterodimers in HeLa cells. The ability to form heterodimers was verified when human topoisomerases II alpha and II beta were coexpressed in yeast and investigated in a dimerization assay. Analysis of purified heterodimers shows that these enzymes maintain topoisomerase II specific catalytic activities. The natural existence of an active heterodimeric subclass of topoisomerase II merits attention whenever topoisomerases II alpha and II beta function, localization, and cell cycle regulation are investigated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8710863

  18. Role of drop distortion in enhancing the lightning activity in clouds formed over cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalwankar, Rohini; Kamra, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric pollutants can modify the electrification and lightning activity in thunderclouds. Laboratory simulation experiments show that distortion of water drops is more when drops are formed from water polluted with Sulfate/Nitrate salts than that from distilled water and the difference in distortions is more in a higher electric field. Further, the polluted water drops falling in a horizontal electric field can trigger a discharge on their surface and the discharge can propagate as a streamer in lower electric fields as compared to that from distilled water drops. The difference in electrical conductivities of polluted and unpolluted water drops is most likely the key factor for manifestation of these differences. It is proposed that the enhanced distortion of polluted drops coupled with the change in their characteristics to trigger and propagate a discharge in lower electric fields may significantly contribute to the enhancement of lightning activity observed in clouds formed over big cities.

  19. Protease-Activated Pore-Forming Peptides for the Treatment and Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    LeBeau, Aaron M.; Denmeade, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    A common hallmark of cancers with highly aggressive phenotypes is increased proteolysis in the tumor and the surrounding microenvironment. Prostate cancer has a number of proteases uniquely associated with it that may play various important roles in disease progression. In this report, we utilize the peritumoral proteolytic activity of prostate cancer to activate engineered peptide constructs for the treatment and noninvasive imaging of prostate cancer. Using a modular "propeptide" approach, a cationic diastereomeric pore-forming peptide domain was linked to an inactivating acidic peptide domain. The inactivating acidic peptide domain was engineered to be a cleavable substrate for the secreted serine protease prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or the transmembrane metalloprotease prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). The propeptides were then evaluated in a direct comparison study. Both the PSA and PSMA activated propeptides were found to be cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, however, treatment of LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 xenografts with the PSMA propeptide resulted in a pronounced cytostatic effect when compared with xenografts treated with the PSA propeptide or the cationic diastereomeric peptide alone. The PSMA activated propeptide also proved to be an effective optical imaging probe in vivo when labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore. These data suggest that protease-activated pore-forming peptides could potentially be used for both imaging and treating prostate cancer. PMID:25537662

  20. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Film-Forming Hydrosols Hydrolyzed by Cellulase.

    PubMed

    Zimoch-Korzycka, Anna; Bobak, Łukasz; Jarmoluk, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cellulase (C) on the biological activity of chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (CH/HPMC) film-forming hydrosols. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase in two concentrations (0.05% and 0.1%) was verified by determination of the progress of polysaccharide hydrolysis, based on viscosity measurement and reducing sugar-ends assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging effect, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and microbial reduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus were studied. During the first 3 h of reaction, relative reducing sugar concentration increased progressively, and viscosity decreased rapidly. With increasing amount of enzyme from 0.05% to 0.1%, the reducing sugar concentration increased, and the viscosity decreased significantly. The scavenging effect of film-forming solutions was improved from 7.6% at time 0 and without enzyme to 52.1% for 0.1% cellulase after 20 h of reaction. A significant effect of cellulase addition and reaction time on antioxidant power of the tested film-forming solutions was also reported. Film-forming hydrosols with cellulase exhibited a bacteriostatic effect on all tested bacteria, causing a total reduction. PMID:27608008

  1. The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Alberto; Sica, Antonio; Sozzani, Silvano; Allavena, Paola; Vecchi, Annunciata; Locati, Massimo

    2004-12-01

    Plasticity and functional polarization are hallmarks of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Here we review emerging key properties of different forms of macrophage activation and polarization (M1, M2a, M2b, M2c), which represent extremes of a continuum. In particular, recent evidence suggests that differential modulation of the chemokine system integrates polarized macrophages in pathways of resistance to, or promotion of, microbial pathogens and tumors, or immunoregulation, tissue repair and remodeling. PMID:15530839

  2. Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The psychometric profiles of the widely used International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) in Chinese youth have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPAQ-SF using a sample of Chinese youth. Method: One thousand and twenty-one youth (M[subscript age] = 14.26 ±…

  3. The Prodomain-bound Form of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 10 Is Biologically Active on Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, He; Salmon, Richard M.; Upton, Paul D.; Wei, Zhenquan; Lawera, Aleksandra; Davenport, Anthony P.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BMP10 is highly expressed in the developing heart and plays essential roles in cardiogenesis. BMP10 deletion in mice results in embryonic lethality because of impaired cardiac development. In adults, BMP10 expression is restricted to the right atrium, though ventricular hypertrophy is accompanied by increased BMP10 expression in a rat hypertension model. However, reports of BMP10 activity in the circulation are inconclusive. In particular, it is not known whether in vivo secreted BMP10 is active or whether additional factors are required to achieve its bioactivity. It has been shown that high-affinity binding of the BMP10 prodomain to the mature ligand inhibits BMP10 signaling activity in C2C12 cells, and it was proposed that prodomain-bound BMP10 (pBMP10) complex is latent. In this study, we demonstrated that the BMP10 prodomain did not inhibit BMP10 signaling activity in multiple endothelial cells, and that recombinant human pBMP10 complex, expressed in mammalian cells and purified under native conditions, was fully active. In addition, both BMP10 in human plasma and BMP10 secreted from the mouse right atrium were fully active. Finally, we confirmed that active BMP10 secreted from mouse right atrium was in the prodomain-bound form. Our data suggest that circulating BMP10 in adults is fully active and that the reported vascular quiescence function of BMP10 in vivo is due to the direct activity of pBMP10 and does not require an additional activation step. Moreover, being an active ligand, recombinant pBMP10 may have therapeutic potential as an endothelial-selective BMP ligand, in conditions characterized by loss of BMP9/10 signaling. PMID:26631724

  4. Mechanistic insights into the first Lygus-active β-pore forming protein.

    PubMed

    Jerga, Agoston; Chen, Danqi; Zhang, Chunfen; Fu, Jinping; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K; Wang, Yanfei; Duff, Stephen M G; Howard, Jennifer E; Rydel, Timothy J; Evdokimov, Artem G; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Evans, Adam; Bolognesi, Renata; Park, Yoonseong; Haas, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-15

    The cotton pests Lygus hesperus and Lygus lineolaris can be controlled by expressing Cry51Aa2.834_16 in cotton. Insecticidal activity of pore-forming proteins is generally associated with damage to the midgut epithelium due to pores, and their biological specificity results from a set of key determinants including proteolytic activation and receptor binding. We conducted mechanistic studies to gain insight into how the first Lygus-active β-pore forming protein variant functions. Biophysical characterization revealed that the full-length Cry51Aa2.834_16 was a stable dimer in solution, and when exposed to Lygus saliva or to trypsin, the protein underwent proteolytic cleavage at the C-terminus of each of the subunits, resulting in dissociation of the dimer to two separate monomers. The monomer showed tight binding to a specific protein in Lygus brush border membranes, and also formed a membrane-associated oligomeric complex both in vitro and in vivo. Chemically cross-linking the β-hairpin to the Cry51Aa2.834_16 body rendered the protein inactive, but still competent to compete for binding sites with the native protein in vivo. Our study suggests that disassociation of the Cry51Aa2.834_16 dimer into monomeric units with unoccupied head-region and sterically unhindered β-hairpin is required for brush border membrane binding, oligomerization, and the subsequent steps leading to insect mortality. PMID:27001423

  5. 77 FR 9259 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-1041 and G-1041A, Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-1041... Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Forms G- 1041 and G-1041A, Genealogy Index Search Request... evaluating whether to revise forms G-1041 and G-1041A. Should USCIS decide to revise forms G- 1041 and...

  6. MAVS Forms Functional Prion-Like Aggregates To Activate and Propagate Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fajian; Sun, Lijun; Zheng, Hui; Skaug, Brian; Jiang, Qiu-Xing; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY In response to viral infection, RIG-I–like RNA helicases bind to viral RNA and activate the mitochondrial protein MAVS, which in turn activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB to induce type-I interferons. We have previously shown that RIG-I binds to unanchored lysine-63 (K63) polyubiquitin chains and that this binding is important for MAVS activation; however, the mechanism underlying MAVS activation is not understood. Here we show that viral infection induces the formation of very large MAVS aggregates, which potently activate IRF3 in the cytosol. We find that a fraction of recombinant MAVS protein forms fibrils capable of activating IRF3. Remarkably, the MAVS fibrils behave like prions and effectively convert endogenous MAVS into functional aggregates. We also show that, in the presence of K63 ubiquitin chains, RIG-I catalyzes the conversion of MAVS on the mitochondrial membrane to prion-like aggregates. These results suggest that a prion-like conformational switch of MAVS activates and propagates the antiviral signaling cascade. PMID:21782231

  7. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

  8. Theoretical studies of chemical reactivity of metabolically activated forms of aromatic amines toward DNA.

    PubMed

    Shamovsky, Igor; Ripa, Lena; Blomberg, Niklas; Eriksson, Leif A; Hansen, Peter; Mee, Christine; Tyrchan, Christian; O'Donovan, Mike; Sjö, Peter

    2012-10-15

    The metabolism of aromatic and heteroaromatic amines (ArNH₂) results in nitrenium ions (ArNH⁺) that modify nucleobases of DNA, primarily deoxyguanosine (dG), by forming dG-C8 adducts. The activated amine nitrogen in ArNH⁺ reacts with the C8 of dG, which gives rise to mutations in DNA. For the most mutagenic ArNH₂, including the majority of known genotoxic carcinogens, the stability of ArNH⁺ is of intermediate magnitude. To understand the origin of this observation as well as the specificity of reactions of ArNH⁺ with guanines in DNA, we investigated the chemical reactivity of the metabolically activated forms of ArNH₂, that is, ArNHOH and ArNHOAc, toward 9-methylguanine by DFT calculations. The chemical reactivity of these forms is determined by the rate constants of two consecutive reactions leading to cationic guanine intermediates. The formation of ArNH⁺ accelerates with resonance stabilization of ArNH⁺, whereas the formed ArNH⁺ reacts with guanine derivatives with the constant diffusion-limited rate until the reaction slows down when ArNH⁺ is about 20 kcal/mol more stable than PhNH⁺. At this point, ArNHOH and ArNHOAc show maximum reactivity. The lowest activation energy of the reaction of ArNH⁺ with 9-methylguanine corresponds to the charge-transfer π-stacked transition state (π-TS) that leads to the direct formation of the C8 intermediate. The predicted activation barriers of this reaction match the observed absolute rate constants for a number of ArNH⁺. We demonstrate that the mutagenic potency of ArNH₂ correlates with the rate of formation and the chemical reactivity of the metabolically activated forms toward the C8 atom of dG. On the basis of geometric consideration of the π-TS complex made of genotoxic compounds with long aromatic systems, we propose that precovalent intercalation in DNA is not an essential step in the genotoxicity pathway of ArNH₂. The mechanism-based reasoning suggests rational design strategies to

  9. A comparison of the efficiency of G protein activation by ligand-free and light-activated forms of rhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Melia, T J; Cowan, C W; Angleson, J K; Wensel, T G

    1997-01-01

    Activation of the photoreceptor G protein transducin (Gt) by opsin, the ligand-free form of rhodopsin, was measured using rod outer segment membranes with densities of opsin and Gt similar to those found in rod cells. When GTPgammaS was used as the activating nucleotide, opsin catalyzed transducin activation with an exponential time course with a rate constant k(act) on the order of 2 x 10(-3)s(-1). Comparison under these conditions to activation by flash-generated metarhodopsin II (MII) revealed that opsin- and R*-catalyzed activation showed similar kinetics when MII was present at a surface density approximately 10(-6) lower than that of opsin. Thus, in contrast to some previous reports, we find that the catalytic potency of opsin is only approximately 10(-6) that of MII. In the presence of residual retinaldehyde-derived species present in membranes treated with hydroxylamine after bleaching, the apparent k(act) observed was much higher than that for opsin, suggesting a possible explanation for previous reports of more efficient activation by opsin. These results are important for considering the possible role of opsin in the diverse phenomena in which it has been suggested to play a key role, such as bleaching desensitization and retinal degeneration induced by continuous light or vitamin A deprivation. PMID:9414230

  10. Implications for the active form of human insulin based on the structural convergence of highly active hormone analogues

    PubMed Central

    Jiráček, Jiří; Žáková, Lenka; Antolíková, Emília; Watson, Christopher J.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Dodson, Guy G.; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.

    2010-01-01

    Insulin is a key protein hormone that regulates blood glucose levels and, thus, has widespread impact on lipid and protein metabolism. Insulin action is manifested through binding of its monomeric form to the Insulin Receptor (IR). At present, however, our knowledge about the structural behavior of insulin is based upon inactive, multimeric, and storage-like states. The active monomeric structure, when in complex with the receptor, must be different as the residues crucial for the interactions are buried within the multimeric forms. Although the exact nature of the insulin’s induced-fit is unknown, there is strong evidence that the C-terminal part of the B-chain is a dynamic element in insulin activation and receptor binding. Here, we present the design and analysis of highly active (200–500%) insulin analogues that are truncated at residue 26 of the B-chain (B26). They show a structural convergence in the form of a new β-turn at B24-B26. We propose that the key element in insulin’s transition, from an inactive to an active state, may be the formation of the β-turn at B24-B26 associated with a trans to cis isomerisation at the B25-B26 peptide bond. Here, this turn is achieved with N-methylated L-amino acids adjacent to the trans to cis switch at the B25-B26 peptide bond or by the insertion of certain D-amino acids at B26. The resultant conformational changes unmask previously buried amino acids that are implicated in IR binding and provide structural details for new approaches in rational design of ligands effective in combating diabetes. PMID:20133841

  11. Neuroserpin Differentiates Between Forms of Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator via pH Dependent Deacylation.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Karen-Sue B; Nguyen, Lan; Schwartz, Kat; Lawrence, Daniel A; Schwartz, Bradford S

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), initially characterized for its critical role in fibrinolysis, also has key functions in both physiologic and pathologic processes in the CNS. Neuroserpin (NSP) is a t-PA specific serine protease inhibitor (serpin) found almost exclusively in the CNS that regulates t-PA's proteolytic activity and protects against t-PA mediated seizure propagation and blood-brain barrier disruption. This report demonstrates that NSP inhibition of t-PA varies profoundly as a function of pH within the biologically relevant pH range for the CNS, and reflects the stability, rather than the formation of NSP: t-PA acyl-enzyme complexes. Moreover, NSP differentiates between the zymogen-like single chain form (single chain t-PA, sct-PA) and the mature protease form (two chain t-PA, tct-PA) of t-PA, demonstrating different pH profiles for protease inhibition, different pH ranges over which catalytic deacylation occurs, and different pH dependent profiles of deacylation rates for each form of t-PA. NSP's pH dependent inhibition of t-PA is not accounted for by differential acylation, and is specific for the NSP-t-PA serpin-protease pair. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the differential regulation of the two forms of t-PA in the CNS, and suggest a potential specific regulatory role for CNS pH in controlling t-PA proteolytic activity. PMID:27378851

  12. Neuroserpin Differentiates Between Forms of Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator via pH Dependent Deacylation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Karen-Sue B.; Nguyen, Lan; Schwartz, Kat; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Schwartz, Bradford S.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), initially characterized for its critical role in fibrinolysis, also has key functions in both physiologic and pathologic processes in the CNS. Neuroserpin (NSP) is a t-PA specific serine protease inhibitor (serpin) found almost exclusively in the CNS that regulates t-PA’s proteolytic activity and protects against t-PA mediated seizure propagation and blood–brain barrier disruption. This report demonstrates that NSP inhibition of t-PA varies profoundly as a function of pH within the biologically relevant pH range for the CNS, and reflects the stability, rather than the formation of NSP: t-PA acyl-enzyme complexes. Moreover, NSP differentiates between the zymogen-like single chain form (single chain t-PA, sct-PA) and the mature protease form (two chain t-PA, tct-PA) of t-PA, demonstrating different pH profiles for protease inhibition, different pH ranges over which catalytic deacylation occurs, and different pH dependent profiles of deacylation rates for each form of t-PA. NSP’s pH dependent inhibition of t-PA is not accounted for by differential acylation, and is specific for the NSP-t-PA serpin-protease pair. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the differential regulation of the two forms of t-PA in the CNS, and suggest a potential specific regulatory role for CNS pH in controlling t-PA proteolytic activity. PMID:27378851

  13. Multifunctional porous titanium oxide coating with apatite forming ability and photocatalytic activity on a titanium substrate formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Akatsu, T; Yamada, Y; Hoshikawa, Y; Onoki, T; Shinoda, Y; Wakai, F

    2013-12-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was used to make a multifunctional porous titanium oxide (TiO2) coating on a titanium substrate. The key finding of this study is that a highly crystalline TiO2 coating can be made by performing the PEO in an ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) solution; the PEO coating was formed by alternating between rapid heating by spark discharges and quenching in the solution. The high crystallinity of the TiO2 led to the surface having multiple functions, including apatite forming ability and photocatalytic activity. Hydroxyapatite formed on the PEO coating when it was soaked in simulated body fluid. The good apatite forming ability can be attributed to the high density of hydroxyl groups on the anatase and rutile phases in the coating. The degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet radiation indicated that the coating had high photocatalytic activity. PMID:24094199

  14. Special Form Testing of Sealed Source Encapsulation for High-Alpha-Activity Actinide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Oscar A

    2016-01-01

    In the United States all transportation of radioactive material is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Beginning in 2008 a new type of sealed-source encapsulation package was developed and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These packages contain high-alpha-activity actinides and are regulated and transported in accordance with the requirements for DOT Class 7 hazardous material. The DOT provides specific regulations pertaining to special form encapsulation designs. The special form designation indicates that the encapsulated radioactive contents have a very low probability of dispersion even when subjected to significant structural events. The special form designs have been shown to simplify the delivery, transport, acceptance, and receipt processes. It is intended for these sealed-source encapsulations to be shipped to various facilities making it very advantageous for them to be certified as special form. To this end, DOT Certificates of Competent Authority (CoCAs) have been sought for the design suitable for containing high-alpha-activity actinide materials. This design consists of the high-alpha-activity material encapsulated within a triangular zirconia canister, referred to as a ZipCan, tile that is then enclosed by a spherical shell. The spherical shell design, with ZipCan tile inside, was tested for compliance with the special form regulations found in 49 CFR 173.469. The spherical enclosure was subjected to 9-m impact, 1 m percussion, and 10-minute thermal tests at the Packaging Evaluation Facility located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN USA and operated by ORNL. Before and after each test, the test units were subjected to a helium leak check and a bubble test. The ZipCan tiles and core were also subjected to the tests required for ISO 2919:2012(E), including a Class IV impact test and heat test and subsequently subjected to helium leakage rate tests [49 CFR 173.469(a)(4)(i)]. The impact

  15. Staphylococcus aureus forms spreading dendrites that have characteristics of active motility.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, Eric J G; Crusz, Shanika A; Diggle, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is historically regarded as a non-motile organism. More recently it has been shown that S. aureus can passively move across agar surfaces in a process called spreading. We re-analysed spreading motility using a modified assay and focused on observing the formation of dendrites: branching structures that emerge from the central colony. We discovered that S. aureus can spread across the surface of media in structures that we term 'comets', which advance outwards and precede the formation of dendrites. We observed comets in a diverse selection of S. aureus isolates and they exhibit the following behaviours: (1) They consist of phenotypically distinct cores of cells that move forward and seed other S. aureus cells behind them forming a comet 'tail'; (2) they move when other cells in the comet tail have stopped moving; (3) the comet core is held together by a matrix of slime; and (4) the comets etch trails in the agar as they move forwards. Comets are not consistent with spreading motility or other forms of passive motility. Comet behaviour does share many similarities with a form of active motility known as gliding. Our observations therefore suggest that S. aureus is actively motile under certain conditions. PMID:26680153

  16. Staphylococcus aureus forms spreading dendrites that have characteristics of active motility

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Eric J. G.; Crusz, Shanika A.; Diggle, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is historically regarded as a non-motile organism. More recently it has been shown that S. aureus can passively move across agar surfaces in a process called spreading. We re-analysed spreading motility using a modified assay and focused on observing the formation of dendrites: branching structures that emerge from the central colony. We discovered that S. aureus can spread across the surface of media in structures that we term ‘comets’, which advance outwards and precede the formation of dendrites. We observed comets in a diverse selection of S. aureus isolates and they exhibit the following behaviours: (1) They consist of phenotypically distinct cores of cells that move forward and seed other S. aureus cells behind them forming a comet ‘tail’; (2) they move when other cells in the comet tail have stopped moving; (3) the comet core is held together by a matrix of slime; and (4) the comets etch trails in the agar as they move forwards. Comets are not consistent with spreading motility or other forms of passive motility. Comet behaviour does share many similarities with a form of active motility known as gliding. Our observations therefore suggest that S. aureus is actively motile under certain conditions. PMID:26680153

  17. [CELLS FORM AND THEIR SENSITIVITY TO LYTIC ACTIVITY OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS UNDER THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTION].

    PubMed

    Kirpichnikova, K M; Petrov, Yu P; Filatova, N A; Gamaley, I A

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to estimate the influence of cell surface morphology changes to functional activity under the effect of antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and alpha-lipoic asid (ALA). Two experimental parameters were used to characterize transformed fibroblasts 3T3-SV40 status. The functional one was the cell sensitivity to lysis by natural killer (NK) mouse splenocytes, and morphology index (cell form index) was a cell area. We showed that addition of NAC or ALA to the cell medium caused fast decrease of cell area and changes of cell form. On the other hand, their sensitivity to lysis NK cells gradually and significantly decreased. Then we compared NAC or ALA effect with the effects of other substances, which were non-antioxidants but caused cell responses which concurred with of antioxidants, at least partly. They were: latrunculin B, desorganizing actin filaments (as both antioxidants), OTZ reducing ROS level in the cell (as NAC), BSO (inhibitor of glutathione synthesis), increasing ROS level in the cell (as ALA), antibodies to gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9 inactivating their activities (as both antioxidants). The results obtained showed a correlation between changes of morphology index and functional activity, sensitivity to lysis by NK cells. We suppose that geometry of cell surface might be a functional indicator of cell reaction to the antioxidant. PMID:26591569

  18. Antifungal activity and pore-forming mechanism of astacidin 1 against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun

    2014-10-01

    In a previous report, a novel antibacterial peptide astacidin 1 (FKVQNQHGQVVKIFHH) was isolated from hemocyanin of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In this study, the antifungal activity and mechanism of astacidin 1 were evaluated. Astacidin 1 exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Trichosporon beigelii, Malassezia furfur, and Trichophyton rubrum. Also, astacidin 1 had fungal cell selectivity in human erythrocytes without causing hemolysis. To understand the antifungal mechanism, membrane studies were done against C. albicans and T. beigelii. Flow cytometric analysis and K(+) measurement showed membrane damage, resulting in membrane permeabilization and K(+) release-induced membrane depolarization. Furthermore, the calcein leakage from liposomes mimicking C. albicans membrane demonstrated that the membrane-active action was driven by pore-forming mechanism. Live cell imaging using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans of various sizes suggested that the radii of pores formed in the C. albicans membrane were 1.4-2.3 nm. Therefore, the present study suggests that astacidin 1 exerts its antifungal effect by damaging the fungal membrane via pore formation. PMID:24955933

  19. Isolation of a biologically active soluble form of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Sendai virus.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, S D; Laver, W G; Murti, K G; Portner, A

    1988-01-01

    As a first step in establishing the three-dimensional structure of the Sendai virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), we have isolated and characterized a potentially crystallizable form of the molecule. The sequence of HN, a surface glycoprotein, predicts a protein with an uncharged hydrophobic region near the amino terminus which is responsible for anchorage in the viral envelope. To avoid rosette formation (aggregation), which would preclude crystallization, this hydrophobic tail was removed from a membrane-free form of HN by proteolytic digestion. This digestion resulted in a single product with a molecular weight of about 10,000 less than native HN. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of cleaved HN (C-HN) indicated a single cleavage site at amino acid residue 131, resulting in a product consisting of the carboxyl-terminal 444 amino acids of HN. Functional analyses revealed that C-HN retained full neuraminidase activity and was able to bind erythrocytes, indicating that the N-terminal 131 residues were not necessary for these biological activities. Furthermore, this cleavage product retained the antigenic structure of intact HN, since monoclonal antibodies still bound to C-HN in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western (immuno-) blot analysis. Viewed by electron microscopy, the dimeric and tetrameric forms of intact HN form rosettes while C-HN maintains the oligomeric structure but no longer aggregates. Furthermore, the electron micrographs revealed a C-HN tetramer strikingly similar to the influenza virus neuraminidase in both size and gross structural features. Images PMID:2846877

  20. Glutathione peroxidase activity and chemical forms of selenium in tissues of rats given selenite or selenomethionine

    SciTech Connect

    Beilstein, M.A.; Whanger, P.D.

