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Sample records for activities form n-400

  1. 75 FR 51096 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the... of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form N-400; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  2. 75 FR 70277 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2010, at 75 FR 51096, allowing for a 60... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 400, Application for Naturalization; OMB Control No. 1615-0052...) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Naturalization. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  3. 77 FR 75440 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Naturalization, Form Number N-400...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... for Naturalization, Form Number N-400; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day... before an eligibility determination for naturalization is made. Even if the applicant for naturalization... intervening years do not affect his or her eligibility for naturalization. The form is also updated to...

  4. 76 FR 69275 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-400, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... notice was previously published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011, at 76 FR 50236, allowing for... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 400, Application for Naturalization; OMB Control No. 1615-0052.../Collection: Application for Naturalization. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component...

  5. 78 FR 17220 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Naturalization, Form N-400; Revision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... collection notice was previously published in the Federal Register on December 20, 2012, at 77 FR 75440... 77 FR 75440. If you need a copy of the information collection instrument with supplementary documents... for Naturalization, Form N-400; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 30-day...

  6. Parafoveal versus foveal N400s dissociate spreading activation from contextual fit.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Using concurrent electroencephalogram and eye movement measures to track natural reading, this study shows that N400 effects reflecting predictability are dissociable from those owing to spreading activation. In comparing predicted sentence endings with related and unrelated unpredicted endings in antonym constructions ('the opposite of black is white/yellow/nice'), fixation-related potentials at the critical word revealed a predictability-based N400 effect (unpredicted vs. predicted words). By contrast, event-related potentials time locked to the last fixation before the critical word showed an N400 only for the nonrelated unpredicted condition (nice). This effect is attributed to a parafoveal mismatch between the critical word and preactivated lexical features (i.e. features of the predicted word and its associates). In addition to providing the first demonstration of a parafoveally induced N400 effect, our results support the view that the N400 is best viewed as a component family.

  7. Meaningful physical changes mediate lexical-semantic integration: top-down and form-based bottom-up information sources interact in the N400.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Netaya; Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2011-11-01

    Models of how the human brain reconstructs an intended meaning from a linguistic input often draw upon the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component as evidence. Current accounts of the N400 emphasise either the role of contextually induced lexical preactivation of a critical word (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008) or the ease of integration into the overall discourse context including a wide variety of influencing factors (Hagoort & van Berkum, 2007). The present ERP study challenges both types of accounts by demonstrating a contextually independent and purely form-based bottom-up influence on the N400: the N400 effect for implausible sentence-endings was attenuated when the critical sentence-final word was capitalised (following a lowercase sentence context). By contrast, no N400 modulation occurred when the critical word involved a change from uppercase (sentence context) to lowercase. Thus, the N400 was only affected by a change to uppercase letters, as is often employed in computer-mediated communication as a sign of emphasis. This result indicates that N400 amplitude is reduced for unexpected words when a bottom-up (orthographic) cue signals that the word is likely to be highly informative. The lexical-semantic N400 thereby reflects the degree to which the semantic informativity of a critical word matches expectations, as determined by an interplay between top-down and bottom-up information sources, including purely form-based bottom-up information. PMID:21939678

  8. Semantic activation, letter search and N400: A reply to Mari-Beffa, Valdes, Cullen, Catena and Houghton (2005).

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Jan-Henryk; Heil, Martin

    2006-02-16

    From a behavioural point of view, the automaticity of semantic activation was denied because letter search eliminates semantic priming effects on RT. From a neuroscience point of view, two recent studies used the N400 to test this claim with antithetic results. Here, we replicate N400 priming effects in the letter search task. The negative results might be traced back to the use of an inappropriate reference electrode. Thus, the theory of semantic activation being an automatic process should not be abandoned prematurely.

  9. Meaningful Physical Changes Mediate Lexical-Semantic Integration: Top-Down and Form-Based Bottom-Up Information Sources Interact in the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotze, Netaya; Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Models of how the human brain reconstructs an intended meaning from a linguistic input often draw upon the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component as evidence. Current accounts of the N400 emphasise either the role of contextually induced lexical preactivation of a critical word (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008) or the ease of integration into…

  10. Automatic semantic activation is no myth: semantic context effects on the N400 in the letter-search task in the absence of response time effects.

    PubMed

    Heil, Martin; Rolke, Bettina; Pecchinenda, Anna

    2004-12-01

    The claim that semantic activation is an automatic process was recently called a myth, on the basis of the finding that if letter search is performed on a prime word, semantic priming effects on response time are eliminated, whereas repetition effects are preserved. The absence of semantic activation, however, cannot be validly inferred from the lack of response time effects, and converging evidence is needed. To this end, we examined the event-related potential correlate of priming, the N400 amplitude modulation, in a letter-search priming paradigm. Our experiment replicated the response time effects and demonstrated that the N400 amplitude successfully differentiates cross-case repetition priming, semantic priming, and neutral conditions. The results clearly indicate that the meaning of the prime word was processed and that semantic activation indeed was present in the letter-search task. The notion that semantic activation is an automatic process should not be abandoned prematurely.

  11. N400, the reference electrode, and the semantic activation in prime-task experiments: a reply to Dombrowski and Heil (2006).

    PubMed

    Marí-Beffa, Paloma; Catena, Andrés; Valdés, Berenice; Cullen, Doug; Houghton, George

    2007-05-25

    In two recent papers, Heil et al. [Heil, M., Rolke, B., Pecchinenda, A., 2004. Automatic semantic activation is no myth: semantic context effects on the N400 in the Letter-Search task in the absence of response time effects. Psychol. Sci., 15 (12), 852-857] and Marí-Beffa et al. [Marí-Beffa, P., Valdés, B., Cullen, D.J.D., Catena, A., Houghton, G., 2005. ERP analyses of task effects on semantic processing from words. Cogn. Brain Res., 23, 293-305] found opposite ERP effects of semantic priming following letter search (as measured by the N400). Dombrowski and Heil [Dombrowski, J.H., Heil, M., 2006. Semantic activation, letter search and N400: a reply to Marí-Beffa, Valdés, Cullen, Catena and Houghton (2005). Brain Res., 1073-1074, 440-443] have argued that the N400 modulation associated to semantic priming found by Marí-Beffa et al. [Marí-Beffa, P., Valdés, B., Cullen, D.J.D., Catena, A., Houghton, G., 2005. ERP analyses of task effects on semantic processing from words. Cogn. Brain Res., 23, 293-305] is due to the use of electrode Cz as reference, rather than to the task manipulation being studied (letter search vs. categorisation). In the current article we argue that the conclusions of Dombrowski and Heil are mistaken and are due in part on a misreading of Marí-Beffa et al. [Marí-Beffa, P., Valdés, B., Cullen, D.J.D., Catena, A., Houghton, G., 2005. ERP analyses of task effects on semantic processing from words. Cogn. Brain Res., 23, 293-305]. We argue instead that the differences between the results of Heil et al. [Heil, M., Rolke, B., Pecchinenda, A., 2004. Automatic semantic activation is no myth: semantic context effects on the N400 in the Letter-Search task in the absence of response time effects. Psychol. Sci., 15 (12), 852-857] and Marí-Beffa et al. [Marí-Beffa, P., Valdés, B., Cullen, D.J.D., Catena, A., Houghton, G., 2005. ERP analyses of task effects on semantic processing from words. Cogn. Brain Res., 23, 293-305] are largely due to

  12. Curriculum for Citizenship (History, Government & the N-400).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring Inst. for Intercultural Learning, Denver, CO.

    This citizenship preparation curriculum from Missouris English Language and Literacy Center focuses on history, the government, and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) N-400 form. It includes changes made by the INS to the N-400, including the expanded "good moral character" section. The curriculum addresses a broad array of…

  13. N400 to Lexical Ambiguity and Semantic Incongruity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Our previous work showed a semantic bias in interpreting ambiguous words in schizophrenia, with disproportionate misinterpretation of subordinate meanings (toast at a wedding). We proposed pre-selection in schizophrenia of dominant meaning networks at points of lexical ambiguity, thereby misleading thought. This selection bias may be due to semantic memory hyper-priming causing strong associates to dominate cognition. Alternately, later access verbal memory maintenance failure may cause weaker associates to fade more quickly than stronger associates from memory due to less initial activation. To further examine this semantic bias, patients and controls were presented short 4 word long sentences (The toast was buttered). The second word was a homograph or unambiguous noun. The last word disambiguated homographs (dominant or subordinate meaning) or was congruent or incongruent with unambiguous nouns. Previously, we showed increasingly larger N400 from unambiguous associates to dominate associates to subordinate associates to unambiguous non-associates in controls. Pre-selection of dominant meanings predicts schizophrenia patients would show small N400 to dominant associates and as large N400 to subordinate associates as to incongruous endings. Here, controls again showed graded N400 amplitudes. Patients with schizophrenia showed small N400 to congruent and dominant endings and large N400 to subordinate and incongruous endings. These data suggest early pre-selection of dominant associates in schizophrenia. This effect is unlikely solely due to verbal memory maintenance failure, as patients were able to detect incongruity, albeit with a smaller N400 effect, and generally larger N400 to all stimuli. These results suggest alterations in semantic memory associative networks coupled with verbal working memory maintenance decay in schizophrenia. PMID:19819269

  14. Accessing world knowledge: evidence from N400 and reaction time priming.

    PubMed

    Chwilla, Dorothee J; Kolk, Herman H J

    2005-12-01

    How fast are we in accessing world knowledge? In two experiments, we tested for priming for word triplets that described a conceptual script (e.g., DIRECTOR-BRIBE-DISMISSAL) but were not associatively related and did not share a category relationship. Event-related brain potentials were used to track the time course at which script information becomes available. In Experiment 1, in which participants made lexical decisions, we found a facilitation for script-related relative to unrelated triplets, as indicated by (i) a decrease in both reaction time and errors, and (ii) an N400-like priming effect. In Experiment 2, we further explored the locus of script priming by increasing the contribution of meaning integration processes. The participants' task was to indicate whether the three words presented a plausible scenario. Again, an N400 script priming effect was obtained. Directing attention to script relations was effective in enhancing the N400 effect. The time course of the N400 effect was similar to that of the standard N400 effect to semantic relations. The present results show that script priming can be obtained in the visual modality, and that script information is immediately accessed and integrated with context. This supports the view that script information forms a central aspect of word meaning. The RT and N400 script priming effects reported in this article are problematic for most current semantic priming models, like spreading activation models, expectancy models, and task-specific semantic matching/integration models. They support a view in which there is no clear cutoff point between semantic knowledge and world knowledge. PMID:16202570

  15. DISSOCIATING N400 EFFECTS OF PREDICTION FROM ASSOCIATION IN SINGLE WORD CONTEXTS

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Ellen F.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    When a word is preceded by a supportive context such as a semantically associated word or a strongly constraining sentence frame, the N400 component of the ERP is reduced in amplitude. An ongoing debate is the degree to which this reduction reflects a passive spread of activation across long-term semantic memory representations as opposed to specific predictions about upcoming input. We addressed this question by embedding semantically associated prime-target pairs within an experimental context that encouraged prediction to a greater or lesser degree. The proportion of related items was used to manipulate the predictive validity of the prime for the target while holding semantic association constant. A semantic category probe detection task was used to encourage semantic processing and to preclude the need for a motor response on the trials of interest. A larger N400 reduction to associated targets was observed in the high than the low relatedness proportion condition, consistent with the hypothesis that predictions about upcoming stimuli make a substantial contribution to the N400 effect. We also observed an earlier priming effect (205–240 ms) in the high proportion condition, which may reflect facilitation due to form-based prediction. In sum, the results suggest that predictability modulates N400 amplitude to a greater degree than the semantic content of the context. PMID:23163410

  16. Word imageability and N400 in an incidental memory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Nittono, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Maki; Hori, Tadao

    2002-06-01

    High imagery words are memorized better than low imagery words. To examine how these words are processed at encoding, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in an incidental memory paradigm. Frequency-matched high and low imagery words (45 words each) were presented in a random order on a computer screen. Twelve university students were asked to rate the imageability of a word's referent on a five-point scale. High imagery words elicited a larger N400 than low imagery words did. The N400 was more left-lateralized for low imagery words than for high imagery words, suggesting that some neural generators (probably in the right hemisphere) were not involved in the processing of low imagery words. Difference waveforms showed that the N400 was followed by a second negativity (N800), which was also larger for high imagery words and had a scalp distribution similar to that of the N400. Subsequent free recall showed a classical imagery effect that high imagery words were recalled better than low imagery words. These results suggest that the superiority of high imagery words over low imagery words in incidental memory results from more extensive activation of a semantic network distributed across the left and right hemispheres, the latter of which probably deals with imagery-related information that is not activated by low imagery words. PMID:12031296

  17. Semantic composition engenders an N400: evidence from Chinese compounds.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chen; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Wang, Luming; Hung, Yu-Chen; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Burkhardt, Petra

    2008-04-16

    This study provides evidence for the role of semantic composition in compound word processing. We examined the online processing of isolated two meaning unit compounds in Chinese, a language that uses compounding to 'disambiguate' meaning. Using auditory presentation, we manipulated the semantic meaning and syntactic category of the two meaning units forming a compound. Event-related brain potential-recordings revealed a significant influence of semantic information, which was reflected in an N400 signature for compounds whose meaning differed from the constituent meanings. This finding suggests that the combination of distinct constituent meanings to form an overall compound meaning consumes processing resources. By contrast, no comparable difference was observed based on syntactic category information. Our findings indicate that combinatory semantic processing at the word level correlates with N400 effects. PMID:18382290

  18. Parafoveal N400 effect during sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Barber, Horacio A; Doñamayor, Nuria; Kutas, Marta; Münte, Thomas

    2010-07-26

    Research has suggested that during reading, parafoveal information pertaining to the next word in a line might be, at least partially, processed. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine this issue. Volunteers read sentences presented word-by-word at fixation with each word flanked bilaterally on its right by the next word in the sentence and on its left by the preceding word. Infrequently, the right flanker was replaced by a word that was semantically incongruous with the ongoing sentence context. N400 amplitudes to the critical triads were smaller when the right flanker was contextually congruent than incongruent, indicating that parafoveal information was extracted and quickly and incrementally integrated within the evolving sentence representation.

  19. Parafoveal N400 effect during sentence reading

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Horacio A.; Doñamayor, Nuria; Kutas, Marta; Münte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that during reading, parafoveal information pertaining to the next word in a line might be, at least partially, processed. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine this issue. Volunteers read sentences presented word-by-word at fixation with each word flanked bilaterally on its right by the next word in the sentence and on its left by the preceding word. Infrequently, the right flanker was replaced by a word that was semantically incongruous with the ongoing sentence context. N400 amplitudes to the critical triads were smaller when the right flanker was contextually congruent than incongruent, indicating that parafoveal information was extracted and quickly and incrementally integrated within the evolving sentence representation. PMID:20580772

  20. Schizotypal traits and N400 in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Marie; Rodier, Mitchell; Renoult, Louis; Kwann, Yvonne; Dionne-Dostie, Emmanuelle; Chapleau, Isabelle; Brodeur, Mathieu; Lionnet, Claire; Debruille, J Bruno

    2010-11-01

    We examined whether correlations previously found between symptoms of schizophrenia patients and the amplitude of an event-related potential (ERP), the N400, could be also found between schizotypal experiences of healthy subjects and the N400. We chose a semantic categorization task previously used with patients. Schizotypal experiences were measured with the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ). The effects of the other factors were controlled for when assessing the correlations between each SPQ factor and N400s. These correlations were assessed at each electrode site to see whether their distribution on the scalp follows that of the N400 effect. Disorganization and interpersonal scores were found to correlate with ERPs in the N400 time window, as previously reported for the comparable symptoms of patients. However, the scalp distribution of these correlations differed from that of the N400 effect.

  1. Contextual Modulation of N400 Amplitude to Lexically Ambiguous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Debra A.; Salisbury, Dean F.

    2004-01-01

    Through much is known about the N400 component, an event-related EEG potential that is sensitive to semantic manipulations, it is unclear whether modulations of N400 amplitude reflect automatic processing, controlled processing, or both. We examined this issue using a semantic judgment task that manipulated local and global contextual cues. Word…

  2. N400 ERPs for actions: building meaning in context

    PubMed Central

    Amoruso, Lucía; Gelormini, Carlos; Aboitiz, Francisco; Alvarez González, Miguel; Manes, Facundo; Cardona, Juan F.; Ibanez, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Converging neuroscientific evidence suggests the existence of close links between language and sensorimotor cognition. Accordingly, during the comprehension of meaningful actions, our brain would recruit semantic-related operations similar to those associated with the processing of language information. Consistent with this view, electrophysiological findings show that the N400 component, traditionally linked to the semantic processing of linguistic material, can also be elicited by action-related material. This review outlines recent data from N400 studies that examine the understanding of action events. We focus on three specific domains, including everyday action comprehension, co-speech gesture integration, and the semantics involved in motor planning and execution. Based on the reviewed findings, we suggest that both negativities (the N400 and the action-N400) reflect a common neurocognitive mechanism involved in the construction of meaning through the expectancies created by previous experiences and current contextual information. To shed light on how this process is instantiated in the brain, a testable contextual fronto-temporo-parietal model is proposed. PMID:23459873

  3. The N400 and the Fourth Grade Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2015-01-01

    While behavioral and educational data characterize a fourth grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented…

  4. Knowledge inhibition and N400: a study with words that look like common words.

    PubMed

    Debruille, J B

    1998-04-01

    In addition to their own representations, low frequency words, such as BRIBE, can covertly activate the representations of higher frequency words they look like (e.g., BRIDE). Hence, look-alike words can activate knowledge that is incompatible with the knowledge corresponding to accurate representations. Comparatively, eccentric words, that is, low frequency words that do not look as much like higher frequency words, are less likely to activate incompatible knowledge. This study focuses on the hypothesis that the N400 component of the event-related potential reflects the inhibition of incompatible knowledge. This hypothesis predicts that look-alike words elicit N400s of greater amplitudes than eccentric words in conditions where incompatible knowledge is inhibited. Results from a single item lexical decision experiment are reported which support the inhibition hypothesis. PMID:9576822

  5. Abnormal N400 Responses But Intact Differential Hemispheric Processing of Ambiguity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Dean F

    2009-01-01

    Disordered thinking in schizophrenia may be a consequence of the selection of conceptual associates of dominant meanings of ambiguous words despite contextual information suggesting subordinate meanings are more appropriate. Previous work using short sentences showed a large N400 event-related potential to subordinate meaning associates and a behavioral semantic bias, but results were variable. The current experiment used word pairs to simplify the procedure and to less tax memory maintenance. Furthermore, hemispheric responses were compared, as evidence suggests the left hemisphere may select dominant meanings, while the right hemisphere may keep all possible meanings active. Subjects indicated whether two words (CUE, TARGET) were related. The CUE, presented for 1 second, could be an ambiguous or an unambiguous noun, and the TARGET, presented 1.25 seconds after the onset of the CUE, was a dominant or subordinate associate, or a related or an unrelated word, respectively. The N400-effect was calculated from difference waveforms over 400-600 msec. Groups (23 schizophrenia, 25 matched controls) showed significantly different N400-effects to the words (group x word, p =.04). Controls showed a graded response, with dominant < subordinate < unrelated. Schizophrenia patients showed the largest N400-effect to subordinate associates, with less activity to dominant meaning associates and unrelated words. Both groups showed a right hemisphere distribution to unrelated words and substantial left hemisphere activation to subordinate associates (word x hemisphere, p <.001). These data support a semantic bias in schizophrenia. They also demonstrate a special role of the right hemisphere in maintaining broad homograph meaning hierarchies. This hemispheric specialization appears to be intact in schizophrenia. PMID:20161687

  6. Abnormal N400 Responses But Intact Differential Hemispheric Processing of Ambiguity in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Dean F

    2010-05-01

    Disordered thinking in schizophrenia may be a consequence of the selection of conceptual associates of dominant meanings of ambiguous words despite contextual information suggesting subordinate meanings are more appropriate. Previous work using short sentences showed a large N400 event-related potential to subordinate meaning associates and a behavioral semantic bias, but results were variable. The current experiment used word pairs to simplify the procedure and to less tax memory maintenance. Furthermore, hemispheric responses were compared, as evidence suggests the left hemisphere may select dominant meanings, while the right hemisphere may keep all possible meanings active. Subjects indicated whether two words (CUE, TARGET) were related. The CUE, presented for 1 second, could be an ambiguous or an unambiguous noun, and the TARGET, presented 1.25 seconds after the onset of the CUE, was a dominant or subordinate associate, or a related or an unrelated word, respectively. The N400-effect was calculated from difference waveforms over 400-600 msec. Groups (23 schizophrenia, 25 matched controls) showed significantly different N400-effects to the words (group x word, p =.04). Controls showed a graded response, with dominant < subordinate < unrelated. Schizophrenia patients showed the largest N400-effect to subordinate associates, with less activity to dominant meaning associates and unrelated words. Both groups showed a right hemisphere distribution to unrelated words and substantial left hemisphere activation to subordinate associates (word x hemisphere, p <.001). These data support a semantic bias in schizophrenia. They also demonstrate a special role of the right hemisphere in maintaining broad homograph meaning hierarchies. This hemispheric specialization appears to be intact in schizophrenia. PMID:20161687

  7. N400 solution effect of Chinese character fragments: an orthographic neighborhood size effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanhong; Zhang, Jiewei

    2011-10-10

    In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by fragments of Chinese single-character words were simultaneously recorded while participants completed a delayed character-matching task as fast as possible, wherein probe characters were matched with their prior fragments. The number of solutions for such fragments was manipulated. Results indicate that fragments completed with several characters elicited greater N400 than did fragments with a single solution. Behavioral results demonstrated that "multiple-solution" responses were slower and had lower accuracy rates than the "one-solution" responses. In this article, both behavioral and N400 solution-effects are interpreted to provide evidence that supports the interactive activation model (IAM) but counters the efficacy of serial search models.

  8. N400 as an index of uncontrolled categorization processing in brand extension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Ma, Qingguo; Wang, Cuicui

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the ERP (event-related potential) correlates of categorization processing in brand extension with irrelative task. Participants faced two sequential stimuli in a pair consisting of a soft drink brand name (S1) and a product name (S2) which comprised two categories: beverage (typical product of the brand, e.g. Coke branded soda water) and clothing (atypical product of the brand, even though sometimes it was seen in the real market, e.g. Coke branded sport wear). The N400 was recorded and more largely distributed in frontal, frontal-central and central areas when S2 was clothing compared with beverage. The study did not require the participants to evaluate that the brand extension was appropriate or not, the N400 recorded here was, therefore, irrelative to the task difficulty and the conscious categorization process. We speculated that it reflected an integration processing related with the mental category. The brand performed the role of prime which aroused the participants' association of the brand-related typical products and attributes retrieving from their long term memory. The product name activated an unconscious processing of comparison between the brand and the product. In this process, the participant treated the brand as a mental category and classified the product as a member of it. There would be a large cognitive reaction which elicited the N400 if the product's attributes were atypical to the category of the brand. These findings might help us understand the N400 component in unconscious mental categorization and supported the categorization hypotheses in brand extension theory which was crucial in consumer psychology.

  9. N400 as an index of uncontrolled categorization processing in brand extension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Ma, Qingguo; Wang, Cuicui

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the ERP (event-related potential) correlates of categorization processing in brand extension with irrelative task. Participants faced two sequential stimuli in a pair consisting of a soft drink brand name (S1) and a product name (S2) which comprised two categories: beverage (typical product of the brand, e.g. Coke branded soda water) and clothing (atypical product of the brand, even though sometimes it was seen in the real market, e.g. Coke branded sport wear). The N400 was recorded and more largely distributed in frontal, frontal-central and central areas when S2 was clothing compared with beverage. The study did not require the participants to evaluate that the brand extension was appropriate or not, the N400 recorded here was, therefore, irrelative to the task difficulty and the conscious categorization process. We speculated that it reflected an integration processing related with the mental category. The brand performed the role of prime which aroused the participants' association of the brand-related typical products and attributes retrieving from their long term memory. The product name activated an unconscious processing of comparison between the brand and the product. In this process, the participant treated the brand as a mental category and classified the product as a member of it. There would be a large cognitive reaction which elicited the N400 if the product's attributes were atypical to the category of the brand. These findings might help us understand the N400 component in unconscious mental categorization and supported the categorization hypotheses in brand extension theory which was crucial in consumer psychology. PMID:22884930

  10. Spatial configuration of vertically related word pairs modulates the N400 component.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Tyler M; Magne, Cyrille; Langston, William

    2014-12-17

    This study examined the effect of spatial iconicity on the N400 component. Spatial iconicity is defined as the spatial arrangement of words on a screen relative to the spatial arrangement of their referents (e.g. attic-basement). In two experiments, electroencephalograms were recorded in 32 participants while performing a semantic relatedness judgment task on pairs of words that were either related or unrelated. All of the related word pairs were parts of objects that shared a vertical spatial relationship. In Experiment 1, the words of each pair were presented simultaneously on top of one another. Results showed that related word pairs presented in a spatial arrangement that mismatched the spatial relationship of their referents were associated with increased error rates as well as larger N400 components known to index semantic/conceptual processing cost. These findings thus suggest that the words automatically activated visuospatial simulations of their referents and that semantic/conceptual processing difficulty arose when the vertical arrangement of the word pairs was inconsistent with those simulations. In line with this interpretation, these effects were not present in Experiment 2 when the words of each pair were presented in succession in the middle of the screen. Overall, these results provide evidence that perceptual simulations contribute to some of the underlying processes of the N400 component (see video abstract, Supplemental digital content 1, http://links.lww.com/WNR/A304). PMID:25371283

  11. Graded effects of regularity in language revealed by N400 indices of morphological priming.

    PubMed

    Kielar, Aneta; Joanisse, Marc F

    2010-07-01

    Differential electrophysiological effects for regular and irregular linguistic forms have been used to support the theory that grammatical rules are encoded using a dedicated cognitive mechanism. The alternative hypothesis is that language systematicities are encoded probabilistically in a way that does not categorically distinguish rule-like and irregular forms. In the present study, this matter was investigated more closely by focusing specifically on whether the regular-irregular distinction in English past tenses is categorical or graded. We compared the ERP priming effects of regulars (baked-bake), vowel-change irregulars (sang-sing), and "suffixed" irregulars that display a partial regularity (suffixed irregular verbs, e.g., slept-sleep), as well as forms that are related strictly along formal or semantic dimensions. Participants performed a visual lexical decision task with either visual (Experiment 1) or auditory prime (Experiment 2). Stronger N400 priming effects were observed for regular than vowel-change irregular verbs, whereas suffixed irregulars tended to group with regular verbs. Subsequent analyses decomposed early versus late-going N400 priming, and suggested that differences among forms can be attributed to the orthographic similarity of prime and target. Effects of morphological relatedness were observed in the later-going time period, however, we failed to observe true regular-irregular dissociations in either experiment. The results indicate that morphological effects emerge from the interaction of orthographic, phonological, and semantic overlap between words.

  12. Graded effects of regularity in language revealed by N400 indices of morphological priming.

    PubMed

    Kielar, Aneta; Joanisse, Marc F

    2010-07-01

    Differential electrophysiological effects for regular and irregular linguistic forms have been used to support the theory that grammatical rules are encoded using a dedicated cognitive mechanism. The alternative hypothesis is that language systematicities are encoded probabilistically in a way that does not categorically distinguish rule-like and irregular forms. In the present study, this matter was investigated more closely by focusing specifically on whether the regular-irregular distinction in English past tenses is categorical or graded. We compared the ERP priming effects of regulars (baked-bake), vowel-change irregulars (sang-sing), and "suffixed" irregulars that display a partial regularity (suffixed irregular verbs, e.g., slept-sleep), as well as forms that are related strictly along formal or semantic dimensions. Participants performed a visual lexical decision task with either visual (Experiment 1) or auditory prime (Experiment 2). Stronger N400 priming effects were observed for regular than vowel-change irregular verbs, whereas suffixed irregulars tended to group with regular verbs. Subsequent analyses decomposed early versus late-going N400 priming, and suggested that differences among forms can be attributed to the orthographic similarity of prime and target. Effects of morphological relatedness were observed in the later-going time period, however, we failed to observe true regular-irregular dissociations in either experiment. The results indicate that morphological effects emerge from the interaction of orthographic, phonological, and semantic overlap between words. PMID:19803689

  13. N400 brain responses to spoken phrases paired with photographs of scenes: implications for visual scene displays in AAC systems.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Stutzman, Allyson; Seisler, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems are often implemented for individuals whose speech cannot meet their full communication needs. One type of aided display is called a Visual Scene Display (VSD). VSDs consist of integrated scenes (such as photographs) in which language concepts are embedded. Often, the representations of concepts on VSDs are perceptually similar to their referents. Given this physical resemblance, one may ask how well VSDs support development of symbolic functioning. We used brain imaging techniques to examine whether matches and mismatches between the content of spoken messages and photographic images of scenes evoke neural activity similar to activity that occurs to spoken or written words. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 15 college students who were shown photographs paired with spoken phrases that were either matched or mismatched to the concepts embedded within each photograph. Of interest was the N400 component, a negative deflecting wave 400 ms post-stimulus that is considered to be an index of semantic functioning. An N400 response in the mismatched condition (but not the matched) would replicate brain responses to traditional linguistic symbols. An N400 was found, exclusively in the mismatched condition, suggesting that mismatches between spoken messages and VSD-type representations set the stage for the N400 in ways similar to traditional linguistic symbols.