    1988-05-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and deposition of selenium (Se) were examined in tissues of rats given dietary Se for 7 wk as either selenite or selenomethionine (SeMet) with 75Se radiotracer of the same chemical form. On the basis of Se:75Se ratio, all tissues of the rats fed selenite were equilibrated with the dietary source, but tissues of the SeMet fed animals maintained a ratio of Se:75Se greater than the dietary ratio. Deposition of dietary Se and 75Se was higher in most tissues of rats fed SeMet. Muscle 75Se was the largest single tissue pool of 75Se in both groups accounting for one-third of recovered 75Se in the rats fed selenite, and one-half of recovered 75Se in the rats fed SeMet. Tissue GPx activities were not different between the two dietary groups. The proportion of Se as GPx in tissues was highest in erythrocytes of the rats fed selenite (.81) and lowest in testes and epididymides of the rats fed SeMet (.009). The proportion of Se present in cytosolic GPx was consistently higher in tissues of rats fed selenite. Erythrocytes of the rats fed SeMet had more 75Se associated with hemoglobin, and muscle cytosols of the rats fed selenite had more 75Se associated with the G-protein. The proportion of 75Se as SeMet determined by ion exchange chromatography of tissue hydrolysates was higher in tissues of rats fed SeMet (highest in muscle and hemoglobin, 70%, and lowest in testes, 16%). In contrast, selenocysteine was the predominant form of Se present in tissues of rats given selenite. These results indicate that the form of Se administered will influence the form in the tissues, the percentage of Se with GPx and the body burden of Se.

  1. Activation of the hole-forming toxin aerolysin by extracellular processing.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, S P; Buckley, J T

    1985-01-01

    A precursor-product relationship between aerolysin and a protein with a higher molecular weight was observed in culture supernatants of Aeromonas hydrophila. The larger protein was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography and compared with purified aerolysin. It was at least 250 times less hemolytic than aerolysin. Both proteins had the same amino acid sequence at the amino terminus. Cyanogen bromide fragments obtained from the two were identical except that each protein contained one unique fragment, and the fragment from the larger protein was 2,500 daltons larger than the fragment obtained from aerolysin. Treatment with trypsin or with an extracellular Aeromonas protease resulted in rapid conversion of the larger protein to a form corresponding in molecular weight and activity to aerolysin. The results indicate that aerolysin is exported to the culture supernatant as a protoxin which is later activated by proteolytic removal of a peptide from the C terminus. Images PMID:3891735

  2. [Study of the Sporothrix schenkii (yeast forms) extract. Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analyses: characterization of enzymatic activities].

    PubMed

    Walbaum, S; Duriez, T; Dujardin, L; Biguet, J

    1978-07-28

    An extract from living yeast forms of S. schenckii was prepared. The yeasts originated from a shake culture in B.H.I. broth (Difco) incubated for 3 days at 35 degrees C in darkness; they were harvested, washed and disrupted with glass beads in a model MSK Braun mechanical cell homogenizer; a freezing-thawing was added to improve the extract. After electrophoretic separation in agarose gel, the extract's components were characterized by their enzymic activity; with this technique, 30 bands were revealed. These enzymic activities were also investigated on the antigenic fractions of the extract revealed by a rabbit hyperimmunserum: 16 among 22 immunoprecipitates are identified by their catalytic properties. Study of the earliest precipitating antibodies (appearing-order and enzymic caracterization) in rabbits just immunized completes this work. How to ameliorate the quality of the extract by culture and extraction conditions is also specified. PMID:692628

  3. Role of activation in alveolar macrophage-mediated suppression of the plaque-forming cell response.

    PubMed Central

    Mbawuike, I N; Herscowitz, H B

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are highly suppressive of the in vitro plaque-forming cell (PFC) response of spleen cells obtained from mice primed with sheep erythrocytes. Comparison of macrophage populations obtained from disparate anatomical sites revealed that although in both cases there was a cell-concentration-dependent suppression of the PFC response, resident AM or AM activated as a result of intravenous injection of Mycobacterium bovis BCG were equally suppressive at the doses examined. Although there was a similar dose-dependent suppression with peritoneal macrophages, BCG-activated cells were more suppressive of the PFC response than were resident cells. In contrast, splenic macrophages at comparable concentrations were not at all suppressive. Resident AM exhibited significantly lower levels of 5'-nucleotidase activity than did resident peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage-mediated suppression of the in vitro PFC response could not be attributed to the release of toxic oxygen metabolites (H2O2, O2- ,and .OH) or prostaglandins, since the addition of catalase, superoxide dismutase, 2-mercaptoethanol, or indomethacin did not completely reverse suppression. These results suggest that the lung microenvironment may maintain AM in an activated state which contributes to their potential immunoregulatory functions. PMID:2830191

  4. Theoretical study of the phototoxicity of naproxen and the active form of nabumetone.

    PubMed

    Musa, Klefah A K; Eriksson, Leif A

    2008-10-30

    Density functional theory using the hybrid functional B3LYP has been employed in order to study the mechanisms of photoinduced decomposition of the closely related nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs naproxen (NP) and 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (MNAA; the active form of nabumetone). The photochemical properties and computed energies of various species obtained in this study show that both drugs dominate in their deprotonated forms at physiological pH. The deprotonated acids are unable to decarboxylate from their excited singlets; instead, they decarboxylate from their first excited triplet states with high efficiency, overcoming energy barriers less than 3 and 1 kcal/mol for MNAA and NP, respectively. The ultraviolet and visible spectra of the neutral, deprotonated, and decarboxylated moieties of MNAA and NP are more-or-less similar but with higher probabilites (oscillator strength) for the latter. This fact, as well as the higher reactivity of NP, is explained in terms of the electron-donating effect of the additional methyl group present in NP. Singlet oxygen, superoxide radical anion, and corresponding peroxyl radical species are expected to be formed in different steps throughout the proposed photodegradation pathways of both drugs, which give rise to their effects on biomolecules, for example, lipid peroxidation. PMID:18834087

  5. Pore-forming activity and structural autoinhibition of the gasdermin family.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingjin; Wang, Kun; Liu, Wang; She, Yang; Sun, Qi; Shi, Jianjin; Sun, Hanzi; Wang, Da-Cheng; Shao, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory caspases cleave the gasdermin D (GSDMD) protein to trigger pyroptosis, a lytic form of cell death that is crucial for immune defences and diseases. GSDMD contains a functionally important gasdermin-N domain that is shared in the gasdermin family. The functional mechanism of action of gasdermin proteins is unknown. Here we show that the gasdermin-N domains of the gasdermin proteins GSDMD, GSDMA3 and GSDMA can bind membrane lipids, phosphoinositides and cardiolipin, and exhibit membrane-disrupting cytotoxicity in mammalian cells and artificially transformed bacteria. Gasdermin-N moved to the plasma membrane during pyroptosis. Purified gasdermin-N efficiently lysed phosphoinositide/cardiolipin-containing liposomes and formed pores on membranes made of artificial or natural phospholipid mixtures. Most gasdermin pores had an inner diameter of 10–14 nm and contained 16 symmetric protomers. The crystal structure of GSDMA3 showed an autoinhibited two-domain architecture that is conserved in the gasdermin family. Structure-guided mutagenesis demonstrated that the liposome-leakage and pore-forming activities of the gasdermin-N domain are required for pyroptosis. These findings reveal the mechanism for pyroptosis and provide insights into the roles of the gasdermin family in necrosis, immunity and diseases. PMID:27281216

  6. Trypanocidal activity of the essential oils in their conventional and nanoemulsion forms: in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; Zimmermann, Carine E P; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Santos, Roberto C V; Rech, Virginia C; Tonin, Alexandre A; Giongo, Janice L; Mattos, Cristiane B; Koester, Letícia; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility in vitro of Trypanosoma evansi to the essential oils of andiroba (Carapa guaianensis) and aroeira (Schinus molle), in their conventional and nanostructured forms. For that, pure oils at concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% were used. A negative control (untreated) and a positive control (diminazene aceturate 0.5%) were used as comparative parameters. Later, the same tests were performed, using nanoemulsions oils at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%. The tests were carried out in triplicates and the numbers of parasites were quantified on 1, 3 and 6 h from onset of the study. A dose-dependent reduction in the number of parasites to the forms of two oils tested was observed after 1 h. The concentration of parasites was significantly reduced at low concentrations after 3 h, as well as at 6 h no alive parasites were observed for the essential oils tested. Ours findings indicate, for the first time, that oils of andiroba and aroeira (in their conventional and nanoemulsion forms) have high activity against T. evansi in vitro, leading to the suggestion that these oils may be applied as an alternative treatment for this disease. PMID:23562884

  7. The TCP1γ subunit of Leishmania donovani forms a biologically active homo-oligomeric complex.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar; Mitra, Kalyan; Kuldeep, Jitendra; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Goyal, Neena

    2015-12-01

    Chaperonins are a class of molecular chaperons that encapsulate nascent or stress-denatured proteins and assist their intracellular assembly and folding in an ATP-dependent manner. The ubiquitous eukaryotic chaperonin, TCP1 ring complex is a hetero-oligomeric complex comprising two rings, each formed of eight subunits that may have distinct substrate recognition and ATP hydrolysis properties. In Leishmania, only the TCP1γ subunit has been cloned and characterized. It exhibited differential expression at various growth stages of promastigotes. In the present study, we expressed the TCP1γ subunit in Escherichia coli to investigate whether it forms chaperonin-like complexes and plays a role in protein folding. LdTCP1γ formed high-molecular-weight complexes within E. coli cells as well as in Leishmania cell lysates. The recombinant protein is arranged into two back-to-back rings of seven subunits each, as predicted by homology modelling and observed by negative staining electron microscopy. This morphology is consistent with that of the oligomeric double-ring group I chaperonins found in mitochondria. The LdTCP1γ homo-oligomeric complex hydrolysed ATP, and was active as assayed by luciferase refolding. Thus, the homo-oligomer performs chaperonin reactions without partner subunit(s). Further, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that LdTCP1γ interacts with actin and tubulin proteins, suggesting that the complex may have a role in maintaining the structural dynamics of the cytoskeleton of parasites. PMID:26395202

  8. Dynamin Forms a Src Kinase–sensitive Complex with Cbl and Regulates Podosomes and Osteoclast Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Neff, Lynn; Sanjay, Archana; Horne, William C.; De Camilli, Pietro; Baron, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Podosomes are highly dynamic actin-containing adhesion structures found in osteoclasts, macrophages, and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-transformed fibroblasts. After integrin engagement, Pyk2 recruits Src and the adaptor protein Cbl, forming a molecular signaling complex that is critical for cell migration, and deletion of any molecule in this complex disrupts podosome ring formation and/or decreases osteoclast migration. Dynamin, a GTPase essential for endocytosis, is also involved in actin cytoskeleton remodeling and is localized to podosomes where it has a role in actin turnover. We found that dynamin colocalizes with Cbl in the actin-rich podosome belt of osteoclasts and that dynamin forms a complex with Cbl in osteoclasts and when overexpressed in 293VnR or SYF cells. The association of dynamin with Cbl in osteoclasts was decreased by Src tyrosine kinase activity and we found that destabilization of the dynamin-Cbl complex involves the recruitment of Src through the proline-rich domain of Cbl. Overexpression of dynamin increased osteoclast bone resorbing activity and migration, whereas overexpression of dynK44A decreased osteoclast resorption and migration. These studies suggest that dynamin, Cbl, and Src coordinately participate in signaling complexes that are important in the assembly and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to changes in osteoclast adhesion, migration, and resorption. PMID:15872089

  9. Dynamin forms a Src kinase-sensitive complex with Cbl and regulates podosomes and osteoclast activity.

    PubMed

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Neff, Lynn; Sanjay, Archana; Horne, William C; De Camilli, Pietro; Baron, Roland

    2005-07-01

    Podosomes are highly dynamic actin-containing adhesion structures found in osteoclasts, macrophages, and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-transformed fibroblasts. After integrin engagement, Pyk2 recruits Src and the adaptor protein Cbl, forming a molecular signaling complex that is critical for cell migration, and deletion of any molecule in this complex disrupts podosome ring formation and/or decreases osteoclast migration. Dynamin, a GTPase essential for endocytosis, is also involved in actin cytoskeleton remodeling and is localized to podosomes where it has a role in actin turnover. We found that dynamin colocalizes with Cbl in the actin-rich podosome belt of osteoclasts and that dynamin forms a complex with Cbl in osteoclasts and when overexpressed in 293VnR or SYF cells. The association of dynamin with Cbl in osteoclasts was decreased by Src tyrosine kinase activity and we found that destabilization of the dynamin-Cbl complex involves the recruitment of Src through the proline-rich domain of Cbl. Overexpression of dynamin increased osteoclast bone resorbing activity and migration, whereas overexpression of dynK44A decreased osteoclast resorption and migration. These studies suggest that dynamin, Cbl, and Src coordinately participate in signaling complexes that are important in the assembly and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to changes in osteoclast adhesion, migration, and resorption. PMID:15872089

  10. A transcriptionally active form of TFIIIC is modified in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, M E; Dasgupta, A

    1990-01-01

    In HeLa cells, RNA polymerase III (pol III)-mediated transcription is severely inhibited by poliovirus infection. This inhibition is due primarily to the reduction in transcriptional activity of the pol III transcription factor TFIIIC in poliovirus-infected cells. However, the specific binding of TFIIIC to the VAI gene B-box sequence, as assayed by DNase I footprinting, is not altered by poliovirus infection. We have used gel retardation analysis to analyze TFIIIC-DNA complexes formed in nuclear extracts prepared from mock- and poliovirus-infected cells. In mock-infected cell extracts, two closely migrating TFIIIC-containing complexes, complexes I and II, were detected in the gel retardation assay. The slower migrating complex, complex I, was absent in poliovirus-infected cell extracts, and an increase occurred in the intensity of the faster-migrating complex (complex II). Also, in poliovirus-infected cell extracts, a new, rapidly migrating complex, complex III, was formed. Complex III may have been the result of limited proteolysis of complex I or II. These changes in TFIIIC-containing complexes in poliovirus-infected cell extracts correlated kinetically with the decrease in TFIIIC transcriptional activity. Complexes I, II, and III were chromatographically separated; only complex I was transcriptionally active and specifically restored pol III transcription when added to poliovirus-infected cell extracts. Acid phosphatase treatment partially converted complex I to complex II but did not affect the binding of complex II or III. Dephosphorylation and limited proteolysis of TFIIIC are discussed as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of pol III-mediated transcription by poliovirus. Images PMID:2204807

  11. Extensive Post-translational Modification of Active and Inactivated Forms of Endogenous p53*

    PubMed Central

    DeHart, Caroline J.; Chahal, Jasdave S.; Flint, S. J.; Perlman, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates to very high concentrations in normal human fibroblasts infected by adenovirus type 5 mutants that cannot direct assembly of the viral E1B 55-kDa protein-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation. Despite high concentrations of nuclear p53, the p53 transcriptional program is not induced in these infected cells. We exploited this system to examine select post-translational modifications (PTMs) present on a transcriptionally inert population of endogenous human p53, as well as on p53 activated in response to etoposide treatment of normal human fibroblasts. These forms of p53 were purified from whole cell lysates by means of immunoaffinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE, and peptides derived from them were subjected to nano-ultra-high-performance LC-MS and MS/MS analyses on a high-resolution accurate-mass MS platform (data available via ProteomeXchange, PXD000464). We identified an unexpectedly large number of PTMs, comprising phosphorylation of Ser and Thr residues, methylation of Arg residues, and acetylation, ubiquitinylation, and methylation of Lys residues—for example, some 150 previously undescribed modifications of p53 isolated from infected cells. These modifications were distributed across all functional domains of both forms of the endogenous human p53 protein, as well as those of an orthologous population of p53 isolated from COS-1 cells. Despite the differences in activity, including greater in vitro sequence-specific DNA binding activity exhibited by p53 isolated from etoposide-treated cells, few differences were observed in the location, nature, or relative frequencies of PTMs on the two populations of human p53. Indeed, the wealth of PTMs that we have identified is consistent with a far greater degree of complex, combinatorial regulation of p53 by PTM than previously anticipated. PMID:24056736

  12. FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM: ACTIVATION OF SHAPE & FUNCTION FEATURES DURING OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function follows form. We used eye movements to explore whether activating one object’s concept leads to the activation of others that share perceptual (shape) or abstract (function) features. Participants viewed four-picture displays and clicked on the picture corresponding to a heard word. In critical trials, the conceptual representation of one of the objects in the display was similar in shape or function (i.e., its purpose) to the heard word. Importantly, this similarity was not apparent in the visual depictions (e.g., for the target “frisbee,” the shape-related object was a triangular slice of pizza – a shape that a frisbee cannot take); preferential fixations on the related object were therefore attributable to overlap of the conceptual representations on the relevant features. We observed relatedness effects for both shape and function, but shape effects occurred earlier than function effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for current accounts of the representation of semantic memory. PMID:21417543

  13. Bactericidal Activity of N-Chlorotaurine against Biofilm-Forming Bacteria Grown on Metal Disks

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Christoph G.; Fille, Manfred; Hausdorfer, Johann; Nogler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many orthopedic surgeons consider surgical irrigation and debridement with prosthesis retention as a treatment option for postoperative infections. Usually, saline solution with no added antimicrobial agent is used for irrigation. We investigated the activity of N-chlorotaurine (NCT) against various biofilm-forming bacteria in vitro and thereby gained significant information on its usability as a soluble and well-tolerated active chlorine compound in orthopedic surgery. Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus were grown on metal alloy disks and in polystyrene dishes for 48 h. Subsequently, they were incubated for 15 min to 7 h in buffered solutions containing therapeutically applicable concentrations of NCT (1%, 0.5%, and 0.1%; 5.5 to 55 mM) at 37°C. NCT inactivated the biofilm in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy revealed disturbance of the biofilm architecture by rupture of the extracellular matrix. Assays with reduction of carboxanilide (XTT) showed inhibition of the metabolism of the bacteria in biofilms. Quantitative cultures confirmed killing of S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on metal alloy disks by NCT. Clinical isolates were slightly more resistant than ATCC type strains, but counts of CFU were reduced at least 10-fold by 1% NCT within 15 min in all cases. NCT showed microbicidal activity against various bacterial strains in biofilms. Whether this can be transferred to the clinical situation should be the aim of future studies. PMID:24492358

  14. Inflammasome-activated gasdermin D causes pyroptosis by forming membrane pores.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Zhang, Zhibin; Ruan, Jianbin; Pan, Youdong; Magupalli, Venkat Giri; Wu, Hao; Lieberman, Judy

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory caspases (caspases 1, 4, 5 and 11) are activated in response to microbial infection and danger signals. When activated, they cleave mouse and human gasdermin D (GSDMD) after Asp276 and Asp275, respectively, to generate an N-terminal cleavage product (GSDMD-NT) that triggers inflammatory death (pyroptosis) and release of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β. Cleavage removes the C-terminal fragment (GSDMD-CT), which is thought to fold back on GSDMD-NT to inhibit its activation. However, how GSDMD-NT causes cell death is unknown. Here we show that GSDMD-NT oligomerizes in membranes to form pores that are visible by electron microscopy. GSDMD-NT binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and phosphatidylserine (restricted to the cell membrane inner leaflet) and cardiolipin (present in the inner and outer leaflets of bacterial membranes). Mutation of four evolutionarily conserved basic residues blocks GSDMD-NT oligomerization, membrane binding, pore formation and pyroptosis. Because of its lipid-binding preferences, GSDMD-NT kills from within the cell, but does not harm neighbouring mammalian cells when it is released during pyroptosis. GSDMD-NT also kills cell-free bacteria in vitro and may have a direct bactericidal effect within the cytosol of host cells, but the importance of direct bacterial killing in controlling in vivo infection remains to be determined. PMID:27383986

  15. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Polish Propolis against Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Kępa, Małgorzata; Idzik, Danuta; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Wąsik, Tomasz J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Polish propolis (EEPP) against biofilm-forming CoNS strains in vitro. Our results revealed that EEPP displayed varying degrees of activity against CoNS with MIC values ranging from 1.56 to 0.78 mg/mL. The average MIC was 1.13 ± 0.39 mg/mL while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.78 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively. The biofilm formation ability by all tested S. epidermidis strains was inhibited at EEPP concentrations ranging from 0.39 to 1.56 mg/mL. The degree of reduction of AlamarBlue was directly associated with the proliferation of S. epidermidis strains. The increased proliferation of S. epidermidis strains was observed after 12 and 24 hours of incubation in the presence of EEPP concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 0.39 mg/mL. These results suggest that antimicrobial activities of EEPP against S. epidermidis expressed as the reduction of bacterial growth, reduction of biofilm formation ability, and the intensity of proliferation were significantly affected by incubation time and EEPP concentration used as well as the interactions between these factors. PMID:23662143

  16. [Relationship between the oxidation-reduction system of astrocytes with production of active forms of oxygen].

    PubMed

    Semenkova, G N; Kvacheva, Z B; Obydennikova, S V; Cherenkevich, S N; Titov, L P

    1998-01-01

    Cells of neuroglia--the astrocytes are of interest from the point of view of their participation in phagocytosis. Phagocyte ability to generate active oxygen forms (AOF) as used as the basic criterion of the estimation of their functional activity. For the purpose to clear up molecular and cellular mechanisms of phagocytosis a study of astrocyte redox-systems, participating in production of AOF, was undertaken. Registration of AOF in astrocytes was carried out using a method of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Primary culture of guinea pig astrocytes was used. Spontaneous chemiluminescence of low intensity was found for the astrocytes at the presence of luminol. The destruction of the cells was accompanied by a significant growth of the intensity of spontaneous chemiluminescence. Suspension of endocutosis inductors, particle of latex and phytohemagglutinin, added to astrocytes did not result in formation of AOF, characteristic for other cells, possessing phagocytosis. It was established, that addition of hydrogen peroxide destroys astrocytes at the presence of luminol and gives rise to the emission. Chemiluminescence was not observed in similar experiments with intact cells. A conclusion was made that inside astrocytes there are structures, which show peroxidase-like activity. PMID:9848214

  17. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity in vitro by oligonucleotides which form intramolecular tetrads.

    PubMed

    Rando, R F; Ojwang, J; Elbaggari, A; Reyes, G R; Tinder, R; McGrath, M S; Hogan, M E

    1995-01-27

    An oligonucleotide (I100-15) composed of only deoxyguanosine and thymidine was able to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in culture assay systems. I100-15 did not block virus entry into cells but did reduce viral-specific transcripts. As assessed by NMR and polyacrylamide gel methods, I100-15 appears to form a structure in which two stacked guanosine tetrads are connected by three two-base long loops. Structure/activity experiments indicated that formation of intramolecular guanosine tetrads was necessary to achieve maximum antiviral activity. The single deoxyguanosine nucleotide present in each loop was found to be extremely important for the overall antiviral activity. The toxicity of I100-15 was determined to be well above the 50% effective dose (ED50) in culture which yielded a high therapeutic index (> 100). The addition of a cholesterol moiety to the 3' terminus of I100-15 (I100-23) reduced the ED50 value to less than 50 nM (from 0.12 microM for I100-15) and increased the duration of viral suppression to greater than 21 days (versus 7-10 days for I100-15) after removal of the drug from infected cell cultures. The favorable therapeutic index of such molecules coupled with the prolonged suppression of HIV-1, suggest that such compounds further warrant investigation as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:7829511

  18. Event-related potential evidence of form and meaning coding during online speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Claudia K; Kotz, Sonja A

    2007-04-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether initial analysis of speech is independent of contextual influences or whether meaning can modulate word activation directly. Utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we tested the neural correlates of speech recognition by presenting sentences that ended with incomplete words, such as To light up the dark she needed her can-. Immediately following the incomplete words, subjects saw visual words that (i) matched form and meaning, such as candle; (ii) matched meaning but not form, such as lantern; (iii) matched form but not meaning, such as candy; or (iv) mismatched form and meaning, such as number. We report ERP evidence for two distinct cohorts of lexical tokens: (a) a left-lateralized effect, the P250, differentiates form-matching words (i, iii) and form-mismatching words (ii, iv); (b) a right-lateralized effect, the P220, differentiates words that match in form and/or meaning (i, ii, iii) from mismatching words (iv). Lastly, fully matching words (i) reduce the amplitude of the N400. These results accommodate bottom-up and top-down accounts of human speech recognition. They suggest that neural representations of form and meaning are activated independently early on and are integrated at a later stage during sentence comprehension. PMID:17381251

  19. Correlation of primate red nucleus discharge with muscle activity during free-form arm movements.

    PubMed

    Miller, L E; van Kan, P L; Sinkjaer, T; Andersen, T; Harris, G D; Houk, J C

    1993-09-01

    1. We recorded from 239 neurons located in the magnocellular division of the red nucleus of four alert macaque monkeys. At the same time, we recorded electromyographic (EMG) signals from as many as twenty electrodes chronically implanted on muscles of the shoulder, arm, forearm and hand. We recorded EMG signals for periods ranging from several months to a year. 2. The monkeys were trained to perform three free-form food retrieval tasks, each of which activated all of the recorded muscles and most of the neurons. The 'prehension' task required simply that the monkey grasp a piece of food from a fixed point in space. The 'barrier' task required the monkey to reach around a small barrier to obtain the food, and the 'Kluver' task required that food be removed from small holes. During the prehension task, we found approximately equal numbers of neurons that were strongly active while the hand was being moved toward the target (70% of units), and while the food was being grasped (60%). Relatively few units were active as the hand was returned to the mouth (15%). 3. Data files of 1-2 min duration were collected while the monkey performed a single behavioural task. Whenever possible, we recorded files for all three tasks from each neuron. For each file we calculated long time-span analog cross-correlations (+/- 1.28 s) between instantaneous neuronal firing rate and each of the full-wave rectified, low-pass filtered EMG signals. We used the peak correlation and the time of the peak as two summary measures of the functional relation between modulation of neuronal activity and EMG. 4. The magnitude of the strongest correlations was between 0.4 and 0.5 (normalized to a perfect correlation of +/- 1.0). Distal muscles were the most frequently correlated, and extensors were more frequently correlated than flexors. For all monkeys, the lags for well correlated muscles were distributed broadly about a uni-modal value near 0 ms. Eighty five per cent of the correlations larger than

  20. ESR dating of barite in sulphide deposits formed by the sea-floor hydrothermal activities.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Shin; Fujiwara, Taisei; Uchida, Ai; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nakai, Shun'ichi; Takamasa, Asako

    2014-06-01

    Barite is a mineral newly found to be practically useful for electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of sulphide deposits formed by the sea-floor hydrothermal activities. The recent studies for the properties of the ESR dating signal in barite are summarised in the present paper as well as the formulas for corrections for accurate dose-rate estimation are developed including the dose-rate conversion factors, shape correction for gamma-ray dose and decay of (226)Ra. Although development of the techniques for ESR dating of barite has been completed, further comparative studies with other dating techniques such as U-Th and (226)Ra-(210)Pb dating are necessary for the technique to be widely used. PMID:24795384

  1. Identification of Triclosan-O-Sulfate and other transformation products of Triclosan formed by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xijuan; Casas, Mònica Escolà; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Wimmer, Reinhard; Bester, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic degradation experiments of Triclosan were performed in activated sludge to identify possible transformation products for this compound. During 7 days, the formation of biotransformation products such as 2,4-Dichlorophenol, 4-Chlorocatechol, 5-Hydroxy-Triclosan and other Monohydroxy-Triclosan derivatives as well as Dihydroxy-Triclosan-derivatives were observed. The structure of 5-Hydroxy-Triclosan was elucidated by NMR data for the first time in sludge degradation experiments. Additionally the production of a hitherto unknown transformation product in sludge, i.e., Triclosan-O-Sulfate was detected. During the incubations, the concentrations of this transformation product changed from zero to 330 μg L(-1). Based on the analysis of the biodegradation products, three types of reactions were identified: 1) chemical scission of ether bond to form phenols and catechols, 2) addition of OH moieties to the aromatic ring, and 3) adding of methyl or sulfate groups to the original hydroxyl group. PMID:25306094

  2. Hydrolytic and autolytic behavior of two forms of calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP).

    PubMed

    Inomata, M; Hayashi, M; Nakamura, M; Imahori, K; Kawashima, S

    1985-08-01

    Some endogenous substrates were incubated with two forms of calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP) with high (muCANP) and low (mCANP) sensitivities to calcium ions. In addition to analyses of the processes of their degradation, changes in the molecular properties of these CANPs were also examined. Among the tested substrate proteins, the myosin heavy chain of rabbit skeletal muscle myofibrils and spectrin or band 3 protein of human erythrocyte membranes were degraded relatively rapidly. So far as these proteins were concerned, a higher degradation velocity was observed for muCANP than for mCANP. Vimentin from ascites tumor cells was degraded most rapidly and no difference was observed in degradation velocity between muCANP and mCANP. In all cases, muCANP and mCANP produced different proteolytic peptide fragments, suggesting the different substrate-specificities of these CANPs. The degradation of substrates always accompanied the autodigestion of CANPs, and the small subunits of both CANPs were degraded in the early stage of the autodigestion. The large subunit of muCANP (79K) was converted to a 76K polypeptide via a 77K polypeptide as an intermediate. The autodigested muCANP with 76K polypeptide retained sufficient protease activity and, moreover, its calcium-sensitivity was higher than that of intact muCANP. The possibility is thus proposed that restricted autodigestion is a necessary activation step for the appearance of activity of muCANP. No such transition was observed for mCANP. PMID:2999095

  3. Patterns of regional brain activation associated with different forms of motor learning.

    PubMed

    Ghilardi, M; Ghez, C; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J; Mentis, M; Nakamura, T; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2000-07-14

    To examine the variations in regional cerebral blood flow during execution and learning of reaching movements, we employed a family of kinematically and dynamically controlled motor tasks in which cognitive, mnemonic and executive features of performance were differentiated and characterized quantitatively. During 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) scans, twelve right-handed subjects moved their dominant hand on a digitizing tablet from a central location to equidistant targets displayed with a cursor on a computer screen in synchrony with a tone. In the preceding week, all subjects practiced three motor tasks: 1) movements to a predictable sequence of targets; 2) learning of new visuomotor transformations in which screen cursor motion was rotated by 30 degrees -60 degrees; 3) learning new target sequences by trial and error, by using previously acquired routines in a task placing heavy load on spatial working memory. The control condition was observing screen and audio displays. Subtraction images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping to identify significant brain activation foci. Execution of predictable sequences was characterized by a modest decrease in movement time and spatial error. The underlying pattern of activation involved primary motor and sensory areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia. Adaptation to a rotated reference frame, a form of procedural learning, was associated with decrease in the imposed directional bias. This task was associated with activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. New sequences were learned explicitly. Significant activation was found in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In this study, we have introduced a series of flexible motor tasks with similar kinematic characteristics and different spatial attributes. These tasks can be used to assess specific aspects of motor learning with imaging in health and disease. PMID:10882792

  4. The Role of Biofilms in the Sedimentology of Actively Forming Gypsum Deposits at Guerrero Negro, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Marilyn B.; Des Marais, David J.; Turk, Kendra A.; Parenteau, Mary N.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Kubo, Michael D. Y.

    2009-11-01

    Actively forming gypsum deposits at the Guerrero Negro sabkha and saltern system provided habitats for stratified, pigmented microbial communities that exhibited significant morphological and phylogenetic diversity. These deposits ranged from meter-thick gypsum crusts forming in saltern seawater concentration ponds to columnar microbial mats with internally crystallized gypsum granules developing in natural anchialine pools. Gypsum-depositing environments were categorized as forming precipitation surfaces, biofilm-supported surfaces, and clastic surfaces. Each surface type was described in terms of depositional environment, microbial diversity, mineralogy, and sedimentary fabrics. Precipitation surfaces developed in high-salinity subaqueous environments where rates of precipitation outpaced the accumulation of clastic, organic, and/or biofilm layers. These surfaces hosted endolithic biofilms comprised predominantly of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes. Biofilm-supported deposits developed in lower-salinity subaqueous environments where light and low water-column turbulence supported dense benthic microbial communities comprised mainly of oxygenic phototrophs. In these settings, gypsum granules precipitated in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix as individual granules exhibiting distinctive morphologies. Clastic surfaces developed in sabkha mudflats that included gypsum, carbonate, and siliclastic particles with thin gypsum/biofilm components. Clastic surfaces were influenced by subsurface brine sheets and capillary evaporation and precipitated subsedimentary gypsum discs in deeper regions. Biofilms appeared to influence both chemical and physical sedimentary processes in the various subaqueous and subaerially exposed environments studied. Biofilm interaction with chemical sedimentary processes included dissolution and granularization of precipitation surfaces, formation of

  5. The role of biofilms in the sedimentology of actively forming gypsum deposits at Guerrero Negro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Marilyn B; Des Marais, David J; Turk, Kendra A; Parenteau, Mary N; Jahnke, Linda L; Kubo, Michael D Y

    2009-11-01

    Actively forming gypsum deposits at the Guerrero Negro sabkha and saltern system provided habitats for stratified, pigmented microbial communities that exhibited significant morphological and phylogenetic diversity. These deposits ranged from meter-thick gypsum crusts forming in saltern seawater concentration ponds to columnar microbial mats with internally crystallized gypsum granules developing in natural anchialine pools. Gypsum-depositing environments were categorized as forming precipitation surfaces, biofilm-supported surfaces, and clastic surfaces. Each surface type was described in terms of depositional environment, microbial diversity, mineralogy, and sedimentary fabrics. Precipitation surfaces developed in high-salinity subaqueous environments where rates of precipitation outpaced the accumulation of clastic, organic, and/or biofilm layers. These surfaces hosted endolithic biofilms comprised predominantly of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes. Biofilm-supported deposits developed in lower-salinity subaqueous environments where light and low water-column turbulence supported dense benthic microbial communities comprised mainly of oxygenic phototrophs. In these settings, gypsum granules precipitated in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix as individual granules exhibiting distinctive morphologies. Clastic surfaces developed in sabkha mudflats that included gypsum, carbonate, and siliclastic particles with thin gypsum/biofilm components. Clastic surfaces were influenced by subsurface brine sheets and capillary evaporation and precipitated subsedimentary gypsum discs in deeper regions. Biofilms appeared to influence both chemical and physical sedimentary processes in the various subaqueous and subaerially exposed environments studied. Biofilm interaction with chemical sedimentary processes included dissolution and granularization of precipitation surfaces, formation of

  6. Electrically active centers formed in silicon during the high-temperature diffusion of boron and aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A.; Loshachenko, A. S.; Poloskin, D. S.; Shek, E. I.

    2013-02-15

    The parameters of electrically active centers formed during the high-temperature diffusion of boron and aluminum into silicon in various media are studied by the Hall method and capacitance spectroscopy. It is found that the variation in the resistivity of the n base of the structures with p-n junctions fabricated in the study is controlled by the formation of three donor levels Q1, E4, and Q3 with the energies E{sub c} - 0.31, E{sub c} - 0.27, and E{sub c} - 0.16 eV. Diffusion in a chlorine-containing atmosphere introduces only a single level E4, but its concentration is 2.5 times lower, compared with diffusion in air. The values of the ionization energy of the Q3 level, measured under equilibrium (Hall effect) and nonequilibrium (capacitance spectroscopy) conditions, almost coincide. The deepest level E1 with an energy of E{sub c} - 0.54 eV, formed upon diffusion in both media, has no effect on the resistivity in the n base of the structures.

  7. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp

    PubMed Central

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria. PMID:27570483

  8. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp.

    PubMed

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria. PMID:27570483

  9. Premature lethality, hyperactivity, and aberrant phosphorylation in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of Fyn

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Di; Götz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The kinase Fyn, the microtubule-associated protein tau and the peptide amyloid-β (Aβ) constitute a toxic triad in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau's subcellular localization is mainly regulated by phosphorylation whereas Fyn's localization is dictated by palmitoylation targeting it to the plasma membrane in a reversible manner. We have previously shown that tau is required for Fyn to be targeted to the dendritic spine. We had also shown that a truncated form of tau (Δtau) that accumulates in the cell soma is capable of trapping Fyn and preventing it from entering the spine. Here we determined that palmitoylation is required for Fyn's membrane and spine localization. We further evaluated the functional consequences of neuronal over-expression of the constitutively active Y531F mutant form of Fyn (FynCA) in transgenic mice. We found that the FynCA transgenic mice displayed a reduced weight, a massively reduced lifespan and a high level of hyperactivity. The lifespan of the FynCA mice was only slightly extended by crossing them with Δtau transgenic mice, possibly reflecting differences in expression patterns of the transgenes and high levels of transgenic FynCA compared to endogenous Fyn. Analysis of synaptosomes revealed that FynCA accumulated at high levels in the spine, resulting in increased levels of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2b phosphorylated at residue Y1472. Tau was strongly phosphorylated at the AT8 epitope S202/T205 as shown by Western blot and immunohistochemistry indicating that an increased tyrosine kinase activity of Fyn has down-stream consequences for serine/threonine-directed phosphorylation. PMID:24860422

  10. Activation of human natural killer cells by the soluble form of cellular prion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Yeon-Jae; Sung, Pil Soo; Jang, Young-Soon; Choi, Young Joon; Park, Bum-Chan; Park, Su-Hyung; Park, Young Woo; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-08-21

    Cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) is widely expressed in various cell types, including cells of the immune system. However, the specific roles of PrP{sup C} in the immune system have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C} protein on human natural killer (NK) cells. Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} protein was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with the Fc portion of human IgG{sub 1} (PrP{sup C}-Fc). PrP{sup C}-Fc binds to the surface of human NK cells, particularly to CD56{sup dim} NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced the production of cytokines and chemokines and the degranulation of granzyme B from NK cells. In addition, PrP{sup C}-Fc facilitated the IL-15-induced proliferation of NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK in NK cells, and inhibitors of the ERK or the JNK pathways abrogated PrP{sup C}-Fc-induced cytokine production in NK cells. In conclusion, the soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} (PrP{sup C}-Fc) was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with IgG1 Fc portion. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein induces the production of cytokines and degranulation from human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein enhances the IL-15-induced proliferation of human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

  11. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into four time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  12. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 08 (PERIODS 1-5 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into five time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  13. Mid- to far-infrared properties of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdis, G. E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Helou, G.; Farrah, D.; Hurley, P.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J.; Burgarella, D.; Chapman, S.; Charmandaris, V.; Cooray, A.; Dai, Y. Sophia; Dale, D.; Elbaz, D.; Feltre, A.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Huang, J.-S.; Morrison, G.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Scott, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We study the mid- to far-IR properties of a 24 μm-selected flux-limited sample (S24> 5 mJy) of 154 intermediate redshift (⟨ z ⟩ ~ 0.15), infrared luminous galaxies, drawn from the 5 Milli-Jansky Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey. By combining existing mid-IR spectroscopy and new Herschel SPIRE submm photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, we derived robust total infrared luminosity (LIR) and dust mass (Mdust) estimates and infered the relative contribution of the AGN to the infrared energy budget of the sources. We found that the total (8-1000 μm) infrared emission of galaxies with weak 6.2 μm PAH emission (EW6.2 ≤ 0.2 μm) is dominated by AGN activity, while for galaxies with EW6.2> 0.2 μm more than 50% of the LIR arises from star formation. We also found that for galaxies detected in the 250-500 μm Herschel bands an AGN has a statistically insignificant effect on the temperature of the cold dust and the far-IR colours of the host galaxy, which are primarily shaped by star formation activity. For star-forming galaxies we reveal an anti-correlation between the LIR-to-rest-frame 8 μm luminosity ratio, IR8 ≡ LIR/L8 and the strength of PAH features. We found that this anti-correlation is primarily driven by variations in the PAHsemission, and not by variations in the 5-15 μm mid-IR continuum emission. Using the [Ne iii]/[Ne ii] line ratio as a tracer of the hardness of the radiation field, we confirm that galaxies with harder radiation fields tend to exhibit weaker PAH features, and found that they have higher IR8 values and higher dust-mass-weighted luminosities (LIR/Mdust), the latter being a proxy for the dust temperature (Td). We argue that these trends originate either from variations in the environment of the star-forming regions or are caused by variations in the age of the starburst. Finally, we provide scaling relations that will allow estimating LIR, based on single-band observations with the mid-infrared instrument

  14. Characterization of a soluble, catalytically active form of Escherichia coli leader peptidase: requirement of detergent or phospholipid for optimal activity.

    PubMed

    Tschantz, W R; Paetzel, M; Cao, G; Suciu, D; Inouye, M; Dalbey, R E

    1995-03-28

    Leader peptidase is a novel serine protease in Escherichia coli, which functions to cleave leader sequences from exported proteins. Its catalytic domain extends into the periplasmic space and is anchored to the membrane by two transmembrane segments located at the N-terminal end of the protein. At present, there is no information on the structure of the catalytic domain. Here, we report on the properties of a soluble form of leader peptidase (delta 2-75), and we compare its properties to those of the wild-type enzyme. We find that the truncated leader peptidase has a kcat of 3.0 S-1 and a Km of 32 microM with a pro-OmpA nuclease A substrate. In contrast to the wild-type enzyme (pI of 6.8), delta 2-75 is water-soluble and has an acidic isoelectric point of 5.6. We also show with delta 2-75 that the replacement of serine 90 and lysine 145 with alanine residues results in a 500-fold reduction in activity, providing further evidence that leader peptidase employs a catalytic serine/lysine dyad. Finally, we find that the catalysis of delta 2-75 is accelerated by the presence of the detergent Triton X-100, regardless if the substrate is pro-OmpA nuclease A or a peptide substrate. Triton X-100 is required for optimal activity of delta 2-75 at a level far below the critical micelle concentration. Moreover, we find that E. coli phospholipids stimulate the activity of delta 2-75, suggesting that phospholipids may play an important physiological role in the catalytic mechanism of leader peptidase. PMID:7696258

  15. Optogenetic activation of presynaptic inputs in lateral amygdala forms associative fear memory

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Kim, Hyung-Su; Jeong, Yire; Augustine, George J.

    2014-01-01

    In Pavlovian fear conditioning, the lateral amygdala (LA) has been highlighted as a key brain site for association between sensory cues and aversive stimuli. However, learning-related changes are also found in upstream sensory regions such as thalamus and cortex. To isolate the essential neural circuit components for fear memory association, we tested whether direct activation of presynaptic sensory inputs in LA, without the participation of upstream activity, is sufficient to form fear memory in mice. Photostimulation of axonal projections from the two main auditory brain regions, the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and the secondary auditory cortex, was paired with aversive footshock. Twenty-four hours later the same photostimulation induced robust conditioned freezing and this fear memory formation was disrupted when glutamatergic synaptic transmission was locally blocked in the LA. Therefore, our results prove for the first time that synapses between sensory input areas and the LA, previously implicated as a crucial brain site for fear memory formation, actually are sufficient to serve as a conditioned stimulus. Our results strongly support the idea that the LA may be sufficient to encode and store associations between neutral cue and aversive stimuli during natural fear conditioning as a critical part of a broad fear memory engram. PMID:25322798

  16. T-lymphocyte activation and the cellular form of the prion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Mabbott, N A; Brown, K L; Manson, J; Bruce, M E

    1997-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are neurodegenerative disorders which include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in animals. A major component of the infectious agent responsible for these diseases is considered to be a post-translationally modified form of a host-encoded glycoprotein PrPc, termed PrPSc. While PrPc is abundantly expressed in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS), little is known about its normal function. The expression of PrPc is not restricted to the CNS, as this protein can also be detected in the lymphoid tissues of mice and sheep. In this report we demonstrate that resting murine splenic lymphocytes express PrPc protein on their cell membranes. Furthermore, expression of PrPc was significantly enhanced following in vitro stimulation with the non-specific T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). Genetically engineered mice with an inactive PrPc gene (PrP-/- mice), were utilized to investigate the involvement of PrPc in lymphocyte activation. Experiments revealed that the Con A-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from PrP-/- mice was significantly reduced to approximately 50-80% that of wild-type (PrP+/+) mice 48 hr post-stimulation. These findings demonstrate an important role for PrPc in extra-neuronal tissues and suggest that PrPc is a lymphocyte surface molecule that participates in T-cell activation. PMID:9415021

  17. WIDESPREAD AND HIDDEN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT >0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Juneau, Stephanie; Bournaud, Frederic; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Alexander, David M.; Mullaney, James R.; Magnelli, Benjamin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Willner, S. P.; Coil, Alison L.; Rosario, David J.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Cooper, Michael C.; Frayer, David T.; and others

    2013-02-20

    We characterize the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 0.3 < z < 1 star-forming galaxies by applying multi-wavelength AGN diagnostics (X-ray, optical, mid-infrared, radio) to a sample of galaxies selected at 70 {mu}m from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey (FIDEL). Given the depth of FIDEL, we detect 'normal' galaxies on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) sequence as well as starbursting systems with elevated sSFR. We find an overall high occurrence of AGN of 37% {+-} 3%, more than twice as high as in previous studies of galaxies with comparable infrared luminosities and redshifts but in good agreement with the AGN fraction of nearby (0.05 < z < 0.1) galaxies of similar infrared luminosities. The more complete census of AGNs comes from using the recently developed Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. This optical diagnostic is also sensitive to X-ray weak AGNs and X-ray absorbed AGNs, and reveals that absorbed active nuclei reside almost exclusively in infrared-luminous hosts. The fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN appears to be independent of sSFR and remains elevated both on the sSFR sequence and above. In contrast, the fraction of AGNs that are X-ray absorbed increases substantially with increasing sSFR, possibly due to an increased gas fraction and/or gas density in the host galaxies.

  18. Alarin but not its alternative-splicing form, GALP (Galanin-like peptide) has antimicrobial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Akihiro; Wong, Pooi-Fong; Hojo, Hironobu; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Llanes, Rafael; Kubo, Yoshinao; Senba, Masachika; Ichinose, Yoshio

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: • Alarin inhibits the growth of E. coli but not S. aureus. • Alarin’s potency is comparable to LL-37 in inhibiting the growth of E. coli. • Alarin can cause bacterial membrane blebbing. • Alalin does not induce hemolysis on erythrocytes. -- Abstract: Alarin is an alternative-splicing form of GALP (galanin-like peptide). It shares only 5 conserved amino acids at the N-terminal region with GALP which is involved in a diverse range of normal brain functions. This study seeks to investigate whether alarin has additional functions due to its differences from GALP. Here, we have shown using a radial diffusion assay that alarin but not GALP inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (strain ML-35). The conserved N-terminal region, however, remained essential for the antimicrobial activity of alarin as truncated peptides showed reduced killing effect. Moreover, alarin inhibited the growth of E. coli in a similar potency as human cathelicidin LL-37, a well-studied antimicrobial peptide. Electron microscopy further showed that alarin induced bacterial membrane blebbing but unlike LL-37, it did not cause hemolysis of erythrocytes. In addition, alarin is only active against the gram-negative bacteria, E. coli but not the gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, these data suggest that alarin has potentials as an antimicrobial and should be considered for the development in human therapeutics.