  14. Non-native phonemes in adult word learning: evidence from the N400m

    PubMed Central

    Dobel, Christian; Lagemann, Lothar; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2009-01-01

    Newborns are equipped with a large phonemic inventory that becomes tuned to one's native language early in life. We review and add new data about how learning of a non-native phoneme can be accomplished in adults and how the efficiency of word learning can be assessed by neurophysiological measures. For this purpose, we studied the acquisition of the voiceless, bilabial fricative /Φ/ via a statistical-learning paradigm. Phonemes were embedded in minimal pairs of pseudowords, differing only with respect to the fricative (/aΦo/ versus /afo/). During learning, pseudowords were combined with pictures of objects with some combinations of pseudowords and pictures occurring more frequently than others. Behavioural data and the N400m component, as an index of lexical activation/semantic access, showed that participants had learned to associate the pseudowords with the pictures. However, they could not discriminate within the minimal pairs. Importantly, before learning, the novel words with the sound /Φ/ showed smaller N400 amplitudes than those with native phonemes, evidencing their non-word status. Learning abolished this difference indicating that /Φ/ had become integrated into the native category /f/, instead of establishing a novel category. Our data and review demonstrate that native phonemic categories are powerful attractors hampering the mastery of non-native contrasts. PMID:19933141

  15. Test-retest reliability of N400 event-related brain potential measures in a word-pair semantic priming paradigm in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jenna E; Patriciu, Iulia; McKinnon, Margaret C; Kiang, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The N400 event-related brain potential (ERP), a negative voltage deflection occurring approximately 400ms after onset of any meaningful stimulus, is reduced in amplitude when the stimulus is preceded by related context. Previous work has found this N400 semantic priming effect to be decreased in schizophrenia, suggesting impairment in using meaningful context to activate related concepts in semantic memory. Thus, N400 amplitude may be a useful biomarker of abnormal semantic processing and its response to treatment in schizophrenia. To help assess the validity of N400 amplitude as a longitudinal measure in schizophrenia, we evaluated its test-retest reliability. ERPs were recorded in sixteen schizophrenia patients who viewed prime words, each followed at 300- or 750-ms stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) by a target that was either a related or unrelated word, or nonword. Participants' task was to indicate whether or not the target was a real word. They were retested on the same procedure one week later. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating Pearson's r and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) across timepoints for N400 amplitudes for related and unrelated targets, at each SOA. Consistent with previous results, there were no significant differences between patients' N400 amplitudes for related and unrelated targets, at any SOA/timepoint combination. Pearson's r and ICCs for N400 amplitudes at Fz across timepoints were significant for both target types at each SOA (ranges: r 0.52-0.64, ICC 0.52-0.63; all p<.04). The results suggest potential utility of N400 amplitude as a longitudinal neurophysiological biomarker of semantic processing abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  16. Semantic Processing in Children and Adults: Incongruity and the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benau, Erik M.; Morris, Joanna; Couperus, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic processing in 10-year-old children and adults was examined using event related potentials (ERPs). The N400 component, an index of semantic processing, was studied in relation to sentences that ended with congruent, moderately incongruent, or strongly incongruent words. N400 amplitude in adults corresponded to levels of semantic…

  17. Syntactic anomaly elicits a lexico-semantic (N400) ERP effect in the second language but not the first.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kirsten; Lavric, Aureliu

    2008-11-01

    Recent brain potential research into first versus second language (L1 vs. L2) processing revealed striking responses to morphosyntactic features absent in the mother tongue. The aim of the present study was to establish whether the presence of comparable morphosyntactic features in L1 leads to more similar electrophysiological L1 and L2 profiles. ERPs were acquired while German-English bilinguals and native speakers of English read sentences. Some sentences were meaningful and well formed, whereas others contained morphosyntactic or semantic violations in the final word. In addition to the expected P600 component, morphosyntactic violations in L2 but not L1 led to an enhanced N400. This effect may suggest either that resolution of morphosyntactic anomalies in L2 relies on the lexico-semantic system or that the weaker/slower morphological mechanisms in L2 lead to greater sentence wrap-up difficulties known to result in N400 enhancement.

  18. Once is Enough: N400 Indexes Semantic Integration of Novel Word Meanings from a Single Exposure in Context

    PubMed Central

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Kutas, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of contextual constraint on the integration of novel word meanings into semantic memory. Adults read strongly or weakly constraining sentences ending in known or unknown (novel) words as scalp-recorded electrical brain activity was recorded. Word knowledge was assessed via a lexical decision task in which recently seen known and unknown word sentence endings served as primes for semantically related, unrelated, and synonym/identical target words. As expected, N400 amplitudes to target words preceded by known word primes were reduced by prime-target relatedness. Critically, N400 amplitudes to targets preceded by novel primes also varied with prime-target relatedness, but only when they had initially appeared in highly constraining sentences. This demonstrates for the first time that fast-mapped word representations can develop strong associations with semantically related word meanings and reveals a rapid neural process that can integrate information about word meanings into the mental lexicon of young adults. PMID:23125559

  19. Predictability effect on N400 reflects the severity of reading comprehension deficits in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ting; Lee, Chia-Ying; Chou, Chia-Ju; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2016-01-29

    Predictability effect on N400, in which low predictability words elicited a larger N400 than high predictability words did over central to posterior electrodes, has been used to index difficulty of lexical retrieval and semantic integration of words in sentence comprehension. This study examined predictability effect on N400 in aphasic patients to determine if the properties of N400 are suited to indexing the severity of reading comprehension deficits. Patients with aphasia were divided into high and low ability groups based on scores on the reading comprehension subtest in the Chinese Concise Aphasia Test (CCAT). The two aphasia groups, a group of healthy elders who were age-matched to the aphasic participants, and a group of young adults, were requested to read sentences that either ended with highly predictable words or unexpected but plausible words, while undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). The young adult and healthy elderly groups exhibited the typical centro-parietal distributed effect of predictability on N400; however, healthy elders exhibited a reduced N400 effect in a delayed time window compared to the young adults. Compared with the elderly control, the high ability aphasia group exhibited a comparable N400 effect in a more restricted time window; by contrast, the low ability aphasia group exhibited a frontal distributed N400 in a much later time window (400-700 ms). These data suggest that the severity of reading comprehension deficits affects predictability effect on a set of N400 characteristics (i.e., amplitude, time window, and topographic distribution), which may be effective as ERP signatures in the evaluation of language recovery in aphasia.

  20. The reliability of the N400 in single subjects: Implications for patients with disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Cruse, Damian; Beukema, Steve; Chennu, Srivas; Malins, Jeffrey G.; Owen, Adrian M.; McRae, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging assessments of residual cognitive capacities, including those that support language, can improve diagnostic and prognostic accuracy in patients with disorders of consciousness. Due to the portability and relative inexpensiveness of electroencephalography, the N400 event-related potential component has been proposed as a clinically valid means to identify preserved linguistic function in non-communicative patients. Across three experiments, we show that changes in both stimuli and task demands significantly influence the probability of detecting statistically significant N400 effects — that is, the difference in N400 amplitudes caused by the experimental manipulation. In terms of task demands, passively heard linguistic stimuli were significantly less likely to elicit N400 effects than task-relevant stimuli. Due to the inability of the majority of patients with disorders of consciousness to follow task commands, the insensitivity of passive listening would impede the identification of residual language abilities even when such abilities exist. In terms of stimuli, passively heard normatively associated word pairs produced the highest detection rate of N400 effects (50% of the participants), compared with semantically-similar word pairs (0%) and high-cloze sentences (17%). This result is consistent with a prediction error account of N400 magnitude, with highly predictable targets leading to smaller N400 waves, and therefore larger N400 effects. Overall, our data indicate that non-repeating normatively associated word pairs provide the highest probability of detecting single-subject N400s during passive listening, and may thereby provide a clinically viable means of assessing residual linguistic function. We also show that more liberal analyses may further increase the detection-rate, but at the potential cost of increased false alarms. PMID:24936429

  1. Is Semantic Processing During Sentence Reading Autonomous or Controlled? Evidence from the N400 Component in a Dual Task Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hohlfeld, Annette; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Sommer, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The present study contributes to the discussion on the automaticity of semantic processing. Whereas most previous research investigated semantic processing at word level, the present study addressed semantic processing during sentence reading. A dual task paradigm was combined with the recording of event-related brain potentials. Previous research at word level processing reported different patterns of interference with the N400 by additional tasks: attenuation of amplitude or delay of latency. In the present study, we presented Spanish sentences that were semantically correct or contained a semantic violation in a critical word. At different intervals preceding the critical word a tone was presented that required a high-priority choice response. At short intervals/high temporal overlap between the tasks mean amplitude of the N400 was reduced relative to long intervals/low temporal overlap, but there were no shifts of peak latency. We propose that processing at sentence level exerts a protective effect against the additional task. This is in accord with the attentional sensitization model (Kiefer & Martens, 2010), which suggests that semantic processing is an automatic process that can be enhanced by the currently activated task set. The present experimental sentences also induced a P600, which is taken as an index of integrative processing. Additional task effects are comparable to those in the N400 time window and are briefly discussed. PMID:26203312

  2. The N400 effect in children: relationships with comprehension, vocabulary and decoding.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Lisa M; Baseler, Heidi A; Clarke, Paula J; Watson, Sarah; Snowling, Margaret J

    2011-05-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the N400 (an ERP component that occurs in response to meaningful stimuli) in children aged 8-10 years old and examined relationships between the N400 and individual differences in listening comprehension, word recognition and non-word decoding. Moreover, we tested the claim that the N400 effect provides a valuable indicator of behavioural vocabulary knowledge. Eighteen children were presented with picture-word pairs that were either 'congruent' (the picture depicted the spoken word) or 'incongruent' (they were unrelated). Three peaks were observed in the ERP waveform triggered to the onset of the picture-word stimuli: an N100 in fronto-central channels, an N200 in central-parietal channels and an N400 in frontal, central and parietal channels. In contrast to the N100 peak, the N200 and N400 peaks were sensitive to semantic incongruency with greater peak amplitudes for incongruent than congruent conditions. The incongruency effects for each peak correlated positively with listening comprehension but when the peak amplitudes were averaged across congruent/incongruent conditions they correlated positively with non-word decoding. These findings provide neurophysiological support for the position that sensitivity to semantic context (reflected in the N400 effect) is crucial for comprehension whereas phonological decoding skill relates to more general processing differences reflected in the ERP waveform. There were no correlations between ERP and behavioural measures of expressive or receptive vocabulary knowledge for the same items, suggesting that the N400 effect may not be a reliable estimate of vocabulary knowledge in children aged 8-10 years.

  3. Semantic memory processing is enhanced in preadolescents breastfed compared to those formula-fed as infants: An ERP N400 study of sentential semantic congruity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies comparing child cognitive development and brain activity during cognitive functions between children who were fed breast milk (BF), milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF) have not been reported. We recorded event-related scalp potentials reflecting semantic processing (N400 ERP) from 20 homo...

  4. Reduced Resource Optimization in Male Alcoholics: N400 in a Lexical Decision Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Roopesh, Bangalore N; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Kamarajan, Chella; Chorlian, David B.; Pandey, Ashwini K; Porjesz, Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Background Event Related Potential (ERP) studies have highlighted some measures, notably P3 amplitude, that are associated with both state and trait deficits in alcoholism, while studies examining N400 amplitude in alcoholism are few. The present study aims to examine changes in the N400 component, an electrophysiological correlate of semantic priming, in event-related potentials from a lexical decision task in 87 alcohol dependent subjects and 57 community controls. Method Each subject was presented with 300 stimuli sequentially in a quasi-randomized design, where 150 stimuli were words and 150 were non-words. The subjects made a lexical decision indicating the word/nonword status with a button press. Among the words, 50 words (primed) were always preceded by their antonyms (prime, n=50), whereas the remaining 50 words were unrelated. N400 amplitude and latency measures were compiled from ERPs to the primed and unprimed words. Corresponding reaction time and response characteristics were also analyzed. Results Control subjects revealed a significant attenuation of the N400 response to the primed word when compared to the unprimed word. Significantly less attenuation was observed in alcohol dependent subjects. No significant group differences were seen for latency and behavioral measures. All subjects had slower RT for unprimed words compared to primed words; however significantly less reaction time savings between the unprimed and primed condition was noted for alcoholics. Conclusion These results suggest a reduced flexibility in the cognitive networks and a lack of resource optimization in alcoholics. The reduced attenuation of N400 during the primed condition in the alcohol dependent subjects may reflect an inability to engage similar neuronal substrates associated with semantic relatedness as seen in the controls. As diminished N400 attenuation during priming is observed in both alcoholics and high risk subjects, it may be a marker of risk and a good

  5. These lemons are sour: Investigating the influence of demonstrative determiners on the N400 complex.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; Maienborn, Claudia; Kaup, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Demonstrative determiners create a joint focus of attention of speaker and hearer on a particular set of entities in a given context. Despite their omnipresence, very little is known with regard to the online integration of demonstrative determiners during comprehension. Here we investigated whether the N400 reflects meaning differences introduced by determiners. We analyzed whether previously established differences - between correct, contingent, world-knowledge and semantic violations in bare plural generic sentences - were modified by the addition of demonstrative determiners. Off-line ratings suggested that the correct sentences in the generic version (e.g. Zebras are stripy) become less sensible when adding a demonstrative determiner (e.g. These zebras are stripy). In contrast, contingent sentences - that is, sentences with predicates that are true for a subgroup of exemplars but not for all - become more sensible than correct sentences if a demonstrative determiner is added (e.g. These trousers are stripy). Both semantic and world-knowledge violations slightly improve in sensibility if demonstrative determiners are added (These ladybirds/journeys are stripy). None of these differences was reflected in the N400 amplitude. Instead, the previous findings using the bare plural generic sentences were fully replicated, showing largest N400 amplitudes for semantic violations, followed by contingent and world-knowledge violations and finally the correct sentences. This suggests that demonstrative determiners are not automatically integrated during meaning comprehension. Implications with respect to the processes that are reflected in the N400 will be discussed. PMID:27461788

  6. A lexical basis for N400 context effects: Evidence from MEG

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Ellen; Almeida, Diogo; Hines, Paul C.; Poeppel, David

    2009-01-01

    The electrophysiological response to words during the ‘N400’ time window (~300–500 ms post-onset) is affected by the context in which the word is presented, but whether this effect reflects the impact of context on access of the stored lexical information itself or, alternatively, post-access integration processes is still an open question with substantive theoretical consequences. One challenge for integration accounts is that contexts that seem to require different levels of integration for incoming words (i.e., sentence frames versus prime words) have similar effects on the N400 component measured in ERP. In this study we compare the effects of these different context types directly, in a within-subject design using MEG, which provides a better opportunity for identifying topographical differences between electrophysiological components, due to the minimal spatial distortion of the MEG signal. We find a qualitatively similar contextual effect for both sentence frame and prime word contexts, although the effect is smaller in magnitude for shorter word prime contexts. Additionally, we observe no difference in response amplitude between sentence endings that are explicitly incongruent and target words that are simply part of an unrelated pair. These results suggest that the N400 effect does not reflect semantic integration difficulty. Rather, the data are consistent with an account in which N400 reduction reflects facilitated access of lexical information. PMID:19815267

  7. From N400 to N300: variations in the timing of semantic processing with repetition.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Louis; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Calcagno, Vincent; Prévost, Marie; Debruille, J Bruno

    2012-05-15

    The present study aimed to explore the variations of semantic processing according to the number of target words (i.e., 4, 12 and 24) and according to the number of repetitions (i.e, 1 to 15). The number of targets had no impact on the N400 brain potential, the index of semantic processing, nor on the late positive component (LPC), an index of episodic encoding and retrieval. Analyses of the effects of the number of repetitions showed that the duration of semantic processes--assessed by measuring N400 latency--was linearly shortened along repetitions while their extent--as indexed by N400 amplitude--remained constant after the second presentation. In contrast, the extent of episodic processes--as indexed by LPC amplitude--was found to increase linearly with repetition. By showing that N400 latency may be much less stable than previously thought, these results bring new constraints on the functional correlates of this key stage in the processing of semantic information. They also suggest that semantic processes can be studied at high repetition rates whatever the number of target stimuli. Finally, our findings show that each episode of prior presentation has an impact on the late processing of a stimulus despite the absence of an explicit memory task.

  8. N400-like Potentials and Reaction Times Index Semantic Relations between Highly Repeated Individual Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renoult, Louis; Debruille, J. Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The N400 ERP is an electrophysiological index of semantic processing. Its amplitude varies with the semantic category of words, their concreteness, or whether their meaning matches that of a preceding context. The results of a number of studies suggest that these effects could be markedly reduced or suppressed for stimuli that are repeated.…

  9. Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

  10. Semantic Memory and Verbal Working Memory Correlates of N400 to Subordinate Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Dean F.

    2004-01-01

    N400 is an event-related brain potential that indexes operations in semantic memory conceptual space, whether elicited by language or some other representation (e.g., drawings). Language models typically propose three stages: lexical access or orthographic- and phonological-level analysis; lexical selection or word-level meaning and associate…

  11. A Lexical Basis for N400 Context Effects: Evidence from MEG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Ellen; Almeida, Diogo; Hines, Paul C.; Poeppel, David

    2009-01-01

    The electrophysiological response to words during the "N400" time window (approximately 300-500 ms post-onset) is affected by the context in which the word is presented, but whether this effect reflects the impact of context on "access" of the stored lexical information itself or, alternatively, post-access "integration" processes is still an open…

  12. Electrophysiological correlates of cross-linguistic semantic integration in hearing signers: N400 and LPC.

    PubMed

    Zachau, Swantje; Korpilahti, Pirjo; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Ervast, Leena; Heinänen, Kaisu; Suominen, Kalervo; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2014-07-01

    We explored semantic integration mechanisms in native and non-native hearing users of sign language and non-signing controls. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a semantic decision task for priming lexeme pairs. Pairs were presented either within speech or across speech and sign language. Target-related ERP responses were subjected to principal component analyses (PCA), and neurocognitive basis of semantic integration processes were assessed by analyzing the N400 and the late positive complex (LPC) components in response to spoken (auditory) and signed (visual) antonymic and unrelated targets. Semantically-related effects triggered across modalities would indicate a similar tight interconnection between the signers׳ two languages like that described for spoken language bilinguals. Remarkable structural similarity of the N400 and LPC components with varying group differences between the spoken and signed targets were found. The LPC was the dominant response. The controls׳ LPC differed from the LPC of the two signing groups. It was reduced to the auditory unrelated targets and was less frontal for all the visual targets. The visual LPC was more broadly distributed in native than non-native signers and was left-lateralized for the unrelated targets in the native hearing signers only. Semantic priming effects were found for the auditory N400 in all groups, but only native hearing signers revealed a clear N400 effect to the visual targets. Surprisingly, the non-native signers revealed no semantically-related processing effect to the visual targets reflected in the N400 or the LPC; instead they appeared to rely more on visual post-lexical analyzing stages than native signers. We conclude that native and non-native signers employed different processing strategies to integrate signed and spoken semantic content. It appeared that the signers׳ semantic processing system was affected by group-specific factors like language

  13. Conceptual processing in music as revealed by N400 effects on words and musical targets.

    PubMed

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Schön, Daniele

    2009-10-01

    The cognitive processing of concepts, that is, abstract general ideas, has been mostly studied with language. However, other domains, such as music, can also convey concepts. Koelsch et al. [Koelsch, S., Kasper, E., Sammler, D., Schulze, K., Gunter, T., & Friederici, A. D. Music, language and meaning: Brain signatures of semantic processing. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 302-307, 2004] showed that 10 sec of music can influence the semantic processing of words. However, the length of the musical excerpts did not allow the authors to study the effect of words on musical targets. In this study, we decided to replicate Koelsch et al. findings using 1-sec musical excerpts (Experiment 1). This allowed us to study the reverse influence, namely, of a linguistic context on conceptual processing of musical excerpts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, we recorded behavioral and electrophysiological responses while participants were presented 50 related and 50 unrelated pairs (context/target). Experiments 1 and 2 showed a larger N400 component of the event-related brain potentials to targets following a conceptually unrelated compared to a related context. The presence of an N400 effect with musical targets suggests that music may convey concepts. The relevance of these results for the comprehension of music as a structured set of conceptual units and for the domain specificity of the mechanisms underlying N400 effects are discussed.

  14. Font Effects of Chinese Characters and Pseudo-Characters on the N400: Evidence for an Orthographic Processing View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Caixia; Wang, Quanhong

    2012-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a Chinese character decision task to examine whether N400 amplitude is modulated by stimulus font. Results revealed large negative-going ERPs in an N400 time window of 300-500 ms to stimuli presented in degraded Xing Kai Ti (XKT) font compared with more intact Song Ti (ST) font regardless…

  15. Beyond the N400: complementary access to early neural correlates of novel metaphor comprehension using combined electrophysiological and haemodynamic measurements.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sabrina; Rapp, Alexander M; Haeußinger, Florian B; Ernst, Lena H; Hamm, Friedrich; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2014-04-01

    The simultaneous application of different neuroimaging methods combining high temporal and spatial resolution can uniquely contribute to current issues and open questions in the field of pragmatic language perception. In the present study, comprehension of novel metaphors was investigated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with the simultaneous acquisition of electroencephalography (EEG)/event-related potentials (ERPs). For the first time, we investigated the effects of figurative language on early electrophysiological markers (P200, N400) and their functional relationship to cortical haemodynamic responses within the language network (Broca's area, Wernicke's area). To this end, 20 healthy subjects judged 120 sentences with respect to their meaningfulness, whereby phrases were either literal, metaphoric, or meaningless. Our results indicated a metaphor-specific P200 reduction and a linear increase of N400 amplitudes from literal over metaphoric to meaningless sentences. Moreover, there were metaphor related effects on haemodynamic responses accessed with NIRS, especially within the left lateral frontal cortex (Broca's area). Significant correlations between electrophysiological and haemodynamic responses indicated that P200 reductions during metaphor comprehension were associated with an increased recruitment of neural activity within left Wernicke's area, indicating a link between variations in neural activity and haemodynamic changes within Wernicke's area. This link may reflect processes related to interindividual differences regarding the ability to classify novel metaphors. The present study underlines the usefulness of simultaneous NIRS measurements in language paradigms - especially for investigating the functional significance of neurophysiological markers that have so far been rarely examined - as these measurements are easily and efficiently realizable and allow for a complementary examination of neural activity and associated metabolic

  16. Processing local pragmatic anomalies in fictional contexts: evidence from the N400.

    PubMed

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut

    2008-07-01

    Readers typically experience processing difficulty when they encounter a word that is anomalous within the local context, such as "The cat picked up the chainsaw." In an ERP study, we demonstrate that by placing such a sentence in a fictional scenario that is well known to the reader (e.g., a Tom and Jerry cartoon), the N400 effect usually associated with these pragmatic anomalies can be eliminated. This finding suggests that readers can rapidly integrate information from their common ground while interpreting incoming text and provides further evidence that incoming words are immediately evaluated within the global discourse.

  17. The Social N400 effect: how the presence of other listeners affects language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Gardner, Tom; Stoner, Cat

    2015-02-01

    During conversation, it is necessary to keep track of what others can and cannot understand. Previous research has focused largely on understanding the time course along which knowledge about interlocutors influences language comprehension/production rather than the cognitive process by which interlocutors take each other's perspective. In addition, most work has looked at the effects of knowledge about a speaker on a listener's comprehension, and not on the possible effects of other listeners on a participant's comprehension process. In the current study, we introduce a novel joint comprehension paradigm that addresses the cognitive processes underlying perspective taking during language comprehension. Specifically, we show that participants who understand a language stimulus, but are simultaneously aware that someone sitting next to them does not understand the same stimulus, show an electrophysiological marker of semantic integration difficulty (i.e., an N400-effect). Crucially, in a second group of participants, we demonstrate that presenting exactly the same sentences to the participant alone (i.e. without a co-listener) results in no N400-effect. Our results suggest that (1) information about co-listeners as well as the speaker affect language comprehension, and (2) the cognitive process by which we understand what others comprehend mirrors our own language comprehension processes.

  18. Lexical prediction via forward models: N400 evidence from German Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Hosemann, Jana; Herrmann, Annika; Steinbach, Markus; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Models of language processing in the human brain often emphasize the prediction of upcoming input-for example in order to explain the rapidity of language understanding. However, the precise mechanisms of prediction are still poorly understood. Forward models, which draw upon the language production system to set up expectations during comprehension, provide a promising approach in this regard. Here, we present an event-related potential (ERP) study on German Sign Language (DGS) which tested the hypotheses of a forward model perspective on prediction. Sign languages involve relatively long transition phases between one sign and the next, which should be anticipated as part of a forward model-based prediction even though they are semantically empty. Native speakers of DGS watched videos of naturally signed DGS sentences which either ended with an expected or a (semantically) unexpected sign. Unexpected signs engendered a biphasic N400-late positivity pattern. Crucially, N400 onset preceded critical sign onset and was thus clearly elicited by properties of the transition phase. The comprehension system thereby clearly anticipated modality-specific information about the realization of the predicted semantic item. These results provide strong converging support for the application of forward models in language comprehension.

  19. Abnormal N400 word repetition effects in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shiaohui; Wong, Ling M.; Schneider, Andrea; Seritan, Andreea; Niese, Adam; Yang, Jin-Chen; Laird, Kelsey; Teichholtz, Sara; Khan, Sara; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, a neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles (55–200 CGG repeats) of the FMR1 gene, affects many carriers in late-life. Patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome typically have cerebellar ataxia, intranuclear inclusions in neurons and astrocytes, as well as cognitive impairment. Dementia can also be present with cognitive deficits that are as severe as in Alzheimer’s disease, however frontosubcortical type impairment is more pronounced in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. We sought to characterize the P600 and N400 word repetition effects in patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, using an event-related potential word repetition paradigm with demonstrated sensitivity to very early Alzheimer’s disease. We hypothesized that the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome-affected participants with poor declarative verbal memory would have pronounced abnormalities in the P600 repetition effect. In the event-related potential experiment, subjects performed a category decision task whilst an electroencephalogram was recorded. Auditory category statements were each followed by an associated visual target word (50% ‘congruous’ category exemplars, 50% ‘incongruous’ nouns). Two-thirds of the stimuli (category statement–target word pairs) were repeated, either at short-lag (∼10–40 s) or long-lag (∼100–140 s). The N400 and P600 amplitude data were submitted to split-plot analyses of variance. These analyses of variance showed a highly significant reduction of the N400 repetition effect (F = 22.5, P < 0.001), but not of the P600 repetition effect, in mild fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (n = 32, mean age = 68.7, mean Mini-Mental State Examination score = 26.8). Patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome had significantly smaller late positive amplitude (550–800 ms post-stimulus onset) to congruous words (P = 0

  20. Morphosyntax can modulate the N400 component: event related potentials to gender-marked post-nominal adjectives.

    PubMed

    Guajardo, Lourdes F; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2014-05-01

    Event-related potential studies of grammatical gender agreement often report a left anterior negativity (LAN) when agreement violations occur. Some studies have shown that during sentence comprehension gender violations can also interact with semantic processing to modulate a negativity associated with processing meaning - the N400. Given that the LAN and N400 overlap in time, they are identified by their scalp distributions and purported functional roles. Critically, grammatical gender violations also elicit a right posterior positivity that can overlap temporally and potentially affect the scalp distribution of the LAN/N400. We measured the effect of grammatical gender violations in the LAN/N400 window and late positive component (LPC) during comprehension of Spanish sentences. A post-nominal adjective could either make sense or not, and either agree or disagree in gender with the preceding noun. We observed a negativity to gender agreement violations in the LAN/N400 window (300-500ms post stimulus onset) that was smaller than the semantic-congruity N400, but overlapped with it in time and distribution. The early portion of the LPC to gender violations was modulated by sentence constraint, occurring as early as 450ms in highly constraining sentences. A subadditive interaction occurred at the later portion of the LPC with equivalent effects for single and double violations (gender and semantics), reflecting a general stage of reprocessing. Overall, our data support models of language comprehension whereby both semantic and morphosyntactic information can affect processing at similar time points. PMID:24462934

  1. Wait, what? Assessing stereotype incongruities using the N400 ERP component.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine R; Crites, Stephen L; Taylor, Jennifer H; Corral, Guadalupe

    2009-06-01

    Numerous discoveries regarding stereotypes have been uncovered by utilizing techniques and methods developed by cognitive psychologists. The present study continues this tradition by borrowing psychophysiological techniques used for the study of memory and language, and applying them to the study of stereotypes. In this study, participants were primed with either the gender category 'Women' or 'Men', followed by a word which was either consistent with gender stereotypes (e.g. Women: Nurturing) or inconsistent (e.g. Women: Aggressive). Their task was to indicate whether the words matched or did not match, according to gender stereotypes. Both response times and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during performance of the task. As predicted, stereotype incongruent word pairs were associated with larger N400 ERP amplitudes and slower response times, relative to congruent word pairs. The potential utility of this approach as an independent measure of stereotypes is discussed.

  2. $sup 238$Pu fuel form activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report for STYPu Fuel Form Activities has one main section: SRP-PuFF Facility. The SRL portion of this program has been completed. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed. The SRP portion of this report summarizes production of STYPuO2 fuel forms for use in radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG's) in the Plutonium Fuel Form (Puff) Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The PuFF Facility has been placed in a production readiness mode of operation pending funding of additional heat source programs.

  3. The Fixation Distance to the Stimulus Influences ERP Quality: An EEG and Eye Tracking N400 Study

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Martínez, Estefanía; Parise, Eugenio; Strandvall, Tommy; Reid, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    In a typical visual Event Related Potential (ERP) study, the stimulus is presented centrally on the screen. Normally an ERP response will be measured provided that the participant directs their gaze towards the stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess how the N400 component of an ERP was affected when the stimulus was presented in the foveal, parafoveal or peripheral vision of the participant’s visual field. Utilizing stimuli that have previously produced an N400 response to action incongruities, the same stimuli sequences were presented at 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° of visual angle from a fixation location. In addition to the EEG data, eye tracking data were recorded to act as a fixation control method and to allow for eye artifact detection. The results show a significant N400 effect in the right parieto-temporal electrodes within the 0° visual angle condition. For the other conditions, the N400 effect was reduced (4°) or not present (8° and 12°). Our results suggest that the disappearance of the N400 effect with eccentricity is due to the fixation distance to the stimulus. However, variables like attentional allocation could have also had an impact on the results. This study highlights the importance of presenting a stimulus within the foveal vision of the participant in order to maximize ERP effects related to higher order cognitive processes. PMID:26222059

  4. Friendly Drug-dealers and Terrifying Puppies: Affective primacy can attenuate the N400 effect in emotional discourse contexts

    PubMed Central

    Delaney-Busch, Nathaniel; Kuperberg, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Words that are semantically congruous with their preceding discourse context are easier to process than words that are semantically incongruous with their context. This facilitation of semantic processing is reflected by an attenuation of the N400 event-related potential (ERP). We asked whether this was true of emotional words in emotional contexts, where discourse congruity was conferred through emotional valence. ERPs were measured as 24 participants read two-sentence scenarios with critical words that varied by Emotion (pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral) and Congruity (congruous or incongruous). Semantic predictability, constraint, and plausibility were comparable across the neutral and emotional scenarios. As expected, the N400 was smaller to neutral words that were semantically congruous (vs. incongruous) with their neutral discourse context. No such N400 congruity effect was observed on emotional words following emotional discourse contexts. Rather, the amplitude of the N400 was small to all emotional words (pleasant and unpleasant), regardless of whether their emotional valence was congruous with the valence of their emotional discourse context. However, consistent with previous studies, the emotional words produced a larger late positivity than the neutral words. These data suggest that comprehenders bypassed deep semantic processing of valence incongruous emotional words within the N400 time window, moving rapidly on to evaluate their motivational significance. PMID:23559312

  5. Friendly drug-dealers and terrifying puppies: affective primacy can attenuate the N400 effect in emotional discourse contexts.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Busch, Nathaniel; Kuperberg, Gina

    2013-09-01

    Words that are semantically congruous with their preceding discourse context are easier to process than words that are semantically incongruous with their context. This facilitation of semantic processing is reflected by an attenuation of the N400 event-related potential (ERP). We asked whether this was true of emotional words in emotional contexts where discourse congruity was conferred through emotional valence. ERPs were measured as 24 participants read two-sentence scenarios with critical words that varied by emotion (pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral) and congruity (congruous or incongruous). Semantic predictability, constraint, and plausibility were comparable across the neutral and emotional scenarios. As expected, the N400 was smaller to neutral words that were semantically congruous (vs. incongruous) with their neutral discourse context. No such N400 congruity effect was observed on emotional words following emotional discourse contexts. Rather, the amplitude of the N400 was small to all emotional words (pleasant and unpleasant), regardless of whether their emotional valence was congruous with the valence of their emotional discourse context. However, consistent with previous studies, the emotional words produced a larger late positivity than did the neutral words. These data suggest that comprehenders bypassed deep semantic processing of valence-incongruous emotional words within the N400 time window, moving rapidly on to evaluate the words' motivational significance.