  19. Photoluminescence Mechanism and Photocatalytic Activity of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Formed by Sequential Vapor Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Halil I; Stano, Kelly L; Roberts, Adam T; Everitt, Henry O; Jur, Jesse S

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials formed by sequential vapor infiltration (SVI) of trimethylaluminum into polyester fibers are demonstrated, and the photoluminescence of the fibers is evaluated using a combined UV-vis and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy approach. The optical activity of the modified fibers depends on infiltration thermal processing conditions and is attributed to the reaction mechanisms taking place at different temperatures. At low temperatures a single excitation band and dual emission bands are observed, while, at high temperatures, two distinct absorption bands and one emission band are observed, suggesting that the physical and chemical structure of the resulting hybrid material depends on the SVI temperature. Along with enhancing the photoluminescence intensity of the PET fibers, the internal quantum efficiency also increased to 5-fold from ∼4-5% to ∼24%. SVI processing also improved the photocatalytic activity of the fibers, as demonstrated by photodeposition of Ag and Au metal particles out of an aqueous metal salt solution onto fiber surfaces via UVA light exposure. Toward applications in flexible electronics, well-defined patterning of the metallic materials is achieved by using light masking and focused laser rastering approaches. PMID:27063955

  20. Does the proposed DSE motif form the active center in the Hermes transposase?

    PubMed

    Michel, K; O'Brochta, D A; Atkinson, P W

    2002-10-01

    Donor cleavage and strand transfer are two functions performed by transposases during transposition of class II transposable elements. Within transposable elements, the only active center described, to date, facilitating both functions, is the so-called DDE motif. A second motif, R-K-H/K-R-H/W-Y, is found in the site-specific recombinases of the tyrosine recombinase family. While present in many bacterial insertion sequences as well as in the eukaryotic family of mariner/Tc1 elements, the DDE motif was considered absent in other classes of eukaryotic class II elements such as P, and hAT and piggyBac. Based on sequence alignments of a hobo-like element from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, to a variety of other hAT transposases and several members of the mariner/Tc1 group, Bigot et al. [Gene 174 (1996) 265] proposed the presence of a DSE motif in hAT transposases. In the present study we tested if each of these three residues is required for transposition of the Hermes element, a member of the hAT family commonly used for insect transformation. While D402N and E572Q mutations lead to knock-out of Hermes function, mutations S535A and S535D did not affect transposition frequency or the choice of integration sites. These data give the first experimental support that D402 and E572 are indeed required for transposition of Hermes. Furthermore, this study indicates that the active center of the Hermes transposase differs from the proposed DSE motif. It remains to be shown if other residues also form the active site of this transposase. PMID:12426102

  1. Amylopectin biosynthetic enzymes from developing rice seed form enzymatically active protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Naoko; Abe, Natsuko; Oitome, Naoko F; Matsushima, Ryo; Hayashi, Mari; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2015-08-01

    Amylopectin is a highly branched, organized cluster of glucose polymers, and the major component of rice starch. Synthesis of amylopectin requires fine co-ordination between elongation of glucose polymers by soluble starch synthases (SSs), generation of branches by branching enzymes (BEs), and removal of misplaced branches by debranching enzymes (DBEs). Among the various isozymes having a role in amylopectin biosynthesis, limited numbers of SS and BE isozymes have been demonstrated to interact via protein-protein interactions in maize and wheat amyloplasts. This study investigated whether protein-protein interactions are also found in rice endosperm, as well as exploring differences between species. Gel permeation chromatography of developing rice endosperm extracts revealed that all 10 starch biosynthetic enzymes analysed were present at larger molecular weights than their respective monomeric sizes. SSIIa, SSIIIa, SSIVb, BEI, BEIIb, and PUL co-eluted at mass sizes >700kDa, and SSI, SSIIa, BEIIb, ISA1, PUL, and Pho1 co-eluted at 200-400kDa. Zymogram analyses showed that SSI, SSIIIa, BEI, BEIIa, BEIIb, ISA1, PUL, and Pho1 eluted in high molecular weight fractions were active. Comprehensive co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed associations of SSs-BEs, and, among BE isozymes, BEIIa-Pho1, and pullulanase-type DBE-BEI interactions. Blue-native-PAGE zymogram analyses confirmed the glucan-synthesizing activity of protein complexes. These results suggest that some rice starch biosynthetic isozymes are physically associated with each other and form active protein complexes. Detailed analyses of these complexes will shed light on the mechanisms controlling the unique branch and cluster structure of amylopectin, and the physicochemical properties of starch. PMID:25979995

  2. Amylopectin biosynthetic enzymes from developing rice seed form enzymatically active protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Crofts, Naoko; Abe, Natsuko; Oitome, Naoko F.; Matsushima, Ryo; Hayashi, Mari; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Amylopectin is a highly branched, organized cluster of glucose polymers, and the major component of rice starch. Synthesis of amylopectin requires fine co-ordination between elongation of glucose polymers by soluble starch synthases (SSs), generation of branches by branching enzymes (BEs), and removal of misplaced branches by debranching enzymes (DBEs). Among the various isozymes having a role in amylopectin biosynthesis, limited numbers of SS and BE isozymes have been demonstrated to interact via protein–protein interactions in maize and wheat amyloplasts. This study investigated whether protein–protein interactions are also found in rice endosperm, as well as exploring differences between species. Gel permeation chromatography of developing rice endosperm extracts revealed that all 10 starch biosynthetic enzymes analysed were present at larger molecular weights than their respective monomeric sizes. SSIIa, SSIIIa, SSIVb, BEI, BEIIb, and PUL co-eluted at mass sizes >700kDa, and SSI, SSIIa, BEIIb, ISA1, PUL, and Pho1 co-eluted at 200–400kDa. Zymogram analyses showed that SSI, SSIIIa, BEI, BEIIa, BEIIb, ISA1, PUL, and Pho1 eluted in high molecular weight fractions were active. Comprehensive co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed associations of SSs–BEs, and, among BE isozymes, BEIIa–Pho1, and pullulanase-type DBE–BEI interactions. Blue-native-PAGE zymogram analyses confirmed the glucan-synthesizing activity of protein complexes. These results suggest that some rice starch biosynthetic isozymes are physically associated with each other and form active protein complexes. Detailed analyses of these complexes will shed light on the mechanisms controlling the unique branch and cluster structure of amylopectin, and the physicochemical properties of starch. PMID:25979995

  3. 77 FR 65706 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice... Form/Collection: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the... information furnished on Form I-140 will be used by USCIS to classify aliens under sections 203(b)(1),...

  4. An oligomeric form of E. coli UvrD is required for optimal helicase activity.

    PubMed

    Ali, J A; Maluf, N K; Lohman, T M

    1999-11-01

    Pre-steady-state chemical quenched-flow techniques were used to study DNA unwinding catalyzed by Escherichia coli UvrD helicase (helicase II), a member of the SF1 helicase superfamily. Single turnover experiments, with respect to unwinding of a DNA oligonucleotide, were used to examine the DNA substrate and UvrD concentration requirements for rapid DNA unwinding by pre-bound UvrD helicase. In excess UvrD at low DNA concentrations (1 nM), the bulk of the DNA is unwound rapidly by pre-bound UvrD complexes upon addition of ATP, but with time-courses that display a distinct lag phase for formation of fully unwound DNA, indicating that unwinding occurs in discrete steps, with a "step size" of four to five base-pairs as previously reported. Optimum unwinding by pre-bound UvrD-DNA complexes requires a 3' single-stranded (ss) DNA tail of 36-40 nt, whereas productive complexes do not form readily on DNA with 3'-tail lengths form of the UvrD helicase with optimal helicase activity is oligomeric with at least two sites for binding the DNA substrate, where one site contacts regions of the 3'-ssDNA tail that are distal from the single-stranded/double-stranded DNA junction. PMID:10543970

  5. Light-activated, in situ forming gel for sustained suprachoroidal delivery of bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Puneet; Barros, Matthew; Stansbury, Jeffrey W; Kompella, Uday B

    2013-08-01

    A light-activated polycaprolactone dimethacrylate (PCM) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based gel network was developed to sustain the release of stable, active bevacizumab (an anti-VEGF antibody used to treat choroidal neovascularization) and used to assess sustained ex vivo delivery in rabbit eyes and in vivo delivery in rat eyes following in situ gel formation in the suprachoroidal space. PCM was synthesized from polycaprolactone diol (PCD) and evaluated using NMR spectroscopy. PCM was used to cross-link HEMA in the presence of 365 nm UV light and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) as a photoinitiator. Bevacizumab was entrapped in the gel using three different cross-linking durations of 3, 7, and 10 min. In vitro release of bevacizumab in PBS pH 7.4 at 37 °C during a 4 month study was quantified using a VEGF-binding based ELISA. The stability of released bevacizumab was monitored by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and circular dichroism. Alexa Fluor 488 dye conjugated bevacizumab mixed with polymers was injected suprachoroidally in rabbit eyes to study the effect of different cross-linking durations on the spread of the dye conjugated bevacizumab. In vivo delivery was assessed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by injecting Alexa Fluor 488 dye conjugated bevacizumab mixed with polymers followed by cross-linking for 10 min. Spread in the rabbit eyes and in vivo delivery in rat eyes was monitored noninvasively using a fundus camera and Fluorotron Master. The formation of PCM was confirmed by the disappearance of hydroxyl peak in NMR spectra. A cross-linking duration of 10 min resulted in a burst release of 21% of bevacizumab. Other cross-linking durations had ≥62% burst release. Bevacizumab release from 10 min cross-linked gel was sustained for ∼4 months. Release samples contained ≥96.1% of bevacizumab in the monomeric form as observed in SEC chromatograms. Circular dichroism confirmed that secondary β-sheet structure of bevacizumab was maintained

  6. 77 FR 23735 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-1041 and G-1041A, Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ..., 2012, at 77 FR 9259, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-1041... Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Forms G- 1041 and G-1041A, Genealogy Index Search...

  7. 77 FR 64388 - Agency Information Collection (Former POW Medical History), VA Form 10-0048 Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Former POW Medical History), VA Form 10-0048 Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Former POW Medical History, VA Form 10-0048. OMB Control Number:...

  8. 77 FR 27241 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-918, and Supplement A and B, Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-918... Status; and Supplement A and B. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... sponsoring the collection: Form I-918 and Supplements A and B; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services....

  9. Dissociation of membrane binding and lytic activities of the lymphocyte pore-forming protein (perforin).

    PubMed

    Young, J D; Damiano, A; DiNome, M A; Leong, L G; Cohn, Z A

    1987-05-01

    Granules isolated from CTL and NK cells contain a cytolytic pore-forming protein (PFP/perforin). At low temperatures (on ice), PFP binds to erythrocyte membranes without producing hemolysis. Hemolysis occurs when the PFP-bound erythrocytes are warmed up to 37 degrees C, which defines a temperature-dependent, lytic (pore-formation) step distinct from the membrane-binding event. Ca2+ and neutral pH are required for both membrane binding and pore formation by PFP. Serum, LDL, HDL, and heparin inhibit the hemolytic activity of PFP by blocking its binding to lipid membranes. Lysis by PFP that has bound to erythrocyte membranes is no longer susceptible to the effect of these inhibitors. The hemolytic activities associated with intact granules and solubilized PFP show different requirements for Ca2+ and pH, indicating that cytolysis produced by isolated granules may involve an additional step, possibly fusion of granules with membranes. It is suggested that three distinct Ca2+- and pH-dependent events may be involved during cell killing by CTL and NK cells: fusion of cytoplasmic granules of effector cells with their plasma membrane, releasing PFP from cells; binding of the released PFP to target membranes; and insertion of monomers and the subsequent formation of lytic pores in the target membrane. The serum-mediated inhibition of membrane binding by PFP could prevent the accidental injury of bystander cells by cell-released PFP, but would allow cytolysis to proceed to completion once PFP has bound to the target membrane. PMID:3494808

  10. 77 FR 71432 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, Form I-526...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, Form I-526, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day... information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur. (3)...

  11. 77 FR 36285 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-693, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 693, Report of Medical Examination and Vaccination Record, OMB... Medical Examination and Vaccination Record. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable...

  12. 76 FR 24908 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-693, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 693, Report of Medical Examination and Vaccination Record, OMB... Vaccination Record. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department of...

  13. 76 FR 51997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-602; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Collection Under Review: Form I- 602, Application by Refugee for Waiver of Grounds of Excludability. The... the Form/Collection: Application by Refugee for Waiver of Grounds of Excludability. (3) Agency...

  14. Scube/You activity mediates release of dually lipid-modified Hedgehog signal in soluble form

    PubMed Central

    Creanga, Adrian; Glenn, Thomas D.; Mann, Randall K.; Saunders, Adam M.; Talbot, William S.; Beachy, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their covalent modification by cholesterol and palmitate, Hedgehog (Hh) signaling proteins are localized predominantly to the plasma membrane of expressing cells. Yet Hh proteins are also capable of mobilizing to and eliciting direct responses from distant cells. The zebrafish you gene, identified genetically >15 years ago, was more recently shown to encode a secreted glycoprotein that acts cell-nonautonomously in the Hh signaling pathway by an unknown mechanism. We investigated the function of the protein encoded by murine Scube2, an ortholog of you, and found that it mediates release in soluble form of the mature, cholesterol- and palmitate-modified Sonic hedgehog protein signal (ShhNp) when added to cultured cells or purified detergent-resistant membrane microdomains containing ShhNp. The efficiency of Scube2-mediated release of ShhNp is enhanced by the palmitate adduct of ShhNp and by coexpression in ShhNp-producing cells of mDispatchedA (mDispA), a transporter-like protein with a previously defined role in the release of lipid-modified Hh signals. The structural determinants of Scube2 required for its activity in cultured cell assays match those required for rescue of you mutant zebrafish embryos, and we thus conclude that the role of Scube/You proteins in Hh signaling in vivo is to facilitate the release and mobilization of Hh proteins for distant action. PMID:22677548

  15. [Anti-adenovirus activity of a substance and medical form of ribamydil in cell culture].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Diachenko, N S; Zhovnovataia, V L

    2009-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ribamydil on adenovirus reproduction was studied under the determination of the number of cells with virus- induced DNA-containing intranucleus inclusion bodies and hexone antigen, the synthesis of adenovirus proteins and the infection virus by t he investigation. EC50 of ribamydil substance is 4-8 microg/ml, but complete suppression of adenovirus genome expression was found when adding ribamydil after the virus adsorption, in concentrations of 125-500 microg/ml. The original effect of ribamydil on the expression of adenovirus genome was found under its effect in concentration of 31 microg/ml. Intranucleus virus-induced inclusion bodies of the early type only were found under these conditions. Synthesis of the structural virus polypeptides, including hexone polypeptide (II) and non-structural polypeptide 100K, taking part in hexone trimerization, proceed intensively but without formation of immunologically active hexone. The inhibiting effect of officinal form of ribamydil was less expressed as compared with the substance (EC50: 62 microg/ml). The work results prove that the therapeutic effect of ribamydil (ribavirin) under treatment of adenovirus infections may be achieved in case when it is used in a dose excluding the expression of the adenovirus genome. PMID:20458939

  16. 77 FR 33758 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-829, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 829, Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions. The... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions. (3) Agency form... a conditional resident alien entrepreneur who obtained such status through a qualifying...

  17. 75 FR 74070 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-829, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... information collection under review: Form I- 829, Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions; OMB Control... the Form/Collection: Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions. (3) Agency form number, if any... conditional resident alien entrepreneur who obtained such status through a qualifying investment, to apply...

  18. 75 FR 71451 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-130, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... published in the Federal Register on August 26, 2010, at 75 FR 52540, allowing for a 60-day public comment... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 130, Petition for Alien Relative; OMB Control No. 1615-0012. The...) Title of the Form/Collection: Petition for Alien Relative. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  19. 76 FR 17144 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Collection Under Review; Form N- 300, Application to File Declaration of Intention; OMB Control No. 1615-0078... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Application to File Declaration of Intention. (3) Agency form...- 300 will be used by permanent residents to file a declaration of intention to become a citizen of...

  20. 75 FR 11192 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-730, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Information Collection under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. The Department of Homeland... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if... used by an asylee or refugee to file on behalf of his or her spouse and/or children provided that...

  1. 75 FR 5101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-590, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register onOctober 16, 2009, at 74 FR 53285, allowing for a 60... information collection under review: Form I- 590, Registratiod for Classification as Refugee; OMB Control No...) Title of the Form/Collection: Registration for Classification as Refugee. (3) Agency form number, if...

  2. 75 FR 31460 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-730, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... previously published in the Federal Register on March 10, 2010 at 75 FR 11192, allowing for a 60- day public... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. OMB Control No. 1615-0037... the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  3. 78 FR 19726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775). This request for comment is... Form I-775. Abstract: 8 U.S.C. 1223(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provides for...

  4. 78 FR 24402 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... instructions, form, and glossary and did not attach those to this notice. Type of Respondents: Hydropower.... Bose, Secretary. [NOTE: The remainder of the FERC Form 80 (instructions, form, and glossary) is... understanding of terms, please refer to the Glossary. c. Report actual data for each item. If actual data...

  5. 75 FR 32799 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Form I-777; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Collection Under Review; Form I- 777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card; OMB Control No... the Form/Collection: Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card. (3) Agency form number, if... by applicants applying for a Northern Mariana identification card if they received United...

  6. 75 FR 54646 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Victim of Trafficking in Persons; OMB Control No. 1615-0099. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S... Officer for Victim of Trafficking in Persons. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component... abstract: Primary: Individuals or households. Form I- 914 permits victims of severe forms of...

  7. 78 FR 13368 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Employment Authorization, Form I-765...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ..., at 77 FR 74687, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did receive comments in connection... for Employment Authorization, Form I-765; Form I-765 Work Sheet, Form I- 765WS; Revision of a...- Docket ID. Regardless of the method used for submitting comments or material, all submissions will...

  8. 77 FR 6134 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-290B, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Collection Under Review: Form I- 290B, Notice of Appeal or Motion. * * * * * The Department of Homeland... Motion. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department of Homeland... Households. Form I- 290B is necessary in order for USCIS to make a determination that the appeal or motion...

  9. Study of structure-activity relationship of enantiomeric, protonated and deprotonated forms of warfarin via vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alok; Srivastava, Sunil Kumar; Swati, D.

    2013-09-01

    The structure-activity relationship of the anticoagulant drug warfarin were studied by studying two enantiomeric forms (S-form and R-form) of warfarin and its protonated as well as deprotonated structures in aqueous media using density functional theory (DFT). Theoretically computed Raman and IR spectra of all the computed structures were compared and their specific vibrational spectroscopic signatures were discussed. The percentage contributions of individual normal modes of warfarin, which provides direct evidence of the different molecular activity due to change in relative atomic position of atoms in molecule, were investigated through potential energy distribution (PED). The optimized energy and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps show that the S-form of the drug molecules warfarin is energetically more stable than R-form and provides higher docking opportunity for the molecular binding with the receptors in the bio-systems.

  10. How Much Structuring Is Beneficial with Regard to Examination Scores? A Prospective Study of Three Forms of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Claus H.; Rosen, Evelyne N.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a superiority of active learning forms compared with traditional lecture. However, there is still debate as to what degree structuring is necessary with regard to high exam outcomes. Seventy-five students from a premedical school were randomly attributed to an active lecture group, a cooperative group, or a…

  11. Comparison between two forms of granular activated carbon for the removal of pharmaceuticals from different waters.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lisandra; Baêta, Bruno E L; Lima, Diego R S; Afonso, Robson J C F; de Aquino, Sérgio F; Libânio, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of two forms of basic granular activated carbon (GAC), mineral (pH = 10.5) and vegetal (pH = 9), for the removal of three pharmaceuticals, as sulphamethoxazole (SMX), diclofenac (DCF) and 17β-estradiol (E2), from two different matrices: fortified distilled (2.4-3.0 mg L(-1) and pH from 5.5 to 6.5) and natural (∼1.0 mg L(-1) and pH from 7.1 to 7.2) water in a bench scale. The Rapid Small-Scale Column Test used to assess the ability of mineral and vegetal GAC on removal of such pharmaceuticals led to removal capacities varying from 14.9 to 23.5 mg g(-1) for E2, from 23.7 to 24.2 mg g(-1) for DCF and from 20.5 to 20.6 mg g(-1) for SMX. Removal efficiencies of 71%, 88% and 74% for DCF, SMX and E2, respectively, were obtained at breakthrough point when using mineral GAC, whereas for the vegetal GAC the figures were 76%, 77% and 65%, respectively. The carbon usage rate at the breakthrough point varied from 11.9 to 14.5 L g(-1) for mineral GAC and from 8.8 to 14.8 L g(-1) for vegetal GAC. Mineral CAG also exhibited the best performance when treating fortified natural water, since nearly complete removal was observed for all contaminants in the column operated for 22 h at a carbon usage rate of 2.9 L g(-1). PMID:26584017

  12. Prolactin stimulates cell proliferation through a long form of prolactin receptor and K+ channel activation.

    PubMed Central

    Van Coppenolle, Fabien; Skryma, Roman; Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima; Slomianny, Christian; Roudbaraki, Morad; Delcourt, Philippe; Dewailly, Etienne; Humez, Sandrine; Crépin, Alexandre; Gourdou, Isabelle; Djiane, Jean; Bonnal, Jean-Louis; Mauroy, Brigitte; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    PRL (prolactin) has been implicated in the proliferation and differentiation of numerous tissues, including the prostate gland. However, the PRL-R (PRL receptor) signal transduction pathway, leading to the stimulation of cell proliferation, remains unclear and has yet to be mapped. The present study was undertaken to develop a clear understanding of the mechanisms involved in this pathway and, in particular, to determine the role of K(+) channels. We used androgen-sensitive prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells whose proliferation is known to be stimulated by PRL. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that LNCaP cells express a long form of PRL-R, but do not produce its intermediate isoform. Patch-clamp techniques showed that the application of 5 nM PRL increased both the macroscopic K(+) current amplitude and the single K(+)-channel open probability. This single-channel activity increase was reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein, herbimycin A and lavandustine A, thereby indicating that tyrosine kinase phosphorylation is required in PRL-induced K(+) channel stimulation. PRL enhances p59( fyn ) phosphorylation by a factor of 2 after a 10 min application in culture. In addition, where an antip59( fyn ) antibody is present in the patch pipette, PRL no longer increases K(+) current amplitude. Furthermore, the PRL-stimulated proliferation is inhibited by the K(+) channel inhibitors alpha-dendrotoxin and tetraethylammonium. Thus, as K(+) channels are known to be involved in LNCaP cell proliferation, we suggest that K(+) channel modulation by PRL, via p59( fyn ) pathway, is the primary ionic event in PRL signal transduction, triggering cell proliferation. PMID:14565846

  13. THE PRESENCE OF WEAK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Shelley A.; Graham, James R.; Ma, C-P; Larkin, James E.

    2010-03-10

    We present [O III 5007 A] observations of the star-forming galaxy (SFG) HDF-BMZ1299 (z = 1.598) using Keck Observatory's adaptive optics system with the near-infrared {integral} field spectrograph OSIRIS. Using previous Halpha and [N II] measurements of the same source, we are able for the first time to use spatially resolved observations to place a high-redshift galaxy's substructure on a traditional H II diagnostic diagram. We find that HDF-BMZ1299's spatially concentrated nebular ratios in the central {approx}1.5 kpc (0.''2) are best explained by the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN): log ([N II]/Halpha) = -0.22 +- 0.05 and 2sigma limit of log ([O III]/Hbeta) {approx}>0.26. The dominant energy source of this galaxy is star formation, and integrating a single aperture across the galaxy yields nebular ratios that are composite spectra from both AGN and H II regions. The presence of an embedded AGN in HDF-BMZ1299 may suggest a potential contamination in a fraction of other high-redshift SFGs, and we suggest that this may be a source of the 'elevated' nebular ratios previously seen in seeing-limited metallicity studies. HDF-BMZ1299's estimated AGN luminosity is L{sub Halpha} = (3.7 +- 0.5) x 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub [O{sub III}]} = (5.8 +- 1.9) x 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, making it one of the lowest luminosity AGNs discovered at this early epoch.

  14. Active form Notch4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Peng-Yeh; Tsai, Chong-Bin; Department of Ophthalmology, Chiayi Christian Hospital, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, ROC ; Tseng, Min-Jen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Notch4IC modulates the ERK pathway and cell cycle to promote 3T3-L1 proliferation. ► Notch4IC facilitates 3T3-L1 differentiation by up-regulating proadipogenic genes. ► Notch4IC promotes proliferation during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. ► Notch4IC enhances differentiation during subsequent stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes, which differentiate from precursor cells in a process called adipogenesis. Many signal molecules are involved in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, including the Notch pathway. Previous adipogenic studies of Notch have focused on Notch1 and HES1; however, the role of other Notch receptors in adipogenesis remains unclear. Q-RT-PCR analyses showed that the augmentation of Notch4 expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was comparable to that of Notch1. To elucidate the role of Notch4 in adipogenesis, the human active form Notch4 (N4IC) was transiently transfected into 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of HES1, Hey1, C/EBPδ and PPARγ was up-regulated, and the expression of Pref-1, an adipogenic inhibitor, was down-regulated. To further characterize the effect of N4IC in adipogenesis, stable cells expressing human N4IC were established. The expression of N4IC promoted proliferation and enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells compared with those of control cells. These data suggest that N4IC promoted proliferation through modulating the ERK pathway and the cell cycle during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and facilitated differentiation through up-regulating adipogenic genes such as C/EBPα, PPARγ, aP2, LPL and HSL during the middle and late stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

  15. Broca's region and Visual Word Form Area activation differ during a predictive Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Competing theories attempt to explain the function of Broca's area in single word processing. Studies have found the region to be more active during processing of pseudo words than real words and during infrequent words relative to frequent words and during Stroop (incongruent) color words compared to Non-Stroop (congruent) words. Two related theories explain these findings as reflecting either "cognitive control" processing in the face of conflicting input or a linguistic prediction error signal, based on a predictive coding approach. The latter implies that processing cost refers to violations of expectations based on the statistical distributions of input. In this fMRI experiment we attempted to disentangle single word processing cost originating from cognitive conflict and that stemming from predictive expectation violation. Participants (N = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent vs congruent colors). One of the colors, however, was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and frequency effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study frequency effects across modalities. We found significant behavioral effects of both incongruency and frequency. A significant effect (p < .05 FWE) of incongruency was found in Broca's region, but no effect of frequency was observed and no interaction. Conjoined effects of incongruency and frequency were found in parietal regions as well as in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). No interaction between perceptual modality and frequency was found in VWFA suggesting that the region is not strictly visual. These findings speak against a strong version of the prediction error processing hypothesis in Broca's region. They support the idea that prediction error processes in the intermediate timeframe are allocated to more posterior parts of the brain. PMID:26478962

  16. DNA Recombinase Proteins, their Function and Structure in the Active Form, a Computational Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carra, Claudio; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a crucial sequence of reactions in all cells for the repair of double strand DNA (dsDNA) breaks. While it was traditionally considered as a means for generating genetic diversity, it is now known to be essential for restart of collapsed replication forks that have met a lesion on the DNA template (Cox et al., 2000). The central stage of this process requires the presence of the DNA recombinase protein, RecA in bacteria, RadA in archaea, or Rad51 in eukaryotes, which leads to an ATP-mediated DNA strand-exchange process. Despite many years of intense study, some aspects of the biochemical mechanism, and structure of the active form of recombinase proteins are not well understood. Our theoretical study is an attempt to shed light on the main structural and mechanistic issues encountered on the RecA of the e-coli, the RecA of the extremely radio resistant Deinococcus Radiodurans (promoting an inverse DNA strand-exchange repair), and the homolog human Rad51. The conformational changes are analyzed for the naked enzymes, and when they are linked to ATP and ADP. The average structures are determined over 2ns time scale of Langevian dynamics using a collision frequency of 1.0 ps(sup -1). The systems are inserted in an octahedron periodic box with a 10 Angstrom buffer of water molecules explicitly described by the TIP3P model. The corresponding binding free energies are calculated in an implicit solvent using the Poisson-Boltzmann solvent accessible surface area, MM-PBSA model. The role of the ATP is not only in stabilizing the interaction RecA-DNA, but its hydrolysis is required to allow the DNA strand-exchange to proceed. Furthermore, we extended our study, using the hybrid QM/MM method, on the mechanism of this chemical process. All the calculations were performed using the commercial code Amber 9.