  6. Morphosyntax can modulate the N400 component: Event related potentials to gender-marked post-nominal adjectives

    PubMed Central

    Guajardo, Lourdes F.; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential studies of grammatical gender agreement often report a left anterior negativity (LAN) when agreement violations occur. Some studies have shown that during sentence comprehension gender violations can also interact with semantic processing to modulate a negativity associated with processing meaning – the N400. Given that the LAN and N400 overlap in time, they are identified by their scalp distributions and purported functional roles. Critically, grammatical gender violations also elicit a right posterior positivity that can overlap temporally with and potentially affect the scalp distribution of the LAN/N400. We measured the effect of grammatical gender violations in the LAN/N400 window and late positive component (LPC) during comprehension of Spanish sentences. A post-nominal adjective could either make sense or not, and either agree or disagree in gender with the preceding noun. We observed a negativity to gender agreement violations in the LAN/N400 window (300–500 ms post stimulus onset) that was smaller than the semantic-congruity N400, but overlapped with it in time and distribution. The early portion of the LPC to gender violations was modulated by sentence constraint, occurring as early as 450ms in highly constraining sentences. A subadditive interaction occurred at the later portion of the LPC with equivalent effects for single and double violations (gender and semantics), reflecting a general stage of reprocessing. Overall, our data support models of language comprehension whereby both semantic and morphosyntactic information can affect processing at similar time points. PMID:24462934

  7. Pragmatic inferences modulate N400 during sentence comprehension: evidence from picture-sentence verification

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Lamar; Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Gibson, Linzi; Minai, Utako; Fiorentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the online realization of pragmatic meaning using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants read sentences including the English quantifier some, which has both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). Unlike previous ERP studies of this phenomenon, sentences in the current study were evaluated not in terms of their truth with respect to the real world, but in terms of their consistency with a picture presented before the sentence. Sentences (such as “The boy cut some of the steaks in this story”) were constructed such that either 1) both the semantic and pragmatic interpretations were true with respect to the preceding picture (when the boy in fact cut some but not all of the steaks); 2) neither interpretation was true (when the boy in fact cut none of the steaks); or 3) the semantic interpretation was true but the pragmatic interpretation false (when the boy in fact cut all of the steaks). ERPs at the object word, which determined whether the sentence was consistent with the story, showed the largest N400 effect for objects that made the sentence false, whereas they showed an intermediate effect for objects that made the sentence false under the pragmatic interpretation but true under the semantic interpretation. The results suggest that this pragmatic aspect of meaning is computed online and integrated into the sentence model rapidly enough to influence comprehension of later words. PMID:23219620

  8. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  9. N400 Deficits from Semantic Matching of Pictures in Probands and First-Degree Relatives from Multiplex Schizophrenia Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Seidel; Ibanez, Agustin; Martin, Migdyrai; Bobes, Maria Antonieta; Reyes, Adnelys; Mendoza, Raul; Bravo, Tania; Dominguez, Mayelin; Sosa, Mitchell Valdes

    2009-01-01

    Endophenotypes is one emerging strategy in schizophrenia research that is being used to identify the functional importance of genetically transmitted, brain-based deficits present in this disease. Currently, event-related potentials (ERPs) are timely used in this search. Several ERPs, including N400, present deficits in relation to schizophrenia.…

  10. Two Sides of Meaning: The Scalp-Recorded N400 Reflects Distinct Contributions from the Cerebral Hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Wlotko, Edward W.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2013-01-01

    The N400, a component of the event-related potential (ERP) associated with the processing of meaning, is sensitive to a wide array of lexico-semantic, sentence-level, and discourse-level manipulations across modalities. In sentence contexts, N400 amplitude varies inversely and nearly linearly with the predictability of a word in its context. However, recent theories and empirical evidence from studies employing the visual half-field technique (to selectively bias processing to one cerebral hemisphere) suggest that the two hemispheres use sentence context information in different ways. Thus, each hemisphere may not respond to manipulations of contextual predictability in an equivalent manner. This possibility was investigated by recording ERPs while presenting [in the left and right visual fields (VFs)] sentence-final words that varied over the full range of sentence-level predictability. RVF/left hemisphere items were facilitated (as evidenced by reduced N400 amplitudes) over a broader range of predictability compared with LVF/right hemisphere items, although both strongly predictable and completely unexpected items evoked similar responses in each VF/hemisphere. Further, the pattern of N400 amplitudes over the full range of predictability significantly differed from a linear response function for both VFs/hemispheres. This suggests that the N400 response recorded with standard central field presentation comprises different contributions from both cerebral hemispheres, neither of which on its own is sensitive to contextual predictability in an evenly graded manner. These data challenge the notion of a singular or unitary mode of comprehension and instead support the view that the left and right hemispheres instantiate unique, complementary language comprehension architectures in parallel. PMID:23630506

  11. 76 FR 42129 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form (Form DHS-7001), Online Ombudsman Form DHS-7001 AGENCY: Office of the Citizenship and Immigration Service... practices of USCIS to mitigate problems. This form is used by an applicant who is experiencing problems...

  12. A funny thing happened on the way to articulation: N400 attenuation despite behavioral interference in picture naming

    PubMed Central

    Blackford, Trevor; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    We measured Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and naming times to picture targets preceded by masked words (stimulus onset asynchrony: 80 ms) that shared one of three different types of relationship with the names of the pictures: (1) Identity related, in which the prime was the name of the picture (“socks” – ), (2) Phonemic Onset related, in which the initial segment of the prime was the same as the name of the picture (“log” – ), and (3) Semantically related in which the prime was a co–category exemplar and associated with the name of the picture (“cake” – ). Each type of related picture target was contrasted with an Unrelated picture target, resulting in a 3 × 2 design that crossed Relationship Type between the word and the target picture (Identity, Phonemic Onset and Semantic) with Relatedness (Related and Unrelated). Modulation of the N400 component to related (versus unrelated) pictures was taken to reflect semantic processing at the interface between the picture's conceptual features and its lemma, while naming times reflected the end product of all stages of processing. Both attenuation of the N400 and shorter naming times were observed to pictures preceded by Identity related (versus Unrelated) words. No ERP effects within 600 ms, but shorter naming times, were observed to pictures preceded by Phonemic Onset related (versus Unrelated) words. An attenuated N400 (electrophysiological semantic priming) but longer naming times (behavioral semantic interference) were observed to pictures preceded by Semantically related (versus Unrelated) words. These dissociations between ERP modulation and naming times suggest that (a) phonemic onset priming occurred late, during encoding of the articulatory response, and (b) semantic behavioral interference was not driven by competition at the lemma level of representation, but rather occurred at a later stage of production. PMID:22245030

  13. Incidental Picture Exposure Affects Later Reading: Evidence from the N400

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppens, Leonora C.; Gootjes, Liselotte; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    Language comprehenders form a mental representation of the implied shape of objects mentioned in the text. In the present study, the influence of prior visual experience on subsequent reading was assessed. In two separate phases, participants saw a picture of an object and read a text about the object, suggesting the same or a different shape.…

  14. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Wioland, Norma; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs) effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise): no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels), or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data), both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data), no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms. PMID:24961195

  15. No one way ticket from orthography to semantics in recognition memory: N400 and P200 effects of associations.

    PubMed

    Stuellein, Nicole; Radach, Ralph R; Jacobs, Arthur M; Hofmann, Markus J

    2016-05-15

    Computational models of word recognition already successfully used associative spreading from orthographic to semantic levels to account for false memories. But can they also account for semantic effects on event-related potentials in a recognition memory task? To address this question, target words in the present study had either many or few semantic associates in the stimulus set. We found larger P200 amplitudes and smaller N400 amplitudes for old words in comparison to new words. Words with many semantic associates led to larger P200 amplitudes and a smaller N400 in comparison to words with a smaller number of semantic associations. We also obtained inverted response time and accuracy effects for old and new words: faster response times and fewer errors were found for old words that had many semantic associates, whereas new words with a large number of semantic associates produced slower response times and more errors. Both behavioral and electrophysiological results indicate that semantic associations between words can facilitate top-down driven lexical access and semantic integration in recognition memory. Our results support neurophysiologically plausible predictions of the Associative Read-Out Model, which suggests top-down connections from semantic to orthographic layers.

  16. Neural network with formed dynamics of activity

    SciTech Connect

    Dunin-Barkovskii, V.L.; Osovets, N.B.

    1995-03-01

    The problem of developing a neural network with a given pattern of the state sequence is considered. A neural network structure and an algorithm, of forming its bond matrix which lead to an approximate but robust solution of the problem are proposed and discussed. Limiting characteristics of the serviceability of the proposed structure are studied. Various methods of visualizing dynamic processes in a neural network are compared. Possible applications of the results obtained for interpretation of neurophysiological data and in neuroinformatics systems are discussed.

  17. Silk Microgels Formed by Proteolytic Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sangram K.; Dash, Mamoni; Chiellini, Federica; Kaplan, David L.; Chiellini, Emo

    2013-01-01

    The proteolytic enzyme α-chymotrypsin selectively cleaves the amorphous regions of silk fibroin protein (SFP) and allows the crystalline regions to self-assemble into silk microgels (SMG) at physiological temperature. These microgels consist of lamellar crystals in the micrometer scale, in contrast to the nanometer scaled crystals in native silkworm fibers. SDS-PAGE and zeta potential results demonstrated that α-chymotrypsin utilized only the nonamorphous domains or segments of the heavy chain of SFP to form negatively charged SMGs. The SMGs were characterized in terms of size, charge, structure, morphology, crystallinity, swelling kinetics, water content and thermal properties. The results suggest that the present technique of preparing SMGs by α-chymotrypsin is simple and efficient potential and that the prepared SMGS have useful features for studies related to biomaterials and pharmaceutical needs. This process is also an easy approach to obtain the amorphous peptide chains for further study. PMID:23756227

  18. Silk microgels formed by proteolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sangram K; Dash, Mamoni; Chiellini, Federica; Kaplan, David L; Chiellini, Emo

    2013-09-01

    The proteolytic enzyme α-chymotrypsin selectively cleaves the amorphous regions of silk fibroin protein (SFP) and allows the crystalline regions to self-assemble into silk microgels (SMGs) at physiological temperature. These microgels consist of lamellar crystals in the micrometer scale, in contrast to the nanometer-scaled crystals in native silkworm fibers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zeta potential results demonstrated that α-chymotrypsin utilized only the non-amorphous domains or segments of the heavy chain of SFP to form negatively charged SMGs. The SMGs were characterized in terms of size, charge, structure, morphology, crystallinity, swelling kinetics, water content and thermal properties. The results suggest that the present technique of preparing SMGs by α-chymotrypsin is simple and efficient, and that the prepared SMGs have useful features for studies related to biomaterial and pharmaceutical needs. This process is also an easy way to obtain the amorphous peptide chains for further study. PMID:23756227

  19. 76 FR 61725 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form; (Form DHS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Federal Register on July 18, 2011 at 76 FR 42129, for a 60-day public comment period. No comments were... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. FOR FURTHER... to bring to the attention of the CIS Ombudsman (``trend''). For case problems, the CIS Ombudsman...

  20. The Processing of Causal and Hierarchical Relations in Semantic Memory as Revealed by N400 and Frontal Negativity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiuling; Chen, Qingfei; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Most current studies investigating semantic memory have focused on associative (ring-emerald) or taxonomic relations (bird-sparrow). Little is known about the question of how causal relations (virus-epidemic) are stored and accessed in semantic memory. The goal of this study was to examine the processing of causally related, general associatively related and hierarchically related word pairs when participants were required to evaluate whether pairs of words were related in any way. The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms) elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words. Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms) elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words. These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding. PMID:26148338

  1. A time and place for language comprehension: mapping the N400 and the P600 to a minimal cortical network

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Harm; Hoeks, John C. J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new functional-anatomical mapping of the N400 and the P600 to a minimal cortical network for language comprehension. Our work is an example of a recent research strategy in cognitive neuroscience, where researchers attempt to align data regarding the nature and time-course of cognitive processing (from ERPs) with data on the cortical organization underlying it (from fMRI). The success of this “alignment” approach critically depends on the functional interpretation of relevant ERP components. Models of language processing that have been proposed thus far do not agree on these interpretations, and present a variety of complicated functional architectures. We put forward a very basic functional-anatomical mapping based on the recently developed Retrieval-Integration account of language comprehension (Brouwer et al., 2012). In this mapping, the left posterior part of the Middle Temporal Gyrus (BA 21) serves as an epicenter (or hub) in a neurocognitive network for the retrieval of word meaning, the ease of which is reflected in N400 amplitude. The left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (BA 44/45/47), in turn, serves a network epicenter for the integration of this retrieved meaning with the word's preceding context, into a mental representation of what is being communicated; these semantic and pragmatic integrative processes are reflected in P600 amplitude. We propose that our mapping describes the core of the language comprehension network, a view that is parsimonious, has broad empirical coverage, and can serve as the starting point for a more focused investigation into the coupling of brain anatomy and electrophysiology. PMID:24273505

  2. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu fuel form activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL fuel form activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  3. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu Fuel Form Activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL Fuel Form Activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  4. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu Fuel Form Activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL Fuel Form Activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  5. N250r and N400 ERP correlates of immediate famous face repetition are independent of perceptual load.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2008-11-01

    It is a matter of considerable debate whether attention to initial stimulus presentations is required for repetition-related neural modulations to occur. Recently, it has been assumed that faces are particularly hard to ignore, and can capture attention in a reflexive manner. In line with this idea, electrophysiological evidence for long-term repetition effects of unattended famous faces has been reported. The present study investigated influences of attention to prime faces on short-term repetition effects in event-related potentials (ERPs). We manipulated attention to short (200 ms) prime presentations (S1) of task-irrelevant famous faces according to Lavie's Perceptual Load Theory. Participants attended to letter strings superimposed on face images, and identified target letters "X" vs. "N" embedded in strings of either 6 different (high load) or 6 identical (low load) letters. Letter identification was followed by probe presentations (S2), which were either repetitions of S1 faces, new famous faces, or infrequent butterflies, to which participants responded. Our ERP data revealed repetition effects in terms of an N250r at occipito-temporal regions, suggesting priming of face identification processes, and in terms of an N400 at the vertex, suggesting semantic priming. Crucially, the magnitude of these effects was unaffected by perceptual load at S1 presentation. This indicates that task-irrelevant face processing is remarkably preserved even in a demanding letter detection task, supporting recent notions of face-specific attentional resources. PMID:18793621

  6. Pu-238 fuel form activities, June 1-30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-18

    This monthly report for Pu-238 Fuel Form Activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF Pu-238 Fuel Form Production Processes and SRL Pu-238 Fuel Form Research and Development. The program status, budget information, and milestone information are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) for this program is outlined. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  7. Form-Focused Discovery Activities in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogeyik, Muhlise Cosgun

    2011-01-01

    Form-focused discovery activities allow language learners to grasp various aspects of a target language by contributing implicit knowledge by using discovered explicit knowledge. Moreover, such activities can assist learners to perceive and discover the features of their language input. In foreign language teaching environments, they can be used…

  8. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S.

    2010-06-01

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  9. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S

    2013-02-19

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  10. 76 FR 50236 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a.... Citizenship and Immigration Services will be submitting the following information collection request for... Security sponsoring the collection: Form N-400, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4)...

  11. 75 FR 51093 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... on May 12, 2010, at 75 FR 26782, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received 2... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection...

  12. 75 FR 26782 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864... Exemption; OMB Control No. 1615-0075. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...-864W; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  13. Multiple forms of acid phosphatase activity in Gaucher's disease.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J P; Peters, S P; Glew, R H; Lee, R E; McCafferty, L R; Mercer, D W; Wenger, D A

    1978-07-01

    Although the primary genetic defect in all individuals with Gaucher's disease is a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase activity, the finding of marked elevations in splenic and serum acid phosphatase activity is almost as consistent a finding. Gaucher spleen and serum contain at least two forms of acid phosphatase that can be readily separated by chromatography on columns containing the cation exchange resin Sulphopropyl Sephadex. The major species of acid phosphatase (designated SP-I) contained in Triton X-100 (1% v/v) extracts of Gaucher spleen accounts for 65%--95% of the total activity and has the following properties: (1) it does not bind to the cation exchange column; (2) it exhibitis a pH optimum of 4.5--5.0; (3) it is inhibited by sodium fluoride (15 mM), L(+)-tartaric acid (20 mM), and beta-mercaptoethanol (2.1 M), and (4) it is resistant to inhibition by sodium dithionite (10 mM). The minor acid phosphatase activity (designated SP-II) present in extracts of Gaucher spleen has properties similar to those of the major species of acid phosphatase activity contained in serum from patients with Gaucher's disease: (1) it binds firmly to cation exchange columns (eluted by 0.5 M sodium chloride); (2) it exhibits a pH optimum of 5.0--6.0; (3) it is inhibited by sodium fluoride and sodium dithionite; and (4) it is resistant to inhibition by beta-mercaptoethanol (2.1 M) and L(+)-tartaric acid (20 mM). In addition, a second form of acid phosphatase that is tartrate resistant was found to be elevated in Gaucher serum. This form of serum acid phosphatase did not bind to Sulphopropyl Sephadex, was found to be significantly resistant to beta-mercaptoethanol (2.1 M), and was only partially inhibited by sodium dithionite (10 mM). The findings reported here indicate that at least three distinct forms of acid phosphatase activity are elevated in Gaucher's disease. Furthermore, the minor acid phosphatase activity contained in spleen homogenates has properties very similar to

  14. Channel-Forming Activities in the Glycosomal Fraction from the Bloodstream Form of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Miinalainen, Ilkka J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Michels, Paul A. M.; Antonenkov, Vasily D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycosomes are a specialized form of peroxisomes (microbodies) present in unicellular eukaryotes that belong to the Kinetoplastea order, such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania species, parasitic protists causing severe diseases of livestock and humans in subtropical and tropical countries. The organelles harbour most enzymes of the glycolytic pathway that is responsible for substrate-level ATP production in the cell. Glycolysis is essential for bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei and enzymes comprising this pathway have been validated as drug targets. Glycosomes are surrounded by a single membrane. How glycolytic metabolites are transported across the glycosomal membrane is unclear. Methods/Principal Findings We hypothesized that glycosomal membrane, similarly to membranes of yeast and mammalian peroxisomes, contains channel-forming proteins involved in the selective transfer of metabolites. To verify this prediction, we isolated a glycosomal fraction from bloodstream-form T.brucei and reconstituted solubilized membrane proteins into planar lipid bilayers. The electrophysiological characteristics of the channels were studied using multiple channel recording and single channel analysis. Three main channel-forming activities were detected with current amplitudes 70–80 pA, 20–25 pA, and 8–11 pA, respectively (holding potential +10 mV and 3.0 M KCl as an electrolyte). All channels were in fully open state in a range of voltages ±150 mV and showed no sub-conductance transitions. The channel with current amplitude 20–25 pA is anion-selective (PK+/PCl−∼0.31), while the other two types of channels are slightly selective for cations (PK+/PCl− ratios ∼1.15 and ∼1.27 for the high- and low-conductance channels, respectively). The anion-selective channel showed an intrinsic current rectification that may suggest a functional asymmetry of the channel's pore. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the membrane of glycosomes apparently

  15. NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IS MORE PREVALENT IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Popesso, P.; Genzel, R.; Saintonge, A.; Tacconi, L.; Wuyts, S. E-mail: lutz@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: popesso@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amelie@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: swuyts@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-07-01

    We explore the question of whether low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially found in galaxies that are undergoing a transition from active star formation (SF) to quiescence. This notion has been suggested by studies of the UV-optical colors of AGN hosts, which find them to be common among galaxies in the so-called Green Valley, a region of galaxy color space believed to be composed mostly of galaxies undergoing SF quenching. Combining the deepest current X-ray and Herschel/PACS far-infrared (FIR) observations of the two Chandra Deep Fields with redshifts, stellar masses, and rest-frame photometry derived from the extensive and uniform multi-wavelength data in these fields, we compare the rest-frame U - V color distributions and star formation rate distributions of AGNs and carefully constructed samples of inactive control galaxies. The UV-to-optical colors of AGNs are consistent with equally massive inactive galaxies at redshifts out to z {approx} 2, but we show that such colors are poor tracers of SF. While the FIR distributions of both star-forming AGNs and star-forming inactive galaxies are statistically similar, we show that AGNs are preferentially found in star-forming host galaxies, or, in other words, AGNs are less likely to be found in weakly star-forming or quenched galaxies. We postulate that, among X-ray-selected AGNs of low and moderate accretion luminosities, the supply of cold gas primarily determines the accretion rate distribution of the nuclear black holes.

  16. Active curcumin nanoparticles formed from a volatile microemulsion template.

    PubMed

    Margulis, K; Srinivasan, S; Ware, M J; Summers, H D; Godin, B; Magdassi, S

    2014-01-01

    We report on biological performance of organic nanoparticles formed by a simple method based on rapid solvent removal from a volatile microemulsion. The particular focus of the study was on testing the suitability of the method for substances soluble in partially water-miscible organic solvents as well as on evaluating the therapeutic activity of the resultant nanoparticles. Curcumin was employed as a model for hydrophobic drug, and, as it is soluble in water-miscible organic solvents, it was successfully incorporated into a new cyclopentanone-water microemulsion system. During rapid solvent removal by spray-drying, the nanometric droplets of the microemulsion were converted into nanoparticles containing amorphous curcumin with the average size of 20.2±3.4 nm, having ζ potential of -36.2 ±1.8 mV. These nanoparticles were dispersible in water and retained the high loading of the active substance. The therapeutic activity of the resulting nanoparticles was demonstrated in a pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. The effective concentration for reducing the metabolic activity was found to be 11.5 μM for nanoparticles compared with 19.5 μM for free curcumin. PMID:25485110

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  19. Once Is Enough: N400 Indexes Semantic Integration of Novel Word Meanings from a Single Exposure in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Kutas, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of contextual constraint on the integration of novel word meanings into semantic memory. Adults read strongly or weakly constraining sentences ending in known or unknown (novel) words as scalp-recorded electrical brain activity was recorded. Word knowledge was assessed via a lexical decision task in which recently seen…

  20. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    This monthly report summarizes production of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel forms for use in radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG's) in the Plutonium Fuel Form (PuFF) Facility at the Savannah River Plant.

  1. Tectonic activity on Pluto after the Charon-forming impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Amy C.; Collins, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The Pluto-Charon system, likely formed from an impact, has reached the endpoint of its tidal evolution. During its evolution into the dual-synchronous state, the equilibrium tidal figures of Pluto and Charon would have also evolved as angular momentum was transferred from Pluto's spin to Charon's orbit. The rate of tidal evolution is controlled by Pluto's interior physical and thermal state. We examine three interior models for Pluto: an undifferentiated rock/ice mixture, differentiated with ice above rock, and differentiated with an ocean. For the undifferentiated case without an ocean, the Pluto-Charon binary does not evolve to its current state unless its internal temperature Ti > 200K , which would likely lead to strong tidal heating, melting, and differentiation. Without an ocean, Pluto's interior temperature must be higher than 240 K for Charon to evolve on a time scale less than the age of the Solar System. Further tidal heating would likely create an ocean. If New Horizons finds evidence of ancient tidally-driven tectonic activity on either body, the most likely explanation is that Pluto had an internal ocean during Charon's orbital evolution.

  2. A Large Scale (N=400) Investigation of Gray Matter Differences in Schizophrenia Using Optimized Voxel-based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Giuliani, Nicole R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Schretlen, David J.; Pulver, Anne; Cascella, Nicola; Keshavan, Matcheri; Kates, Wendy; Buchanan, Robert; Sharma, Tonmoy; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of MRI images as an automated method of investigating cortical gray matter differences in schizophrenia. However, results from these studies vary widely, likely due to different methodological or statistical approaches. Objective To use VBM to investigate gray matter differences in schizophrenia in a sample significantly larger than any published to date, and to increase statistical power sufficiently to reveal differences missed in smaller analyses. Methods Magnetic resonance whole brain images were acquired from four geographic sites, all using the same model 1.5T scanner and software version, and combined to form a sample of 200 patients with both first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 200 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and scanner location. Gray matter concentration was assessed and compared using optimized VBM. Results Compared to the healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less gray matter concentration in multiple cortical and subcortical regions, some previously unreported. Overall, we found lower concentrations of gray matter in regions identified in prior studies, most of which reported only subsets of the affected areas. Conclusions Gray matter differences in schizophrenia are most comprehensively elucidated using a large, diverse and representative sample. PMID:18378428

  3. 76 FR 30738 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-845 and Form G-845 Supplement, Revision of a...

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    2011-05-26

    ... the Federal Register on February 22, 2011, at 76 FR 9805, allowing for a 60-day public comment period... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-845 and Form G- 845 Supplement, Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request...

  4. The Essay: Theory and Pedagogy for an Active Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilker, Paul

    Calling for a radical reexamination of the traditional foundation of composition instruction--the thesis/support form, this book argues that the essay, with its informality, conversational tone, meditative mood, and integration of form and content, is better suited to developmental, epistemological, ideological, and feminist rhetorical…

  5. Structure and Form. Elementary Science Activity Series, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book is number 2 of a series of elementary science books that presents a wealth of ideas for science activities for the elementary school teacher. Each activity includes a standard set of information designed to help teachers determine the activity's appropriateness for their students, plan its implementation, and help children focus on a…

  6. 76 FR 13699 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., companies chartering ships from MARAD, and companies having Title XI guarantee obligations. Form(s): MA-172... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  7. A cytosolic activator of DNA replication is tyrosine phosphorylated in its active form.

    PubMed

    Fresa, K L; Autieri, M V; Coffman, F D; Georgoff, I; Cohen, S

    1993-04-01

    Cytosolic extracts from actively dividing lymphoid cells have been shown to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. An initiating factor in such extracts (activator of DNA replication; ADR) is a > 90-kDa aprotinin-binding protein whose activity is inhibitable not only by aprotinin, but also by several other protease inhibitors as well. Although cytosol from non-proliferating lymphocytes is devoid of ADR activity, we have shown that these preparations can be induced to express ADR activity by brief exposure to a membrane-enriched fraction of spontaneously proliferating MOLT-4 cells via a kinase-dependent mechanism. In the present study, we examine the role of tyrosine kinases in this process. Three inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (genistein, kaempferol, and quercetin) can inhibit the in vitro generation of ADR activity. In vitro generation of ADR activity is associated with the de novo phosphorylation of several proteins, many of which are detectable using anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies. ADR itself may be tyrosine phosphorylated in active form as immunoprecipitation using such monoclonal antibodies leads to the depletion of its activity. Moreover, immunoprecipitation results in the removal of several de novo tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, including species at approximately 122, 105, 93, 86, 79, and 65 kDa. A subset of de novo-phosphorylated proteins, migrating at approximately 105, 93, and 70 kDa, also bound to aprotinin, suggesting that at least one of these proteins may represent ADR itself. PMID:7683270

  8. STYPu fuel form activities, March 1-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The SRP portion of this report summarizes production STYPuO2 fuel forms for use in radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG's) in the Plutonium Fuel Form (PuFF) Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The PuFF Facility began producing iridium-encapsulated, 62.5-watt STYPuO2 right circular cylinders for GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) RTG's in June 1980; this program was completed in December 1983. The PuFF Facility has been placed in a production readiness mode of operation pending funding of additional heat source programs.

  9. Is there a difference between stripy journeys and stripy ladybirds? The N400 response to semantic and world-knowledge violations during sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; Maienborn, Claudia; Kaup, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    The distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge is particularly relevant because it is related to the principle of compositionality during sentence comprehension. Hagoort, Hald, Bastiaansen, and Petersson (2004) challenged the distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge. Here, we investigate how linguistic and non-linguistic violations are processed in a setting adapted from Hagoort et al., whilst in contrast to Hagoort, keeping the critical word identical. In line with the findings by Hagoort et al., our results showed largest N400 amplitudes for semantic violations ('Journeys are stripy'), followed by non-linguistic world-knowledge violations ('Ladybirds are stripy') and contingent sentences ('Trousers are stripy'), and finally by correct sentences ('Zebras are stripy'). Traditional fractional area and relative criterion measures of peak and onset latencies showed no effect of violation type. Interestingly, the semantic violation condition crossed a fixed criterion earlier than the word-knowledge violation condition. In conclusion, our data suggests that the question regarding the distinction between linguistic- and non-linguistic knowledge in terms of language integration remains open. Implications for future studies addressing the difference between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge are discussed.

  10. Semantic Processing in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Large N400 Mismatch Effects in Brain Responses, Despite Poor Semantic Ability.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Petter; Olofsson, Jonas; Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Sahlén, Birgitta S; Lyxell, Björn; Engström, Elisabet; Uhlén, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in auditory and phonological processing affect semantic processing in speech comprehension for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. However, little is known about brain responses related to semantic processing in this group. We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in DHH children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs), and in normally hearing controls (NH). We used a semantic priming task with spoken word primes followed by picture targets. In both DHH children and controls, cortical response differences between matching and mismatching targets revealed a typical N400 effect associated with semantic processing. Children with CI had the largest mismatch response despite poor semantic abilities overall; Children with CI also had the largest ERP differentiation between mismatch types, with small effects in within-category mismatch trials (target from same category as prime) and large effects in between-category mismatch trials (where target is from a different category than prime), compared to matching trials. Children with NH and HA had similar responses to both mismatch types. While the large and differentiated ERP responses in the CI group were unexpected and should be interpreted with caution, the results could reflect less precision in semantic processing among children with CI, or a stronger reliance on predictive processing. PMID:27559320

  11. Is there a difference between stripy journeys and stripy ladybirds? The N400 response to semantic and world-knowledge violations during sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; Maienborn, Claudia; Kaup, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    The distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge is particularly relevant because it is related to the principle of compositionality during sentence comprehension. Hagoort, Hald, Bastiaansen, and Petersson (2004) challenged the distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge. Here, we investigate how linguistic and non-linguistic violations are processed in a setting adapted from Hagoort et al., whilst in contrast to Hagoort, keeping the critical word identical. In line with the findings by Hagoort et al., our results showed largest N400 amplitudes for semantic violations ('Journeys are stripy'), followed by non-linguistic world-knowledge violations ('Ladybirds are stripy') and contingent sentences ('Trousers are stripy'), and finally by correct sentences ('Zebras are stripy'). Traditional fractional area and relative criterion measures of peak and onset latencies showed no effect of violation type. Interestingly, the semantic violation condition crossed a fixed criterion earlier than the word-knowledge violation condition. In conclusion, our data suggests that the question regarding the distinction between linguistic- and non-linguistic knowledge in terms of language integration remains open. Implications for future studies addressing the difference between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge are discussed. PMID:26812249

  12. Semantic Processing in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Large N400 Mismatch Effects in Brain Responses, Despite Poor Semantic Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kallioinen, Petter; Olofsson, Jonas; Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Sahlén, Birgitta S.; Lyxell, Björn; Engström, Elisabet; Uhlén, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in auditory and phonological processing affect semantic processing in speech comprehension for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. However, little is known about brain responses related to semantic processing in this group. We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in DHH children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs), and in normally hearing controls (NH). We used a semantic priming task with spoken word primes followed by picture targets. In both DHH children and controls, cortical response differences between matching and mismatching targets revealed a typical N400 effect associated with semantic processing. Children with CI had the largest mismatch response despite poor semantic abilities overall; Children with CI also had the largest ERP differentiation between mismatch types, with small effects in within-category mismatch trials (target from same category as prime) and large effects in between-category mismatch trials (where target is from a different category than prime), compared to matching trials. Children with NH and HA had similar responses to both mismatch types. While the large and differentiated ERP responses in the CI group were unexpected and should be interpreted with caution, the results could reflect less precision in semantic processing among children with CI, or a stronger reliance on predictive processing. PMID:27559320

  13. Chromophore structure of the physiologically active form (Pfr) of phytochrome

    PubMed Central

    Rüdiger, W.; Thümmler, F.; Cmiel, E.; Schneider, S.

    1983-01-01

    Chromopeptides were prepared by proteolytic digestion of phytochrome (far-red absorbing form, Pfr) and of phycocyanin. The phycocyanobilin peptide, the chromophore of which is Z,Z,Z-configurated, was modified to the Z,Z,E isomeric chromophore. It has been demonstrated earlier that the Pfr chromopeptide and the Z,Z,E-configurated phycocyanin chromopeptide behave similarly with regard to spectral and chromatographic properties and reactivity. We present evidence here, obtained by high-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy, that both the modified phycocyanobilin chromophore and the phytochrome chromophore obtained directly from Pfr are 15E-configurated. PMID:16593380

  14. Forming a Learning Culture to Promote Fracture Prevention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjalmarson, Helene V.; Strandmark, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore interprofessional experiences of incorporating fracture prevention activities in clinical practice inspired by an empowerment approach. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection consisted primarily of focus groups interviews, systematized and analyzed by the grounded theory method. The study took…

  15. Thrombomodulin Binding Selects the Catalytically Active Form of Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Handley, Lindsey D; Treuheit, Nicholas A; Venkatesh, Varun J; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Human α-thrombin is a serine protease with dual functions. Thrombin acts as a procoagulant, cleaving fibrinogen to make the fibrin clot, but when bound to thrombomodulin (TM), it acts as an anticoagulant, cleaving protein C. A minimal TM fragment consisting of the fourth, fifth, and most of the sixth EGF-like domain (TM456m) that has been prepared has much improved solubility, thrombin binding capacity, and anticoagulant activity versus those of previous TM456 constructs. In this work, we compare backbone amide exchange of human α-thrombin in three states: apo, D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone (PPACK)-bound, and TM456m-bound. Beyond causing a decreased level of amide exchange at their binding sites, TM and PPACK both cause a decreased level of amide exchange in other regions including the γ-loop and the adjacent N-terminus of the heavy chain. The decreased level of amide exchange in the N-terminus of the heavy chain is consistent with the historic model of activation of serine proteases, which involves insertion of this region into the β-barrel promoting the correct conformation of the catalytic residues. Contrary to crystal structures of thrombin, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results suggest that the conformation of apo-thrombin does not yet have the N-terminus of the heavy chain properly inserted for optimal catalytic activity, and that binding of TM allosterically promotes the catalytically active conformation. PMID:26468766

  16. Characterizing Warm Molecular Hydrogen in Active Star-Forming Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, Naseem

    2014-10-01

    Herschel observations of nearby star-forming galaxies have determined that the warm component of the molecular gas traced by the high-J CO lines dominates the luminosity (~90% of the total CO luminosity) and hence the energetics of the molecular ISM. At the temperatures (T = 300 - 2000 K) and densities (n_H < 1E6 per cubic cm) typically found in our survey, H2 emission is the dominant gas coolant, much more important than CO. A fundamental assumption of all analyses of CO emission has been that CO emission traces H2 over the entire range of physical conditions in the observed sources. However, a direct observational comparison of spatial distributions and kinematics of CO and H2 has never been made for the warm molecular gas. We propose to observe the warm H2, in S(1) and S(2) transitions, with the SOFIA-EXES instrument in a diverse sample of star-forming systems: NGC 253 (starburst nucleus), NGC 6240 (luminous infrared galaxy), NGC 1068 (Seyfert-2), and SgrB2(M)/(N) (Galactic hot cores). The primary goal is to compare these measurements with the warm CO (J = 6-5 transition) observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to investigate differences in the kinematics and spatial distributions (for the extended targets) of the two molecules and thereby confirm whether CO is a reliable tracer of H2 in the warm gas.

  17. 76 FR 31972 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-508 and Form I-508F, Extension of a Currently...

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  18. Multiple forms of endopeptidase activity from jojoba seeds.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M J; Storey, R D

    1990-01-01

    The cotyledons of 27 day post-germination jojoba seedlings (Simmondsia chinensis) contained five distinct endopeptidase activities separable by DEAE Bio-Gel and CM-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The endopeptidases were purified 108- to 266-fold and their individuality was confirmed by activity-specific assays in native acrylamide gels along with differences in their Mr and catalytic properties. The five endopeptidases, which showed activity on model substrates and protein, were named EP Ia, EP Ib, EP II, EP III and EP IV. EP Ia was a serine proteinase with a pH optimum of ca 8 and Mr of 58,000. EP Ib, II and III were discrete cysteine proteinases showing pH optima of ca 6.8, 6.0 and 5.4 and Mr of 41,000, 47,000 and 35,000 respectively. EP IV was an aspartic acid proteinase with a ca pH optimum of 3.5 and Mr of 33,000.

  19. Active Curved Polymers Form Vortex Patterns on Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Jonas; Huber, Lorenz; Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Recent in vitro experiments with FtsZ polymers show self-organization into different dynamic patterns, including structures reminiscent of the bacterial Z ring. We model FtsZ polymers as active particles moving along chiral, circular paths by Brownian dynamics simulations and a Boltzmann approach. Our two conceptually different methods point to a generic phase behavior. At intermediate particle densities, we find self-organization into vortex structures including closed rings. Moreover, we show that the dynamics at the onset of pattern formation is described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  20. Active Curved Polymers Form Vortex Patterns on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Denk, Jonas; Huber, Lorenz; Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-04-29

    Recent in vitro experiments with FtsZ polymers show self-organization into different dynamic patterns, including structures reminiscent of the bacterial Z ring. We model FtsZ polymers as active particles moving along chiral, circular paths by Brownian dynamics simulations and a Boltzmann approach. Our two conceptually different methods point to a generic phase behavior. At intermediate particle densities, we find self-organization into vortex structures including closed rings. Moreover, we show that the dynamics at the onset of pattern formation is described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. PMID:27176542

  1. Active Curved Polymers Form Vortex Patterns on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Denk, Jonas; Huber, Lorenz; Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-04-29

    Recent in vitro experiments with FtsZ polymers show self-organization into different dynamic patterns, including structures reminiscent of the bacterial Z ring. We model FtsZ polymers as active particles moving along chiral, circular paths by Brownian dynamics simulations and a Boltzmann approach. Our two conceptually different methods point to a generic phase behavior. At intermediate particle densities, we find self-organization into vortex structures including closed rings. Moreover, we show that the dynamics at the onset of pattern formation is described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  2. 77 FR 15787 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-131, Revision of an Existing Information...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644... Collection Under Review: Form N- 644, Application for Posthumous Citizenship; OMB Control No. 1615-0059. The..., USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form N-644. Should USCIS decide to revise Form N-644...

  7. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  8. Identification of biotransformation products of citalopram formed in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Beretsou, Vasiliki G; Psoma, Aikaterini K; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Aalizadeh, Reza; Fenner, Kathrin; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-10-15

    Citalopram (CTR) is a worldwide highly consumed antidepressant which has demonstrated incomplete removal by conventional wastewater treatment. Despite its global ubiquitous presence in different environmental compartments, little is known about its behaviour and transformation processes during wastewater treatment. The present study aims to expand the knowledge on fate and transformation of CTR during the biological treatment process. For this purpose, batch reactors were set up to assess biotic, abiotic and sorption losses of this compound. One of the main objectives of the study was the identification of the formed transformation products (TPs) by applying suspect and non-target strategies based on liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The complementary use of reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for the identification of polar TPs, and the application of in-house developed quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) prediction models, in addition to the comprehensive evaluation of the obtained MS/MS spectra, provided valuable information to support identification. In total, fourteen TPs were detected and thirteen of them were tentatively identified. Four compounds were confirmed (N-desmethylCTR, CTR amide, CTR carboxylic acid and 3-oxo-CTR) through the purchase of the corresponding reference standard. Probable structures based on diagnostic evidence were proposed for the additional nine TPs. Eleven TPs are reported for the first time. A transformation pathway for the biotransformation of CTR was proposed. The presence of the identified TPs was assessed in real wastewater samples through retrospective analysis, resulting in the detection of five compounds. Finally, the potential ecotoxicological risk posed by CTR and its TPs to different trophic levels of aquatic organisms was evaluated by means of risk quotients. PMID:27459150

  9. 76 FR 66944 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914; Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 914 and Supplements A and B, Application for T Nonimmigrant... required to respond, as well as a brief abstract: Primary: Individuals or households. Form I- 914 permits... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form...

  10. 76 FR 24908 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639... Collection Under Review; Form G- 639, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Request; OMB Control No. 1615- 0102.... During this 60 day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form G-639. Should USCIS...

  11. 76 FR 28444 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-884, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-884... information collection under review: Form G- 884, Request for the Return of Original Documents; OMB Control No... July 18, 2011. During this 60-day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form...

  12. 75 FR 23785 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639... Collection Under Review; Form G- 639, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Request; OMB Control No. 1615- 0102... this 60 day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form G-639. Should USCIS decide...

  13. 75 FR 5099 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648... information collection under review: Form N- 648, Medical Certification for Disability Exceptions. OMB Control... component of the Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form N-648. U.S. Citizenship...

  14. 76 FR 38197 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Form N-600K, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities; Form N-600K... information collection under review: form N- 600K, application for citizenship and issuance of certificate... sponsoring the collection: Form N-600K, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public...

  15. 76 FR 59710 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600; Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600... Collection Under Review; Form N- 600, Application for Certificate of Citizenship; OMB Control No. 1615- 0057... the Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form N-600; U.S. Citizenship...

  16. 75 FR 13776 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300... Collection Under Review; Form N- 300, Application to File Declaration of Intention; OMB Control No. 1615-0078... this 60-day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form N-300. Should USCIS decide...

  17. 75 FR 18871 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600K, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600K... Information Collection under Review: Form N- 600K, Application for Citizenship and Issuance of Certificate...: Form N-600K, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  18. Composition and topology of activity cliff clusters formed by bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-02-24

    The assessment of activity cliffs has thus far mostly focused on compound pairs, although the majority of activity cliffs are not formed in isolation but in a coordinated manner involving multiple active compounds and cliffs. However, the composition of coordinated activity cliff configurations and their topologies are unknown. Therefore, we have identified all activity cliff configurations formed by currently available bioactive compounds and analyzed them in network representations where activity cliff configurations occur as clusters. The composition, topology, frequency of occurrence, and target distribution of activity cliff clusters have been determined. A limited number of large cliff clusters with unique topologies were identified that were centers of activity cliff formation. These clusters originated from a small number of target sets. However, most clusters were of small to moderate size. Three basic topologies were sufficient to describe recurrent activity cliff cluster motifs/topologies. For example, frequently occurring clusters with star topology determined the scale-free character of the global activity cliff network and represented a characteristic activity cliff configuration. Large clusters with complex topology were often found to contain different combinations of basic topologies. Our study provides a first view of activity cliff configurations formed by currently available bioactive compounds and of the recurrent topologies of activity cliff clusters. Activity cliff clusters of defined topology can be selected, and from compounds forming the clusters, SAR information can be obtained. The SAR information of activity cliff clusters sharing a/one specific activity and topology can be compared.

  19. 75 FR 16895 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.... Mary Versailles, Office of Rulemaking, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New...

  20. 77 FR 47162 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT...- 5378. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Title:...

  1. 76 FR 41331 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... and fax number is (202) 366-7002. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: National Highway Traffic...

  2. 77 FR 72321 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Supplemental Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Supplemental Form for Collecting Taxpayer Identifying Numbers AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service... Porter, Director, Office of Internal Controls, Audits and Investigations, Food and Nutrition Service,...

  3. 76 FR 52014 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Applicant Information Form (1-783)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities: Applicant Information Form (1-783) ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal...

  4. 78 FR 19726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program... requirement concerning the Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775). This request for comment is... information collection: Title: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement. OMB Number: 1651-0110. Form Number:...

  5. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... handler must renotify the Agency include, but are not limited to the following: the company changes... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... using EPA Form 7710-53 and those activities change, the facility must resubmit EPA Form 7710-53...

  6. 78 FR 24187 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 6-Q); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 6-Q); Comment... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission or FERC) is submitting the information collection FERC Form 6-Q... issued a Notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 8500, 2/6/2013) requesting public comments. FERC...

  7. 78 FR 52824 - Proposed Information Collection (Bowel and Bladder Care Billing Form) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Bowel and Bladder Care Billing Form) Activity: Comment Request... evaluate the Bowel and Bladder Care Billing Form used by caregivers of eligible Veterans to document time spent providing services related specifically to bowel and bladder care. DATES: Written comments...

  8. 77 FR 23271 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-881; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-881... (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information... component of the Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-881; U.S. Citizenship...

  9. 77 FR 16047 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589.... 1615-0067. The Department Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be...: Form I-589; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  10. 75 FR 51094 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600... Collection under Review; Form N- 600, Application for Certificate of Citizenship; OMB Control No. 1615- 0057. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will...

  11. 75 FR 51095 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336... Section 336; OMB Control No. 1615-0050. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and... sponsoring the collection: Form N-336; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected...

  12. 77 FR 36285 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-693, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-693... Control No. 1615-0033. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... of the Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-693. U.S. Citizenship...

  13. 76 FR 55081 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-129S; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-129S... Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following... collection: Form I-129S; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will...

  14. 76 FR 63322 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-28, Revision of an Approved Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-28.... The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be... Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form G-28. U.S. Citizenship and...

  15. 75 FR 54646 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection request... of the Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-914; U.S. Citizenship...

  16. 77 FR 12071 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services will be submitting the following... sponsoring the collection: Form I-601. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public...

  17. 76 FR 58029 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600K, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 29, 2011, at 76 FR 38197, allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600K... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 600K; Application for Citizenship and Issuance of...

  18. 75 FR 51096 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470.... 1615-0056. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will...: Form N-470; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  19. 76 FR 17144 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300.... The Department Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting... collection: Form N-300; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will...

  20. 77 FR 27473 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-924; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-924... Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitted... sponsoring the collection: Form I-924; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public...

  1. 77 FR 34398 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ..., 2012, at 77 FR 18255, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 565, Application for Replacement...

  2. 77 FR 12072 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-824; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-824... Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has submitted the following... collection: Form I-824; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will...

  3. 75 FR 6212 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-129, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-129... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services has submitted the following... Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-129. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4)...

  4. 78 FR 5477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: InfoPass System, No Form Number; Extension, Without...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... information collection notice was previously published in the Federal Register on October 31, 2012, at 77 FR... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: InfoPass... Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: InfoPass System. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  5. Tunable growth of nanodendritic silver by galvanic-cell mechanism on formed activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Lai, Yijian; Zhao, Binyuan; Hu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Di; Hu, Keao

    2010-06-01

    Well-defined silver dendritic nanostructures have been prepared in large quantities in an ambient environment using formed activated carbon (FAC) only. A reasonable mechanism (step 1: reduction by surface reductive groups; step 2: growing in the form of a galvanic cell) is suggested.

  6. 77 FR 21104 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-694, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... a brief abstract: Primary: Individuals and households. USCIS uses the information provided on Form I... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-694, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice...

  7. 75 FR 29780 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-612, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... the Federal Register on March 12, 2010, at 74 FR 11898, allowing for a 60-day public comment period... abstract: Primary: Individuals or Households. Form I- 612 is used by USCIS to determine eligibility for a... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form...

  8. 76 FR 11808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-590, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... abstract: Primary: Individuals or Households. Form I- 590 provides a uniform method for applicants to apply... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-590, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  9. 76 FR 20361 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-694, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-694, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 694, Notice of Appeal of Decision Under Section 210 or 245A;...

  10. 77 FR 9259 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-361, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-361, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 361, Affidavit of Financial Support and Intent To Petition...

  11. 75 FR 70016 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-566, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-566, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 566, Interagency Record of Individual Requesting...

  12. 76 FR 66944 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-129F; Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-129F; Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 129F, Petition for Alien Fiance(e). OMB Control No....

  13. 75 FR 29779 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-918, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-918, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 918, Petition for U Nonimmigrant Status; and Supplement A and...

  14. 75 FR 76745 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... 75 FR 74071, mistakenly announcing the revision of the Form I-601. The 60-day notice should have... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice...

  15. 76 FR 16800 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 601, Application for Waiver of Grounds of Inadmissibility;...

  16. 76 FR 71056 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-566, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 566, Interagency Record of Request, A, G or NATO Dependent... Federal Register on August 18, 2011, at 76 FR 51382, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form...

  17. 75 FR 41215 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-821, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... required to respond, as well as a brief abstract: Primary: Individuals or Households. Form I- 821 is... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-821, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  18. 75 FR 37821 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-751, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-751, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 751, Petition to Remove Conditions on Residence; OMB Control...

  19. 76 FR 45845 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 19, 2011, at 76 FR 28800, allowing for a 60-day public comment...: Primary: Individuals or Households. Form I- 777 is used by applicants applying for a Northern Marina... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form...

  20. 76 FR 20361 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-907, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-907, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-day notice of information collection under review: Form I- 907, Request for Premium Processing Service; OMB Control No....

  1. 75 FR 11898 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-612, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-612, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 612, Application for Waiver of the Foreign Residence...

  2. 75 FR 74071 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 601, Application for Waiver of Grounds of Inadmissibility;...

  3. 76 FR 66946 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-539, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-539, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 539, Application to Extend/Change Nonimmigrant Status....

  4. 75 FR 57049 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card ACTION: Correction to 30-day notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card; OMB Control...

  5. 76 FR 52961 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300; Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-300.... The Department Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting... collection: Form N-300; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will...

  6. 76 FR 70747 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-90; Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-90... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the...: Form I-90; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  7. 76 FR 9805 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-845 and Supplement; Revision of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-845 and.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection request... collection: Form G-845 and Supplement. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public...

  8. 76 FR 48874 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-884, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... the Federal Register on March 17, 2011, at 76 FR 28444, allowing for a 60- day public comment period... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-884... Collection Under Review: Form G- 884, Request for the Return of Original Document(s). The Department...

  9. 76 FR 39415 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2011, at 76 FR 21913, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 644, Application for Posthumous Citizenship; OMB Control No....

  10. 75 FR 70278 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2010, at 75 FR 51094, allowing for... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 600, Application for Certificate of Citizenship; OMB Control...

  11. 76 FR 45844 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-426, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 10, 2011, at 76 FR 27078, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-426... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 426, Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service....

  12. 77 FR 128 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... published in the Federal Register on September 27, 2011, at 76 FR 59710, allowing for a 60-day public... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-600... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 600, Application for Certificate of Citizenship. The...

  13. 75 FR 41216 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on April 22, 2010, at 75 FR 21013, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 644, Application for Posthumous Citizenship; OMB Control No....

  14. 75 FR 43535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-644, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... notice in the Federal Register at 75 FR 41216 extending the use of Form N-644. However, USCIS should have... was previously published in the Federal Register on April 22, 2010, at 75 FR 21013, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form...

  15. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is...

  16. 75 FR 70016 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-290B, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-290B, Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review: Form I- 290B,...

  17. 77 FR 17085 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-612; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-612; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review; Form I-...

  18. 76 FR 43336 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form AR-11, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 10, 2011, at 76 FR 27077 allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form AR-11... Collection under Review: Form AR- 11, Alien's Change of Address Card; OMB Control No. 1615-0007....

  19. Effect of chemical form of selenium on tissue glutathione peroxidase activity in developing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Strength, Ralph; Johnson, Janet; White, Marguerite T.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that the stage of development of rats may affect the availability of various forms of selenium for the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the rat was experimentally investigated. One experiment evaluated the availability of selenium as selenite or selenomethionine for GSPHx activity during three developmental states in rats: fetus and 7-day old and 14-day old nursing pups. In all tissues studied, GSHPx activity was highest in the 14-day-old pups whose dams were in the selenomethionine group. Rat pups given intraperitoneal selenite had higher liver and kidney GSHPx activity than pups given the same amount of selenium as intraperitoneal selenomethionine. In a second experiment, all dams were fed the same basal diet and pups were weaned to diets containing one of two levels of selenium and one of three forms of selenium (selenite, selenomethionine, or selenocystine). The results also supported the hypothesis these dietary forms of selenium are differentially available for GSHPx activity.

  20. Cellulase occurs in multiple active forms in ripe avocado fruit mesocarp.

    PubMed

    Kanellis, A K; Kalaitzis, P

    1992-02-01

    The existence of multiple forms of avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) cellulase in crude protein extracts of ripe avocado fruit is reported. Cellulase was separated into at least 11 multiple forms by native isoelectric focusing in the pH range between 4 and 7 and visualized by both activity staining using Congo red and immunostaining. The enzyme components were acidic proteins with isoelectric points in the range of pH 5.10 to 6.80, the predominant forms having isoelectric points of 5.60, 5.80, 5.95, and 6.20. All 11 forms were immunologically related with molecular masses of 54 kilodaltons.

  1. Education Technologies in Addressing the Problem of Forming the Socially Active Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…

  2. Morphology and optical properties of aluminum oxide formed into oxalic electrolyte with addition surface active agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarkin, B.; Stsiapanau, A.; Zhilinski, V.; Chernik, A.; Bezborodov, V.; Kozak, G.; Danilovich, S.; Smirnov, A.

    2016-08-01

    The article discusses the results of investigations of porous films of alumina, formed into oxalic electrolyte with addition surface active agents, in particular, ordering structure, roughness of a surface, the optical transparency of the electrolyte concentration and surface active agents. Also discusses the features of the formation of porous films of temperature and IR radiation.

  3. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  4. Differential cellulolytic activity of native-form and C-terminal tagged-form cellulase derived from coptotermes formosanus and expressed in E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endogenous cellulase gene (CfEG3a) of Coptotermes formosanus, an economically important pest termite, was cloned and overexpressed in both native form (nCfEG) and C-terminal His-tagged form (tCfEG) in E.coli. Both forms of recombinant cellulases showed hydrolytic activity on cellulosic substrate...

  5. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  6. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Dale L.; Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei

    1995-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  7. 75 FR 5099 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (Form I-775)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (74 FR 60281) on November 20, 2009, allowing for a 60-day... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (Form...

  8. 77 FR 49453 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Employment Authorization, Form I-765...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), submitted the following emergency... applicable component of the Department of Homeland Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-765, USCIS....

  9. 75 FR 57480 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs And Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... the Customs Declaration. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork...

  10. 75 FR 71452 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 57480) on September 21, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment period... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs Declaration (Form 6059B) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION:...

  11. 75 FR 3245 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Aircraft/Vessel Report (Form I-92)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... published in the Federal Register (74 FR 54839) on October 23, 2009, allowing for a 60-day comment period... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Aircraft/Vessel... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Aircraft/ Vessel Report (Form I-92). This is...

  12. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology; and (e... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew.... ACTION: 60-Day notice and request for comments; Extension of an existing information collection:...

  13. 75 FR 30050 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on February 1, 2010, at 75 FR 5099, allowing for... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648... No. 1615-0060. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

  14. 77 FR 3484 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Federal Register on October 28, 2011, at 76 FR 66944, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914... Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following...

  15. 77 FR 34053 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-590, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 12, 2012, at 77 FR 14535, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-590... of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

  16. 75 FR 47822 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on May 4, 2010, at 75 FR 23785, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639.... 1615- 0102. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)...

  17. 76 FR 53929 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 3, 2011, at 76 FR 24908, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-639... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

  18. 76 FR 12750 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-829, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on November 30, 2010, at 75 FR 74070, allowing... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-829... No. 1615-0045. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

  19. 75 FR 47824 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-643, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ..., 2010, at 75 FR 23784, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-643.../Asylee Adjusting Status; OMB Control No. 1615-0070. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S....

  20. 77 FR 12071 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-28, Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... notice was previously published in the Federal Register on October 12, 2011, at 76 FR 63322, allowing for... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-28... Representative. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will...

  1. 77 FR 27474 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-687; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-687...-687. The Department Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has...-687; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will be asked...

  2. 77 FR 59205 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Posthumous Citizenship, Form Number N...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ..., at 77 FR 43346, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comment in... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Posthumous Citizenship, Form Number N-644; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently...

  3. 77 FR 12070 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-102; Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-102... Document. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be... directed to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

  4. 77 FR 50710 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Employment Eligibility Verification, Form I-9, OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on March 27, 2012, at 77 FR 18256... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Employment... Verification, Form I-9. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  5. 75 FR 51094 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-363, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    .... The information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 23, 2010, at 75 FR... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-363... Amerasian; OMB Control No. 1615-0022. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and...

  6. 77 FR 27474 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-648... Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond,...

  7. 76 FR 12751 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on November 30, 2010, at 75 FR 74069... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589... Control No. 1615-0067. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  8. 76 FR 27078 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-426, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-426... Control No. 1615-0053. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.... Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond, as well...

  9. 76 FR 63320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Federal Register on August 12, 2011, at 76 FR 50237, for a 60-day public comment period. Subsequently... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services will be submitting the...

  10. 76 FR 78674 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... information collection notice was previously published in the Federal Register on October 12, 2011, at 76 FR... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470... Control No. 1615-0056. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration...

  11. 77 FR 34052 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-102; Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on February 28, 2012 at 77 FR 12070, allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-102... Document. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will...

  12. 75 FR 10298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-212; Revision of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... 24, 2009, at 74 FR 61358, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received one comment for... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-212.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has submitted the following information collection request to...

  13. 76 FR 36560 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Form N-300; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on March 28, 2011 at 76 FR 17144, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities; Form N-300.... The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will...

  14. 77 FR 31033 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 19, 2012, at 77 FR 16047, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-589... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

  15. 77 FR 23270 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-290B, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Register on February 7, 2012, at 77 FR 6134, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-290B.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be ] submitting the following information collection...

  16. 78 FR 26647 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Replace Permanent Resident Card, Form I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To... Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services... Security sponsoring the collection: Form I-90, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4)...

  17. 75 FR 10298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-929; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on November 24, 2009, at 74 FR 61360, allowing... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-929... No. 1615-0106. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

  18. 75 FR 39271 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-694, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Register on April 22, 2010, at 75 FR 21014, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-694....S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following...

  19. 76 FR 46895 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review; Reports, Forms and Record Keeping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review; Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S... Highway Traffic Safety Administration Title: Side Impact Phase in Reporting Requirements--Part 597...

  20. 77 FR 33759 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... previously published in the Federal Register on February 28, 2012, at 77 FR 12071, allowing for a 60-day... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  1. 78 FR 40490 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker, Form I-129...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker, Form I-129; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice...: I-129; USCIS. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond, as well as a...

  2. 75 FR 12250 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-191, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... 74 FR 61359 allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments for this... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-191, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  3. 76 FR 40385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-907, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... the Federal Register on April 12, 2011, at 76 FR 20361, allowing for a 60-day public comment period... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-907, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day notice...

  4. 77 FR 23734 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-361, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ..., 2012, at 77 FR 9259, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-361, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  5. 75 FR 52541 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-865, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on June 9, 2010, at 75 FR 32801, allowing for a 60... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-865, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  6. 75 FR 52541 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-243, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 9, 2010, at 75 FR 32799, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-243, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  7. 76 FR 43335 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-765, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2011, at 76 FR 21912 allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-765, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  8. 77 FR 35419 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-601, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...) published a 30-day information collection notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 33759, allowing for an... previously published in the Federal Register on February 28, 2012, at 77 FR 12071, allowing for a 60-day... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form...

  9. 76 FR 69275 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-192, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... the Federal Register on August 12, 2011, at 76 FR 50239, allowing for a 60- day public comment period... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-192, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  10. 75 FR 41215 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-687, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Federal Register on April 23, 2010, at 75 FR 21340, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-687, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice...

  11. 75 FR 65022 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-751, Extension of a Currently Approved...

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    2010-10-21

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  12. 76 FR 60852 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Form I-130; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities; Form I-130... of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the... Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), Chief,...