  17. 75 FR 65447 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request Form FNS-648, WIC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... collection, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Local Agency... Collection Form. Abstract: FNS administers the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants,...

  18. 75 FR 29780 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-612, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 612, Application for Waiver of the Foreign Residence Requirement... the Federal Register on March 12, 2010, at 74 FR 11898, allowing for a 60-day public comment period...) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Waiver of the Foreign Residence Requirement of Section...

  19. 77 FR 14817 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-829, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 829, Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions. The.../Collection: Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable... entrepreneur who obtained such status through a qualifying investment, to apply to remove conditions on his...

  20. 76 FR 12750 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-829, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on November 30, 2010, at 75 FR 74070, allowing... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 829, Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions. OMB Control.../Collection: Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  1. 78 FR 32261 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, Form Number I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ..., 2012, at 77 FR 71432, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments... Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, Form Number I-526; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 30... Petition by Alien Entrepreneur. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the...

  2. 76 FR 70747 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-526, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011, at 76 FR 50238, allowing for a 60-day public comment... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 526, Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur. The Department of.../Collection: Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  3. 75 FR 12250 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-191, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... 74 FR 61359 allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments for this... Information Collection under Review: Form I- 191, Application for Advance Permission to Return to... appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms...

  4. 75 FR 52540 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-130; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Collection Under Review; Form I- 130, Petition for Alien Relative; OMB Control No. 1615-0012. The Department...: Petition for Alien Relative. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department... States to petition on behalf of certain alien relatives who wish to immigrate to the United States....

  5. 76 FR 76982 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-130, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Register on September 30, 2011, at 76 FR 60852, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 130, Petition for Alien Relative. The Department of Homeland.../Collection: Petition for Alien Relative. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

  6. 76 FR 60852 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Form I-130; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... collection under review; Form I- 130, Petition for Alien Relative; OMB Control No. 1615-0012. The Department...: Petition for Alien Relative. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department... States to petition on behalf of certain alien relatives who wish to immigrate to the United States....

  7. 77 FR 56232 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Forms for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 15, 2012 (77 FR 28625). Interested parties are encouraged to send...; Forms for Agricultural Recruitment System Affecting Migratory Farm Workers ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) revision titled, ``Forms for Agricultural Recruitment System...

  8. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to..., utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; (d) ways to minimize the burden including the...

  9. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to..., utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; (d) ways to minimize the burden including the...

  10. 75 FR 35776 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form No. 80); Comment Request; Submitted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 19630, 4/ 15/2010) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments... Commission's regional office staff uses the FERC Form 80 data when conducting inspections of licensed... are contained in the Commission's regulations, FERC plans to submit FERC Form 80 to the Office...

  11. 76 FR 41282 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-693, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 13, 2011, at 76 FR 24908, allowing for a 60-day public comment... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 693, Report of Medical Examination and Vaccination Record. The.../Collection: Report of Medical Examination and Vaccination Record. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  12. 76 FR 40385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-907, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... the Federal Register on April 12, 2011, at 76 FR 20361, allowing for a 60-day public comment period... Premium Processing Service. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department... information collection under review: form I- 907, request for premium processing service. The Department...

  13. 75 FR 23784 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-643; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Collection Under Review; Form I- 643, Health and Human Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting... the Form/Collection: Health and Human Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status... households. Refugees and Asylees, Cuban/Haitian Entrants under section 202 of Public Law 99- 603,...

  14. 75 FR 47824 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-643, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ..., 2010, at 75 FR 23784, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 643, Health and Human Services Statistical Data for Refugee... Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  15. 75 FR 5099 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (Form I-775)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (74 FR 60281) on November 20, 2009, allowing for a 60-day... Carrier Agreement (Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (Form...

  16. 76 FR 69274 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-817, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... notice was previously published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011, at 76 FR 50237, allowing for... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 817, Application for Family Unity Benefits; OMB Control No. 1615.../Collection: Application for Family Unity Benefits. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  17. 76 FR 45845 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 19, 2011, at 76 FR 28800, allowing for a 60-day public comment... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card. The... Replacement of Northern Mariana Card. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

  18. 78 FR 13886 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate (2 Forms)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Estimate (2 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a... furnish estimates covering the previous year's nonfuel mineral industry. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-0065. Form Numbers: 9-4042-A and 9-4124-A. Title: Production Estimate. Type of Request: Extension of...

  19. 76 FR 9806 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76021) on December 7, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form...

  20. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  1. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze leaves obtained by different forms of production.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L E A; Pedroso, L S; Vendrame, S C; Mainardes, R M; Khalil, N M

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant and anticandidal activities of leaves obtained from Camellia sinensis by non-fermentation (green and white teas), semi-fermentation (red tea) and fermentation method (black tea) were investigated. It was evaluated the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau assay; antioxidant capacities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radicals, hypochlorous acid and superoxide anion scavenger assays, induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation by conjugated diene formation and myeloperoxidase activity. Anticandidal activity was performed on three strains of Candida spp. The results showed that non-fermented teas have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, and then presented the best inhibitory activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the best inhibition of conjugated diene formation and more pronounced antioxidant activity in all tests. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from fermented tea, followed by non-fermented tea. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity demonstrated has no direct relation with the anticandidal activity. PMID:26983085

  2. Advantages of Gardening as a Form of Physical Activity in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Joshua; Hermann, Janice R.; Parker, Stephany P.; Denney, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Children who normally abstain from physical activity may view gardening as a viable non-competitive alternative. The study reported here evaluated the effect of an Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service after-school gardening program on self-reported physical activity level of children in 3rd through 5th grade using the ACTIVITY self-report…

  3. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  4. Physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract.

    PubMed

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Larpmahawong, Papassara; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Veeranondha, Sukitaya

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of formulation compositions on physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract (AM). Film-forming solution bases and film-forming solutions containing AM were prepared by using Eudragit RL PO or Klucel LF or combinations of them as film-forming polymers. Rheological properties, pH values of the solutions, and mechanical properties of the dry films were investigated. An optimized formulation was selected and evaluated for the film surface, in vitro AM release, an anti-P. acnes activity, and potential for being a skin irritant. It was found that mechanical properties of the dry films were affected by total polymer contents, ratios of Klucel LF/Eudragit RL PO, AM, and contents of triethyl citrate. The film-forming solutions containing AM had pH values around 7.0. Their flow curves exhibited Newtonian flow behaviors. The optimized formulation provided films possessing smooth and nonporous surfaces. These films showed greater anti-P. acnes activity than their base films without toxicity to skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, AM released from the film matrix obeyed Higuchi's equation. In conclusion, the film-forming solutions containing AM had potential for treatment of acne vulgaris caused by P. acnes. However, further in vivo study is necessary to determine their efficacy and safety for using in patients suffering from acne vulgaris. PMID:24327275

  5. 77 FR 17085 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-612; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Collection Under Review; Form I- 612, Application for Waiver of the Foreign Residence Requirement of Section...: Application for Waiver of the Foreign Residence Requirement of Section 212(e) of the Immigration...

  6. 75 FR 76745 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... 75 FR 74071, mistakenly announcing the revision of the Form I-601. The 60-day notice should have... Status'' online at https://egov.uscis.gov/cris/Dashboard , or call the USCIS National Customer...

  7. 76 FR 28800 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Collection Under Review; Form I- 777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card; OMB Control No... the ] Web site at: http://www.regulations.gov/ . We may also be contacted at: USCIS,...

  8. Life form and water source interact to determine active time and environment in cryptogams: an example from the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2013-09-01

    Antarctica, with its almost pristine conditions and relatively simple vegetation, offers excellent opportunities to investigate the influence of environmental factors on species performance, such information being crucial if the effects of possible climate change are to be understood. Antarctic vegetation is mainly cryptogamic. Cryptogams are poikilohydric and are only metabolically and photosynthetically active when hydrated. Activity patterns of the main life forms present, bryophytes (10 species, ecto- and endohydric), lichens (5 species) and phanerogams (2 species), were monitored for 21 days using chlorophyll a fluorescence as an indicator of metabolic activity and, therefore, of water regime at a mesic (hydration by meltwater) and a xeric (hydration by precipitation) site on Léonie Island/West Antarctic Peninsula (67°36'S). Length of activity depended mainly on site and form of hydration. Plants at the mesic site that were hydrated by meltwater were active for long periods, up to 100 % of the measurement period, whilst activity was much shorter at the xeric site where hydration was entirely by precipitation. There were also differences due to life form, with phanerogams and mesic bryophytes being most active and lichens generally much less so. The length of the active period for lichens was longer than in continental Antarctica but shorter than in the more northern Antarctic Peninsula. Light intensity when hydrated was positively related to the length of the active period. High activity species were strongly coupled to the incident light whilst low activity species were active under lower light levels and essentially uncoupled from incident light. Temperatures were little different between sites and also almost identical to temperatures, when active, for lichens in continental and peninsular Antarctica. Gradients in vegetation cover and growth rates across Antarctica are, therefore, not likely to be due to differences in temperature but more likely to

  9. CARDIAC SULFONYLUREA RECEPTOR SHORT FORM-BASED CHANNELS CONFER A GLIBENCLAMIDE-INSENSITIVE KATP ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jie-Lin,; Ye, Bin; Kroboth, Stacie L.; McNally, Elizabeth M.; Makielski, Jonathan C.; Shi, Nian-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The cardiac sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) consists of a Kir6.2 pore and a SUR2 regulatory subunit, which is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. KATP channels have been proposed to play protective roles during ischemic preconditioning. A SUR2 mutant mouse was previously generated by disrupting the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), where a glibenclamide action site was located. In the mutant ventricular myocytes, a non-conventional glibenclamide-insensitive (10 μM), ATP-sensitive current (IKATPn) was detected in 33% of single-channel recordings with an average amplitude of 12.3±5.4 pA per patch, an IC50 to ATP inhibition at 10 μM, and a mean burst duration at 20.6±1.8 ms. Newly designed SUR2-isoform or variant-specific antibodies identified novel SUR2 short forms in the sizes of 28 and 68 kDa in addition to a 150-kDa long form in the sarcolemmal membrane of wild-type (WT) heart. We hypothesized that channels constituted by these short forms that lack NBD1, confer IKATPn. The absence of the long form in the mutant corresponded to loss of the conventional glibenclamide-sensitive KATP currents (IKATP) in isolated cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells but the SUR2 short forms remained intact. Nested exonic RT-PCR in the mutant indicated that the short forms lacked NBD1 but contained NBD2. The SUR2 short forms co-immunoprecipitated with Kir6.1 or Kir6.2 suggesting that the short forms may function as hemi-transporters reported in other eukaryotic ABC transporter subgroups. Our results indicate that different KATP compositions may co-exist in cardiac sarcolemmal membrane. PMID:18001767

  10. A facile reflux procedure to increase active surface sites form highly active and durable supported palladium@platinum bimetallic nanodendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Li, Yingjun; Liu, Baocang; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    A series of well-dispersed bimetallic Pd@Pt nanodendrites uniformly supported on XC-72 carbon black are fabricated by using different capping agents. These capping agents are essential for the branched morphology control. However, the surfactant adsorbed on the nanodendrites surface blocks the access of reactant molecules to the active surface sites, and the catalytic activities of these bimetallic nanodendrites are significantly restricted. Herein, a facile reflux procedure to effectively remove the capping agent molecules without significantly affecting their sizes is reported for activating supported nanocatalysts. More significantly, the structure and morphology of the nanodendrites can also be retained, enhancing the numbers of active surface sites, catalytic activity and stability toward methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions. The as-obtained hot water reflux-treated Pd@Pt/C catalyst manifests superior catalytic activity and stability both in terms of surface and mass specific activities, as compared to the untreated catalysts and the commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts. We anticipate that this effective and facile removal method has more general applicability to highly active nanocatalysts prepared with various surfactants, and should lead to improvements in environmental protection and energy production.

  11. The in vitro activity of fatty diamines and amino alcohols against mixed amastigote and trypomastigote Trypanosoma cruzi forms

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Policarpo Ademar; Rezende, Celso Oliveira; Le Hyaric, Mireille; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira; Romanha, Alvaro José

    2014-01-01

    Four diamines and three amino alcohols derived from 1-decanol, 1-dodecanol and 1,2-dodecanediol were evaluated in an in vitro assay against a mixture of trypomastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Two of these compounds (6 and 7) showed better activity against both proliferative stages of T. cruzi than the positive control benznidazole, three were of similar potency (1, 2 and 5) and two were less active (3 and 4). PMID:24831550

  12. Purification of cereolysin and the electrophoretic separation of the active (reduced) and inactive (oxidized) forms of the purified toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, J L; Grushoff-Kosyk, P S; Bernheimer, A W

    1976-01-01

    Cereolysin was purified to apparent homogeneity by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic chromatography with AH-Sepharose, isoelectric focusing, and gel filtration. The active form of the toxin had an isoelectric point of 6.6, and the molecular weight of the protein was about 55,500 as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and gel electrophoresis using various concentrations of acrylamide. Cereolysin contained two half-cystine residues and was dependent on reducing agents, such as dithiothreitol, for maximal hemolytic activity and charge homogeneity. By using discontinuous acrylamide electrophoresis, two forms of the toxin could be observed: oxidized and reduced. If the toxin was purified in the absence of dithiothreitol, partial spontaneous oxidation resulted in the formation of an oxidized form of the toxin. Relative to the reduced form, the oxidized form moved slightly closer to the anode in gel electrophoresis at pH 9.0. If the toxin was purified in the presence of 5 mM dithiothreitol or if the spontaneously oxidized toxin was preincubated with dithiothreitol, only the reduced form of the protein was observed. When the logarithims of their relative mobilities were plotted against the concentration of acrylamide in the gels, the slopes for the reduced and oxidized forms were identical. This indicates that the two forms are identical in size and are separable because of different charges. The reduced protein could be inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Inhibition by the latter two sulfhydryl reagents could be completely reversed by dithiothreitol. The reversibly oxidized form of the toxin did not appear to be inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and apparently was either unable to bind to or had a decreased affinity for the erythrocyte membrane. Images PMID:820638

  13. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... handling activity and now wishes to engage in another PCB waste activity (e.g., previously only... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste...

  14. 75 FR 65021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-485 and Supplements A and E, Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Federal Register on June 30, 2010, at 75 FR 37820, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-485 and... Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following...

  15. 77 FR 3486 - Agency Information Collection Activities: No Agency Form Number, File Number OMB 25, Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Register on October 28, 2011, at 76 FR 66945, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: No Agency Form.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection...

  16. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Noticeof New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  2. 77 FR 71432 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Travel Document, Form Number I-131...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... notice on December 28, 2011 published at 76 FR 81517, allowing for a 60-day public comment period; and, a notice on March 16, 2012 published at 77 FR 15787, allowing for a 30-day public comment period. USCIS did... for Travel Document, Form Number I-131; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION:...

  3. 77 FR 75112 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing Collection; Comment Request-Forms FNS-806-A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...), and FNS-806-B, Claim for Reimbursement (Special Milk Program for Children) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... Special Milk Program. DATES: Written comments must be received on or before February 19, 2013. ADDRESSES... Lunch Program, Part 220 School Breakfast Program, and Part 215 Special Milk Program. Form Number:...

  4. WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS AT A PRINTER OF FORMS AND SUPPLIES FOR THE LEGAL PROFESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A printer of legal forms was visited and several opportunities for waste minimization were identified. he company had already begun waste and scrap paper sorting for recycling and reuse, laundering of cleaning rags for reuse, and identification of less hazardous process-related m...

  5. 75 FR 70016 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-566, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on August 26, 2010, at 75 FR 52538.../Adjustment To or From A or G Status or Requesting A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization; OMB... or G Status or Requesting A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization. (3) Agency form...

  6. 75 FR 52538 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-566; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... From A or G Status or Requesting A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization; OMB Control No. 1615... Status or Requesting A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization. (3) Agency form number, if any..., international organizations, and NATO personnel by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, and the...

  7. 76 FR 71056 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-566, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Federal Register on August 18, 2011, at 76 FR 51382, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 566, Interagency Record of Request, A, G or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or Change/Adjustment To/From A, G or NATO Status. The Department of...

  8. 76 FR 51382 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-566; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Collection Under Review: Form I- 566, Interagency Record of Request, A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or Change/Adjustment of Status To/From A, G, or NATO Status. The Department of Homeland Security... Request, A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or Change/Adjustment of Status To/From A, G,...

  9. 76 FR 55730 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edmond J. Fitzgerald, Office of Financial Approvals and Marine Insurance, Maritime Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. Telephone: 202-366... commerce. Forms: None. Abstract: In accordance with Section 511 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936,...

  10. 78 FR 9049 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection Renewal; Comment Request Re Forms...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...The FDIC, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (4 U.S.S. chapter 35), to comment on renewal of its information collection entitled, ``Forms Related to Processing Deposit Insurance Claims'' (OMB No....

  11. 75 FR 69688 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will Be Included in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ..., DHS FORM 0700-04 AGENCY: Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition Policy and Legislation... Legislation Office, will submit the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management... Officer, Acquisition Policy and Legislation Office, DHS Attn.: Camara Francis, Department of...

  12. 76 FR 38197 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Form N-600K, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... under section 322. OMB Control No. 1615-0087. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and...) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Citizenship and Issuance of Certificate under Section 322... citizenship under section 322 of the Immigration and Nationality Act. (5) An estimate of the total number...

  13. 77 FR 47426 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Medical Certification for Disability Exceptions, Form N...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Immigration Services (USCIS) published a 60-day notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 27474 to extend... Register on May 10, 2012, at 77 FR 27474, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received one... Certification for Disability Exceptions, Form N-648, Extension, Without Change, of a Currently...

  14. 75 FR 22438 - Proposed Information Collection (Health Resource Center Medical Center Payment Form) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... medical care copayment online. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of... 10-0505 will be used to allow claimants with medical care copayment debts to pay online with a credit... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Health Resource Center Medical Center Payment Form)...

  15. 75 FR 19630 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... title of Schedule 1 are attached. The remainder of the form, instructions, and glossary remain unchanged... of terms, please refer to the Glossary. c. Report actual data for each item. If actual data are..., instructions, and glossary) are unchanged and are not included here.] BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  16. 75 FR 75182 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Federal Register on September 8, 2010, at 75 FR 54646, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS... Officer for Victim of ] Trafficking in Persons; OMB Control No. 1615-0099. The Department of Homeland... Victim of Trafficking in Persons. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

  17. Arousal Model Components in Television Programming: Form Activity and Violent Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; Krull, Robert

    In research reported in this paper, an attempt was made to isolate arousal components due to the "form" of a television program from arousal components due to the "content" of the program. The following hypotheses were formulated: (1) emotional arousal will take place in programing segments depicting violent acts, (2) arousal due to the cognitive…

  18. 77 FR 36339 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... graduate who receive a student incentive payment. Forms: MA-930. Abstract: Section 801 of the Merchant... imposes a service obligation on every graduate of the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, and every subsidized State Maritime Academy graduate who received a student incentive payment. This mandatory...

  19. 75 FR 76021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...As part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C....

  20. 77 FR 49453 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Employment Authorization, Form I-765...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... encouraged and will be accepted for 30 days until September 17, 2012. This process is conducted in accordance... you are seeking information about the status of your individual case, please check ``My Case Status... for Employment Authorization, Form I-765, Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

  1. A sandwich ELISA for the conformation-specific quantification of the activated form of human Bax.

    PubMed

    Teijido, Oscar; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Llanos, Raul; Peton, Ashley; Urtecho, Jean-Baptiste; Soprani, Adauri; Villamayor, Aimee; Antonsson, Bruno; Manon, Stéphen; Dejean, Laurent

    2016-03-15

    Bcl-2 family proteins are critical regulators of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which represents the point of no return of apoptotic cell death. The exposure of the Bax N-terminus at the mitochondria reflects Bax activation; and this activated configuration of the Bax protein is associated with MOMP. N-terminal exposure can be detected using specific monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies, and the onset of activated Bax has extensively been used as an early marker of apoptosis. The protocols of immunoprecipitation and/or immunocytochemistry commonly used to detect activated Bax are long and tedious, and allow semiquantification of the antigen at best. The sandwich ELISA protocol we developed has a 5 ng/mL detection limit and is highly specific for the activated conformation of Bax. This ELISA allows a rapid quantification of activated human Bax in whole cells and isolated mitochondria protein extracts. These properties grant this assay the potential to further clarify the prognostic and diagnostic value of activated Bax in disorders associated with deregulated apoptotic pathways such as degenerative diseases or cancer. PMID:26748144

  2. Biphasic dissolution method for quality control and assurance of drugs containing active substances in the form of weak acid salts.