  13. 76 FR 31971 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-212; Extension of an Existing Information...

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  15. 77 FR 2560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-90, Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

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    ... previously published in the Federal Register on November 15, 2011, at 76 FR 70747, allowing for a 60-day... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-90... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... previously published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2011, at 76 FR 66946, allowing for a 60-day... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-539... Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  20. Comparing the Long and Short Forms of the Student Version of the Jenkins Activity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnold, Paul R.; And Others

    This paper reports on a short version of the Student Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), a multiple choice questionnaire that measures Type A "coronary-prone" behavior in assessing subjects' A/B types. The primary objective was to determine if the short and long forms of the student JAS represent similar measurement instruments. A secondary objective…

  1. 77 FR 65708 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Remove the Conditions on Residence, Form...

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  2. 76 FR 37059 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Form FNS-339...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ..., Infants and Children (WIC); the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP); and/or the Senior Farmers... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Form FNS-339, Federal-State Supplemental Nutrition Program(s) Agreement AGENCY: Food...

  3. 76 FR 2917 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... proposed information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (75 FR 61508) on October 5... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...

  4. Project Activities as a Form of English Language Teaching Based on the Interdisciplinary Approach to Form Intercultural Communicative Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redchenko, Nadezhda N.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article suggest a thesis about the purpose of teaching a foreign language--it is student's communicative activities, i.e. learning a foreign language in practice. The teacher's task is to encourage activities of every student and to create situations to develop their creative activities in a learning process. New information…

  5. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AN ACTIVATED FORM OF UO$sub 2$

    DOEpatents

    Polissar, M.J.

    1957-09-24

    A process for producing a highly active form of UO/sub 2/ characterized both by rapid oxidation in air and by rapid chlorination with CCl/sub 4/ vapor at an elevated temperature is reported. In accordance with the process, commercial UO/sub 2/, is subjected to a series of oxidation-reduction operations to produce a form of UC/sub 2/ of enhanced reactivity. By treatimg commercial UO/sub 2/ at a temperature between 335 and 485 deg C with methane, then briefly with an oxygen containing gas and followimg this by a second treatment with a methane containing gas, the original relatively stable charge of UO/sub 2/ will be transformed into an active form of UO/sub 2/.

  6. Binary Toxin Subunits of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Are Monomeric and Form Heterodimers after In Vitro Activation.

    PubMed

    Surya, Wahyu; Chooduang, Sivadatch; Choong, Yeu Khai; Torres, Jaume; Boonserm, Panadda

    2016-01-01

    The binary toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been successfully used for controlling mosquito-transmitted diseases. An activation step shortens both subunits BinA and BinB before their interaction with membranes and internalization in midgut cells, but the precise role of this activation step is unknown. Herein, we show conclusively using three orthogonal biophysical techniques that protoxin subunits form only monomers in aqueous solution. However, in vitro activated toxins readily form heterodimers. This oligomeric state did not change after incubation of these heterodimers with detergent. These results are consistent with the evidence that maximal toxicity in mosquito larvae is achieved when the two subunits, BinA and BinB, are in a 1:1 molar ratio, and directly link proteolytic activation to heterodimerization. Formation of a heterodimer must thus be necessary for subsequent steps, e.g., interaction with membranes, or with a suitable receptor in susceptible mosquito species. Lastly, despite existing similarities between BinB C-terminal domain with domains 3 and 4 of pore-forming aerolysin, no aerolysin-like SDS-resistant heptameric oligomers were observed when the activated Bin subunits were incubated in the presence of detergents or lipidic membranes.

  7. Binary Toxin Subunits of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Are Monomeric and Form Heterodimers after In Vitro Activation

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Yeu Khai; Torres, Jaume; Boonserm, Panadda

    2016-01-01

    The binary toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been successfully used for controlling mosquito-transmitted diseases. An activation step shortens both subunits BinA and BinB before their interaction with membranes and internalization in midgut cells, but the precise role of this activation step is unknown. Herein, we show conclusively using three orthogonal biophysical techniques that protoxin subunits form only monomers in aqueous solution. However, in vitro activated toxins readily form heterodimers. This oligomeric state did not change after incubation of these heterodimers with detergent. These results are consistent with the evidence that maximal toxicity in mosquito larvae is achieved when the two subunits, BinA and BinB, are in a 1:1 molar ratio, and directly link proteolytic activation to heterodimerization. Formation of a heterodimer must thus be necessary for subsequent steps, e.g., interaction with membranes, or with a suitable receptor in susceptible mosquito species. Lastly, despite existing similarities between BinB C-terminal domain with domains 3 and 4 of pore-forming aerolysin, no aerolysin-like SDS-resistant heptameric oligomers were observed when the activated Bin subunits were incubated in the presence of detergents or lipidic membranes. PMID:27341696

  8. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Boerje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-12-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

  9. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Börje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-12-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

  10. In vitro and in vivo Bone-Forming Activity of Saururus chinensis Extract.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Hee; Choi, Sik-Won; Park, Sang-Joon; Ryu, Shi-Yong; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-07-01

    Bone is maintained by osteoclast-mediated resorption and osteoblast-mediated formation. Recently, anti-osteoporotic activity of Saururus chinensis extract (SCE) and anti-osteoclastogenic activity of its components have been reported, but the effect of SCE on bone formation has not been studied well. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether Saururus chinensis SCE exhibits in vitro osteogenic and in vivo bone-forming activity. extract strongly enhanced the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-stimulated induction of alkaline phosphatase, an early phase biomarker of osteoblast differentiation, in bi-potential mesenchymal progenitor C2C12 cells. In vitro osteogenic activity of SCE was accompanied by enhanced expression of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7 and BMP-9 mRNA. In addition, a pharmacological inhibition study suggested the involvement of p38 activation in the osteogenic action of SCE. Moreover, the BMP dependency and the involvement of p38 activation in the osteogenic action of SCE were confirmed by the treatment of noggin, an antagonist of BMP. Saururus chinensis extract also exhibited to induce runt-related transcription factor 2 activation at the high concentration. Furthermore, the in vivo osteogenic activity of SCE was confirmed in zebrafish and mouse calvarial bone formation models, suggesting the possibility of its use for bone formation. In conclusion, we suggested that in vivo anti-osteoporotic activity of SCE could be because of its dual action in bone, anti-osteoclastogenic and anabolic activity.

  11. [Biophysical aspects of biological activity structure--strain calcium carbonat in micellar form].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V I; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V; Savostikova, O N; Alekseeva, A V; P'ianzina, I P

    2013-01-01

    Results of the study of electrochemical and structural state of phase of associated water in the solutions of structurally stressed calcium carbonate in the micellar form are reported. On the base on the comparison of structural--physical changes of activated water with the data on the activity of bioluminiscentic "Ecolyum" microorganisms in their noncontact activation the electronic mechanism of the effect of activated water on cellular metabolism is substantiated The use of "Micellate of calcium" possessing non-contact electron-donor action on cellular structures was shown to permit to compensate the deficit of electrons and thereby to restore the activities of reductases and iron-containing peptides required for the production of regulatory ROS and alteration in redox state of the intracellular environment. PMID:24624817

  12. Integration of active pharmaceutical ingredient solid form selection and particle engineering into drug product design.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, Martyn David; Marziano, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This review seeks to offer a broad perspective that encompasses an understanding of the drug product attributes affected by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) physical properties, their link to solid form selection and the role of particle engineering. While the crucial role of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solid form selection is universally acknowledged in the pharmaceutical industry, the value of increasing effort to understanding the link between solid form, API physical properties and drug product formulation and manufacture is now also being recognised. A truly holistic strategy for drug product development should focus on connecting solid form selection, particle engineering and formulation design to both exploit opportunities to access simpler manufacturing operations and prevent failures. Modelling and predictive tools that assist in establishing these links early in product development are discussed. In addition, the potential for differences between the ingoing API physical properties and those in the final product caused by drug product processing is considered. The focus of this review is on oral solid dosage forms and dry powder inhaler products for lung delivery.

  13. Norovirus Proteinase-Polymerase and Polymerase Are Both Active Forms of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Green, Kim Y.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro−Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro−Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. PMID:15681440

  14. An ELISA method detecting the active form of suPAR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolei; Xu, Mingming; Huang, Hailong; Mazar, Andrew; Iqbal, Zafar; Yuan, Cai; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-11-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) exists in a number of formats in human plasma, including soluble uPAR (suPAR) and uPAR fragments. We developed an ELISA method to detect specifically the active form suPAR, which binds to its natural ligand uPA. The intra CV and inter CV of this ELISA assay is 8.5% and 9.6% respectively, and the assay can recover 99.74% of added recombinant suPAR from 10% plasma. This assay is quite sensitive, capable of detecting down to 15pg/ml of suPAR, and can measure suPAR concentrations in the range of 0.031-8ng/ml with high linear relationship. Plasma samples from pregnant women were also measured for the active form of suPAR with this assay, giving an averaged level of 1.39ng/ml, slightly higher than the level of pooled plasma from healthy donors (0.96ng/ml). This study demonstrates the feasibility to measure the active form of suPAR, which will likely have value in clinical applications. PMID:27591605

  15. 76 FR 53144 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-508 and Form I-508F, Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 2, 2011, at 76 FR 31972..., Exemptions and Immunities. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services..., Privileges, Exemptions and Immunities. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

  16. 76 FR 46781 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 1 and FERC Form 1F); Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ..., and 3Q \\2\\. The FERC Annual/Quarterly Report Forms provide the Commission, as well as others, with an... financial and operating report submitted for electric rate regulation and financial audits. Major is defined as having (1) One million Megawatt hours or more; (2) 100 megawatt hours of annual sales for...

  17. Linear Closed-form Solution and Finite-element Analysis of an Active Tensegrity Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmeť, Stanislav; Platko, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Results of the linear closed form solution of an active or adaptive tensegrity unit, as well as its numerical analysis using finite element method are presented in the paper. The shape of the unit is an octahedral cell with a square base and it is formed by thirteen members (four bottom and four top cables, four edge struts and one central strut). The central strut is designed as an actuator that allows for an adjustment of the shape of the unit which leads to changes of tensile forces in the cables. Due to the diagonal symmetry of the 3D tensegrity unit the closed-form analysis is based on the 2D solution of the equivalent planar biconvex cable system with one central strut under a vertical point load.

  18. Cyclotron production of ``very high specific activity'' platinum radiotracers in No Carrier Added form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birattari, C.; Bonardi, M.; Groppi, F.; Gini, L.; Gallorini, M.; Sabbioni, E.; Stroosnijder, M. F.

    2001-12-01

    At the "Radiochemistry Laboratory" of Accelerators and Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, LASA, several production and quality assurance methods for short-lived and high specific activity radionuclides, have been developed. Presently, the irradiations are carried out at the Scanditronix MC40 cyclotron (K=38; p, d, He-4 and He-3) of JRC-Ispra, Italy, of the European Community, while both chemical purity and specific activity determination are carried out at the TRIGA MARK II research reactor of University of Pavia and at LASA itself. In order to optimize the irradiation conditions for platinum radiotracer production, both thin- and thick-target excitation function of natOs(α,xn) nuclear reactions were measured. A very selective radiochemical separation to obtain Pt radiotracers in No Carrier Added form, has been developed. Both real specific activity and chemical purity of radiotracer, have been determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. An Isotopic Dilution Factor (IDF) of the order of 50 is achieved.

  19. Role of drop distortion in enhancing the lightning activity in clouds formed over cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalwankar, Rohini; Kamra, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric pollutants can modify the electrification and lightning activity in thunderclouds. Laboratory simulation experiments show that distortion of water drops is more when drops are formed from water polluted with Sulfate/Nitrate salts than that from distilled water and the difference in distortions is more in a higher electric field. Further, the polluted water drops falling in a horizontal electric field can trigger a discharge on their surface and the discharge can propagate as a streamer in lower electric fields as compared to that from distilled water drops. The difference in electrical conductivities of polluted and unpolluted water drops is most likely the key factor for manifestation of these differences. It is proposed that the enhanced distortion of polluted drops coupled with the change in their characteristics to trigger and propagate a discharge in lower electric fields may significantly contribute to the enhancement of lightning activity observed in clouds formed over big cities.

  20. A CO LINE AND INFRARED CONTINUUM STUDY OF THE ACTIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX W51

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Miju; Lee, Youngung; Choi, Minho; Bieging, John H.; Kulesa, Craig A.; Peters, William L.

    2010-09-15

    We present the results of an extensive observational study of the active star-forming complex W51 that was observed in the J = 2 - 1 transition of the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO molecules over a 1.{sup 0}25 x 1.{sup 0}00 region with the University of Arizona Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. We use a statistical equilibrium code to estimate physical properties of the molecular gas. We compare the molecular cloud morphology with the distribution of infrared (IR) and radio continuum sources and find associations between molecular clouds and young stellar objects (YSOs) listed in Spitzer IR catalogs. The ratios of CO lines associated with H II regions are different from the ratios outside the active star-forming regions. We present evidence of star formation triggered by the expansion of the H II regions and by cloud-cloud collisions. We estimate that about 1% of the cloud mass is currently in YSOs.

  1. A CO Line and Infrared Continuum Study of the Active Star-forming Complex W51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Miju; Bieging, John H.; Kulesa, Craig A.; Lee, Youngung; Choi, Minho; Peters, William L.

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of an extensive observational study of the active star-forming complex W51 that was observed in the J = 2 - 1 transition of the 12CO and 13CO molecules over a 1fdg25 × 1fdg00 region with the University of Arizona Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. We use a statistical equilibrium code to estimate physical properties of the molecular gas. We compare the molecular cloud morphology with the distribution of infrared (IR) and radio continuum sources and find associations between molecular clouds and young stellar objects (YSOs) listed in Spitzer IR catalogs. The ratios of CO lines associated with H II regions are different from the ratios outside the active star-forming regions. We present evidence of star formation triggered by the expansion of the H II regions and by cloud-cloud collisions. We estimate that about 1% of the cloud mass is currently in YSOs.

  2. Forming a negative impression of another person correlates with activation in medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    Neural correlates involved in the formation of negative impression from face were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and a partial conditioning paradigm. Eighteen normal volunteers underwent imaging while they viewed the faces of two unfamiliar individuals: one individual's face was partially accompanied by negative emotion but the other's was not. After the volunteers learned the relationship between the faces and the emotion, they formed a more negative impression of the person's face when the emotion was presented. Subtraction analysis of the individuals' neutral faces revealed activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal sulcus, but this activity did not correlate with the change of impression from face. On the other hand, the response in the left amygdala negatively correlated with the change of impression from face in the first run. Time modulation analysis revealed that activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex associated with negative emotion was the largest in the initial part of the acquisition. These results suggest that a negative impression from face may be formed by orchestrated activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, and that the activity has a prominent role in the initial acquisition of negative emotion. PMID:20693390

  3. Forming a negative impression of another person correlates with activation in medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    Neural correlates involved in the formation of negative impression from face were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and a partial conditioning paradigm. Eighteen normal volunteers underwent imaging while they viewed the faces of two unfamiliar individuals: one individual's face was partially accompanied by negative emotion but the other's was not. After the volunteers learned the relationship between the faces and the emotion, they formed a more negative impression of the person's face when the emotion was presented. Subtraction analysis of the individuals' neutral faces revealed activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal sulcus, but this activity did not correlate with the change of impression from face. On the other hand, the response in the left amygdala negatively correlated with the change of impression from face in the first run. Time modulation analysis revealed that activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex associated with negative emotion was the largest in the initial part of the acquisition. These results suggest that a negative impression from face may be formed by orchestrated activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, and that the activity has a prominent role in the initial acquisition of negative emotion.

  4. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Film-Forming Hydrosols Hydrolyzed by Cellulase.

    PubMed

    Zimoch-Korzycka, Anna; Bobak, Łukasz; Jarmoluk, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cellulase (C) on the biological activity of chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (CH/HPMC) film-forming hydrosols. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase in two concentrations (0.05% and 0.1%) was verified by determination of the progress of polysaccharide hydrolysis, based on viscosity measurement and reducing sugar-ends assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging effect, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and microbial reduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus were studied. During the first 3 h of reaction, relative reducing sugar concentration increased progressively, and viscosity decreased rapidly. With increasing amount of enzyme from 0.05% to 0.1%, the reducing sugar concentration increased, and the viscosity decreased significantly. The scavenging effect of film-forming solutions was improved from 7.6% at time 0 and without enzyme to 52.1% for 0.1% cellulase after 20 h of reaction. A significant effect of cellulase addition and reaction time on antioxidant power of the tested film-forming solutions was also reported. Film-forming hydrosols with cellulase exhibited a bacteriostatic effect on all tested bacteria, causing a total reduction.

  5. Channel-forming activities of peroxisomal membrane proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Grunau, Silke; Mindthoff, Sabrina; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Sormunen, Raija T; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Erdmann, Ralf; Antonenkov, Vasily D

    2009-03-01

    Highly-purified peroxisomes from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on oleic acid were investigated for the presence of channel (pore)-forming proteins in the membrane of these organelles. Solubilized membrane proteins were reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers and their pore-forming activity was studied by means of multiple-channel monitoring or single-channel analysis. Two abundant pore-forming activities were detected with an average conductance of 0.2 and 0.6 nS in 1.0 m KCl, respectively. The high-conductance pore (0.6 nS in 1.0 m KCl) is slightly selective to cations (P(K+)/P(Cl-) approximately 1.3) and showed an unusual flickering at elevated (> +/-40 mV) holding potentials directed upward relative to the open state of the channel. The data obtained for the properties of the low-conductance pore (0.2 nS in 1.0 m KCl) support the notion that the high-conductance channel represents a cluster of two low-conductance pores. The results lead to conclusion that the yeast peroxisomes contain membrane pore-forming proteins that may aid the transfer of small solutes between the peroxisomal lumen and cytoplasm.

  6. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Film-Forming Hydrosols Hydrolyzed by Cellulase

    PubMed Central

    Zimoch-Korzycka, Anna; Bobak, Łukasz; Jarmoluk, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cellulase (C) on the biological activity of chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (CH/HPMC) film-forming hydrosols. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase in two concentrations (0.05% and 0.1%) was verified by determination of the progress of polysaccharide hydrolysis, based on viscosity measurement and reducing sugar-ends assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging effect, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and microbial reduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus were studied. During the first 3 h of reaction, relative reducing sugar concentration increased progressively, and viscosity decreased rapidly. With increasing amount of enzyme from 0.05% to 0.1%, the reducing sugar concentration increased, and the viscosity decreased significantly. The scavenging effect of film-forming solutions was improved from 7.6% at time 0 and without enzyme to 52.1% for 0.1% cellulase after 20 h of reaction. A significant effect of cellulase addition and reaction time on antioxidant power of the tested film-forming solutions was also reported. Film-forming hydrosols with cellulase exhibited a bacteriostatic effect on all tested bacteria, causing a total reduction. PMID:27608008

  7. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Film-Forming Hydrosols Hydrolyzed by Cellulase.

    PubMed

    Zimoch-Korzycka, Anna; Bobak, Łukasz; Jarmoluk, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cellulase (C) on the biological activity of chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (CH/HPMC) film-forming hydrosols. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase in two concentrations (0.05% and 0.1%) was verified by determination of the progress of polysaccharide hydrolysis, based on viscosity measurement and reducing sugar-ends assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging effect, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and microbial reduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus were studied. During the first 3 h of reaction, relative reducing sugar concentration increased progressively, and viscosity decreased rapidly. With increasing amount of enzyme from 0.05% to 0.1%, the reducing sugar concentration increased, and the viscosity decreased significantly. The scavenging effect of film-forming solutions was improved from 7.6% at time 0 and without enzyme to 52.1% for 0.1% cellulase after 20 h of reaction. A significant effect of cellulase addition and reaction time on antioxidant power of the tested film-forming solutions was also reported. Film-forming hydrosols with cellulase exhibited a bacteriostatic effect on all tested bacteria, causing a total reduction. PMID:27608008

  8. Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The psychometric profiles of the widely used International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) in Chinese youth have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPAQ-SF using a sample of Chinese youth. Method: One thousand and twenty-one youth (M[subscript age] = 14.26 ±…

  9. Unique SMAD1/5/8 activity at the phalanx-forming region determines digit identity

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takayuki; Hasso, Sean M.; Fallon, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The zone of polarizing activity is the primary signaling center controlling anterior–posterior patterning of the amniote limb bud. The autopodial interdigits (IDs) are secondary signaling centers proposed to determine digit identity by acting on the cells of the digital ray. Here, we focus on events accompanying digital fate determination and define a region of the digital ray that expresses Sox9 and Bmpr1b and is phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8 (p-SMAD1/5/8) positive. We name this region the phalanx-forming region (PFR), and show that the PFR cells arise from the distal subridge mesenchyme of digital ray. This phalanx-forming cell lineage is subsequently committed to the cartilage lineage; the fate of these cells is initially labile but becomes fixed as they are incorporated into the condensed cartilage of the digit primordium. Using an in vivo reporter assay, we establish that each digital PFR has a unique p-SMAD1/5/8 activity signature. In addition, we show that changes in this activity correlate with the identity of the digit that forms after experimental manipulation, supporting the idea that threshold signaling levels can lead to different developmental outcomes in a morphogenetic field. Our data define the molecular profile of the PFR, and we propose a model for understanding formation and variation of digits during autopodial development. PMID:18334652

  10. Nurse eggs form through an active process of apoptosis in the spionid Polydora cornuta (Annelida).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Glenys; Hart, Corban; Coulter, Claire; Xu, Haixin

    2012-07-01

    The production of nurse eggs is fundamental to poecilogony in some species of spionid annelids. In species such as Polydora cornuta, nurse-egg production varies among females and ingestion of nurse eggs varies among young, resulting in a form of poecilogony with divergent phenotypes for females (e.g., fecundity and per-offspring investment) as well as for larvae (e.g., trophic mode, size, and stage at hatching). We tested the hypothesis that nurse eggs of P. cornuta form through an active developmental process and specifically, through apoptosis. Results of a TUNEL assay indicate nuclear fragmentation occurs in a process that is characteristic of apoptosis. Cellular indicators of apoptosis in nurse eggs include activation of caspase-3, a positive Annexin V reaction indicating exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outer cell membrane, and invagination of the membrane to form yolk vesicles. These results indicate that formation of nurse eggs in this population of P. cornuta occurs through an active, adaptive process. Furthermore, while apoptosis also occurs in some cells of P. cornuta embryos, it was not detected until later in development. This suggests that nurse eggs originate through heterochrony in a developmental process (apoptosis) that is common to all young of P. cornuta.

  11. Mechanistic insights into the first Lygus-active β-pore forming protein.

    PubMed

    Jerga, Agoston; Chen, Danqi; Zhang, Chunfen; Fu, Jinping; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K; Wang, Yanfei; Duff, Stephen M G; Howard, Jennifer E; Rydel, Timothy J; Evdokimov, Artem G; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Evans, Adam; Bolognesi, Renata; Park, Yoonseong; Haas, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-15

    The cotton pests Lygus hesperus and Lygus lineolaris can be controlled by expressing Cry51Aa2.834_16 in cotton. Insecticidal activity of pore-forming proteins is generally associated with damage to the midgut epithelium due to pores, and their biological specificity results from a set of key determinants including proteolytic activation and receptor binding. We conducted mechanistic studies to gain insight into how the first Lygus-active β-pore forming protein variant functions. Biophysical characterization revealed that the full-length Cry51Aa2.834_16 was a stable dimer in solution, and when exposed to Lygus saliva or to trypsin, the protein underwent proteolytic cleavage at the C-terminus of each of the subunits, resulting in dissociation of the dimer to two separate monomers. The monomer showed tight binding to a specific protein in Lygus brush border membranes, and also formed a membrane-associated oligomeric complex both in vitro and in vivo. Chemically cross-linking the β-hairpin to the Cry51Aa2.834_16 body rendered the protein inactive, but still competent to compete for binding sites with the native protein in vivo. Our study suggests that disassociation of the Cry51Aa2.834_16 dimer into monomeric units with unoccupied head-region and sterically unhindered β-hairpin is required for brush border membrane binding, oligomerization, and the subsequent steps leading to insect mortality. PMID:27001423

  12. The Prodomain-bound Form of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 10 Is Biologically Active on Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, He; Salmon, Richard M.; Upton, Paul D.; Wei, Zhenquan; Lawera, Aleksandra; Davenport, Anthony P.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BMP10 is highly expressed in the developing heart and plays essential roles in cardiogenesis. BMP10 deletion in mice results in embryonic lethality because of impaired cardiac development. In adults, BMP10 expression is restricted to the right atrium, though ventricular hypertrophy is accompanied by increased BMP10 expression in a rat hypertension model. However, reports of BMP10 activity in the circulation are inconclusive. In particular, it is not known whether in vivo secreted BMP10 is active or whether additional factors are required to achieve its bioactivity. It has been shown that high-affinity binding of the BMP10 prodomain to the mature ligand inhibits BMP10 signaling activity in C2C12 cells, and it was proposed that prodomain-bound BMP10 (pBMP10) complex is latent. In this study, we demonstrated that the BMP10 prodomain did not inhibit BMP10 signaling activity in multiple endothelial cells, and that recombinant human pBMP10 complex, expressed in mammalian cells and purified under native conditions, was fully active. In addition, both BMP10 in human plasma and BMP10 secreted from the mouse right atrium were fully active. Finally, we confirmed that active BMP10 secreted from mouse right atrium was in the prodomain-bound form. Our data suggest that circulating BMP10 in adults is fully active and that the reported vascular quiescence function of BMP10 in vivo is due to the direct activity of pBMP10 and does not require an additional activation step. Moreover, being an active ligand, recombinant pBMP10 may have therapeutic potential as an endothelial-selective BMP ligand, in conditions characterized by loss of BMP9/10 signaling. PMID:26631724

  13. Cell surface activation of the erythropoietin receptor by Friend spleen focus-forming virus gp55.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J P; Hu, H O; Niu, Q T; Fang, C

    1995-01-01

    The leukemogenic membrane glycoprotein gp55, encoded by Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), induces erythroid cell proliferation through its interaction with the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R). There are two forms of gp55 in SFFV-infected cells: an intracellular form (more than 95% of the total protein), which is localized within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, and a cell surface form (about 3 to 5%). Because both forms of the viral proteins bind to EPO-R, it is not clear whether the viral protein induces mitogenesis intracellularly or at the cell surface. To address this question, we constructed an EPO-R mutant that contained a 6-amino-acid (DEKKMP) C-terminus ER retention signal. Biochemical and functional analyses with this mutant indicated that it was completely retained in the ER and not expressed at the cell surface. Further analysis showed that the mutant, like the wild-type EPO-R, interacted with SFFV gp55. However, this apparent intracellular interaction between the two proteins failed to induce growth factor-independent proliferation of Ba/F3 cells. Furthermore, spontaneous variants of the ER-retained EPO-R selected on the basis of their ability to induce cell proliferation when coexpressed with gp55 were exclusively expressed at the cell surface. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that the mitogenic activation of the EPO-R by gp55 requires the interaction of the two proteins at the cell surface. PMID:7853508

  14. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

  15. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children.

    PubMed

    Kersey, Alyssa J; James, Karin H

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters-in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback.

  16. The effects of two forms of physical activity on eyeblink classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Green, John T; Chess, Amy C; Burns, Montana; Schachinger, Kira M; Thanellou, Alexandra

    2011-05-16

    Voluntary exercise, in the form of free access to a running wheel in the home cage, has been shown to improve several forms of learning and memory. Acrobatic training, in the form of learning to traverse an elevated obstacle course, has been shown to induce markers of neural plasticity in the cerebellar cortex in rodents. In three experiments, we examined the effects of these two forms of physical activity on delay eyeblink conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, exercising rats were given 17 days of free access to a running wheel in their home cage prior to 10 days of delay eyeblink conditioning. Rats that exercised conditioned significantly better and showed a larger reflexive eyeblink unconditioned response to the periocular stimulation unconditioned stimulus than rats that did not exercise. In Experiment 2, exercising rats were given 17 days of free access to a running wheel in their home cage prior to 10 days of explicitly unpaired stimulus presentations. Rats that exercised responded the same to tone, light, and periocular stimulation as rats that did not exercise. In Experiment 3, acrobatic training rats were given 15 days of daily training on an elevated obstacle course prior to 10 days of eyeblink conditioning. Activity control rats underwent 15 days of yoked daily running in an open field. Rats that underwent acrobatic training did not differ in eyeblink conditioning from activity control rats. The ability to measure the learned response precisely, and the well-mapped neural circuitry of eyeblink conditioning offer some advantages for the study of exercise effects on learning and memory.

  17. Neuroserpin Differentiates Between Forms of Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator via pH Dependent Deacylation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Karen-Sue B.; Nguyen, Lan; Schwartz, Kat; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Schwartz, Bradford S.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), initially characterized for its critical role in fibrinolysis, also has key functions in both physiologic and pathologic processes in the CNS. Neuroserpin (NSP) is a t-PA specific serine protease inhibitor (serpin) found almost exclusively in the CNS that regulates t-PA’s proteolytic activity and protects against t-PA mediated seizure propagation and blood–brain barrier disruption. This report demonstrates that NSP inhibition of t-PA varies profoundly as a function of pH within the biologically relevant pH range for the CNS, and reflects the stability, rather than the formation of NSP: t-PA acyl-enzyme complexes. Moreover, NSP differentiates between the zymogen-like single chain form (single chain t-PA, sct-PA) and the mature protease form (two chain t-PA, tct-PA) of t-PA, demonstrating different pH profiles for protease inhibition, different pH ranges over which catalytic deacylation occurs, and different pH dependent profiles of deacylation rates for each form of t-PA. NSP’s pH dependent inhibition of t-PA is not accounted for by differential acylation, and is specific for the NSP-t-PA serpin-protease pair. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the differential regulation of the two forms of t-PA in the CNS, and suggest a potential specific regulatory role for CNS pH in controlling t-PA proteolytic activity. PMID:27378851

  18. Multifunctional porous titanium oxide coating with apatite forming ability and photocatalytic activity on a titanium substrate formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Akatsu, T; Yamada, Y; Hoshikawa, Y; Onoki, T; Shinoda, Y; Wakai, F

    2013-12-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was used to make a multifunctional porous titanium oxide (TiO2) coating on a titanium substrate. The key finding of this study is that a highly crystalline TiO2 coating can be made by performing the PEO in an ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) solution; the PEO coating was formed by alternating between rapid heating by spark discharges and quenching in the solution. The high crystallinity of the TiO2 led to the surface having multiple functions, including apatite forming ability and photocatalytic activity. Hydroxyapatite formed on the PEO coating when it was soaked in simulated body fluid. The good apatite forming ability can be attributed to the high density of hydroxyl groups on the anatase and rutile phases in the coating. The degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet radiation indicated that the coating had high photocatalytic activity. PMID:24094199

  19. Multifunctional porous titanium oxide coating with apatite forming ability and photocatalytic activity on a titanium substrate formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Akatsu, T; Yamada, Y; Hoshikawa, Y; Onoki, T; Shinoda, Y; Wakai, F

    2013-12-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was used to make a multifunctional porous titanium oxide (TiO2) coating on a titanium substrate. The key finding of this study is that a highly crystalline TiO2 coating can be made by performing the PEO in an ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) solution; the PEO coating was formed by alternating between rapid heating by spark discharges and quenching in the solution. The high crystallinity of the TiO2 led to the surface having multiple functions, including apatite forming ability and photocatalytic activity. Hydroxyapatite formed on the PEO coating when it was soaked in simulated body fluid. The good apatite forming ability can be attributed to the high density of hydroxyl groups on the anatase and rutile phases in the coating. The degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet radiation indicated that the coating had high photocatalytic activity.

  20. Special Form Testing of Sealed Source Encapsulation for High-Alpha-Activity Actinide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Oscar A

    2016-01-01

    In the United States all transportation of radioactive material is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Beginning in 2008 a new type of sealed-source encapsulation package was developed and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These packages contain high-alpha-activity actinides and are regulated and transported in accordance with the requirements for DOT Class 7 hazardous material. The DOT provides specific regulations pertaining to special form encapsulation designs. The special form designation indicates that the encapsulated radioactive contents have a very low probability of dispersion even when subjected to significant structural events. The special form designs have been shown to simplify the delivery, transport, acceptance, and receipt processes. It is intended for these sealed-source encapsulations to be shipped to various facilities making it very advantageous for them to be certified as special form. To this end, DOT Certificates of Competent Authority (CoCAs) have been sought for the design suitable for containing high-alpha-activity actinide materials. This design consists of the high-alpha-activity material encapsulated within a triangular zirconia canister, referred to as a ZipCan, tile that is then enclosed by a spherical shell. The spherical shell design, with ZipCan tile inside, was tested for compliance with the special form regulations found in 49 CFR 173.469. The spherical enclosure was subjected to 9-m impact, 1 m percussion, and 10-minute thermal tests at the Packaging Evaluation Facility located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN USA and operated by ORNL. Before and after each test, the test units were subjected to a helium leak check and a bubble test. The ZipCan tiles and core were also subjected to the tests required for ISO 2919:2012(E), including a Class IV impact test and heat test and subsequently subjected to helium leakage rate tests [49 CFR 173.469(a)(4)(i)]. The impact

  1. Staphylococcus aureus forms spreading dendrites that have characteristics of active motility.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, Eric J G; Crusz, Shanika A; Diggle, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is historically regarded as a non-motile organism. More recently it has been shown that S. aureus can passively move across agar surfaces in a process called spreading. We re-analysed spreading motility using a modified assay and focused on observing the formation of dendrites: branching structures that emerge from the central colony. We discovered that S. aureus can spread across the surface of media in structures that we term 'comets', which advance outwards and precede the formation of dendrites. We observed comets in a diverse selection of S. aureus isolates and they exhibit the following behaviours: (1) They consist of phenotypically distinct cores of cells that move forward and seed other S. aureus cells behind them forming a comet 'tail'; (2) they move when other cells in the comet tail have stopped moving; (3) the comet core is held together by a matrix of slime; and (4) the comets etch trails in the agar as they move forwards. Comets are not consistent with spreading motility or other forms of passive motility. Comet behaviour does share many similarities with a form of active motility known as gliding. Our observations therefore suggest that S. aureus is actively motile under certain conditions. PMID:26680153

  2. Staphylococcus aureus forms spreading dendrites that have characteristics of active motility

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Eric J. G.; Crusz, Shanika A.; Diggle, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is historically regarded as a non-motile organism. More recently it has been shown that S. aureus can passively move across agar surfaces in a process called spreading. We re-analysed spreading motility using a modified assay and focused on observing the formation of dendrites: branching structures that emerge from the central colony. We discovered that S. aureus can spread across the surface of media in structures that we term ‘comets’, which advance outwards and precede the formation of dendrites. We observed comets in a diverse selection of S. aureus isolates and they exhibit the following behaviours: (1) They consist of phenotypically distinct cores of cells that move forward and seed other S. aureus cells behind them forming a comet ‘tail’; (2) they move when other cells in the comet tail have stopped moving; (3) the comet core is held together by a matrix of slime; and (4) the comets etch trails in the agar as they move forwards. Comets are not consistent with spreading motility or other forms of passive motility. Comet behaviour does share many similarities with a form of active motility known as gliding. Our observations therefore suggest that S. aureus is actively motile under certain conditions. PMID:26680153

  3. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension) than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted.

  4. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension) than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted. PMID:27656243

  5. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity.

    PubMed

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Sorensen, Poul H; Wang, Yuzhuo; Cheng, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension) than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted. PMID:27656243

  6. In vitro activity of N-benzenesulfonylbenzotriazole on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and trypomastigote forms.

    PubMed

    Becerra, M C; Guiñazú, N; Hergert, L Y; Pellegrini, A; Mazzieri, M R; Gea, S; Albesa, I

    2012-05-01

    Chagas disease is still an important health problem in Central and South America. However, the only drugs currently available for specific treatment of this disease may induce toxic side effects in the host. The aim of this work was to determine the activity of N-benzenesulfonylbenzotriazole (BSBZT) against the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The effects of BSBZT and benzotriazole (BZT) were compared to those of benznidazole (BZL) on epimastigote and trypomastigote forms. BSBZT was found to have an in vitro growth inhibitory dose-dependent activity against epimastigotes, with flow cytometry analysis confirming that the treated parasites presented size reduction. BSBZT showed an IC(50) of 21.56 μg/mL (81.07 μM) against epimastigotes at 72 h of incubation, whereas BZT did not affect the growth of this parasite form. Furthermore, the toxic effect of BSBZT, was stronger and appeared earlier (at 24h) in trypomastigotes than in epimastigotes, with the LC(50) of this compound being 28.40 μg/mL (106.79 μM) against trypomastigotes. The concentrations of BSBZT used in this study presented low hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity. Consequently, at concentrations near IC(50) and LC(50) (25μg/mL), BSBZT caused only 2.4% hemolysis and 15% of RAW 264.7 cell cytotoxicity. These results reveal the potential of BSBZT as a prototype in drug design for developing new anti-T. cruzi compounds.

  7. Hypo-activity screening in school setting; examining reliability and validity of the Teacher Estimation of Activity Form (TEAF).

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Sara; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that physical activity during childhood contributes to children's physical and psychological health. The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Hebrew version of the Teacher Estimation of Activity Form (TEAF) questionnaire as a screening tool among school-aged children in Israel. Six physical education teachers completed TEAF questionnaires of 123 children aged 5-12 years, 68 children (55%) with Typical Development (TD) and 55 children (45%) diagnosed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The Hebrew version of the TEAF indicates a very high level of internal consistency (α = .97). There were no significant gender differences. Significant differences were found between children with and without DCD attesting to the test's construct validity. Concurrent validity was established by finding a significant high correlation (r = .76, p < .01) between the TEAF and the Movement-ABC mean scores within the DCD group. The TEAF demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity estimates. It appears to be a promising standardized practical tool in both research and practice for describing information about school-aged children's involvement in physical activity. Further research is indicated with larger samples to establish cut-off scores determining what point identifies hypo activity in striated age groups. Furthermore, the majority of the participants in this study were boys, and further research is needed to include more girls for a better understanding of the phenomena of hypo activity.

  8. Glutathione peroxidase activity and chemical forms of selenium in tissues of rats given selenite or selenomethionine

    SciTech Connect

    Beilstein, M.A.; Whanger, P.D.

    1988-05-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and deposition of selenium (Se) were examined in tissues of rats given dietary Se for 7 wk as either selenite or selenomethionine (SeMet) with 75Se radiotracer of the same chemical form. On the basis of Se:75Se ratio, all tissues of the rats fed selenite were equilibrated with the dietary source, but tissues of the SeMet fed animals maintained a ratio of Se:75Se greater than the dietary ratio. Deposition of dietary Se and 75Se was higher in most tissues of rats fed SeMet. Muscle 75Se was the largest single tissue pool of 75Se in both groups accounting for one-third of recovered 75Se in the rats fed selenite, and one-half of recovered 75Se in the rats fed SeMet. Tissue GPx activities were not different between the two dietary groups. The proportion of Se as GPx in tissues was highest in erythrocytes of the rats fed selenite (.81) and lowest in testes and epididymides of the rats fed SeMet (.009). The proportion of Se present in cytosolic GPx was consistently higher in tissues of rats fed selenite. Erythrocytes of the rats fed SeMet had more 75Se associated with hemoglobin, and muscle cytosols of the rats fed selenite had more 75Se associated with the G-protein. The proportion of 75Se as SeMet determined by ion exchange chromatography of tissue hydrolysates was higher in tissues of rats fed SeMet (highest in muscle and hemoglobin, 70%, and lowest in testes, 16%). In contrast, selenocysteine was the predominant form of Se present in tissues of rats given selenite. These results indicate that the form of Se administered will influence the form in the tissues, the percentage of Se with GPx and the body burden of Se.

  9. Isolation of a biologically active soluble form of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Sendai virus.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, S D; Laver, W G; Murti, K G; Portner, A

    1988-01-01

    As a first step in establishing the three-dimensional structure of the Sendai virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), we have isolated and characterized a potentially crystallizable form of the molecule. The sequence of HN, a surface glycoprotein, predicts a protein with an uncharged hydrophobic region near the amino terminus which is responsible for anchorage in the viral envelope. To avoid rosette formation (aggregation), which would preclude crystallization, this hydrophobic tail was removed from a membrane-free form of HN by proteolytic digestion. This digestion resulted in a single product with a molecular weight of about 10,000 less than native HN. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of cleaved HN (C-HN) indicated a single cleavage site at amino acid residue 131, resulting in a product consisting of the carboxyl-terminal 444 amino acids of HN. Functional analyses revealed that C-HN retained full neuraminidase activity and was able to bind erythrocytes, indicating that the N-terminal 131 residues were not necessary for these biological activities. Furthermore, this cleavage product retained the antigenic structure of intact HN, since monoclonal antibodies still bound to C-HN in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western (immuno-) blot analysis. Viewed by electron microscopy, the dimeric and tetrameric forms of intact HN form rosettes while C-HN maintains the oligomeric structure but no longer aggregates. Furthermore, the electron micrographs revealed a C-HN tetramer strikingly similar to the influenza virus neuraminidase in both size and gross structural features. Images PMID:2846877

  10. [Study of the Sporothrix schenkii (yeast forms) extract. Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analyses: characterization of enzymatic activities].

    PubMed

    Walbaum, S; Duriez, T; Dujardin, L; Biguet, J

    1978-07-28

    An extract from living yeast forms of S. schenckii was prepared. The yeasts originated from a shake culture in B.H.I. broth (Difco) incubated for 3 days at 35 degrees C in darkness; they were harvested, washed and disrupted with glass beads in a model MSK Braun mechanical cell homogenizer; a freezing-thawing was added to improve the extract. After electrophoretic separation in agarose gel, the extract's components were characterized by their enzymic activity; with this technique, 30 bands were revealed. These enzymic activities were also investigated on the antigenic fractions of the extract revealed by a rabbit hyperimmunserum: 16 among 22 immunoprecipitates are identified by their catalytic properties. Study of the earliest precipitating antibodies (appearing-order and enzymic caracterization) in rabbits just immunized completes this work. How to ameliorate the quality of the extract by culture and extraction conditions is also specified. PMID:692628

  11. The TCP1γ subunit of Leishmania donovani forms a biologically active homo-oligomeric complex.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar; Mitra, Kalyan; Kuldeep, Jitendra; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Goyal, Neena

    2015-12-01

    Chaperonins are a class of molecular chaperons that encapsulate nascent or stress-denatured proteins and assist their intracellular assembly and folding in an ATP-dependent manner. The ubiquitous eukaryotic chaperonin, TCP1 ring complex is a hetero-oligomeric complex comprising two rings, each formed of eight subunits that may have distinct substrate recognition and ATP hydrolysis properties. In Leishmania, only the TCP1γ subunit has been cloned and characterized. It exhibited differential expression at various growth stages of promastigotes. In the present study, we expressed the TCP1γ subunit in Escherichia coli to investigate whether it forms chaperonin-like complexes and plays a role in protein folding. LdTCP1γ formed high-molecular-weight complexes within E. coli cells as well as in Leishmania cell lysates. The recombinant protein is arranged into two back-to-back rings of seven subunits each, as predicted by homology modelling and observed by negative staining electron microscopy. This morphology is consistent with that of the oligomeric double-ring group I chaperonins found in mitochondria. The LdTCP1γ homo-oligomeric complex hydrolysed ATP, and was active as assayed by luciferase refolding. Thus, the homo-oligomer performs chaperonin reactions without partner subunit(s). Further, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that LdTCP1γ interacts with actin and tubulin proteins, suggesting that the complex may have a role in maintaining the structural dynamics of the cytoskeleton of parasites. PMID:26395202

  12. Pore-forming activity and structural autoinhibition of the gasdermin family.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingjin; Wang, Kun; Liu, Wang; She, Yang; Sun, Qi; Shi, Jianjin; Sun, Hanzi; Wang, Da-Cheng; Shao, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory caspases cleave the gasdermin D (GSDMD) protein to trigger pyroptosis, a lytic form of cell death that is crucial for immune defences and diseases. GSDMD contains a functionally important gasdermin-N domain that is shared in the gasdermin family. The functional mechanism of action of gasdermin proteins is unknown. Here we show that the gasdermin-N domains of the gasdermin proteins GSDMD, GSDMA3 and GSDMA can bind membrane lipids, phosphoinositides and cardiolipin, and exhibit membrane-disrupting cytotoxicity in mammalian cells and artificially transformed bacteria. Gasdermin-N moved to the plasma membrane during pyroptosis. Purified gasdermin-N efficiently lysed phosphoinositide/cardiolipin-containing liposomes and formed pores on membranes made of artificial or natural phospholipid mixtures. Most gasdermin pores had an inner diameter of 10–14 nm and contained 16 symmetric protomers. The crystal structure of GSDMA3 showed an autoinhibited two-domain architecture that is conserved in the gasdermin family. Structure-guided mutagenesis demonstrated that the liposome-leakage and pore-forming activities of the gasdermin-N domain are required for pyroptosis. These findings reveal the mechanism for pyroptosis and provide insights into the roles of the gasdermin family in necrosis, immunity and diseases. PMID:27281216

  13. Theoretical study of the phototoxicity of naproxen and the active form of nabumetone.

    PubMed

    Musa, Klefah A K; Eriksson, Leif A

    2008-10-30

    Density functional theory using the hybrid functional B3LYP has been employed in order to study the mechanisms of photoinduced decomposition of the closely related nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs naproxen (NP) and 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (MNAA; the active form of nabumetone). The photochemical properties and computed energies of various species obtained in this study show that both drugs dominate in their deprotonated forms at physiological pH. The deprotonated acids are unable to decarboxylate from their excited singlets; instead, they decarboxylate from their first excited triplet states with high efficiency, overcoming energy barriers less than 3 and 1 kcal/mol for MNAA and NP, respectively. The ultraviolet and visible spectra of the neutral, deprotonated, and decarboxylated moieties of MNAA and NP are more-or-less similar but with higher probabilites (oscillator strength) for the latter. This fact, as well as the higher reactivity of NP, is explained in terms of the electron-donating effect of the additional methyl group present in NP. Singlet oxygen, superoxide radical anion, and corresponding peroxyl radical species are expected to be formed in different steps throughout the proposed photodegradation pathways of both drugs, which give rise to their effects on biomolecules, for example, lipid peroxidation.

  14. Role of activation in alveolar macrophage-mediated suppression of the plaque-forming cell response.

    PubMed Central

    Mbawuike, I N; Herscowitz, H B

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are highly suppressive of the in vitro plaque-forming cell (PFC) response of spleen cells obtained from mice primed with sheep erythrocytes. Comparison of macrophage populations obtained from disparate anatomical sites revealed that although in both cases there was a cell-concentration-dependent suppression of the PFC response, resident AM or AM activated as a result of intravenous injection of Mycobacterium bovis BCG were equally suppressive at the doses examined. Although there was a similar dose-dependent suppression with peritoneal macrophages, BCG-activated cells were more suppressive of the PFC response than were resident cells. In contrast, splenic macrophages at comparable concentrations were not at all suppressive. Resident AM exhibited significantly lower levels of 5'-nucleotidase activity than did resident peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage-mediated suppression of the in vitro PFC response could not be attributed to the release of toxic oxygen metabolites (H2O2, O2- ,and .OH) or prostaglandins, since the addition of catalase, superoxide dismutase, 2-mercaptoethanol, or indomethacin did not completely reverse suppression. These results suggest that the lung microenvironment may maintain AM in an activated state which contributes to their potential immunoregulatory functions. PMID:2830191

  15. The active form of cytochrome c oxidase: effects of detergent, the intact membrane, and radiation inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.A.; Suarez-Villafane, M.; Ferguson-Miller, S.

    1982-01-01

    Cytochrome oxidase is a multisubunit, intrinsic membrane protein with a complex function that includes oxidation of cytochrome c, reduction of oxygen and generation of a membrane potential. To clarify the relationship of its normal function to protein and membrane structure, we have examined the kinetic behavior of rat liver cytochrome oxidase in the intace inner mitochondrial membrane and in detergent solubilized states. Dissolution of rat liver mitochondrial membranes alters the kinetic parameters of the oxidase in a manner dependent in part on the dispersing agent, and characterized by a large increase in maximal activity which is not attributable to exposure of more oxidase or diminished affinity for cytochrome c. The most profound effect of solubilization of the membrane is seen on the low affinity reaction of cytochrome c, suggesting that the electron transfer pathway from this site to oxygen is sensitive to alterations in hydrophobic interactions within the oxidase. Purified rat liver and beef heart oxidase exists predominantly in a monodisperse, 300 kilodalton form in laurylmaltoside (Rosevear et al., 1980). However, a smaller, 130 kd species that exhibits high turnover rates equal to the 300 kd form is detected in some beef heart preparations, implying that the dimer may not be essential for high activity. Radiation inactivation studies on purified oxidase reveal a molecular weight for the functional unit of approx.70 kd. It is concluded that less than a complete set of subunits may be sufficient for both normal bindings of cytochrome c and rapid electron transfer to oxygen.

  16. Active form of cytochrome c oxidase: effects of detergent, the intact membrane, and radiation inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.A.; Suarez-Villafane, M.; Ferguson-Miller, S.

    1982-01-01

    Cytochrome oxidase is a multisubunit, intrinsic membrane protein with a complex function that includes oxidation of cytochrome c, reduction of oxygen and generation of a membrane potential. To clarify the relationship of its normal function to protein and membrane structure, we have examined the kinetic behavior of rat liver cytochrome oxidase in the intact inner mitochondrial membrane and in detergent solubilized states. Dissolution of rat liver mitochondrial membranes alters the kinetic parameters of the oxidase in a manner dependent in part on the dispersing agent, and characterized by a large increase in maximal activity which is not attributable to exposure of more oxidase or diminished affinity for cytochrome c. The most profound effect of solubilization of the membrane is seen on the low affinity reaction of cytochrome c, suggesting that the electron transfer pathway from this site to oxygen is sensitive to alterations in hydrophobic interactions within the oxidase. Purified rat liver and beef heart oxidase exists predominantly in a monodisperse, 300 kilodalton form in laurylmaltoside (Rosevear et al., 1980). However, a smaller, 130 kd species that exhibits high turnover rates equal to the 300 kd form is detected in some beef heart preparations, implying that the dimer may not be essential for high activity. Radiation inactivation studies on purified oxidase reveal a molecular weight for the functional unit of approx.70 kd. It is concluded that less than a complete set of subunits may be sufficient for both normal binding of cytochrome c and rapid electron transfer to oxygen.

  17. Volatile sulphur compounds-forming abilities of lactic acid bacteria: C-S lyase activities.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Irene; Martínez-Bartolomé, Miguel A; Achemchem, Fouad; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Martínez-Cuesta, M Carmen

    2011-08-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are of prime importance in the overall aroma of cheese and make a significant contribution to their typical flavours. Thus, the control of VSCs formation offers considerable potential for industrial applications. Here, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from different ecological origins were screened for their abilities to produce VSCs from L-methionine. From the data presented, VSC-forming abilities were shown to be strain-specific and were correlated with the C-S lyase enzymatic activities determined using different approaches. High VSCs formation were detected for those strains that were also shown to possess high thiol-producing abilities (determined either by agar plate or spectrophotometry assays). Moreover, differences in C-S lyase activities were shown to correspond with the enzymatic potential of the strains as determined by in situ gel visualization. Therefore, the assessment of the C-S lyase enzymatic potential, by means of either of these techniques, could be used as a valuable approach for the selection of LAB strains with high VSC-producing abilities thus, representing an effective way to enhance cheese sulphur aroma compounds synthesis. In this regard, this study highlights the flavour forming potential of the Streptococcus thermophilus STY-31, that therefore could be used as a starter culture in cheese manufacture. Furthermore, although C-S lyases are involved in both biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, an association between methionine and cysteine auxotrophy of the selected strains and their VSCs-producing abilities could not be found.

  18. Piezo proteins are pore-forming subunits of mechanically activated channels.

    PubMed

    Coste, Bertrand; Xiao, Bailong; Santos, Jose S; Syeda, Ruhma; Grandl, Jörg; Spencer, Kathryn S; Kim, Sung Eun; Schmidt, Manuela; Mathur, Jayanti; Dubin, Adrienne E; Montal, Mauricio; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2012-02-19

    Mechanotransduction has an important role in physiology. Biological processes including sensing touch and sound waves require as-yet-unidentified cation channels that detect pressure. Mouse Piezo1 (MmPiezo1) and MmPiezo2 (also called Fam38a and Fam38b, respectively) induce mechanically activated cationic currents in cells; however, it is unknown whether Piezo proteins are pore-forming ion channels or modulate ion channels. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster Piezo (DmPiezo, also called CG8486) also induces mechanically activated currents in cells, but through channels with remarkably distinct pore properties including sensitivity to the pore blocker ruthenium red and single channel conductances. MmPiezo1 assembles as a ∼1.2-million-dalton homo-oligomer, with no evidence of other proteins in this complex. Purified MmPiezo1 reconstituted into asymmetric lipid bilayers and liposomes forms ruthenium-red-sensitive ion channels. These data demonstrate that Piezo proteins are an evolutionarily conserved ion channel family involved in mechanotransduction.

  19. Modeling of chlorine effect on floc forming and filamentous micro-organisms of activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Caravelli, Alejandro; Contreras, Edgardo M; Giannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemi

    2003-05-01

    Chlorination is the most economical, non-specific method to control the excessive growth of filamentous micro-organisms causing bulking in activated sludge systems in the treatment of food industrial wastewaters; it was one of the first methods used to control filamentous bulking and is still widely employed. Considering that chlorination affects both floc-forming and filamentous micro-organisms and leaves undesirable disinfection by-products, it is necessary to define the adequate doses to control bulking, minimizing the effect on floc-forming bacteria. In the present work the effect of biomass concentration and type of micro-organism on chlorine decay kinetics was evaluated; the inactivation of either a filamentous (Sphaerotilus natans) or a floc-forming (Acinetobacter anitratus) micro-organism due to chlorination was also analyzed. For chlorine decay assays, the samples were treated in a batch system with sodium hypochlorite ranging between 9.8 and 56.6 mg Cl(2) (gVSS)(-1). Respirometric assays were used to evaluate the effect of chlorine on micro-organisms respiratory activity; in these cases, sodium hypochlorite doses ranged between 2.5 and 18 mgCl(2) (gVSS)(-1).A model that allowed to predict simultaneously chlorine consumption and respiratory activity decay for both micro-organisms as a function of time was proposed. The model includes three coupled differential equations corresponding to respiratory inhibition, readily organic matter oxidation by chlorine and chlorine decay. The rate of chlorine decay depended on both, type and concentration of the micro-organisms in the system. Chlorine consumption rate due to S. natans was 2-4 times faster than A. anitratus. Using the proposed model initial critical chlorine doses (the lowest initial dose that leads to a total inhibition of the respiratory activity) were calculated for both micro-organisms and values of 11.9 mgCl(2) (gVSS)(-1) for S. natans and 4.5 mgCl(2) (gVSS)(-1) for A. anitratus were obtained. These

  20. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  1. Extensive Post-translational Modification of Active and Inactivated Forms of Endogenous p53*

    PubMed Central

    DeHart, Caroline J.; Chahal, Jasdave S.; Flint, S. J.; Perlman, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates to very high concentrations in normal human fibroblasts infected by adenovirus type 5 mutants that cannot direct assembly of the viral E1B 55-kDa protein-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation. Despite high concentrations of nuclear p53, the p53 transcriptional program is not induced in these infected cells. We exploited this system to examine select post-translational modifications (PTMs) present on a transcriptionally inert population of endogenous human p53, as well as on p53 activated in response to etoposide treatment of normal human fibroblasts. These forms of p53 were purified from whole cell lysates by means of immunoaffinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE, and peptides derived from them were subjected to nano-ultra-high-performance LC-MS and MS/MS analyses on a high-resolution accurate-mass MS platform (data available via ProteomeXchange, PXD000464). We identified an unexpectedly large number of PTMs, comprising phosphorylation of Ser and Thr residues, methylation of Arg residues, and acetylation, ubiquitinylation, and methylation of Lys residues—for example, some 150 previously undescribed modifications of p53 isolated from infected cells. These modifications were distributed across all functional domains of both forms of the endogenous human p53 protein, as well as those of an orthologous population of p53 isolated from COS-1 cells. Despite the differences in activity, including greater in vitro sequence-specific DNA binding activity exhibited by p53 isolated from etoposide-treated cells, few differences were observed in the location, nature, or relative frequencies of PTMs on the two populations of human p53. Indeed, the wealth of PTMs that we have identified is consistent with a far greater degree of complex, combinatorial regulation of p53 by PTM than previously anticipated. PMID:24056736

  2. Inflammasome-activated gasdermin D causes pyroptosis by forming membrane pores.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Zhang, Zhibin; Ruan, Jianbin; Pan, Youdong; Magupalli, Venkat Giri; Wu, Hao; Lieberman, Judy

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory caspases (caspases 1, 4, 5 and 11) are activated in response to microbial infection and danger signals. When activated, they cleave mouse and human gasdermin D (GSDMD) after Asp276 and Asp275, respectively, to generate an N-terminal cleavage product (GSDMD-NT) that triggers inflammatory death (pyroptosis) and release of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β. Cleavage removes the C-terminal fragment (GSDMD-CT), which is thought to fold back on GSDMD-NT to inhibit its activation. However, how GSDMD-NT causes cell death is unknown. Here we show that GSDMD-NT oligomerizes in membranes to form pores that are visible by electron microscopy. GSDMD-NT binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and phosphatidylserine (restricted to the cell membrane inner leaflet) and cardiolipin (present in the inner and outer leaflets of bacterial membranes). Mutation of four evolutionarily conserved basic residues blocks GSDMD-NT oligomerization, membrane binding, pore formation and pyroptosis. Because of its lipid-binding preferences, GSDMD-NT kills from within the cell, but does not harm neighbouring mammalian cells when it is released during pyroptosis. GSDMD-NT also kills cell-free bacteria in vitro and may have a direct bactericidal effect within the cytosol of host cells, but the importance of direct bacterial killing in controlling in vivo infection remains to be determined. PMID:27383986

  3. Auditory selective attention to speech modulates activity in the visual word form area.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Yuliya N; Zevin, Jason D; Maurer, Urs; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2010-03-01

    Selective attention to speech versus nonspeech signals in complex auditory input could produce top-down modulation of cortical regions previously linked to perception of spoken, and even visual, words. To isolate such top-down attentional effects, we contrasted 2 equally challenging active listening tasks, performed on the same complex auditory stimuli (words overlaid with a series of 3 tones). Instructions required selectively attending to either the speech signals (in service of rhyme judgment) or the melodic signals (tone-triplet matching). Selective attention to speech, relative to attention to melody, was associated with blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) increases during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in left inferior frontal gyrus, temporal regions, and the visual word form area (VWFA). Further investigation of the activity in visual regions revealed overall deactivation relative to baseline rest for both attention conditions. Topographic analysis demonstrated that while attending to melody drove deactivation equivalently across all fusiform regions of interest examined, attending to speech produced a regionally specific modulation: deactivation of all fusiform regions, except the VWFA. Results indicate that selective attention to speech can topographically tune extrastriate cortex, leading to increased activity in VWFA relative to surrounding regions, in line with the well-established connectivity between areas related to spoken and visual word perception in skilled readers.