    PubMed

    Franc, Aleš; Muselłk, Jan; Goněc, Roman; Vetchý, David

    2016-03-01

    Substances in the form of weak acid salts have been found to be problematic for dissolution testing. Their absorption can start only after they are turned into the form of an acid following the gastric passage although they were administered in the form of a salt. Due to poor solubility, they cannot be tested in acidic gastric environment for a biased dissolution profile. The biphasic dissolution method is promising for overcoming this obstacle. Tablets with warfarin clathrate sodium salt in two concentrations and two different particle size distributions were tested as a suitable model for finding the medium and process conditions of dissolution. The dissolution method based on the use of the upper organic layer (1-octanol) and the lower aqueous layer 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl) was found suitable and discriminatory for tablets containing active substances in the form of salts of weak acids. The method also reflects physical differences in the quality of used substances. PMID:26959550

  3. Identification and steroid receptor activity of products formed from the bromination of technical nonylphenol.

    PubMed

    Hill, Elizabeth M; Smith, Michael D

    2006-09-01

    Alkylphenols are commonly present in wastewater effluents and may contribute to the total hormonal loading of receiving waters due to their weakly estrogenic properties. However the presence of reactive bromine species in some treated wastewaters can result in the formation of brominated alkylphenols which may also possess steroid receptor activity. In this study, the products of bromination of technical nonylphenol (NP) were identified, purified and tested in vitro in recombinant yeast steroid receptor transcription assays. Bromination of NP in the presence of acetic acid resulted in the formation of one major product which was identified as 2-bromo-4-nonylphenol (NPBr). In the presence of methanol/water, bromination of NP resulted in the formation 2,6-dibromo-4-nonylphenol (NPBr2) as well as a number of other minor polybrominated products. The EC50 of NPBr in the yeast estrogen receptor transcription (YES) assay was 6.7x10(-6) M, which was 48 fold less active than NP and 86,000 fold less active than the estrogen agonist 17beta-estradiol NPBr2 was not active in the YES assay. NP, NPBr and NPBr2 were all weakly androgenic in the yeast androgen receptor transcription assay but at concentrations which were 100,000 fold less active than the androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone. Neither NP, NPBr or NPBr2 exhibited appreciable anti-estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity in the yeast receptor transcription assays. This study suggests that bromination of NP markedly reduces its estrogen receptor transcription activity but has no effect on the weak androgen receptor transcription activity of the alkylphenol. PMID:16473392

  4. Cellular Antisense Activity of PNA-Oligo(bicycloguanidinium) Conjugates Forming Self-Assembled Nanoaggregates.

    PubMed

    Valero, Julián; Shiraishi, Takehiko; de Mendoza, Javier; Nielsen, Peter E

    2015-07-27

    A series of peptide nucleic acid-oligo(bicycloguanidinium) (PNA-BGn ) conjugates were synthesized and characterized in terms of cellular antisense activity by using the pLuc750HeLa cell splice correction assay. PNA-BG4 conjugates exhibited low micromolar antisense activity, and their cellular activity required the presence of a hydrophobic silyl terminal protecting group on the oligo(BG) ligand and a minimum of four guanidinium units. Surprisingly, a nonlinear dose-response with an activity threshold around 3-4 μM, indicative of large cooperativity, was observed. Supported by light scattering and electron microscopy analyses, we propose that the activity, and thus cellular delivery, of these lipo-PNA-BG4 conjugates is dependent on self-assembled nanoaggregates. Finally, cellular activity was enhanced by the presence of serum. Therefore we conclude that the lipo-BG-PNA conjugates exhibit an unexpected mechanism for cell delivery and are of interest for further in vivo studies. PMID:26010253

  5. Active Site Inhibitors Protect Protein Kinase C from Dephosphorylation and Stabilize Its Mature Form*

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Christine M.; Antal, Corina E.; Reyes, Gloria; Kunkel, Maya T.; Adams, Ryan A.; Ziyar, Ahdad; Riveros, Tania; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2011-01-01

    Conformational changes acutely control protein kinase C (PKC). We have previously shown that the autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate must be removed from the active site in order for 1) PKC to be phosphorylated by its upstream kinase phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1), 2) the mature enzyme to bind and phosphorylate substrates, and 3) the mature enzyme to be dephosphorylated by phosphatases. Here we show an additional level of conformational control; binding of active site inhibitors locks PKC in a conformation in which the priming phosphorylation sites are resistant to dephosphorylation. Using homogeneously pure PKC, we show that the active site inhibitor Gö 6983 prevents the dephosphorylation by pure protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) or the hydrophobic motif phosphatase, pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP). Consistent with results using pure proteins, treatment of cells with the competitive inhibitors Gö 6983 or bisindolylmaleimide I, but not the uncompetitive inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide IV, prevents the dephosphorylation and down-regulation of PKC induced by phorbol esters. Pulse-chase analyses reveal that active site inhibitors do not affect the net rate of priming phosphorylations of PKC; rather, they inhibit the dephosphorylation triggered by phorbol esters. These data provide a molecular explanation for the recent studies showing that active site inhibitors stabilize the phosphorylation state of protein kinases B/Akt and C. PMID:21715334

  6. An Autoinhibited Dimeric Form of BAX Regulates the BAX Activation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Garner, Thomas P; Reyna, Denis E; Priyadarshi, Amit; Chen, Hui-Chen; Li, Sheng; Wu, Yang; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Malashkevich, Vladimir N; Almo, Steve S; Cheng, Emily H; Gavathiotis, Evripidis

    2016-08-01

    Pro-apoptotic BAX is a cell fate regulator playing an important role in cellular homeostasis and pathological cell death. BAX is predominantly localized in the cytosol, where it has a quiescent monomer conformation. Following a pro-apoptotic trigger, cytosolic BAX is activated and translocates to the mitochondria to initiate mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Here, cellular, biochemical, and structural data unexpectedly demonstrate that cytosolic BAX also has an inactive dimer conformation that regulates its activation. The full-length crystal structure of the inactive BAX dimer revealed an asymmetric interaction consistent with inhibition of the N-terminal conformational change of one protomer and the displacement of the C-terminal helix α9 of the second protomer. This autoinhibited BAX dimer dissociates to BAX monomers before BAX can be activated. Our data support a model whereby the degree of apoptosis induction is regulated by the conformation of cytosolic BAX and identify an unprecedented mechanism of cytosolic BAX inhibition. PMID:27425408

  7. Radiolabeling of intact dosage forms by neutron activation: effects on in vitro performance

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, A.; Jay, M.

    1987-12-01

    Compressed tablets containing various quantities of stable isotopes of Ba, Er, and Sm for use in neutron activation studies were evaluated for the effect of stable isotope incorporation on tablet hardness and disintegration times. At concentrations likely to be used in scintigraphic studies employing neutron activation as a radiolabeling method, no significant effect on in vitro parameters were observed. While the incorporation of stable isotopes influenced tablet hardness to a greater degree than disintegration time, irradiation of tablets in a neutron flux of 4.4 x 10(13) n/cm2 sec had a direct effect on tablet disintegration time. Thus, future neutron activation studies should focus on minimizing the amount of stable isotope to be incorporated with the formulation while using the shortest feasible irradiation time.

  8. Observations of actively forming lava tubes and associated structures, Hawaii, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1971-01-01

    A ground examination is made of lave tubes and channels. The surface morphology and the changes noted through lava flow activity are cited, and compared to earlier aerial observations. The lava activity was believed to be caused by a small lava lake exposed by the collapse of a crust covering it. Drainage of the lake was caused by a fissure erruption. New tubes or extensions of existing ones were noted from the flow. Molten lava was not seen in any tubes examined on the ground, but some of the flows were not sufficiently cooled to allow subsurface examination and survey of the tubes.

  9. Alkali-Activated Fly ash-slag Cement based nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; Wu, X.; Roy, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    This paper is based on the results of an in-progress research project on Alkali-Activated Cement System at MRL. The objective of this research is to establish the potential for large volume use of fly ash and slag as main components of the cement system. Alkali-activated Fly ash-slag Cement (AFC) was studied as a matrix for immobilization of nuclear waste. AFC is characterized by high early strength, high ultimate strength, low porosity, lower solubilities of the hydrates, and high resistance to chemical corrosion as well as to freezing and thawing. All these advanced properties are particularly favorable to the immobilization the nuclear wastes.

  10. Two active forms of Zymomonas mobilis levansucrase. An ordered microfibril structure of the enzyme promotes levan polymerization.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Dan; Lavid, Noa; Schwartz, Alon; Shoham, Gil; Danino, Dganit; Shoham, Yuval

    2008-11-21

    Fructansucrases, members of glycoside hydrolase family 68, catalyze both sucrose hydrolysis and the polymerization of fructose to beta-d-fructofuranose polymers. The resulting fructan polymers are distinguished by the nature of the glycosidic bond: inulin (beta-(2-1)-fructofuranose) and levan (beta-(2-6)-fructofuranose). In this study we demonstrate that Zymomonas mobilis levansucrase exists in two active forms, depending on the pH and ionic strength. At pH values above 7.0, the enzyme is mainly a dimer, whereas at pH values below 6.0, the protein forms well ordered microfibrils that precipitate out of the solution. These two forms are readily interchangeable simply by changing the pH. Surprisingly the manner in which the enzyme is arranged strongly affects its product specificity and kinetic properties. At pH values above 7.0, the activity of the enzyme as a dimer is mainly sucrose hydrolysis and the synthesis of short fructosaccharides (degree of polymerization, 3). At pH values below 6.0, in its microfibril form, the enzyme catalyzes almost exclusively the synthesis of levan (a degree of polymerization greater than 20,000). This difference in product specificity appears to depend on the form of the enzyme, dimer versus microfibril, and not directly on the pH. Images made by negative stain transmission electron microscopy reveal that the enzyme forms a very ordered structure of long fibrils that appear to be composed of repeating rings of six to eight protein units. A single amino acid replacement of H296R abolished the ability of the enzyme to form microfibrils with organized fibril networks and to synthesize levan at pH 6.0. PMID:18809687

  11. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  12. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  13. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  14. Pageant Princesses and Math Whizzes: Understanding Children's Activities as a Form of Children's Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    Organized children's activities qualify as children's work, in much the same way that school work does. Both produce transferable use value and create capital that contributes to the future production of goods and services. To illustrate this argument, this article draws on qualitative research primarily based on interviews with the parents of…

  15. 76 FR 64379 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; eForm 6 Access...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following information... Number: ATF F 5013.3. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who...

  16. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    PubMed

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants. PMID:24376756

  17. 78 FR 63487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker, Form I-129...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... notice was previously published in the Federal Register on July 5, 2013, at 78 FR 40490, allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for a...: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will...

  18. 78 FR 62644 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Temporary Protected Status, Form I-821...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Federal Register on July 8, 2013, at 78 FR 40758. USCIS did not receive any public comments in connection... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  19. 78 FR 35639 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Extend/Change Nonimmigrant Status, Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To...-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate of the burden of the proposed collection...

  20. 78 FR 44141 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Affidavit of Support, Form I-134; Extension, Without...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Affidavit of.... SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS... accuracy of the agency's estimate of the burden of the proposed collection of information, including...

  1. Function Follows Form: Activation of Shape and Function Features during Object Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function…

  2. 76 FR 38457 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...: Replaceable Light Source Information Collection, 49 CFR part 564. OMB Number: 2127-0506. Type of Request... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT....), this notice announces that the Information Collection Request (ICR) abstracted below has been...

  3. rlk/TXK Encodes Two Forms of a Novel Cysteine String Tyrosine Kinase Activated by Src Family Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Jayantha; Chamorro, Mario; Czar, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Lenardo, Michael J.; Varmus, Harold E.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.

    1999-01-01

    Rlk/Txk is a member of the BTK/Tec family of tyrosine kinases and is primarily expressed in T lymphocytes. Unlike other members of this kinase family, Rlk lacks a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain near the amino terminus and instead contains a distinctive cysteine string motif. We demonstrate here that Rlk protein consists of two isoforms that arise by alternative initiation of translation from the same cDNA. The shorter, internally initiated protein species lacks the cysteine string motif and is located in the nucleus when expressed in the absence of the larger form. In contrast, the larger form is cytoplasmic. We show that the larger form is palmitoylated and that mutation of its cysteine string motif both abolishes palmitoylation and allows the protein to migrate to the nucleus. The cysteine string, therefore, is a critical determinant of both fatty acid modification and protein localization for the larger isoform of Rlk, suggesting that Rlk regulation is distinct from the other Btk family kinases. We further show that Rlk is phosphorylated and changes localization in response to T-cell-receptor (TCR) activation and, like the other Btk family kinases, can be phosphorylated and activated by Src family kinases. However, unlike the other Btk family members, Rlk is activated independently of the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, consistent with its lack of a PH domain. Thus, Rlk has two distinct isoforms, each of which may have unique properties in signaling downstream from the TCR. PMID:9891083

  4. Five of 12 forms of vaccinia virus-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450 metabolically activate aflatoxin B sub 1

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Toshifumi; Yamano, Shigeru; Gelboin, H.V.; Gonzalez, F.J. ); Guzelian, P.S. )

    1990-06-01

    Twelve forms of human hepatic cytochrome P450 were expressed in hepatoma cells by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The expressed P450s were analyzed for their abilities to activate the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B{sub 1} to metabolites having mutagenic or DNA-binding properties. Five forms, P450s IA2, IIA3, IIB7, IIIA3, and IIIA4, activated aflatoxin B{sub 1} to mutagenic metabolites as assessed by the production of His revertants of Salmonella typhimurium in the Ames test. The same P450s catalyzed conversion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} to DNA-bound derivatives as judged by an in situ assay in which the radiolabeled carcinogen was incubated with cells expressing the individual P450 forms. Seven other human P450s, IIC8, IIC9, IID6, IIE1, IIF1, and IIIA5, and IVB1, did not significantly activate aflatoxin B{sub 1} as measured by both the Ames test and the DNA-binding assay. Moreover, polyclonal anti-rat liver P450 antibodies that crossreact with individual human P450s IA2, IIA3, IIIA3, and IIIA4 each inhibited aflatoxin B{sub 1} activation catalyzed by human liver S-9 extracts. Inhibition ranged from as low as 10% with antibody against IIA3 to as high as 65% with antibody against IIIA3 and IIIA4. These results establish that metabolic activation of aflatoxin B{sub 1} in human liver involves the contribution of multiple forms of P450.

  5. Early Activation of STAT3 Regulates Reactive Astrogliosis Induced by Diverse Forms of Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, James P.; Kelly, Kimberly A.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Miller, Diane B.

    2014-01-01

    Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into “reactive” phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT) engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both signal through

  6. Electrocatalytically Active Nickel-Based Electrode Coatings Formed by Atmospheric and Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghasibeig, M.; Mousavi, M.; Ben Ettouill, F.; Moreau, C.; Wuthrich, R.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based electrode coatings with enhanced surface areas, for hydrogen production, were developed using atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes. The results revealed a larger electrochemical active surface area for the coatings produced by SPS compared to those produced by APS process. SEM micrographs showed that the surface microstructure of the sample with the largest surface area was composed of a large number of small cauliflower-like aggregates with an average diameter of 10 μm.

  7. Genome wide interactions of wild-type and activator bypass forms of σ54.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jorrit; Engl, Christoph; Zhang, Nan; Lawton, Edward; Buck, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Enhancer-dependent transcription involving the promoter specificity factor σ(54) is widely distributed amongst bacteria and commonly associated with cell envelope function. For transcription initiation, σ(54)-RNA polymerase yields open promoter complexes through its remodelling by cognate AAA+ ATPase activators. Since activators can be bypassed in vitro, bypass transcription in vivo could be a source of emergent gene expression along evolutionary pathways yielding new control networks and transcription patterns. At a single test promoter in vivo bypass transcription was not observed. We now use genome-wide transcription profiling, genome-wide mutagenesis and gene over-expression strategies in Escherichia coli, to (i) scope the range of bypass transcription in vivo and (ii) identify genes which might alter bypass transcription in vivo. We find little evidence for pervasive bypass transcription in vivo with only a small subset of σ(54) promoters functioning without activators. Results also suggest no one gene limits bypass transcription in vivo, arguing bypass transcription is strongly kept in check. Promoter sequences subject to repression by σ(54) were evident, indicating loss of rpoN (encoding σ(54)) rather than creating rpoN bypass alleles would be one evolutionary route for new gene expression patterns. Finally, cold-shock promoters showed unusual σ(54)-dependence in vivo not readily correlated with conventional σ(54) binding-sites. PMID:26082500

  8. Complement membrane attack complexes activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming an Akt+ NIK+ signalosome on Rab5+ endosomes.

    PubMed

    Jane-wit, Dan; Surovtseva, Yulia V; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Liu, Rebecca; Clark, Pamela; Manes, Thomas D; Wang, Chen; Kashgarian, Michael; Kirkiles-Smith, Nancy C; Tellides, George; Pober, Jordan S

    2015-08-01

    Complement membrane attack complexes (MACs) promote inflammatory functions in endothelial cells (ECs) by stabilizing NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) and activating noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Here we report a novel endosome-based signaling complex induced by MACs to stabilize NIK. We found that, in contrast to cytokine-mediated activation, NIK stabilization by MACs did not involve cIAP2 or TRAF3. Informed by a genome-wide siRNA screen, instead this response required internalization of MACs in a clathrin-, AP2-, and dynamin-dependent manner into Rab5(+)endosomes, which recruited activated Akt, stabilized NIK, and led to phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK)-α. Active Rab5 was required for recruitment of activated Akt to MAC(+) endosomes, but not for MAC internalization or for Akt activation. Consistent with these in vitro observations, MAC internalization occurred in human coronary ECs in vivo and was similarly required for NIK stabilization and EC activation. We conclude that MACs activate noncanonical NF-κB by forming a novel Akt(+)NIK(+) signalosome on Rab5(+) endosomes. PMID:26195760

  9. Rhizobium meliloti NodP and NodQ form a multifunctional sulfate-activating complex requiring GTP for activity.

    PubMed Central

    Schwedock, J S; Liu, C; Leyh, T S; Long, S R

    1994-01-01

    The nodulation genes nodP and nodQ are required for production of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation (Nod) factors. These sulfated oligosaccharides act as morphogenic signals to alfalfa, the symbiotic host of R. meliloti. In previous work, we have shown that nodP and nodQ encode ATP sulfurylase, which catalyzes the formation of APS (adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) and PPi. In the subsequent metabolic reaction, APS is converted to PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) by APS kinase. In Escherichia coli, cysD and cysN encode ATP sulfurylase; cysC encodes APS kinase. Here, we present genetic, enzymatic, and sequence similarity data demonstrating that nodP and nodQ encode both ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase activities and that these enzymes associate into a multifunctional protein complex which we designate the sulfate activation complex. We have previously described the presence of a putative GTP-binding site in the nodQ sequence. The present report also demonstrates that GTP enhances the rate of PAPS synthesis from ATP and sulfate (SO4(2-)) by NodP and NodQ expressed in E. coli. Thus, GTP is implicated as a metabolic requirement for synthesis of the R. meliloti Nod factors. Images PMID:7961471

  10. In vivo study of the immunomodulating activity of OM-85 using the plaque-forming cells technique (PFC) in mice.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, J; Ramsteiner, A; Fontanges, R

    1995-09-01

    The activity of increasing oral doses of the bacterial extract OM-85 was determined by using the plaque-forming cells assay in mice. The results showed that the oral administration of OM-85 significantly increased the number of splenic antibody-secreting cells against sheep red blood cells (antigen) compared with controls. A maximal response was reached between 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, and was reproducible with the different batches of OM-85 used. This study indicates that the oral administration of the immunomodulator allows the activation of splenic B-lymphocytes, probably through the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. PMID:8582791

  11. Butyrylcholinesterase: K variant, plasma activity, molecular forms and rivastigmine treatment in Alzheimer's disease in a Southern Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Bono, G F; Simão-Silva, D P; Batistela, M S; Josviak, N D; Dias, P F R; Nascimento, G A; Souza, R L R; Piovezan, M R; Souza, R K M; Furtado-Alle, L

    2015-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which there is a decline of cholinergic function. The symptomatic AD treatment involves the use of ChEIs (cholinesterase inhibitors) as rivastigimine, a dual inhibitor. The human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme that has specific roles in cholinergic neurotransmission and it has been associated with AD. In the serum, BChE is found in four main molecular forms: G1 (monomer); G1-ALB (monomer linked to albumin); G2 (dimer); and G4 (tetramer). The interaction between the products of BCHE gene and CHE2 locus results in CHE2 C5+ and CHE2 C5- phenotypes. CHE2 C5+ phenotype and BChE-K are factors that influence on BChE activity. This work aimed to verify the proportions of BChE molecular forms, total and relative activity in 139 AD patients and 139 elderly controls, taking into account K variant, CHE2 locus, rivastigmine treatment and clinical dementia rating (CDR) of AD patients. Phenotypic frequencies of CHE2 C5+ and frequency of the carriers of the K allele were similar between groups. Total BChE activity in plasma was significantly lower in AD patients than in elderly controls. Furthermore, we found that reduction on plasma BChE activity is associated directly with AD progression in AD patients and that rivastigmine treatment has a stronger effect on BChE activity within the CDR2 group. The reduction in BChE activity did not occur proportionally in all molecular forms. Multiple regression analysis results confirmed that AD acts as the main factor in plasma BChE activity reduction and that severe stages are related with an even greater reduction. These findings suggest that the reduction of total plasma BChE and relative BChE molecular forms activity in AD patients is probably associated with a feedback mechanism and provides a future perspective of using this enzyme as a possible plasmatic secondary marker for AD. PMID:25624079

  12. Biological Activity of 1α-Hydroxycholecalciferol, A Synthetic Analog of the Hormonal Form of Vitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Haussler, Mark R.; Zerwekh, Joseph E.; Hesse, Robert H.; Rizzardo, E.; Pechet, Maurice M.

    1973-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, the apparent active hormonal form of cholecalciferol (vitamin D2), is formed from cholecalciferol by specific and sequential hydroxylations of the sterol at carbons 25 and 1. Recently, 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol was synthesized and we report on its biological activity in rachitic chicks. 1α-Hydroxycholecalciferol is identical in potency to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption; either sterol elicits a near maximal effect at a dose of 0.3-0.6 nmol. The time-course of action of 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol also parallels that of the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol with a maximal increase in calcium transport occurring 5-10 hr after administration of sterol to vitamin D-deficient chicks. 6.5 nmol of 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol causes a doubling in calcium absorption in only 2-3 hr, which is the most rapid physiologic response yet detected for a vitamin D-sterol. 1α-Hydroxycholecalciferol is active also in enhancing bone calcium resorption and, like 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, is at least 10 times as active as cholecalciferol in mobilizing bone calcium and raising plasma calcium concentration. It is concluded that 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol represents a synthetic analog of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol that can be used both to study the mechanism of action of this hormone and as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of patients with certain metabolic bone diseases. PMID:4365368

  13. Regulation of Transcription through Light-Activation and Light-Deactivation of Triplex-Forming Oligonucleotides in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Govan, Jeane M.; Uprety, Rajendra; Hemphill, James; Lively, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are efficient tools to regulate gene expression through the inhibition of transcription. Here, nucleobase-caging technology was applied to the first temporal regulation of transcription through light-activated TFOs. Through site-specific incorporation of caged thymidine nucleotides, the TFO:DNA triplex formation is blocked, rendering the TFO inactive. However, after a brief UV irradiation, the caging groups are removed, activating the TFO, and leading to the inhibition of gene transcription. Furthermore, the synthesis and site-specific incorporation of caged deoxycytidine nucleotides within TFO inhibitor sequences was developed, and allows for the light-deactivation of TFO function and thus photochemical activation of gene expression. After UV-induced removal of the caging groups, the TFO forms a DNA dumbbell structure, rendering it inactive, releasing it from the DNA, and activating transcription. These are the first examples of light-regulated TFOs and their application in the photochemical activation and deactivation of gene expression. In addition, hairpin loop structures were found to significantly increase the efficacy of phosphodiester DNA-based TFOs in tissue culture. PMID:22540192

  14. Regulation of transcription through light-activation and light-deactivation of triplex-forming oligonucleotides in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Govan, Jeane M; Uprety, Rajendra; Hemphill, James; Lively, Mark O; Deiters, Alexander

    2012-07-20

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are efficient tools to regulate gene expression through the inhibition of transcription. Here, nucleobase-caging technology was applied to the temporal regulation of transcription through light-activated TFOs. Through site-specific incorporation of caged thymidine nucleotides, the TFO:DNA triplex formation is blocked, rendering the TFO inactive. However, after a brief UV irradiation, the caging groups are removed, activating the TFO and leading to the inhibition of transcription. Furthermore, the synthesis and site-specific incorporation of caged deoxycytidine nucleotides within TFO inhibitor sequences was developed, allowing for the light-deactivation of TFO function and thus photochemical activation of gene expression. After UV-induced removal of the caging groups, the TFO forms a DNA dumbbell structure, rendering it inactive, releasing it from the DNA, and activating transcription. These are the first examples of light-regulated TFOs and their application in the photochemical activation and deactivation of gene expression. In addition, hairpin loop structures were found to significantly increase the efficacy of phosphodiester DNA-based TFOs in tissue culture. PMID:22540192

  15. Arf1 and Arf6 Promote Ventral Actin Structures formed by acute Activation of Protein Kinase C and Src

    PubMed Central

    Caviston, Juliane P.; Cohen, Lee Ann; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2016-01-01

    Arf proteins regulate membrane traffic and organelle structure. Although Arf6 is known to initiate actin-based changes in cell surface architecture, Arf1 may also function at the plasma membrane. Here we show that acute activation of protein kinase C (PKC) induced by the phorbol ester PMA led to the formation of motile actin structures on the ventral surface of Beas-2b cells, a lung bronchial epithelial cell line. Ventral actin structures also formed in PMA-treated HeLa cells that had elevated levels of Arf activation. For both cell types, formation of the ventral actin structures was enhanced by expression of active forms of either Arf1 or Arf6, and by the expression of guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate these Arfs. By contrast, formation of these structures was blocked by inhibitors of PKC and Src, and required phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate, Rac, Arf6 and Arf1. Furthermore, expression of ASAP1, an Arf1 GTPase activating protein (GAP) was more effective at inhibiting the ventral actin structures than was ACAP1, an Arf6 GAP. This study adds to the expanding role for Arf1 in the periphery and identifies a requirement for Arf1, a “Golgi Arf”, in the reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton on ventral surfaces, against the substratum. PMID:24916416

  16. 78 FR 3900 - Generic Drug User Fee-Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and Finished Dosage Form Facility Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rate for the generic drug active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and finished dosage form (FDF) facilities user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2013. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), enacted the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, as......

  17. [Active forms of oxygen: cytotoxic effects and methodological approaches to laboratory control of liver lesions (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Matiushin, B N; Loginov, A S

    1996-01-01

    The injurious effects of active oxygen forms (AOF) on the cell caused by destruction of its membranous structures and impairment of their functional characteristics are discussed. Disorders of the processes of formation and inactivation of AOF in hepatocytes may be the metabolic mechanisms mediating the status and development of the pathological process in the liver. The problem of prospective approaches to assessing chronic diseases of the liver at the level of "free-radical pathology" is discussed. PMID:8963562

  18. Multiple sources of carbonic anhydrase activity in pea thylakoids: soluble and membrane-bound forms.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Natalia N; Ignatova, Lyudmila K; Ivanov, Boris N

    2007-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of pea thylakoids, thylakoid membranes enriched with photosystem I (PSI-membranes), or photosystem II (PSII-membranes) as well as both supernatant and pellet after precipitation of thylakoids treated with detergent Triton X-100 were studied. CA activity of thylakoids in the presence of varying concentrations of Triton X-100 had two maxima, at Triton/chlorophyll (triton/Chl) ratios of 0.3 and 1.0. CA activities of PSI-membranes and PSII-membranes had only one maximum each, at Triton/Chl ratio 0.3 or 1.0, respectively. Two CAs with characteristics of the membrane-bound proteins and one CA with characteristics of the soluble proteins were found in the medium after thylakoids were incubated with Triton. One of the first two CAs had mobility in PAAG after native electrophoresis the same as that of CA residing in PSI-membranes, and the other CA had mobility the same as the mobility of CA residing in PSII-membranes, but the latter was different from CA situated in PSII core-complex (Ignatova et al. 2006 Biochemistry (Moscow) 71:525-532). The properties of the "soluble" CA removed from thylakoids were different from the properties of the known soluble CAs of plant cell: apparent molecular mass was about 262 kD and it was three orders more sensitive to the specific CA inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, than soluble stromal CA. The data are discussed as indicating the presence of, at least, four CAs in pea thylakoids. PMID:17347907

  19. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells.