  4. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Polish Propolis against Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Kępa, Małgorzata; Idzik, Danuta; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Wąsik, Tomasz J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Polish propolis (EEPP) against biofilm-forming CoNS strains in vitro. Our results revealed that EEPP displayed varying degrees of activity against CoNS with MIC values ranging from 1.56 to 0.78 mg/mL. The average MIC was 1.13 ± 0.39 mg/mL while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.78 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively. The biofilm formation ability by all tested S. epidermidis strains was inhibited at EEPP concentrations ranging from 0.39 to 1.56 mg/mL. The degree of reduction of AlamarBlue was directly associated with the proliferation of S. epidermidis strains. The increased proliferation of S. epidermidis strains was observed after 12 and 24 hours of incubation in the presence of EEPP concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 0.39 mg/mL. These results suggest that antimicrobial activities of EEPP against S. epidermidis expressed as the reduction of bacterial growth, reduction of biofilm formation ability, and the intensity of proliferation were significantly affected by incubation time and EEPP concentration used as well as the interactions between these factors. PMID:23662143

  5. FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM: ACTIVATION OF SHAPE & FUNCTION FEATURES DURING OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function follows form. We used eye movements to explore whether activating one object’s concept leads to the activation of others that share perceptual (shape) or abstract (function) features. Participants viewed four-picture displays and clicked on the picture corresponding to a heard word. In critical trials, the conceptual representation of one of the objects in the display was similar in shape or function (i.e., its purpose) to the heard word. Importantly, this similarity was not apparent in the visual depictions (e.g., for the target “frisbee,” the shape-related object was a triangular slice of pizza – a shape that a frisbee cannot take); preferential fixations on the related object were therefore attributable to overlap of the conceptual representations on the relevant features. We observed relatedness effects for both shape and function, but shape effects occurred earlier than function effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for current accounts of the representation of semantic memory. PMID:21417543

  6. Inflammasome-activated gasdermin D causes pyroptosis by forming membrane pores.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Zhang, Zhibin; Ruan, Jianbin; Pan, Youdong; Magupalli, Venkat Giri; Wu, Hao; Lieberman, Judy

    2016-07-06

    Inflammatory caspases (caspases 1, 4, 5 and 11) are activated in response to microbial infection and danger signals. When activated, they cleave mouse and human gasdermin D (GSDMD) after Asp276 and Asp275, respectively, to generate an N-terminal cleavage product (GSDMD-NT) that triggers inflammatory death (pyroptosis) and release of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β. Cleavage removes the C-terminal fragment (GSDMD-CT), which is thought to fold back on GSDMD-NT to inhibit its activation. However, how GSDMD-NT causes cell death is unknown. Here we show that GSDMD-NT oligomerizes in membranes to form pores that are visible by electron microscopy. GSDMD-NT binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and phosphatidylserine (restricted to the cell membrane inner leaflet) and cardiolipin (present in the inner and outer leaflets of bacterial membranes). Mutation of four evolutionarily conserved basic residues blocks GSDMD-NT oligomerization, membrane binding, pore formation and pyroptosis. Because of its lipid-binding preferences, GSDMD-NT kills from within the cell, but does not harm neighbouring mammalian cells when it is released during pyroptosis. GSDMD-NT also kills cell-free bacteria in vitro and may have a direct bactericidal effect within the cytosol of host cells, but the importance of direct bacterial killing in controlling in vivo infection remains to be determined.

  7. 77 FR 65703 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Family Unity Benefits, Form I-817...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... for Family Unity Benefits, Form I-817, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day...) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Family Unity Benefits. (3) Agency form number, if any,...

  8. ESR dating of barite in sulphide deposits formed by the sea-floor hydrothermal activities.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Shin; Fujiwara, Taisei; Uchida, Ai; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nakai, Shun'ichi; Takamasa, Asako

    2014-06-01

    Barite is a mineral newly found to be practically useful for electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of sulphide deposits formed by the sea-floor hydrothermal activities. The recent studies for the properties of the ESR dating signal in barite are summarised in the present paper as well as the formulas for corrections for accurate dose-rate estimation are developed including the dose-rate conversion factors, shape correction for gamma-ray dose and decay of (226)Ra. Although development of the techniques for ESR dating of barite has been completed, further comparative studies with other dating techniques such as U-Th and (226)Ra-(210)Pb dating are necessary for the technique to be widely used.

  9. Magnetic field enhancement of antibiotic activity in biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Benson, D E; Grissom, C B; Burns, G L; Mohammad, S F

    1994-01-01

    Device related infection initiated by biofilm bacteria are often difficult to resolve with antimicrobial therapy. Study results indicate that application of static magnetic fields may enhance the activity of gentamicin against biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherent to a polymer substrate. Results indicate a maximal reduction of 86.5 +/- 7.2% (n = 6) in the number of adherent viable bacteria compared with a control for samples exposed to a 5 gauss (G) magnetic field and gentamicin. The effect appears to be limited to magnetic fields between 5 and 20 G. Experiments using glass, Chronoflex (Polymedica, Golden, CO), Biomer (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), and polystyrene substrate showed that the effect was independent of substrate surface. Autoradiograms from In111 uptake experiments showed that bacteria colonizing the substrate surface were significantly reduced in samples subjected to a magnetic field and gentamicin. PMID:8555541

  10. Identification of Triclosan-O-Sulfate and other transformation products of Triclosan formed by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xijuan; Casas, Mònica Escolà; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Wimmer, Reinhard; Bester, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic degradation experiments of Triclosan were performed in activated sludge to identify possible transformation products for this compound. During 7 days, the formation of biotransformation products such as 2,4-Dichlorophenol, 4-Chlorocatechol, 5-Hydroxy-Triclosan and other Monohydroxy-Triclosan derivatives as well as Dihydroxy-Triclosan-derivatives were observed. The structure of 5-Hydroxy-Triclosan was elucidated by NMR data for the first time in sludge degradation experiments. Additionally the production of a hitherto unknown transformation product in sludge, i.e., Triclosan-O-Sulfate was detected. During the incubations, the concentrations of this transformation product changed from zero to 330 μg L(-1). Based on the analysis of the biodegradation products, three types of reactions were identified: 1) chemical scission of ether bond to form phenols and catechols, 2) addition of OH moieties to the aromatic ring, and 3) adding of methyl or sulfate groups to the original hydroxyl group.

  11. The Role of Biofilms in the Sedimentology of Actively Forming Gypsum Deposits at Guerrero Negro, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Marilyn B.; Des Marais, David J.; Turk, Kendra A.; Parenteau, Mary N.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Kubo, Michael D. Y.

    2009-11-01

    Actively forming gypsum deposits at the Guerrero Negro sabkha and saltern system provided habitats for stratified, pigmented microbial communities that exhibited significant morphological and phylogenetic diversity. These deposits ranged from meter-thick gypsum crusts forming in saltern seawater concentration ponds to columnar microbial mats with internally crystallized gypsum granules developing in natural anchialine pools. Gypsum-depositing environments were categorized as forming precipitation surfaces, biofilm-supported surfaces, and clastic surfaces. Each surface type was described in terms of depositional environment, microbial diversity, mineralogy, and sedimentary fabrics. Precipitation surfaces developed in high-salinity subaqueous environments where rates of precipitation outpaced the accumulation of clastic, organic, and/or biofilm layers. These surfaces hosted endolithic biofilms comprised predominantly of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes. Biofilm-supported deposits developed in lower-salinity subaqueous environments where light and low water-column turbulence supported dense benthic microbial communities comprised mainly of oxygenic phototrophs. In these settings, gypsum granules precipitated in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix as individual granules exhibiting distinctive morphologies. Clastic surfaces developed in sabkha mudflats that included gypsum, carbonate, and siliclastic particles with thin gypsum/biofilm components. Clastic surfaces were influenced by subsurface brine sheets and capillary evaporation and precipitated subsedimentary gypsum discs in deeper regions. Biofilms appeared to influence both chemical and physical sedimentary processes in the various subaqueous and subaerially exposed environments studied. Biofilm interaction with chemical sedimentary processes included dissolution and granularization of precipitation surfaces, formation of

  12. The role of biofilms in the sedimentology of actively forming gypsum deposits at Guerrero Negro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Marilyn B; Des Marais, David J; Turk, Kendra A; Parenteau, Mary N; Jahnke, Linda L; Kubo, Michael D Y

    2009-11-01

    Actively forming gypsum deposits at the Guerrero Negro sabkha and saltern system provided habitats for stratified, pigmented microbial communities that exhibited significant morphological and phylogenetic diversity. These deposits ranged from meter-thick gypsum crusts forming in saltern seawater concentration ponds to columnar microbial mats with internally crystallized gypsum granules developing in natural anchialine pools. Gypsum-depositing environments were categorized as forming precipitation surfaces, biofilm-supported surfaces, and clastic surfaces. Each surface type was described in terms of depositional environment, microbial diversity, mineralogy, and sedimentary fabrics. Precipitation surfaces developed in high-salinity subaqueous environments where rates of precipitation outpaced the accumulation of clastic, organic, and/or biofilm layers. These surfaces hosted endolithic biofilms comprised predominantly of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes. Biofilm-supported deposits developed in lower-salinity subaqueous environments where light and low water-column turbulence supported dense benthic microbial communities comprised mainly of oxygenic phototrophs. In these settings, gypsum granules precipitated in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix as individual granules exhibiting distinctive morphologies. Clastic surfaces developed in sabkha mudflats that included gypsum, carbonate, and siliclastic particles with thin gypsum/biofilm components. Clastic surfaces were influenced by subsurface brine sheets and capillary evaporation and precipitated subsedimentary gypsum discs in deeper regions. Biofilms appeared to influence both chemical and physical sedimentary processes in the various subaqueous and subaerially exposed environments studied. Biofilm interaction with chemical sedimentary processes included dissolution and granularization of precipitation surfaces, formation of

  13. The role of biofilms in the sedimentology of actively forming gypsum deposits at Guerrero Negro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Marilyn B; Des Marais, David J; Turk, Kendra A; Parenteau, Mary N; Jahnke, Linda L; Kubo, Michael D Y

    2009-11-01

    Actively forming gypsum deposits at the Guerrero Negro sabkha and saltern system provided habitats for stratified, pigmented microbial communities that exhibited significant morphological and phylogenetic diversity. These deposits ranged from meter-thick gypsum crusts forming in saltern seawater concentration ponds to columnar microbial mats with internally crystallized gypsum granules developing in natural anchialine pools. Gypsum-depositing environments were categorized as forming precipitation surfaces, biofilm-supported surfaces, and clastic surfaces. Each surface type was described in terms of depositional environment, microbial diversity, mineralogy, and sedimentary fabrics. Precipitation surfaces developed in high-salinity subaqueous environments where rates of precipitation outpaced the accumulation of clastic, organic, and/or biofilm layers. These surfaces hosted endolithic biofilms comprised predominantly of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes. Biofilm-supported deposits developed in lower-salinity subaqueous environments where light and low water-column turbulence supported dense benthic microbial communities comprised mainly of oxygenic phototrophs. In these settings, gypsum granules precipitated in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix as individual granules exhibiting distinctive morphologies. Clastic surfaces developed in sabkha mudflats that included gypsum, carbonate, and siliclastic particles with thin gypsum/biofilm components. Clastic surfaces were influenced by subsurface brine sheets and capillary evaporation and precipitated subsedimentary gypsum discs in deeper regions. Biofilms appeared to influence both chemical and physical sedimentary processes in the various subaqueous and subaerially exposed environments studied. Biofilm interaction with chemical sedimentary processes included dissolution and granularization of precipitation surfaces, formation of

  14. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp

    PubMed Central

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria. PMID:27570483

  15. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp.

    PubMed

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria. PMID:27570483

  16. Electrically active centers formed in silicon during the high-temperature diffusion of boron and aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A.; Loshachenko, A. S.; Poloskin, D. S.; Shek, E. I.

    2013-02-15

    The parameters of electrically active centers formed during the high-temperature diffusion of boron and aluminum into silicon in various media are studied by the Hall method and capacitance spectroscopy. It is found that the variation in the resistivity of the n base of the structures with p-n junctions fabricated in the study is controlled by the formation of three donor levels Q1, E4, and Q3 with the energies E{sub c} - 0.31, E{sub c} - 0.27, and E{sub c} - 0.16 eV. Diffusion in a chlorine-containing atmosphere introduces only a single level E4, but its concentration is 2.5 times lower, compared with diffusion in air. The values of the ionization energy of the Q3 level, measured under equilibrium (Hall effect) and nonequilibrium (capacitance spectroscopy) conditions, almost coincide. The deepest level E1 with an energy of E{sub c} - 0.54 eV, formed upon diffusion in both media, has no effect on the resistivity in the n base of the structures.

  17. Activation of human natural killer cells by the soluble form of cellular prion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Yeon-Jae; Sung, Pil Soo; Jang, Young-Soon; Choi, Young Joon; Park, Bum-Chan; Park, Su-Hyung; Park, Young Woo; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-08-21

    Cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) is widely expressed in various cell types, including cells of the immune system. However, the specific roles of PrP{sup C} in the immune system have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C} protein on human natural killer (NK) cells. Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} protein was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with the Fc portion of human IgG{sub 1} (PrP{sup C}-Fc). PrP{sup C}-Fc binds to the surface of human NK cells, particularly to CD56{sup dim} NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced the production of cytokines and chemokines and the degranulation of granzyme B from NK cells. In addition, PrP{sup C}-Fc facilitated the IL-15-induced proliferation of NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK in NK cells, and inhibitors of the ERK or the JNK pathways abrogated PrP{sup C}-Fc-induced cytokine production in NK cells. In conclusion, the soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} (PrP{sup C}-Fc) was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with IgG1 Fc portion. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein induces the production of cytokines and degranulation from human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein enhances the IL-15-induced proliferation of human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

  18. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 09 (PERIODS 1-4 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into four time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  19. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 08 (PERIODS 1-5 AND FOOD, FRUIT & VEG): CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is divided into two parts: Child Activity Diary and Food Survey. The Child Activity Diary collects information on the child's activities at home over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into five time periods over the 48-hr monitoring inter...

  20. Alarin but not its alternative-splicing form, GALP (Galanin-like peptide) has antimicrobial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Akihiro; Wong, Pooi-Fong; Hojo, Hironobu; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Llanes, Rafael; Kubo, Yoshinao; Senba, Masachika; Ichinose, Yoshio

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: • Alarin inhibits the growth of E. coli but not S. aureus. • Alarin’s potency is comparable to LL-37 in inhibiting the growth of E. coli. • Alarin can cause bacterial membrane blebbing. • Alalin does not induce hemolysis on erythrocytes. -- Abstract: Alarin is an alternative-splicing form of GALP (galanin-like peptide). It shares only 5 conserved amino acids at the N-terminal region with GALP which is involved in a diverse range of normal brain functions. This study seeks to investigate whether alarin has additional functions due to its differences from GALP. Here, we have shown using a radial diffusion assay that alarin but not GALP inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (strain ML-35). The conserved N-terminal region, however, remained essential for the antimicrobial activity of alarin as truncated peptides showed reduced killing effect. Moreover, alarin inhibited the growth of E. coli in a similar potency as human cathelicidin LL-37, a well-studied antimicrobial peptide. Electron microscopy further showed that alarin induced bacterial membrane blebbing but unlike LL-37, it did not cause hemolysis of erythrocytes. In addition, alarin is only active against the gram-negative bacteria, E. coli but not the gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, these data suggest that alarin has potentials as an antimicrobial and should be considered for the development in human therapeutics.

  1. Optogenetic activation of presynaptic inputs in lateral amygdala forms associative fear memory.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Kim, Hyung-Su; Jeong, Yire; Augustine, George J; Han, Jin-Hee

    2014-11-01

    In Pavlovian fear conditioning, the lateral amygdala (LA) has been highlighted as a key brain site for association between sensory cues and aversive stimuli. However, learning-related changes are also found in upstream sensory regions such as thalamus and cortex. To isolate the essential neural circuit components for fear memory association, we tested whether direct activation of presynaptic sensory inputs in LA, without the participation of upstream activity, is sufficient to form fear memory in mice. Photostimulation of axonal projections from the two main auditory brain regions, the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and the secondary auditory cortex, was paired with aversive footshock. Twenty-four hours later the same photostimulation induced robust conditioned freezing and this fear memory formation was disrupted when glutamatergic synaptic transmission was locally blocked in the LA. Therefore, our results prove for the first time that synapses between sensory input areas and the LA, previously implicated as a crucial brain site for fear memory formation, actually are sufficient to serve as a conditioned stimulus. Our results strongly support the idea that the LA may be sufficient to encode and store associations between neutral cue and aversive stimuli during natural fear conditioning as a critical part of a broad fear memory engram.

  2. Antibody nanoparticle dispersions formed with mixtures of crowding molecules retain activity and in vivo bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Maria A.; Khan, Tarik A.; Kaczorowski, Kevin J.; Wilson, Brian K.; Dinin, Aileen K.; Borwankar, Ameya U.; Rodrigues, Miguel A.; Truskett, Thomas M.; Johnston, Keith P.; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies continue to command a large market for treatment of a variety of diseases. In many cases, the doses required for therapeutic efficacy are large, limiting options for antibody delivery and administration. We report a novel formulation strategy based on dispersions of antibody nanoclusters that allows for subcutaneous injection of highly concentrated antibody (~190 mg/ml). A solution of monoclonal antibody 1B7 was rapidly frozen and lyophilized using a novel spiral-wound in situ freezing technology (SWIFT) to generate amorphous particles. Upon gentle stirring, a translucent dispersion of ~430 nm protein clusters low apparent viscosity (~24 cp) formed rapidly in buffer containing the pharmaceutically acceptable crowding agents, trehalose, polyethylene glycol and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Upon in vitro dilution of the dispersion, the nanoclusters rapidly reverted to monomeric protein with full activity, as monitored by dynamic light scattering and antigen binding. When administered to mice as an intravenous solution, subcutaneous solution or subcutaneous dispersion at similar (4.6-7.3 mg/kg) or ultra-high dosages (51.6 mg/kg), the distribution and elimination kinetics were within error and the protein retained full activity. Overall, this method of generating high-concentration, low-viscosity dispersions of antibody nanoclusters could lead to improved administration and patient compliance, providing new opportunities for the biotechnology industry. PMID:22777686

  3. Antibody nanoparticle dispersions formed with mixtures of crowding molecules retain activity and in vivo bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Miller, Maria A; Khan, Tarik A; Kaczorowski, Kevin J; Wilson, Brian K; Dinin, Aileen K; Borwankar, Ameya U; Rodrigues, Miguel A; Truskett, Thomas M; Johnston, Keith P; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2012-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies continue to command a large market for treatment of a variety of diseases. In many cases, the doses required for therapeutic efficacy are large, limiting options for antibody delivery and administration. We report a novel formulation strategy based on dispersions of antibody nanoclusters that allows for subcutaneous injection of highly concentrated antibody (≈ 190 mg/mL). A solution of monoclonal antibody 1B7 was rapidly frozen and lyophilized using a novel spiral-wound in-situ freezing technology to generate amorphous particles. Upon gentle stirring, a translucent dispersion of approximately 430 nm protein clusters with low apparent viscosity (≈ 24 cp) formed rapidly in buffer containing the pharmaceutically acceptable crowding agents such as trehalose, polyethylene glycol, and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Upon in vitro dilution of the dispersion, the nanoclusters rapidly reverted to monomeric protein with full activity, as monitored by dynamic light scattering and antigen binding. When administered to mice as an intravenous solution, subcutaneous solution, or subcutaneous dispersion at similar (4.6-7.3 mg/kg) or ultra-high dosages (51.6 mg/kg), the distribution and elimination kinetics were within error and the protein retained full activity. Overall, this method of generating high-concentration, low-viscosity dispersions of antibody nanoclusters could lead to improved administration and patient compliance, providing new opportunities for the biotechnology industry.

  4. WIDESPREAD AND HIDDEN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT >0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Juneau, Stephanie; Bournaud, Frederic; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Alexander, David M.; Mullaney, James R.; Magnelli, Benjamin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Willner, S. P.; Coil, Alison L.; Rosario, David J.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Cooper, Michael C.; Frayer, David T.; and others

    2013-02-20

    We characterize the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 0.3 < z < 1 star-forming galaxies by applying multi-wavelength AGN diagnostics (X-ray, optical, mid-infrared, radio) to a sample of galaxies selected at 70 {mu}m from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey (FIDEL). Given the depth of FIDEL, we detect 'normal' galaxies on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) sequence as well as starbursting systems with elevated sSFR. We find an overall high occurrence of AGN of 37% {+-} 3%, more than twice as high as in previous studies of galaxies with comparable infrared luminosities and redshifts but in good agreement with the AGN fraction of nearby (0.05 < z < 0.1) galaxies of similar infrared luminosities. The more complete census of AGNs comes from using the recently developed Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. This optical diagnostic is also sensitive to X-ray weak AGNs and X-ray absorbed AGNs, and reveals that absorbed active nuclei reside almost exclusively in infrared-luminous hosts. The fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN appears to be independent of sSFR and remains elevated both on the sSFR sequence and above. In contrast, the fraction of AGNs that are X-ray absorbed increases substantially with increasing sSFR, possibly due to an increased gas fraction and/or gas density in the host galaxies.

  5. Characterization of a soluble, catalytically active form of Escherichia coli leader peptidase: requirement of detergent or phospholipid for optimal activity.

    PubMed

    Tschantz, W R; Paetzel, M; Cao, G; Suciu, D; Inouye, M; Dalbey, R E

    1995-03-28

    Leader peptidase is a novel serine protease in Escherichia coli, which functions to cleave leader sequences from exported proteins. Its catalytic domain extends into the periplasmic space and is anchored to the membrane by two transmembrane segments located at the N-terminal end of the protein. At present, there is no information on the structure of the catalytic domain. Here, we report on the properties of a soluble form of leader peptidase (delta 2-75), and we compare its properties to those of the wild-type enzyme. We find that the truncated leader peptidase has a kcat of 3.0 S-1 and a Km of 32 microM with a pro-OmpA nuclease A substrate. In contrast to the wild-type enzyme (pI of 6.8), delta 2-75 is water-soluble and has an acidic isoelectric point of 5.6. We also show with delta 2-75 that the replacement of serine 90 and lysine 145 with alanine residues results in a 500-fold reduction in activity, providing further evidence that leader peptidase employs a catalytic serine/lysine dyad. Finally, we find that the catalysis of delta 2-75 is accelerated by the presence of the detergent Triton X-100, regardless if the substrate is pro-OmpA nuclease A or a peptide substrate. Triton X-100 is required for optimal activity of delta 2-75 at a level far below the critical micelle concentration. Moreover, we find that E. coli phospholipids stimulate the activity of delta 2-75, suggesting that phospholipids may play an important physiological role in the catalytic mechanism of leader peptidase. PMID:7696258

  6. 77 FR 65706 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice... Form/Collection: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the... information furnished on Form I-140 will be used by USCIS to classify aliens under sections 203(b)(1),...

  7. Amylopectin biosynthetic enzymes from developing rice seed form enzymatically active protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Crofts, Naoko; Abe, Natsuko; Oitome, Naoko F.; Matsushima, Ryo; Hayashi, Mari; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Amylopectin is a highly branched, organized cluster of glucose polymers, and the major component of rice starch. Synthesis of amylopectin requires fine co-ordination between elongation of glucose polymers by soluble starch synthases (SSs), generation of branches by branching enzymes (BEs), and removal of misplaced branches by debranching enzymes (DBEs). Among the various isozymes having a role in amylopectin biosynthesis, limited numbers of SS and BE isozymes have been demonstrated to interact via protein–protein interactions in maize and wheat amyloplasts. This study investigated whether protein–protein interactions are also found in rice endosperm, as well as exploring differences between species. Gel permeation chromatography of developing rice endosperm extracts revealed that all 10 starch biosynthetic enzymes analysed were present at larger molecular weights than their respective monomeric sizes. SSIIa, SSIIIa, SSIVb, BEI, BEIIb, and PUL co-eluted at mass sizes >700kDa, and SSI, SSIIa, BEIIb, ISA1, PUL, and Pho1 co-eluted at 200–400kDa. Zymogram analyses showed that SSI, SSIIIa, BEI, BEIIa, BEIIb, ISA1, PUL, and Pho1 eluted in high molecular weight fractions were active. Comprehensive co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed associations of SSs–BEs, and, among BE isozymes, BEIIa–Pho1, and pullulanase-type DBE–BEI interactions. Blue-native-PAGE zymogram analyses confirmed the glucan-synthesizing activity of protein complexes. These results suggest that some rice starch biosynthetic isozymes are physically associated with each other and form active protein complexes. Detailed analyses of these complexes will shed light on the mechanisms controlling the unique branch and cluster structure of amylopectin, and the physicochemical properties of starch. PMID:25979995

  8. Enhanced bone-forming activity of side population cells in the periodontal ligament.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Tadashi; Hiraga, Toru; Hosoya, Akihiro; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Ito, Yuzuru; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ito, Susumu; Asashima, Makoto; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    Regeneration of alveolar bone is critical for the successful treatment of periodontal diseases. The periodontal ligament (PDL) has been widely investigated as a source of cells for the regeneration of periodontal tissues. In the present study where we attempted to develop an effective strategy for alveolar bone regeneration, we examined the osteogenic potential of side population (SP) cells, a stem cell-containing population that has been shown to be highly abundant in several kinds of tissues, in PDL cells. Isolated SP cells from the rat PDL exhibited a superior ability to differentiate into osteoblastic cells compared with non-SP (NSP) and unsorted PDL cells in vitro. The mRNA expressions of osteoblast markers and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 were significantly upregulated in SP cells and were further increased by osteogenic induction. To examine the bone-forming activity of SP cells in vivo, PDL SP cells isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic rats were transplanted with hydroxyapatite (HA) disks into wild-type animals. SP cells exhibited a high ability to induce the mineralized matrix compared with NSP and unsorted PDL cells. At 12 weeks after the implantation, some of the pores in the HA disks with SP cells were filled with mineralized matrices, which were positive for bone matrix proteins, such as osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin. Furthermore, osteoblast- and osteocyte-like cells on and in the bone-like mineralized matrices were GFP positive, suggesting that the matrices were directly formed by the transplanted cells. These results suggest that PDL SP cells possess enhanced osteogenic potential and could be a potential source for cell-based regenerative therapy for alveolar bone.

  9. Purified TMEM16A is sufficient to form Ca2+-activated Cl− channels

    PubMed Central

    Terashima, Hiroyuki; Picollo, Alessandra; Accardi, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) are key regulators of numerous physiological functions, ranging from electrolyte secretion in airway epithelia to cellular excitability in sensory neurons and muscle fibers. Recently, TMEM16A (ANO1) and -B were shown to be critical components of CaCCs. It is still unknown whether they are also sufficient to form functional CaCCs, or whether association with other subunits is required. Recent reports suggest that the Ca2+ sensitivity of TMEM16A is mediated by its association with calmodulin, suggesting that functional CaCCs are heteromultimers. To test whether TMEM16A is necessary and sufficient to form functional CaCCs, we expressed, purified, and reconstituted human TMEM16A. The purified protein mediates Ca2+-dependent Cl− transport with submicromolar sensitivity to Ca2+, consistent with what is seen in patch–clamp experiments. The channel is synergistically gated by Ca2+ and voltage, so that opening is promoted by depolarizing potentials. Mutating two conserved glutamates in the TM6-7 intracellular loop selectively abolishes the Ca2+ dependence of reconstituted TMEM16A, in a manner similar to what was reported for the heterologously expressed channel. Well-characterized CaCC blockers inhibit Cl− transport with Kis comparable to those measured for native and heterologously expressed CaCCs. Finally, direct physical interactions between calmodulin and TMEM16A could not be detected in copurification experiments or in functional assays. Our results demonstrate that purified TMEM16A is necessary and sufficient to recapitulate the biophysical and pharmacological properties of native and heterologously expressed CaCCs. Our results also show that association of TMEM16A with other proteins, such as calmodulin, is not required for function. PMID:24167264

  10. Light activated, In situ Forming Gel for Sustained Suprachoroidal Delivery of Bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Puneet; Barros, Matthew; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.; Kompella, Uday B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a light activated polycaprolactone dimethacrylate and hydroxyethyl methacrylate based gel network that sustains the release of stable, active bevacizumab (an anti-VEGF antibody used to treat choroidal neovascularization) and to assess sustained ex vivo delivery in rabbit eyes and in vivo delivery in rat eyes following in situ gel formation in the suprachoroidal space. Methods Polycaprolactone dimethacrylate (PCM) was synthesized from polycaprolactone diol (PCD) and evaluated using NMR spectroscopy. PCM was used to cross-link hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of 365 nm UV light and 2, 2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) as a photoinitiator. Bevacizumab was entrapped in the gel using 3 different cross-linking durations of 3, 7, and 10 minutes. In vitro release of bevacizumab in PBS pH 7.4 at 37°C during a 4 months study was quantified using a VEGF-binding based ELISA. Stability of released bevacizumab was monitored by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and circular dichroism. Alexa Fluor® 488 dye conjugated bevacizumab mixed with polymers was injected suprachoroidally in rabbit eyes to study the effect of different cross-linking durations on the spread of the dye conjugated bevacizumab. In vivo delivery was assessed in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by injecting Alexa Fluor® 488 dye conjugated bevacizumab mixed with polymers followed by cross-linking for 10 minutes. Spread in the rabbit eyes and in vivo delivery in rat eyes was monitored noninvasively using a fundus camera and Fluorotron Master™. Results Formation of PCM was confirmed by the disappearance of hydroxyl peak in NMR spectra. Cross-linking duration of 10 minutes resulted in a burst release of 21 % of bevacizumab. Other cross-linking durations had ≥ 62 % burst release. Bevacizumab release from 10 minute cross-linked gel was sustained for ∼ 4 months. Release samples contained ≥ 96.1 % of bevacizumab in the monomeric form as observed in SEC chromatograms. Circular

  11. Oscillations of solar activity - the main climate-forming factor in millennium scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorozov, S. V.; Budovy, V. I.; Medvedev, V. A.

    Here is advanced and substantiated the hypothesis of existence of the physical mechanism, by means of which alteration of solar activity leads to change of the "greenhouse effect". This hypothetical mechanism can be the following one. The increase of solar activity leads to considerable magnification of ultra-violet radiation in a solar spectrum and to increase of ion concentration in the upper stratums of an atmosphere (including upper troposphere). Accordingly, the rise of condensation kernels concentration (of water vapour) occurs, and, as a result, the transparency decrease of an atmosphere concerning infrared radiation of the Earth takes place. For checkout of the hypothesis the simplified physical-statistical model of energy-balance of atmosphere and hydrosphere is constructed. The modelling of the global temperatures and the temperature in the different regions of the North hemisphere was made. The effective coefficients of the model take into account, in particular, the features of ocean and atmosphere circulation. They were determined with use of step-by-step procedure of correction based on a Monte-Carlo method, under condition of achievement of the greatest correspondence between simulated and actual values of global temperature. The constructed model allows to explain (without attraction of the anthropogenous factor) modern global warming, and also known data about temperature oscillations during second millennium. The comparative analysis of model results with independently reconstructed regional temperatures, including Central England (1000-1659 years), China (1000-1990 years), Gulf of Alaska and Pacific Northwest (1752-1983 years), shows their good enough correspondence which allows to assume, that the solar activity oscillations really can be the main climate-forming factor in millennium scale. Moreover, there had been detected the close correlation between the rate of increase of CO2 concentration and the simulated temperature of the upper layer of

  12. New names for known things: on the association of novel word forms with existing semantic information.

    PubMed

    Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus; Breitenstein, Caterina; Klauke, Benedikt; Knecht, Stefan; Pantev, Christo; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2010-06-01

    The plasticity of the adult memory network for integrating novel word forms (lexemes) was investigated with whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG). We showed that spoken word forms of an (artificial) foreign language are integrated rapidly and successfully into existing lexical and conceptual memory networks. The new lexemes were learned in an untutored way, by pairing them frequently with one particular object (and thus meaning), and infrequently with 10 other objects (learned set). Other novel word forms were encountered just as often, but paired with many different objects (nonlearned set). Their impact on semantic memory was assessed with cross-modal priming, with novel word forms as primes and object pictures as targets. The MEG counterpart of the N400 (N400m) served as an indicator of a semantic (mis)match between words and pictures. Prior to learning, all novel words induced a pronounced N400m mismatch effect to the pictures. This component was strongly reduced after training for the learned novel lexemes only, and now closely resembled the brain's response to semantically related native-language words. This result cannot be explained by mere stimulus repetition or stimulus-stimulus association. Thus, learned novel words rapidly gained access to existing conceptual representations, as effectively as related native-language words. This association of novel lexemes and conceptual information happened fast and almost without effort. Neural networks mediating these integration processes were found within left temporal lobe, an area typically described as one of the main generators of the N400 response.