    PubMed

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning; Dam, Svend; Lorentzen, Andrea; Miehe, Michaela; Jabs, Frederic; Jakob, Thilo; Plum, Melanie; Spillner, Edzard

    2016-04-01

    TH2-biased immunity to parasites and allergens is often associated with increased levels of antigen-specific and high affinity IgE. The role in reacting against minute amounts of target structures and to provoke severe anaphylactic reactions renders IgE a mechanistically outstanding isotype. IgE represents the least abundant serum antibody isotype and exhibits a variety of peculiarities including structure, extensive glycosylation and effector functions. Despite large progress in antibody technologies, however, the recombinant access to isotypes beyond IgG such as IgE still is scarce. The capacity of expression systems has to meet the complex structural conformations and the extensive posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for biological activity. In order to provide alternatives to mammalian expression systems with often low yield and a more complex glycosylation pattern we established the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the rIgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the IgE isotype. PMID:26943931

  20. Helicobacter pylori TlyA Forms Amyloid-like Aggregates with Potent Cytotoxic Activity.

    PubMed

    Lata, Kusum; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2015-06-16

    Helicobacter pylori is a potent human gastric pathogen. It is known to be associated with several gastroenteric disorders, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. The H. pylori genome encodes a gene product TlyA that has been shown to display potent membrane damaging properties and cytotoxic activity. On the basis of such properties, TlyA is considered as a potential virulence factor of H. pylori. In this study, we show that the H. pylori TlyA protein has a strong propensity to convert into the amyloid-like aggregated assemblies, upon exposure to elevated temperatures. Even at the physiological temperature of 37 °C, TlyA shows a strong amyloidogenic property. TlyA aggregates that are generated upon exposure at temperatures of ≥37 °C show prominent binding to dyes like thioflavin T and Nile Red. Transmission electron microscopy also demonstrates the presence of typical amyloid-like fibrils in the TlyA aggregates generated at 37 °C. Conversion of TlyA into the amyloid-like aggregates is found to be associated with major alterations in the secondary and tertiary structural organization of the protein. Finally, our study shows that the preformed amyloid-like aggregates of TlyA are capable of exhibiting potent cytotoxic activities against human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Altogether, such a propensity of H. pylori TlyA to convert into the amyloid-like aggregated assemblies with cytotoxic activity suggests potential implications for the virulence functionality of the protein. PMID:26015064

  1. A monoclonal antibody that distinguishes latent and active forms of the proteasome (multicatalytic proteinase complex)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitman, D.; Etlinger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated to proteasome purified from human erythrocytes. Five of six proteasome-specific mAbs reacted with three subunits in the molecular mass range of 25-28 kDa, indicating a common epitope. The other mAb (AP5C10) exhibited a more restricted reactivity, recognizing a 32-kDa subunit of the proteasome purified in its latent state. However, when the proteasome is isolated in its active state, AP5C10 reacts with a 28-kDa subunit, evidence for processing of the proteasome subunits during purification. Purified proteasome preparations which exhibited partial latency have both AP5C10 reactive subunits. Although the 32-kDa subunit appears required for latency, loss of this component and generation of the 28-kDa component are not obligatory for activation. The 32- and 28-kDa subunits can each be further resolved into three components by isoelectric focusing. The apparent loss of 4 kDa during the conversion of the 32- to 28-kDa subunit is accompanied by a shift to a more basic pI for each polypeptide. Western blots of the early steps of proteasome purification reveal an AP5C10-reactive protein at 41 kDa. This protein was separated from proteasomes by sizing chromatography and may represent a pool of precursor subunits. Since the 32-kDa subunit appears necessary for latency, it is speculated to play a regulatory role in ATP-dependent proteolytic activity.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analyses of various forms of activity and their propagation through helio spheric space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical modeling of solar activity and its effects on the solar atmosphere within the context of magnetohydrodynamics were examined. Specifically, the scientific objectives were concerned with the physical mechanisms for the flare energy build-up and subsequent release. In addition, transport of this energy to the corona and solar wind was also investigated. Well-posed, physically self-consistent, numerical simulation models that are based upon magnetohydrodynamics were sought. A systematic investigation of the basic processes that determine the macroscopic dynamic behavior of solar and heliospheric phenomena was conducted. A total of twenty-three articles were accepted and published in major journals. The major achievements are summarized.

  3. Mast cells and dendritic cells form synapses that facilitate antigen transfer for T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Cannon, Judy L.; te Riet, Joost; Holmes, Anna; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Cambi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) produce soluble mediators such as histamine and prostaglandins that are known to influence dendritic cell (DC) function by stimulating maturation and antigen processing. Whether direct cell–cell interactions are important in modulating MC/DC function is unclear. In this paper, we show that direct contact between MCs and DCs occurs and plays an important role in modulating the immune response. Activation of MCs through FcεRI cross-linking triggers the formation of stable cell–cell interactions with immature DCs that are reminiscent of the immunological synapse. Direct cellular contact differentially regulates the secreted cytokine profile, indicating that MC modulation of DC populations is influenced by the nature of their interaction. Synapse formation requires integrin engagement and facilitates the transfer of internalized MC-specific antigen from MCs to DCs. The transferred material is ultimately processed and presented by DCs and can activate T cells. The physiological outcomes of the MC–DC synapse suggest a new role for intercellular crosstalk in defining the immune response. PMID:26304724

  4. Two Active Forms of UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Enolpyruvyl Transferase in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wensheng; Brown, James R.; Sylvester, Daniel R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Chalker, Alison F.; So, Chi Y.; Holmes, David J.; Payne, David J.; Wallis, Nicola G.

    2000-01-01

    Gene sequences encoding the enzymes UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) from many bacterial sources were analyzed. It was shown that whereas gram-negative bacteria have only one murA gene, gram-positive bacteria have two distinct genes encoding these enzymes which have possibly arisen from gene duplication. The two murA genes of the gram-positive organism Streptococcus pneumoniae were studied further. Each of the murA genes was individually inactivated by allelic replacement. In each case, the organism was viable despite losing one of its murA genes. However, when attempts were made to construct a double-deletion strain, no mutants were obtained. This indicates that both genes encode active enzymes that can substitute for each other, but that the presence of a MurA function is essential to the organism. The two genes were further cloned and overexpressed, and the enzymes they encode were purified. Both enzymes catalyzed the transfer of enolpyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, confirming they are both active UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferases. The catalytic parameters of the two enzymes were similar, and they were both inhibited by the antibiotic fosfomycin. PMID:10894720

  5. A current model of neural circuitry active in forming mental images

    PubMed Central

    Brodziak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    My aim here is to formulate a compact, intuitively understandable model of neural circuits active in imagination that would be consistent with the current state of knowledge, but that would be simple enough to be able to use for teaching. I argue that such a model should be based on the recent idea of “concept neurons” and circuits of 2 separate loops necessary for recalling mental images and consolidation of memory traces of long-term memory. This paper discusses the role of the hippocampus and temporal lobe, emphasizing the essential importance of recurrent pathways and oscillations occurring in the upper layers of hierarchical neural structures, as well as oscillations in thalamo-cortical loops. The elaborated model helps explain specific processes such as imagining future situations, novel objects, and anticipated action, as well as imagination concerning oneself, which is indispensable for the sense of identity and self-awareness. I attempt to present this compact, simple model of neural circuitry active in imagination by using some intuitive, demonstrative figures. PMID:24335907

  6. Dynamic heterogeneities, boson peak and activation volume in glass-forming liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, L; Novikov, V. N.; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2011-01-01

    There are various arguments and models connecting the characteristic length associated with the boson peak vibrations to the length scale of dynamical heterogeneity Lhet. is usually defined as the ratio of the transverse sound velocity to the boson peak frequency. Here we present pressure, temperature, and molecular weight dependencies of , estimated using light scattering, in a few molecular and polymeric glass formers. These dependencies are compared with respective dependencies of the activation volume V # in the same materials. Good agreement is found for the pressure and molecular weight dependencies of and V # measured at the glass transition temperature Tg. These results provide more evidence for a possible relationship between the sensitivity of structural relaxation to density (activation volume) and the heterogeneity volume. However, contrary to the expectations for Lhet, does not decrease with temperature above Tg in most of the studied materials. The temperature dependence of is compared to that of Lhet in glycerol and orthoterphenyl (OTP) estimated from literature data. The analysis shows a clear difference in the behavior of (T) and V #(T) at temperatures above Tg, although V #(T)1/3 and Lhet(T) have similar temperature dependence. Possible reasons for the observed difference are discussed.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mouth washes and herbal products against dental biofilm-forming bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Naiana B.; Alexandria, Adílis K. F.; De Lima, Aline L.; Claudino, Lígia V.; De Oliveira Carneiro, Thiago F.; Da costa, Adalberto C; Valença, Ana M. G.; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate in vitro, the antimicrobial effect of Cymbopogon citrates (lemon grass), Plectranthusamboinicus (Mexican mint) and Conyzabonariensis (hairy fleabane) tinctures as well as pure and diluted commercial mouth washes (Malvatricin®, Periogard® and Listerine®) on wild isolates of Streptococcusmutans and reference strains of S. mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei by determination of minimum inhibitory dilution (MID). Materials and Methods: 0.12% chlorhexidine and 70% corn alcohol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Saliva samples were collected from 3 volunteers and seeded in MSB broth to obtain Streptococcus isolates after 72-hour incubation. Using the agar diffusion method, susceptibility tests were performed with overnight incubation in microaerophilia at 37°C. All tests were performed in duplicate. Results: The bacterial species were resistant to the tinctures and Listerine®, but were susceptible to 0.12% chlorhexidine, Malvatricin® and Periogard®, with MIDs ranging from 12.5% to 1.56%. Conclusions: Plectrantusamboinicus, Conyzabonariensis and Cymbopongoncitratus tinctures and Listerine® did not show inhibitory action against the tested biofilm-forming bacteria. PMID:23293486

  8. Production and evolution of light elements in active star-forming regions.

    PubMed

    Cassé, M; Lehoucq, R; Vangioni-Flam, E

    1995-01-26

    Collisions between cosmic rays (energetic protons and alpha-particles) and carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the interstellar medium have been considered to be the main source of lithium, beryllium and boron, through fragmentation of the larger nuclei. But this mechanism is unable to account for the observed Solar System abundances of the isotopes 7Li and 11B. The recent detection of an excess of gamma-rays in the direction of the star-forming region in the Orion cloud has been interpreted as arising from the excitation of carbon and oxygen nuclei ejected from supernovae when they collide with the surrounding gas, which is primarily molecular and atomic hydrogen. Here we investigate the consequences of the two-body interactions of the ejected carbon and oxygen nuclei (and the alpha-particles ejected with them) with the hydrogen and helium in the surrounding gas, using a model developed previously. We show that these interactions offer a way to make lithium, beryllium and boron that is independent of the abundance of heavy elements in the surrounding medium. Such supernova-driven interactions, combined with the effect of galactic cosmic rays, can explain the observed Solar System abundances of these light elements. PMID:7830765

  9. Aroylhydrazone Cu(II) Complexes in keto Form: Structural Characterization and Catalytic Activity towards Cyclohexane Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Manas; Alegria, Elisabete C B A; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Martins, Luísa M D R S; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of the Schiff base (3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide (H3L) with a copper(II) salt of a base of a strong acid, i.e., nitrate, chloride or sulphate, yielded the mononuclear complexes [Cu(H2L)(NO3)(H2O)] (1), [Cu(H2L)Cl]·2MeOH (2) and the binuclear complex [{Cu(H2L)}2(µ-SO4)]·2MeOH (3), respectively, with H2L(-) in the keto form. Compounds 1-3 were characterized by elemental analysis, Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) and single crystal X-ray crystallography. All compounds act as efficient catalysts towards the peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexyl hydroperoxide, cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone, under mild conditions. In the presence of an acid promoter, overall yields (based on the alkane) up to 25% and a turnover number (TON) of 250 (TOF of 42 h(-1)) after 6 h, were achieved. PMID:27043506

  10. Spectrofluorimetric determination of certain biologically active phenothiazines in commercial dosage forms and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud I; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Salem, Hesham; Nagy, Dalia M; Omar, Mahmoud A

    2013-01-01

    A validated simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of chlorpromazine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride, trifluperazine hydrochloride, thioridazine hydrochloride, perazine maleate and oxomemazine. The method was based on condensation of malonic acid/acetic anhydride (MAA) under the catalytic effect of the tertiary amine moiety of the studied phenothiazines to provide a deep yellow to brown colour with green fluorescence. Relative fluorescence intensity of the products was measured at λ exc 398 nm and λ em 432 nm. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in commercial dosage forms. The lower detection limits allowed the application of this method for the determination of the compounds in plasma as an example of a biological fluid. In addition, the method was considered specific for the determination of tertiary amines in the presence of primary and secondary amines; as a result, it was deemed suitable for the determination of the cited drugs in the presence of their degradation products resulting from N-dealkylation or oxidation of the corresponding sulphoxides or sulphones. PMID:22786713

  11. The primary role of active large sand seas in forming warm-desert loess sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouvi, O.; Enzel, Y.; Amit, R.; Gillespie, A.

    2009-12-01

    Loess is a widespread aeolian deposit in warm deserts and their semiarid margins. It is commonly dominated by coarse silts. Quartz particles, commonly angular, are the main component (commonly 50%-70%) of this coarse silt fraction. Despite intensive research during the past century on loess formation, the origin of these coarse quartz silts comprising most of desert loess remains one of the fundamental debated problems in sedimentology and Quaternary geology. The ongoing debate is focused on the first stage of loess formation - the production of the quartz silt grains. Therefore this debate influences interpretations of past environmental and climatic changes. Although laboratory experiments indicate the potential of spalling coarse silt grains from abrading sand grains during saltation, field-based evidence is rare and the concept has been minimized and even rejected. We examined in detail data available for several well-known loess zones in subtropical deserts (including: Sahara, Sinai-Negev, Arabia) and show that all these, desert loess sequences are located downwind of adjacent sand dunes/seas both during the late Pleistocene as indicated by dune directions and even at present as indicated by wind data and drift analyses. Additional observations include: (a) mineralogical similarity between the loess and the upwind sand dunes, (b) temporal association of intensified erg activity and loess formation, and (c) grain-size mode reduction of loess with distance from ergs. Where there is no loess sequence downwind of ergs, there is an ocean, sometimes with reported silts (interpreted as dust) in coastal and deeper sea cores. These observations suggest that sand dunes must have been an important source for desert loess. We postulate that the silt grains are generated through active aeolian abrasion of sand grains during episodes of intense windy conditions, in most cases in glacial times. Thus our findings stress that the primary role of active ergs and aeolian

  12. Permission Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    The prevailing practice in public schools is to routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities that pose potential for liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered to be neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. The following case and the…

  13. Human liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase: three-dimensional structure and the restoration of solubility and activity of chimeric forms.

    PubMed Central

    Ni, L.; Zhou, J.; Hurley, T. D.; Weiner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Human liver cytosolic and mitochondrial isozymes of aldehyde dehydrogenase share 70% sequence identity. However, the first 21 residues are not conserved between the human isozymes (15% identity). The three-dimensional structures of the beef mitochondrial and sheep cytosolic forms have virtually identical three-dimensional structures. Here, we solved the structure of the human mitochondrial enzyme and found it to be identical to the beef enzyme. The first 21 residues are found on the surface of the enzyme and make no contact with other subunits in the tetramer. A pair of chimeric enzymes between the human isozymes was made. Each chimera had the first 21 residues from one isozyme and the remaining 479 from the other. When the first 21 residues were from the mitochondrial isozyme, an enzyme with cytosolic-like properties was produced. The other was expressed but was insoluble. It was possible to restore solubility and activity to the chimera that had the first 21 cytosolic residues fused to the mitochondrial ones by making point mutations to residues at the N-terminal end. When residue 19 was changed from tyrosine to a cysteine, the residue found in the mitochondrial form, an active enzyme could be made though the Km for NAD+ was 35 times higher than the native mitochondrial isozyme and the specific activity was reduced by 75%. This residue interacts with residue 203, a nonconserved, nonactive site residue. A mutation of residue 18, which also interacts with 203, restored solubility, but not activity. Mutation to residue 15, which interacts with 104, also restored solubility but not activity. It appears that to have a soluble or active enzyme a favorable interaction must occur between a residue in a surface loop and a residue elsewhere in the molecule even though neither make contact with the active site region of the enzyme. PMID:10631996

  14. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin. PMID:23798775

  15. Hsp90-binding immunophilin FKBP51 forms complexes with hTERT enhancing telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Lagadari, Mariana; Zgajnar, Nadia R; Gallo, Luciana I; Galigniana, Mario D

    2016-08-01

    FK506-binding proteins are members of the immunophilin family of proteins. Those immunophilins associated to the 90-kDa-heat-shock protein, Hsp90, have been proposed as potential modulators of signalling cascade factors chaperoned by Hsp90. FKBP51 and FKBP52 are the best characterized Hsp90-bound immunophilins first described associated to steroid-receptors. The reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase, hTERT, is also an Hsp90 client-protein and is highly expressed in cancer cells, where it is required to compensate the loss of telomeric DNA after each successive cell division. Because FKBP51 is also a highly expressed protein in cancer tissues, we analyzed its potential association with hTERT·Hsp90 complexes and its possible biological role. In this study it is demonstrated that both immunophilins, FKBP51 and FKBP52, co-immunoprecipitate with hTERT. The Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol disrupts the heterocomplex and favors the partial cytoplasmic relocalization of hTERT in similar manner as the overexpression of the TPR-domain peptide of the immunophilin. While confocal microscopy images show that FKBP51 is primarily localized in mitochondria and hTERT is totally nuclear, upon the onset of oxidative stress, FKBP51 (but not FKBP52) becomes mostly nuclear colocalizing with hTERT, and longer exposure times to peroxide favors hTERT export to mitochondria. Importantly, telomerase activity of hTERT is significantly enhanced by FKBP51. These observations support the emerging role assigned to FKBP51 as antiapoptotic factor in cancer development and progression, and describe for the first time the potential role of this immunophilin favoring the clonal expansion by enhancing telomerase activity. PMID:27233944

  16. Matrix rigidity regulates spatiotemporal dynamics of Cdc42 activity and vacuole formation kinetics of endothelial colony forming cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Joon; Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye; Han, Bumsoo; Yoder, Mervin C.; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L.; Na, Sungsoo

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) may serve as a cell therapy for improving blood vessel formation in subjects with vascular injury, largely due to their robust vasculogenic potential. The Rho family GTPase Cdc42 is known to play a primary role in this vasculogenesis process, but little is known about how extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity affects Cdc42 activity during the process. In this study, we addressed two questions: Does matrix rigidity affect Cdc42 activity in ECFC undergoing early vacuole formation? How is the spatiotemporal activation of Cdc42 related to ECFC vacuole formation? A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Cdc42 biosensor was used to examine the effects of the rigidity of three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices on spatiotemporal activity of Cdc42 in ECFCs. Collagen matrix stiffness was modulated by varying the collagen concentration and therefore fibril density. The results showed that soft (150 Pa) matrices induced an increased level of Cdc42 activity compared to stiff (1 kPa) matrices. Time-course imaging and colocalization analysis of Cdc42 activity and vacuole formation revealed that Cdc42 activity was colocalized to the periphery of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Moreover, soft matrices generated faster and larger vacuoles than stiff matrices. The matrix-driven vacuole formation was enhanced by a constitutively active Cdc42 mutant, but significantly inhibited by a dominant-negative Cdc42 mutant. Collectively, the results suggest that matrix rigidity is a strong regulator of Cdc42 activity and vacuole formation kinetics, and that enhanced activity of Cdc42 is an important step in early vacuole formation in ECFCs. PMID:24393843

  17. Albumin inhibits platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced responses in platelets and macrophages: implications for the biologically active form of PAF.

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriadis, G.; Stewart, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    1. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) binds with high affinity to albumin leading Clay et al. (1990) to suggest that the active form of PAF is the albumin-PAF complex. 2. In the present study the proposal that albumin-bound, rather than monomeric PAF, is the active form of PAF at PAF receptors was critically evaluated by examining the effect of albumin on the potency of PAF in isolated platelets and macrophages. 3. Bovine serum albumin inhibited concentration-dependently PAF-induced responses in platelets and macrophages. The most probable explanation of this finding is that BSA reduced the concentration of free PAF. 4. Thus, we conclude that free PAF, rather than the albumin-PAF complex is the active form. Consequently, local concentrations of albumin will influence profoundly the potency of endogenously released PAF. Moreover, estimates of the affinity of PAF for PAF receptors made in buffers containing BSA, underestimate the true affinity of PAF for its receptors by approximately 3 orders of magnitude. PMID:1330167

  18. EVIDENCE FOR LOW EXTINCTION IN ACTIVELY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z > 6.5

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, F.; Decarli, R.; Carilli, C.; Riechers, D.; Bertoldi, F.; Weiss, A.; Cox, P.; Neri, R.; Maiolino, R.; Ouchi, M.; Egami, E.

    2012-06-20

    We present a search for the [C II] 158 {mu}m fine structure line (a main cooling line of the interstellar medium) and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) continuum in three high-redshift (6.6 < z < 8.2) star-forming galaxies using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We targeted two Ly{alpha}-selected galaxies (Ly{alpha} emitters, LAEs) with moderate UV-based star formation rates (SFRs {approx} 20 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}; Himiko at z = 6.6 and IOK-1 at z = 7.0) and a gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy (GRB 090423 at z {approx} 8.2). Based on our 3{sigma} rest-frame FIR continuum limits, previous (rest-frame) UV continuum measurements and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, we rule out SED shapes similar to highly obscured galaxies (e.g., Arp 220, M 82) and less extreme dust-rich nearby spiral galaxies (e.g., M 51) for the LAEs. Conservatively assuming an SED shape typical of local spiral galaxies we derive upper limits for the FIR-based star formation rates (SFRs) of {approx}70 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, {approx}50 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and {approx}40 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for Himiko, IOK-1, and GRB 090423, respectively. For the LAEs these limits are only a factor {approx}3 higher than the published UV-based SFRs (uncorrected for extinction). This indicates that the dust obscuration in the z > 6 LAEs studied here is lower by a factor of a few than what has recently been found in some LAEs at lower redshift (2 < z < 3.5) with similar UV-based SFRs. A low obscuration in our z > 6 LAE sample is consistent with recent rest-frame UV studies of z {approx} 7 Lyman break galaxies.

  19. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Steele, Jackie L.

    2001-02-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses LAWABP1 and HLP-31 that will be used for simulations of the immobilized lowactivity waste disposal system with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in March of 2001. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali-H ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow and vapor hydration experiments were used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses. The majority of the thermodynamic data were extracted from the thermodynamic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6. However, several secondary reaction products identified from laboratory tests with prototypical LAW glasses were not included in this database, nor are the thermodynamic data available in the open literature. One of these phases, herschelite, was determined to have a potentially significant impact on the release calculations and so a solubility product was estimated using a polymer structure model developed for zeolites. Although this data package is relatively complete, final selection of ILAW glass compositions has not been done by the waste treatment plant contractor. Consequently, revisions to this data package to address new ILAW glass formulations are to be regularly expected.

  20. IER5 generates a novel hypo-phosphorylated active form of HSF1 and contributes to tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshinori; Kawase, Tatsuya; Okabe, Atsushi; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Tatebe, Satoko; Kitabayashi, Issay; Tashiro, Fumio; Namiki, Hideo; Kondo, Tadashi; Semba, Kentaro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Taya, Yoichi; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ohki, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factors HSF1 and p53 both modulate the stress response, thereby protecting and facilitating the recovery of stressed cells, but both have the potential to promote tumor development. Here we show that a p53 target gene, IER5, encodes an activator of HSF1. IER5 forms a ternary complex with HSF1 and the phosphatase PP2A, and promotes the dephosphorylation of HSF1 at numbers of serine and threonine residues, generating a novel, hypo-phosphorylated active form of HSF1. IER5 is also transcriptionally upregulated in various cancers, although this upregulation is not always p53-dependent. The IER5 locus is associated with a so-called super enhancer, frequently associated with hyperactivated oncogenes in cancer cell lines. Enhanced expression of IER5 induces abnormal HSF1 activation in cancer cells and contributes to the proliferation of these cells under stressed conditions. These results reveal the existence of a novel IER5-mediated cancer regulation pathway that is responsible for the activation of HSF1 observed in various cancers. PMID:26754925

  1. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  2. IER5 generates a novel hypo-phosphorylated active form of HSF1 and contributes to tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Yoshinori; Kawase, Tatsuya; Okabe, Atsushi; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Tatebe, Satoko; Kitabayashi, Issay; Tashiro, Fumio; Namiki, Hideo; Kondo, Tadashi; Semba, Kentaro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Taya, Yoichi; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ohki, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factors HSF1 and p53 both modulate the stress response, thereby protecting and facilitating the recovery of stressed cells, but both have the potential to promote tumor development. Here we show that a p53 target gene, IER5, encodes an activator of HSF1. IER5 forms a ternary complex with HSF1 and the phosphatase PP2A, and promotes the dephosphorylation of HSF1 at numbers of serine and threonine residues, generating a novel, hypo-phosphorylated active form of HSF1. IER5 is also transcriptionally upregulated in various cancers, although this upregulation is not always p53-dependent. The IER5 locus is associated with a so-called super enhancer, frequently associated with hyperactivated oncogenes in cancer cell lines. Enhanced expression of IER5 induces abnormal HSF1 activation in cancer cells and contributes to the proliferation of these cells under stressed conditions. These results reveal the existence of a novel IER5-mediated cancer regulation pathway that is responsible for the activation of HSF1 observed in various cancers. PMID:26754925

  3. Fate and Transport of Methane Formed in the Active Layer of Alaskan Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, M. E.; Curtis, J. B.; Smith, L. J.; Bill, M.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 2 years a series of tracer tests designed to estimate rates of methane formation via acetoclastic methanogenesis in the active layer of permafrost soils were conducted at the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) in northernmost Alaska. The tracer tests consisted of extracting 0.5 to 1.0 liters of soil water in gas-tight bags from different features of polygons at the BEO, followed by addition of a tracer cocktail including acetate with a 13C-labeled methyl group and D2O (as a conservative tracer) into the soil water and injection of the mixture back into the original extraction site. Samples were then taken at depths of 30 cm (just above the bottom of the active layer), 20 cm, 10 cm and surface flux to determine the fate of the 13C-labeled acetate. During 2014 (2015 results are pending) water, soil gas, and flux gas were sampled for 60 days following injection of the tracer solution. Those samples were analyzed for concentrations and isotopic compositions of CH4, DIC/CO2 and water. At one site (the trough of a low-centered polygon) the 13C acetate was completely converted to 13CH4 within the first 2 days. The signal persisted for throughout the entire monitoring period at the injection depth with little evidence of transport or oxidation in any of the other sampling depths. In the saturated center of the same polygon, the acetate was also rapidly converted to 13CH4, but water turnover caused the signal to rapidly dissipate. High δ13C CO2 in flux samples from the polygon center indicate oxidation of the 13CH4 in near-surface waters. Conversely, CH4 production in the center of an unsaturated, flat-centered polygon was relatively small 13CH4 and dissipated rapidly without any evidence of either 13CH4 transport to shallower levels or oxidation. At another site in the edge of that polygon no 13CH4 was produced, but significant 13CO2/DIC was observed indicating direct aerobic oxidation of the acetate was occurring at this site. These results suggest that

  4. Binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha to activated forms of human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg, G. K.; LaMarre, J.; Rosendal, S.; Gonias, S. L.; Hayes, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is a latent binding glycoprotein for human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Human recombinant 125I-TNF-alpha was incubated for 2 hours (37 degrees C) with purified native alpha 2M and with alpha 2M that was modified by reaction with methylamine or various proteinases. 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M complexes were detected by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after autoradiography or by liquid chromatography on Superose-6. 125I-TNF-alpha bound strongly but noncovalently to alpha 2M-plasmin and alpha 2M-methylamine. There was minimal binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to native alpha 2M, alpha 2M-trypsin, or alpha 2M-thrombin. A 10(6) molar excess of porcine heparin did not reduce the binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to alpha 2M-methylamine or alpha 2M-plasmin. alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine added to human plasma or serum preferentially bound 125I-TNF-alpha in the presence of native alpha 2M. 125I-TNF-alpha also bound to 'fast' alpha-macroglobulins in methylamine-reacted human, rat, mouse, swine, equine, and bovine plasma. However, TNF-alpha, preincubated with either alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine, remained a potent necrogen for cultured L929 cells. Purified 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complex injected intravenously in CD-1 mice rapidly cleared from the circulation, unless the alpha 2M-receptor pathway was blocked by coinjection of excess alpha 2M-trypsin. These findings demonstrate that alpha 2M is a latent plasmin-activated binding glycoprotein for TNF-alpha and that TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complexes can be removed from the circulation by the alpha 2M-receptor pathway. This suggests that alpha 2M may be an important regulator of the activity and distribution of TNF-alpha in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1704186

  5. An Activity of Thioacyl Derivatives of 4-Aminoquinolinium Salts towards Biofilm Producing and Planktonic Forms of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Zięba, Andrzej; Idzik, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms present in different environments have developed specific mechanisms of settling on various abiotic and biotic surfaces by forming a biofilm. It seems to be well justified to search for new compounds enabling biofilm reduction, which is highly resistant to antibiotics. This study was thus an initial assessment of the antibacterial activity of two new quinoline derivatives of a structure of 3-thioacyl 1-methyl 4-arylaminoquinolinium salts against coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from a hospital environment, in a form of both biofilms and in planktonic form. Thirty-three stains of CoNS isolated from the hospital environment (air, surfaces) and seven reference strains from the ATCC collection were selected for the study. The mean MIC value for 1-methyl-3-benzoylthio-4-(4-chlorophenylamino)quinolinum chloride (4-chlorophenylamino derivative) was 42.60 ± 19.91 μg/mL, and in the case of strains subjected to 1-methyl-3-benzoylthio-4-(4-fluorophenylamino)quinolinum chloride (4-fluorophenylamino derivative) activity, the mean MIC value was 43.20 ± 14.30 μg/mL. The mean concentration of 4-chlorophenylamino derivative that inhibited biofilm formation was 86.18 ± 30.64 μg/mL. The mean concentration of 4-fluorophenylamino derivatives that inhibited biofilm formation was higher and amounted to 237.09 ± 160.57 μg/mL. Based on the results, both derivatives of the examined compounds exhibit high antimicrobial activity towards strains growing both in planktonic and biofilm form. PMID:26064946

  6. An Activity of Thioacyl Derivatives of 4-Aminoquinolinium Salts towards Biofilm Producing and Planktonic Forms of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Wojtyczka, Robert D; Zięba, Andrzej; Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kępa, Małgorzata; Idzik, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms present in different environments have developed specific mechanisms of settling on various abiotic and biotic surfaces by forming a biofilm. It seems to be well justified to search for new compounds enabling biofilm reduction, which is highly resistant to antibiotics. This study was thus an initial assessment of the antibacterial activity of two new quinoline derivatives of a structure of 3-thioacyl 1-methyl 4-arylaminoquinolinium salts against coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from a hospital environment, in a form of both biofilms and in planktonic form. Thirty-three stains of CoNS isolated from the hospital environment (air, surfaces) and seven reference strains from the ATCC collection were selected for the study. The mean MIC value for 1-methyl-3-benzoylthio-4-(4-chlorophenylamino)quinolinum chloride (4-chlorophenylamino derivative) was 42.60 ± 19.91 μg/mL, and in the case of strains subjected to 1-methyl-3-benzoylthio-4-(4-fluorophenylamino)quinolinum chloride (4-fluorophenylamino derivative) activity, the mean MIC value was 43.20 ± 14.30 μg/mL. The mean concentration of 4-chlorophenylamino derivative that inhibited biofilm formation was 86.18 ± 30.64 μg/mL. The mean concentration of 4-fluorophenylamino derivatives that inhibited biofilm formation was higher and amounted to 237.09 ± 160.57 μg/mL. Based on the results, both derivatives of the examined compounds exhibit high antimicrobial activity towards strains growing both in planktonic and biofilm form. PMID:26064946

  7. Structure, Aggregation, and Activity of a Covalent Insulin Dimer Formed During Storage of Neutral Formulation of Human Insulin.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Christian Fogt; Norrman, Mathias; Wahlund, Per-Olof; Benie, Andrew J; Petersen, Bent O; Jessen, Christian M; Pedersen, Thomas Å; Vestergaard, Kirsten; Steensgaard, Dorte B; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Naver, Helle; Hubálek, František; Poulsen, Christian; Otzen, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    A specific covalently linked dimeric species of insulin high molecular weight products (HMWPs), formed during prolonged incubation of a neutral pharmaceutical formulation of human insulin, were characterized in terms of tertiary structure, self-association, biological activity, and fibrillation properties. The dimer was formed by a covalent link between A21Asn and B29Lys. It was analyzed using static and dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering to evaluate its self-association behavior. The tertiary structure was obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of HMWP was determined using 2 in vitro assays, and its influence on fibrillation was investigated using Thioflavin T assays. The dimer's tertiary structure was nearly identical to that of the noncovalent insulin dimer, and it was able to form hexamers in the presence of zinc. The dimer exhibited reduced propensity for self-association in the absence of zinc but significantly postponed the onset of fibrillation in insulin formulations. Consistent with its dimeric state, the tested species of HMWP showed little to no biological activity in the used assays. This study is the first detailed characterization of a specific type of human insulin HMWP formed during storage of a marketed pharmaceutical formulation. These results indicate that this specific type of HMWP is unlikely to antagonize the physical stability of the formulation, as HMWP retained a tertiary structure similar to the noncovalent dimer and participated in hexamer assembly in the presence of zinc. In addition, increasing amounts of HMWP reduce the rate of insulin fibrillation. PMID:26921119

  8. The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Kinney, Anne L.; Koornneef, Jan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2000-01-01

    ), UV - bright star-forming galaxies, these galaxies' FIR emission will be generally undetected in submillimeter surveys, unless: (1) their bolometric luminosity is comparable to or larger than that of ultraluminous FIR galaxies and (2) their FIR SED contains a cool dust component.

  9. The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Kinney, Anne L.; Koornneef, Jan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2000-04-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) photometry at 150 and 205 μm of eight low-redshift starburst galaxies obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) ISOPHOT. Five of the eight galaxies are detected in both wave bands, and these data are used, in conjunction with IRAS archival photometry, to model the dust emission at λ>~40 μm. The FIR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are best fitted by a combination of two modified Planck functions, with T~40-55 K (warm dust) and T~20-23 K (cool dust) and with a dust emissivity index ɛ=2. The cool dust can be a major contributor to the FIR emission of starburst galaxies, representing up to 60% of the total flux. This component is heated not only by the general interstellar radiation field, but also by the starburst itself. The cool dust mass is up to ~150 times larger than the warm dust mass, bringing the gas-to-dust ratios of the starbursts in our sample close to Milky Way values, once rescaled for the appropriate metallicity. The ratio between the total dust FIR emission in the range 1-1000 μm and the IRAS FIR emission in the range 40-120 μm is ~1.75, with small variations from galaxy to galaxy. This ratio is about 40% larger than previously inferred from data at millimeter wavelengths. Although the galaxies in our sample are generally classified as ``UV bright,'' for four of them the UV energy emerging shortward of 0.2 μm is less than 15% of the FIR energy. On average, about 30% of the bolometric flux is coming out in the UV-to-near-IR wavelength range; the rest is emitted in the FIR. Energy balance calculations show that the FIR emission predicted by the dust reddening of the UV-to-near-IR stellar emission is within a factor of ~2 of the observed value in individual galaxies and within 20% when averaged over a large sample. If our sample of local starbursts is representative of high-redshift (z>~1), UV-bright, star-forming galaxies, these galaxies' FIR emission will be generally undetected in submillimeter surveys

  10. Artefactual nanoparticle activation of the inflammasome platform: in vitro evidence with a nano-formed calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Pele, Laetitia; Haas, Carolin T; Hewitt, Rachel; Faria, Nuno; Brown, Andy; Powell, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine whether in vitro experimental conditions dictate cellular activation of the inflammasome by apatitic calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Material & methods The responses of blood-derived primary human cells to in situ-formed apatite were investigated under different experimental conditions to assess the effect of aseptic culture, cell rest and duration of particle exposure. Cell death and particle uptake were assessed, while IL-1β and caspase 1 responses, with and without lipopolysaccharide prestimulation, were evaluated as markers of inflammasome activation. Results Under carefully addressed experimental conditions, apatitic nanoparticles did not induce cell death or engage the inflammasome platform, although both could be triggered through artefacts of experimentation. Conclusion In vitro studies often predict that engineered nanoparticles, such as synthetic apatite, are candidates for inflammasome activation and, hence, are toxic. However, the experimental setting must be very carefully considered as it may promote false-positive outcomes. PMID:24991724

  11. Spontaneous activity in electromyography may differentiate certain benign lower motor neuron disease forms from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Manu E; Jääskeläinen, Satu K; Sandell, Satu; Palmio, Johanna; Penttilä, Sini; Saukkonen, Annamaija; Soikkeli, Raija; Udd, Bjarne

    2015-08-15

    There is limited data on electromyography (EMG) findings in other motor neuron disorders than amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We assessed whether the distribution of active denervation detected by EMG, i.e. fibrillations and fasciculations, differs between ALS and slowly progressive motor neuron disorders. We compared the initial EMG findings of 43 clinically confirmed, consecutive ALS patients with those of 41 genetically confirmed Late-onset Spinal Motor Neuronopathy and 14 Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy patients. Spontaneous activity was more frequently detected in the first dorsal interosseus and deltoid muscles of ALS patients than in patients with the slowly progressive motor neuron diseases. The most important observation was that absent fibrillations in the first dorsal interosseus muscle identified the benign forms with sensitivities of 66%-77% and a specificity of 93%. The distribution of active denervation may help to separate ALS from mimicking disorders at an early stage. PMID:26059445

  12. Constitutively active form of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 ameliorates experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Nobutoshi; Ishida, Hidekazu; Katsuragi, Shinichi; Baden, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Higeno, Ryota; Torigoe, Fumiko; Mihara, Seiko; Narita, Jun; Miura, Kohji; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    We recently found a constitutively active mutant of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (caNPR2; V883M), which synthesizes larger amounts of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) intracellularly without any ligand stimulation than existing drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of gene transduction using caNPR2 for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In vitro gene transduction into human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells using Sendai virus (SeV) vectors carrying caNPR2 induced 10,000-fold increases in the synthesis of cGMP without ligand stimulation, and the proliferation of caNPR2-expressing cells was significantly attenuated. The PAH model rats generated by hypoxia and the administration of SU5416 were then treated with SeV vectors through a direct injection into the left pulmonary artery. Right ventricular systolic pressure was significantly decreased 2 weeks after the treatment, while systemic blood pressure remained unchanged. Histological analyses revealed that the medial wall thickness and occlusion rate of pulmonary arterioles were significantly improved in caNPR2-treated lungs. Neither the systemic integration of virus vectors nor side effects were observed. The massive stimulation of cGMP synthesis by gene therapy with caNPR2 was safe and effective in a PAH rat model and, thus, has potential as a novel therapy for patients with severe progressive PAH. PMID:27419193

  13. Use of silicon carbide sludge to form porous alkali-activated materials for insulating application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, E.; Joussein, E.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-07-01

    One of the objectives in the field of alkali-activated materials is the development of materials having greater thermal performances than conventional construction materials such as aerated concrete. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility to obtain controlled porosity and controlled thermal properties with geopolymer materials including a waste like silicon carbide sludge. The porosity is created by the reaction of free silicon contains in silicon carbide sludge leading to the formation of hydrogen. Two possible ways are investigated to control the porosity: modification of mixture formulation and additives introduction. The first way is the most promising and allowed the formation of materials presenting the same density but various porosities, which shows that the material is adaptable to the application. The insulation properties are logically linked to the porosity and density of materials. A lower value of thermal conductivity of 0.075 W.m-1.K-1 can be reached for a material with a low density of 0.27 g.cm-3. These characteristics are really good for a mineral-based material which always displays non-negligible resistance to manipulation.

  14. Constitutively active form of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 ameliorates experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nawa, Nobutoshi; Ishida, Hidekazu; Katsuragi, Shinichi; Baden, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Higeno, Ryota; Torigoe, Fumiko; Mihara, Seiko; Narita, Jun; Miura, Kohji; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    We recently found a constitutively active mutant of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (caNPR2; V883M), which synthesizes larger amounts of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) intracellularly without any ligand stimulation than existing drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of gene transduction using caNPR2 for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In vitro gene transduction into human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells using Sendai virus (SeV) vectors carrying caNPR2 induced 10,000-fold increases in the synthesis of cGMP without ligand stimulation, and the proliferation of caNPR2-expressing cells was significantly attenuated. The PAH model rats generated by hypoxia and the administration of SU5416 were then treated with SeV vectors through a direct injection into the left pulmonary artery. Right ventricular systolic pressure was significantly decreased 2 weeks after the treatment, while systemic blood pressure remained unchanged. Histological analyses revealed that the medial wall thickness and occlusion rate of pulmonary arterioles were significantly improved in caNPR2-treated lungs. Neither the systemic integration of virus vectors nor side effects were observed. The massive stimulation of cGMP synthesis by gene therapy with caNPR2 was safe and effective in a PAH rat model and, thus, has potential as a novel therapy for patients with severe progressive PAH. PMID:27419193

  15. Bimolecular recombination reactions: K-adiabatic and K-active forms of the bimolecular master equations and analytic solutions.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2016-03-28

    Expressions for a K-adiabatic master equation for a bimolecular recombination rate constant krec are derived for a bimolecular reaction forming a complex with a single well or complexes with multiple well, where K is the component of the total angular momentum along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination product. The K-active master equation is also considered. The exact analytic solutions, i.e., the K-adiabatic and K-active steady-state population distribution function of reactive complexes, g(EJK) and g(EJ), respectively, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active master equation cases using properties of inhomogeneous integral equations (Fredholm type). The solutions accommodate arbitrary intermolecular energy transfer models, e.g., the single exponential, double exponential, Gaussian, step-ladder, and near-singularity models. At the high pressure limit, the krec for both the K-adiabatic and K-active master equations reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high pressure limit expressions). Ozone and its formation from O + O2 are known to exhibit an adiabatic K. The ratio of the K-adiabatic to the K-active recombination rate constants for ozone formation at the high pressure limit is calculated to be ∼0.9 at 300 K. Results on the temperature and pressure dependence of the recombination rate constants and populations of O3 will be presented elsewhere. PMID:27036434

  16. Bimolecular recombination reactions: K-adiabatic and K-active forms of the bimolecular master equations and analytic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Expressions for a K-adiabatic master equation for a bimolecular recombination rate constant krec are derived for a bimolecular reaction forming a complex with a single well or complexes with multiple well, where K is the component of the total angular momentum along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination product. The K-active master equation is also considered. The exact analytic solutions, i.e., the K-adiabatic and K-active steady-state population distribution function of reactive complexes, g(EJK) and g(EJ), respectively, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active master equation cases using properties of inhomogeneous integral equations (Fredholm type). The solutions accommodate arbitrary intermolecular energy transfer models, e.g., the single exponential, double exponential, Gaussian, step-ladder, and near-singularity models. At the high pressure limit, the krec for both the K-adiabatic and K-active master equations reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high pressure limit expressions). Ozone and its formation from O + O2 are known to exhibit an adiabatic K. The ratio of the K-adiabatic to the K-active recombination rate constants for ozone formation at the high pressure limit is calculated to be ˜0.9 at 300 K. Results on the temperature and pressure dependence of the recombination rate constants and populations of O3 will be presented elsewhere.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Euphorbia hebecarpa Alcoholic Extracts Against Six Human Pathogenic Bacteria in Planktonic and Biofilm Forms

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation is a primary cause of considerable bacterial destruction. Objectives In an effort to combat these industrial and medical bacterial biofilm problems, our study aims to determine the antimicrobial effect of Euphorbia hebecarpa. Materials and Methods The inhibition efficiency of alcoholic extracts on the planktonic form of six pathogenic bacteria was evaluated using a disk diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined by means of a macrobroth dilution method. The effects of the extracts on biofilms were calculated using a microtiter plate method. Results The results of the disk diffusion assay (MBC and MIC) confirmed that E. hebecarpa ethanolic extracts were more efficient than methanolic extracts in the inhibition of planktonic forms of bacteria. Also, the inhibitory effect of the extracts in a broth medium was greater than in a solid medium. Extracts of E. hebecarpa were found to inhibit biofilm formation better than demolish of biofilm and preventing metabolic activity of bacteria in biofilm structures. The greatest inhibitory effects of E. hebecarpa extracts were observed for the biofilm formation of B. cereus (92.81%). In addition, the greatest demolition was observed for the S. aureus biofilm (74.49%), and the metabolic activity decrement of this bacteria was highest (78.21%) of all the tested bacteria. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that E. hebecarpa extracts can be used to inhibit the planktonic and biofilm forms of these selected bacteria.

  18. Adhesive Properties and Acid-Forming Activity of Lactobacilli and Streptococci Under Inhibitory Substances, Such as Nitrates.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, L; Harutyunyan, K; Harutyunyan, N; Melik-Andreasyan, G; Trchounian, A

    2016-06-01

    One of the main requirements for probiotics is their ability to survive during passage through gastrointestinal tract and to maintain their activity at different adverse conditions. The aim of the study was to look for the strains of lactobacilli and streptococci with high adhesive properties even affected by inhibitory substances, such as nitrates (NO3 (-)). To study the adhesion properties hemagglutination reaction of bacterial cells with red blood cells of different animals and humans was used. The acid formation ability of bacteria was determined by the method of titration after 7 days of incubation in the sterile milk. These properties were investigated at different concentrations of NO3 (-). The high concentration (mostly ≥2.0 %) NO3 (-) inhibited the growth of both lactobacilli and streptococci, but compared with streptococcal cultures lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus Ep 317/402, have shown more stability and higher adhesive properties. In addition, the concentrations of NO3 (-) of 0.5-2.0 % decreased the acid-forming activity of the strains, but even under these conditions they coagulated milk and, in comparison to control, formed low acidity in milk. Thus, the L. acidophilus Ep 317/402 with high adhesive properties has demonstrated a higher activity of NO3 (-) transformation. PMID:26942420

  19. Anti-Biofilm and Immunomodulatory Activities of Peptides That Inhibit Biofilms Formed by Pathogens Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Mansour, Sarah C.; Wang, Zhejun; Jiang, Lucy; Breidenstein, Elena B.M.; Elliott, Melissa; Reffuveille, Fany; Speert, David P.; Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shauna L.; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Hancock, Robert E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often acquire chronic respiratory tract infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species. In the CF lung, these bacteria grow as multicellular aggregates termed biofilms. Biofilms demonstrate increased (adaptive) resistance to conventional antibiotics, and there are currently no available biofilm-specific therapies. Using plastic adherent, hydroxyapatite and flow cell biofilm models coupled with confocal and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that an anti-biofilm peptide 1018 prevented biofilm formation, eradicated mature biofilms and killed biofilms formed by a wide range of P. aeruginosa and B. cenocepacia clinical isolates. New peptide derivatives were designed that, compared to their parent peptide 1018, showed similar or decreased anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms, but increased activity against biofilms formed by the Gram-positive bacterium methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, some of these new peptide derivatives retained the immunomodulatory activity of 1018 since they induced the production of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-mediated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and were non-toxic towards these cells. Peptide 1018 and its derivatives provide promising leads for the treatment of chronic biofilm infections and hyperinflammatory lung disease in CF patients. PMID:26221537

  20. An 11-kDa form of human immunodeficiency virus protease expressed in Escherichia coli is sufficient for enzymatic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, M C; Lim, J J; Heimer, E P; Kramer, R A

    1988-01-01

    In order to define the protease domain of human immunodeficiency virus 1, various regions of the pol open reading frame were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Antiserum directed against the conserved retroviral protease active site was used to identify pol precursor and processed species containing the presumed protease domain. The smallest product that accumulates is about 11 kDa as measured by NaDodSO4/PAGE. This size agrees with that predicted from the presence in this region of two Phe-Pro sequences, which is one of the cleavage sites recognized by HIV protease. DNA encoding only the predicted 11-kDa protein was cloned, bypassing the need for autoprocessing, and the protein was expressed to a high level in E. coli. This form is active as demonstrated by its ability to specifically cleave protease-deficient pol protein in vivo in E. coli. Extracts of E. coli containing the 11-kDa protease also process human immunodeficiency virus gag substrates in vitro. These results demonstrate that the 11-kDa protease is sufficient for enzymatic activity and are consistent with a major role for this form in virus maturation. Images PMID:3282230