  13. 75 FR 35824 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms I-600/I-600A, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

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  14. 77 FR 64388 - Agency Information Collection (Former POW Medical History), VA Form 10-0048 Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  15. Dissociation of membrane binding and lytic activities of the lymphocyte pore-forming protein (perforin).

    PubMed

    Young, J D; Damiano, A; DiNome, M A; Leong, L G; Cohn, Z A

    1987-05-01

    Granules isolated from CTL and NK cells contain a cytolytic pore-forming protein (PFP/perforin). At low temperatures (on ice), PFP binds to erythrocyte membranes without producing hemolysis. Hemolysis occurs when the PFP-bound erythrocytes are warmed up to 37 degrees C, which defines a temperature-dependent, lytic (pore-formation) step distinct from the membrane-binding event. Ca2+ and neutral pH are required for both membrane binding and pore formation by PFP. Serum, LDL, HDL, and heparin inhibit the hemolytic activity of PFP by blocking its binding to lipid membranes. Lysis by PFP that has bound to erythrocyte membranes is no longer susceptible to the effect of these inhibitors. The hemolytic activities associated with intact granules and solubilized PFP show different requirements for Ca2+ and pH, indicating that cytolysis produced by isolated granules may involve an additional step, possibly fusion of granules with membranes. It is suggested that three distinct Ca2+- and pH-dependent events may be involved during cell killing by CTL and NK cells: fusion of cytoplasmic granules of effector cells with their plasma membrane, releasing PFP from cells; binding of the released PFP to target membranes; and insertion of monomers and the subsequent formation of lytic pores in the target membrane. The serum-mediated inhibition of membrane binding by PFP could prevent the accidental injury of bystander cells by cell-released PFP, but would allow cytolysis to proceed to completion once PFP has bound to the target membrane. PMID:3494808

  16. Anion permeation in calcium-activated chloride channels formed by TMEM16A from Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J P; López-Rodríguez, A; Espino-Saldaña, A E; Huanosta-Gutiérrez, A; Miledi, R; Martínez-Torres, A

    2014-09-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) formed by anoctamin1/TMEM16A subunits are ubiquitously expressed, and these channels are known to prevent polyspermy in amphibian oocytes. Here, we describe a TMEM16A clone isolated from Xenopus tropicalis oocytes (xtTMEM16A) and how the anion permeation properties are modified in single-site mutants of the ion pore. The anion permeability sequence was SCN(-) > I(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-) > gluconate (relative permeabilities 5.6:3.0:2.1:1:0.2, respectively). Dose-response curves indicated that the voltage-dependent half-maximal concentration for Ca(2+) activation (K d of the Hill equation at +100 mV) was 120 nM in normal external Cl(-), whereas it was displaced leftward to 75 nM Ca(2+), when I(-) replaced Cl(-). The I(-):Cl(-) mole fraction (MF) of the external solution was varied in order to gain insight into the permeation mechanism of the pore. No anomaly in MF behavior was observed for conductance, but it was observed for current reversal potential, which deviated from the prediction of the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. Mutations of positively charged amino acids in the pore, R646 and R761, to glutamate resulted in reduction of the relative permeability to I(-). Data from the wild type and mutants could be well fitted by a three-barrier, two-site permeation model. This suggests a multi-ion pore with at least two binding sites for anions, with R646 mole fraction closer to the extracellular membrane surface--being important for the stability of both sites--and R761--located deeper within the membrane--mainly affecting the innermost binding site. Considerations of xtTMEM16A putative pore region topology are discussed in the light of two alternative topological models of the protein. PMID:24352628

  17. 76 FR 51997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-602; Extension of an Existing Information...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  20. 78 FR 36632 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  1. 75 FR 20033 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  4. 75 FR 5101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-590, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  5. 75 FR 31460 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-730, Revision of an Existing Information...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  11. 77 FR 33758 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-829, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 829, Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions. The... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Petition by Entrepreneur to Remove Conditions. (3) Agency form... a conditional resident alien entrepreneur who obtained such status through a qualifying...

  12. Activation by PHA of CD8 lymphocytes into clonal colony forming cells. Role of interleukin-1.

    PubMed

    Oudrhiri, N; Farcet, J P; Gourdin, M F; Divine, M; Marolleau, J P; Bouguet, J; Le Couedic, J P; Shaw, A; Fradelizi, D; Reyes, F

    1988-06-13

    Monoclonal T cell colonies can be grown in agar culture from quiescent T lymphocytes under PHA stimulation, provided that (1) a low number of T lymphocytes (less than or equal to 5 X 10(4)/ml) is seeded, (2) IL-2 is added to the culture, and (3) a high number of accessory B cells (greater than or equal to 5 X 10(5)/ml) is present in contact with the T lymphocytes. Under these culture conditions the colony progenitors can be ascribed to the CD4 subset, whereas CD8 lymphocytes do not generate colonies. This finding is surprising since both CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes may be cloned in liquid culture. We now report the appropriate conditions required to grow cytotoxic CD8 lymphocyte colonies in agar. CD8 colony growth is dependent upon IL-2-IL-2 receptor interaction and is inhibited by anti-IL-2 receptor antibodies. In addition to PHA, accessory B cells and IL-2, an additional signal provided by recombinant IL-1 is necessary for CD8 colony formation. Exogenous IL-1 can be replaced by irradiated CD4 lymphocytes which stimulate the expression of membrane IL-1 activity in the accessory B cells. In addition, colony growth from quiescent but not preactivated CD8 lymphocytes is inhibited by anti-IL-1 antibodies. Altogether, the data show that an IL-1 signal is required for the induction of IL-2 responsive IL-2 receptors on quiescent CD8 colony forming cells. PMID:3132508

  13. Activation of camptothecin derivatives by conjugation to triple helix-forming oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Arimondo, Paola B; Laco, Gary S; Thomas, Craig J; Halby, Ludovic; Pez, Didier; Schmitt, Philippe; Boutorine, Alexandre; Garestier, Thérèse; Pommier, Yves; Hecht, Sidney M; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Bailly, Christian

    2005-03-22

    Topoisomerase I (topo I) is a ubiquitous DNA-cleaving enzyme and an important therapeutic target in cancer chemotherapy. Camptothecins (CPTs) reversibly trap topo I in covalent complex with DNA but exhibit limited sequence preference. The utilization of conjugates such as triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) to target a medicinal agent (like CPT) to a specific genetic sequence and orientation within the DNA has been accomplished successfully. In this study, different attachment points of the TFO to CPT (including positions 7, 9, 10, and 12) were investigated and our findings confirmed and extended previous conclusions. Interestingly, the conjugates induced specific DNA cleavage by topo I at the triplex site even when poorly active or inactive CPT derivatives were used. This suggests that the positioning of the drug in the cleavage complex by the sequence-specific DNA ligand is able to stabilize the ternary complex, even when important interactions between topo I and CPT are disrupted. Finally, certain TFO-CPT conjugates were able to induce sequence-specific DNA cleavage with the topo I mutants R364H and N722S that are resistant to camptothecin. The TFO-CPT conjugates are thus valuable tools to study the interactions involved in the formation of the ternary complex and also to enlarge the family of compounds that poison topo I. The fact that an inactive CPT analogue can act as a topo I poison when appropriately coupled to a TFO provides a new perspective at the level of drug design. PMID:15766244

  14. [Anti-adenovirus activity of a substance and medical form of ribamydil in cell culture].

    PubMed

    Nosach, L N; Diachenko, N S; Zhovnovataia, V L

    2009-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ribamydil on adenovirus reproduction was studied under the determination of the number of cells with virus- induced DNA-containing intranucleus inclusion bodies and hexone antigen, the synthesis of adenovirus proteins and the infection virus by t he investigation. EC50 of ribamydil substance is 4-8 microg/ml, but complete suppression of adenovirus genome expression was found when adding ribamydil after the virus adsorption, in concentrations of 125-500 microg/ml. The original effect of ribamydil on the expression of adenovirus genome was found under its effect in concentration of 31 microg/ml. Intranucleus virus-induced inclusion bodies of the early type only were found under these conditions. Synthesis of the structural virus polypeptides, including hexone polypeptide (II) and non-structural polypeptide 100K, taking part in hexone trimerization, proceed intensively but without formation of immunologically active hexone. The inhibiting effect of officinal form of ribamydil was less expressed as compared with the substance (EC50: 62 microg/ml). The work results prove that the therapeutic effect of ribamydil (ribavirin) under treatment of adenovirus infections may be achieved in case when it is used in a dose excluding the expression of the adenovirus genome.

  15. Investigating microbial colonization in actively forming hydrothermal deposits using thermocouple arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M. K.; Reysenbach, A. L.; Hirsch, M.; Steinberg, J.; Flores, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Investigations of microbial colonization of very young hydrothermal deposits were carried out in 2009 at hydrothermal vents in the Lau Basin (SW Pacific), and in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, with a test deployment at the Rainbow vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 2008. Our method entailed razing active chimneys and placing arrays of temperature probes (8 titanium-encased probes with their tips placed within a titanium cage) over the active flow. The chimneys that grew back through each array, encasing the temperature probe tips, were recovered after 2 to 15 days, along with temperature records. Molecular phylogenetic methods are being used to reveal the members of the microbial communities that developed in each chimney of known age and thermal history. A total of 15 array deployments were made at 10 vents in 6 different vent fields. Similar morphology beehives (with porous fine-grained interiors and steep temperature gradients across the outermost more-consolidated “wall”) formed at 2 of the 3 vents in Guaymas Basin (in 2 and 5 days at one vent and 3 and 15 days at a second), and at one vent each in the Kilo Moana (in 3 days), Tahi Moana (in 2.5 days), and Tui Malila (in 3 and 8 days) vent fields in the Lau Basin. In contrast, open conduit, thin walled chimneys grew within arrays at the Mariner vent field, Lau Basin, at 3 different vents (in 3 days at one vent, in 3 and 11 days at a second vent, and in 13 days at a third vent). A lower temperature (<280C) diffuser/spire with a filamentous biofilm formed in 15 days in an array at a hydrocarbon-rich vent in the Guaymas Basin. A similar biofilm formed after 6 days within an array placed earlier at this same vent, with little mineralization. Preliminary diversity data from the 6 and 15 day Guaymas deployments show an increased diversity of bacteria with time with initial colonizers being primarily sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria, with members of the Aquificales and Deltaproteobacteria appearing

  16. Ratio of active to inactive forms of acyl carrier protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, S; Rock, C O

    1983-12-25

    turnover cycle maintains all of the ACP in an active form in vivo and a regulatory role for the ACP/apo-ACP ratio seems doubtful.

  17. Solid-state forms of sodium valproate, active component of the anticonvulsant drug epilim.

    PubMed

    Petrusevski, Gjorgi; Naumov, Pance; Jovanovski, Gligor; Bogoeva-Gaceva, Gordana; Ng, Seik Weng

    2008-09-01

    The results of the first detailed and systematic investigation of the solid-state forms of sodium valproate, one of the most potent and widely used anticonvulsant medicines, are presented. By using wet and dry methods, eight solid forms of varying stability in air were obtained and characterized. Three extremely hygroscopic polycrystalline hydrates, Na(C8H15O2) X H2O (form A), Na(C8H15O2) X xH2O (form B), and Na(C8H15O2) X yH2O (form D), three acid-stabilized stoichiometric solvates, Na3(C8H15O2)3(C8H16O2)H2O (form C), Na(C8H15O2)(C8H16O2) (form E), and Na3(C8H15O2)3(C8H16O2) X 2H2O (form F), the pure anhydrous salt Na(C8H15O2) (form H), and an additional unstable thermal intermediate Na3(C8H15O2)3(C8H16O2)0.5 (form G) were prepared. Under ambient conditions, forms A and B as well as the commercially available compound appear as very hygroscopic white powders. Form C is less hygroscopic, while forms E and F are stable and are not hygroscopic. Partial stabilization of forms A and B can be achieved by evacuation and pressing, which results in a lower hydrate D, or after a heating-cooling cycle, resulting in crystallization of the anhydrous salt H. Addition of one molecule of valproic acid and saturation with one molecule of water of forms A and B results in the less hygroscopic form C. Addition to form C of a second water molecule affords form F, which is not hygroscopic and is indefinitely stable. The symmetric structure and medium alkyl chain length of the valproate ion are some of the probable reasons for the presence of a number of solid solvates: in its most stable conformation, the valproate ion cannot simultaneously pack efficiently and interact strongly through the negatively charged carboxylate group without leaving voids in the crystalline lattice. The conformational flexibility of the aliphatic chains probably aids the penetration of water molecules, which results in a strong affinity for the absorption of water. PMID:18613204

  18. How Much Structuring Is Beneficial with Regard to Examination Scores? A Prospective Study of Three Forms of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Claus H.; Rosen, Evelyne N.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a superiority of active learning forms compared with traditional lecture. However, there is still debate as to what degree structuring is necessary with regard to high exam outcomes. Seventy-five students from a premedical school were randomly attributed to an active lecture group, a cooperative group, or a…

  19. THE PRESENCE OF WEAK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Shelley A.; Graham, James R.; Ma, C-P; Larkin, James E.

    2010-03-10

    We present [O III 5007 A] observations of the star-forming galaxy (SFG) HDF-BMZ1299 (z = 1.598) using Keck Observatory's adaptive optics system with the near-infrared {integral} field spectrograph OSIRIS. Using previous Halpha and [N II] measurements of the same source, we are able for the first time to use spatially resolved observations to place a high-redshift galaxy's substructure on a traditional H II diagnostic diagram. We find that HDF-BMZ1299's spatially concentrated nebular ratios in the central {approx}1.5 kpc (0.''2) are best explained by the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN): log ([N II]/Halpha) = -0.22 +- 0.05 and 2sigma limit of log ([O III]/Hbeta) {approx}>0.26. The dominant energy source of this galaxy is star formation, and integrating a single aperture across the galaxy yields nebular ratios that are composite spectra from both AGN and H II regions. The presence of an embedded AGN in HDF-BMZ1299 may suggest a potential contamination in a fraction of other high-redshift SFGs, and we suggest that this may be a source of the 'elevated' nebular ratios previously seen in seeing-limited metallicity studies. HDF-BMZ1299's estimated AGN luminosity is L{sub Halpha} = (3.7 +- 0.5) x 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub [O{sub III}]} = (5.8 +- 1.9) x 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, making it one of the lowest luminosity AGNs discovered at this early epoch.

  20. Prolactin stimulates cell proliferation through a long form of prolactin receptor and K+ channel activation.

    PubMed Central

    Van Coppenolle, Fabien; Skryma, Roman; Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima; Slomianny, Christian; Roudbaraki, Morad; Delcourt, Philippe; Dewailly, Etienne; Humez, Sandrine; Crépin, Alexandre; Gourdou, Isabelle; Djiane, Jean; Bonnal, Jean-Louis; Mauroy, Brigitte; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    PRL (prolactin) has been implicated in the proliferation and differentiation of numerous tissues, including the prostate gland. However, the PRL-R (PRL receptor) signal transduction pathway, leading to the stimulation of cell proliferation, remains unclear and has yet to be mapped. The present study was undertaken to develop a clear understanding of the mechanisms involved in this pathway and, in particular, to determine the role of K(+) channels. We used androgen-sensitive prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells whose proliferation is known to be stimulated by PRL. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that LNCaP cells express a long form of PRL-R, but do not produce its intermediate isoform. Patch-clamp techniques showed that the application of 5 nM PRL increased both the macroscopic K(+) current amplitude and the single K(+)-channel open probability. This single-channel activity increase was reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein, herbimycin A and lavandustine A, thereby indicating that tyrosine kinase phosphorylation is required in PRL-induced K(+) channel stimulation. PRL enhances p59( fyn ) phosphorylation by a factor of 2 after a 10 min application in culture. In addition, where an antip59( fyn ) antibody is present in the patch pipette, PRL no longer increases K(+) current amplitude. Furthermore, the PRL-stimulated proliferation is inhibited by the K(+) channel inhibitors alpha-dendrotoxin and tetraethylammonium. Thus, as K(+) channels are known to be involved in LNCaP cell proliferation, we suggest that K(+) channel modulation by PRL, via p59( fyn ) pathway, is the primary ionic event in PRL signal transduction, triggering cell proliferation. PMID:14565846

  1. DNA Recombinase Proteins, their Function and Structure in the Active Form, a Computational Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carra, Claudio; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a crucial sequence of reactions in all cells for the repair of double strand DNA (dsDNA) breaks. While it was traditionally considered as a means for generating genetic diversity, it is now known to be essential for restart of collapsed replication forks that have met a lesion on the DNA template (Cox et al., 2000). The central stage of this process requires the presence of the DNA recombinase protein, RecA in bacteria, RadA in archaea, or Rad51 in eukaryotes, which leads to an ATP-mediated DNA strand-exchange process. Despite many years of intense study, some aspects of the biochemical mechanism, and structure of the active form of recombinase proteins are not well understood. Our theoretical study is an attempt to shed light on the main structural and mechanistic issues encountered on the RecA of the e-coli, the RecA of the extremely radio resistant Deinococcus Radiodurans (promoting an inverse DNA strand-exchange repair), and the homolog human Rad51. The conformational changes are analyzed for the naked enzymes, and when they are linked to ATP and ADP. The average structures are determined over 2ns time scale of Langevian dynamics using a collision frequency of 1.0 ps(sup -1). The systems are inserted in an octahedron periodic box with a 10 Angstrom buffer of water molecules explicitly described by the TIP3P model. The corresponding binding free energies are calculated in an implicit solvent using the Poisson-Boltzmann solvent accessible surface area, MM-PBSA model. The role of the ATP is not only in stabilizing the interaction RecA-DNA, but its hydrolysis is required to allow the DNA strand-exchange to proceed. Furthermore, we extended our study, using the hybrid QM/MM method, on the mechanism of this chemical process. All the calculations were performed using the commercial code Amber 9.

  2. Broca's region and Visual Word Form Area activation differ during a predictive Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Competing theories attempt to explain the function of Broca's area in single word processing. Studies have found the region to be more active during processing of pseudo words than real words and during infrequent words relative to frequent words and during Stroop (incongruent) color words compared to Non-Stroop (congruent) words. Two related theories explain these findings as reflecting either "cognitive control" processing in the face of conflicting input or a linguistic prediction error signal, based on a predictive coding approach. The latter implies that processing cost refers to violations of expectations based on the statistical distributions of input. In this fMRI experiment we attempted to disentangle single word processing cost originating from cognitive conflict and that stemming from predictive expectation violation. Participants (N = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent vs congruent colors). One of the colors, however, was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and frequency effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study frequency effects across modalities. We found significant behavioral effects of both incongruency and frequency. A significant effect (p < .05 FWE) of incongruency was found in Broca's region, but no effect of frequency was observed and no interaction. Conjoined effects of incongruency and frequency were found in parietal regions as well as in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). No interaction between perceptual modality and frequency was found in VWFA suggesting that the region is not strictly visual. These findings speak against a strong version of the prediction error processing hypothesis in Broca's region. They support the idea that prediction error processes in the intermediate timeframe are allocated to more posterior parts of the brain. PMID:26478962

  3. Active form Notch4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Peng-Yeh; Tsai, Chong-Bin; Tseng, Min-Jen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Notch4IC modulates the ERK pathway and cell cycle to promote 3T3-L1 proliferation. ► Notch4IC facilitates 3T3-L1 differentiation by up-regulating proadipogenic genes. ► Notch4IC promotes proliferation during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. ► Notch4IC enhances differentiation during subsequent stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes, which differentiate from precursor cells in a process called adipogenesis. Many signal molecules are involved in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, including the Notch pathway. Previous adipogenic studies of Notch have focused on Notch1 and HES1; however, the role of other Notch receptors in adipogenesis remains unclear. Q-RT-PCR analyses showed that the augmentation of Notch4 expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was comparable to that of Notch1. To elucidate the role of Notch4 in adipogenesis, the human active form Notch4 (N4IC) was transiently transfected into 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of HES1, Hey1, C/EBPδ and PPARγ was up-regulated, and the expression of Pref-1, an adipogenic inhibitor, was down-regulated. To further characterize the effect of N4IC in adipogenesis, stable cells expressing human N4IC were established. The expression of N4IC promoted proliferation and enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells compared with those of control cells. These data suggest that N4IC promoted proliferation through modulating the ERK pathway and the cell cycle during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and facilitated differentiation through up-regulating adipogenic genes such as C/EBPα, PPARγ, aP2, LPL and HSL during the middle and late stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

  4. Broca's region and Visual Word Form Area activation differ during a predictive Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Competing theories attempt to explain the function of Broca's area in single word processing. Studies have found the region to be more active during processing of pseudo words than real words and during infrequent words relative to frequent words and during Stroop (incongruent) color words compared to Non-Stroop (congruent) words. Two related theories explain these findings as reflecting either "cognitive control" processing in the face of conflicting input or a linguistic prediction error signal, based on a predictive coding approach. The latter implies that processing cost refers to violations of expectations based on the statistical distributions of input. In this fMRI experiment we attempted to disentangle single word processing cost originating from cognitive conflict and that stemming from predictive expectation violation. Participants (N = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent vs congruent colors). One of the colors, however, was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and frequency effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study frequency effects across modalities. We found significant behavioral effects of both incongruency and frequency. A significant effect (p < .05 FWE) of incongruency was found in Broca's region, but no effect of frequency was observed and no interaction. Conjoined effects of incongruency and frequency were found in parietal regions as well as in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). No interaction between perceptual modality and frequency was found in VWFA suggesting that the region is not strictly visual. These findings speak against a strong version of the prediction error processing hypothesis in Broca's region. They support the idea that prediction error processes in the intermediate timeframe are allocated to more posterior parts of the brain.

  5. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS) - V. The Active Star Forming Region SH 2-255-257

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Lee, Kang Hwan; Park, Byeong-Gon; Jeong, Gwanghui

    2015-12-01

    There is much observational evidence that active star formation is taking place in the H II regions Sh 2-255-257. We present a photometric study of this star forming region (SFR) using imaging data obtained in passbands from the optical to the mid-infrared, in order to study the star formation process. A total of 218 members were identified using various selection criteria based on their observational properties. The SFR is reddened by at least E(B-V) = 0.8 mag, and the reddening law toward the region is normal (R_V = 3.1). From the zero-age main sequence fitting method it is confirmed that the SFR is 2.1 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun. The median age of the identified members is estimated to be about 1.3 Myr from a comparison of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) with stellar evolutionary models. The initial mass function (IMF) is derived from the HRD and the near-infrared (J, J-H) color-magnitude diagram. The slope of the IMF is about Γ = -1.6 ± 0.1, which is slightly steeper than that of the Salpeter/Kroupa IMF. It implies that low-mass star formation is dominant in the SFR. The sum of the masses of all the identified members provides the lower limit of the cluster mass (169 M_{⊙}). We also analyzed the spectral energy distribution (SED) of pre-main sequence stars using the SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al., and confirm that there is a significant discrepancy between stellar mass and age obtained from two different methods based on the SED fitting tool and the HRD.

  6. 75 FR 65447 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request Form FNS-648, WIC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... collection, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Local Agency... Collection Form. Abstract: FNS administers the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants,...

  7. In contrast to agonist monoclonal antibodies, both C-terminal truncated form and full length form of Pleiotrophin failed to activate vertebrate ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)?

    PubMed

    Mathivet, Thomas; Mazot, Pierre; Vigny, Marc

    2007-12-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase essentially and transiently expressed during development in specific regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. ALK expression persists at a lower level in the adult brain. Thus, it might play an important role in both the normal development and function of the nervous system. The nature of the cognate ligand of this receptor in vertebrates is still a matter of debate. Pleiotrophin and midkine have been proposed as ligands of ALK but several independent studies do not confirm this hypothesis. Interestingly, a recent study proposed that a C-terminal truncated form of Pleiotrophin (Pleiotrophin.15) and not the full length form (Pleiotrophin.18) promotes glioblastoma proliferation in an ALK-dependent fashion. These data were obviously a strong basis to conciliate the conflicting results so far reported in the literature. In the present study, we first purified to homogeneity the two forms of Pleiotrophin secreted by HEK 293 cells. In contrast to agonist monoclonal antibodies, both Pleiotrophin.15 and Pleiotrophin.18 failed to activate ALK in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells expressing this receptor. Thus, for our point of view, ALK is still an orphan receptor in vertebrates.

  8. The Serratia marcescens hemolysin is secreted but not activated by stable protoplast-type L-forms of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Sieben, S; Hertle, R; Gumpert, J; Braun, V

    1998-10-01

    The outer-membrane protein ShlB of Serratia marcescens activates and secretes hemolytic ShlA into the culture medium. Without ShlB, inactive ShlA (termed ShlA*) remains in the periplasm. Since Proteus mirabilis L-form cells lack an outer membrane and a periplasm, it was of interest to determine in which compartment recombinant ShlA* and ShlB are localized and whether ShlB activates ShlA*. The cloned shlB and shlA genes were transcribed in P. mirabilis stable L-form cells by the temperature-inducible phage T7 RNA polymerase. Radiolabeling, Western blotting, and complementation with C-terminally truncated ShlA (ShlA255) identified inactive ShlA* in the culture supernatant. ShlB remained cell-bound and did not activate ShlA without integration in an outer membrane. Although hemolytic ShlA added to L-form cells had access to the cytoplasmic membrane, it did not affect L-form cells. Synthesis of the large ShlA protein (165 kDa) in P. mirabilis L-form cells under phage T7 promoter control demonstrates that L-form cells are suitable for the synthesis and secretion of large recombinant proteins. This property and the easy isolation of released proteins make L-form cells suitable for the biotechnological production of proteins.

  9. 75 FR 5097 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-646, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... 74 FR 58037, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments for this... Information Collection Under Review: Form G- 646, Sworn Statement of Refugee Applying for Admission to the... approved information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Sworn Statement of Refugee Applying...

  10. 77 FR 33760 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-646, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register on March 9, 2012, at 77 FR 14407, allowing for a... Information Collection Under Review: Form G- 646, Sworn Statement of Refugee Applying for Admission to the... currently approved information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Sworn Statement of...

  11. 76 FR 72967 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-602; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... information collection notice was previously published in the Federal Register on August 19, 2011, at 76 FR... Collection Under Review; Form I- 602, Application by Refugee for Waiver of Grounds of Excludability; OMB... the Form/Collection: Application by Refugee for Waiver of Grounds of Excludability. (3) Agency...

  12. 75 FR 23784 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-643; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Collection Under Review; Form I- 643, Health and Human Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting... the Form/Collection: Health and Human Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status... households. Refugees and Asylees, Cuban/Haitian Entrants under section 202 of Public Law 99- 603,...

  13. 75 FR 52539 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on June 9, 2010, at 75 FR 32799... information collection under review: Form I- 777, Application for Replacement of Northern Marina Card; OMB...) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Replacement of Northern Marina Card. (3) Agency...

  14. 77 FR 21105 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-1145, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... their cell phone that their application or petition has been accepted, they are requested to provide their email address and/or cell phone number on Form G-1145, and attach the form to the application or..., at 77 FR 3278, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments...

  15. 76 FR 41282 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-693, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... published in the Federal Register on May 13, 2011, at 76 FR 24908, allowing for a 60-day public comment... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 693, Report of Medical Examination and Vaccination Record. The.../Collection: Report of Medical Examination and Vaccination Record. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  16. Tool Mediation in Focus on Form Activities: Case Studies in a Grammar-Exploring Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlstrom, Petter; Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa; Lindstrom, Henrik; Knutsson, Ola

    2007-01-01

    We present two case studies of two different pedagogical tasks in a Computer Assisted Language Learning environment called Grim. The main design principle in Grim is to support "Focus on Form" in second language pedagogy. Grim contains several language technology-based features for exploring linguistic forms (static, rule-based and statistical),…

  17. 76 FR 69274 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-817, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... notice was previously published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011, at 76 FR 50237, allowing for... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 817, Application for Family Unity Benefits; OMB Control No. 1615.../Collection: Application for Family Unity Benefits. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  18. 76 FR 28800 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Collection Under Review; Form I- 777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card; OMB Control No... Replacement of Northern Marina Card. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the... identification card if they received United States citizenship pursuant to Public Law 94-241 (covenant...

  19. 76 FR 60116 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    .... maritime industry. Form(s): MA-1048. Abstract: Part of the stated statutory policy of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, is to foster the development and maintenance of an adequate U.S.-flag merchant marine... operational or business impact on the merchant marine. MARAD believes that a brief preliminary survey...

  20. 76 FR 32019 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...: Maritime Administration (MARAD). Title: U.S. Merchant Marine Academy Candidate Application for Admission... Public: Individuals desiring to become students at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. Forms: KP 2-65. Abstract: The collection consists of Parts I, II, and III of Form KP 2-65 (U.S. Merchant Marine...

  1. 77 FR 16581 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...: Maritime Administration (MARAD). Title: U.S. Merchant Marine Academy Candidate Application for Admission... Public: Individuals desiring to become students at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. Forms: KP 2-65. Abstract: The collection consists of Parts I, II, and III of Form KP 2-65 (U.S. Merchant Marine...

  2. 78 FR 72749 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... comment period was published on August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49324). DATES: Comments must be submitted on or... HS- 7 Declaration form) with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) upon the importation of motor... Transportation (DOT) conformance bond that is furnished to CBP (on form HS-474) for each motor vehicle...

  3. 76 FR 76982 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-130, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Register on September 30, 2011, at 76 FR 60852, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 130, Petition for Alien Relative. The Department of Homeland.../Collection: Petition for Alien Relative. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

  4. 76 FR 41282 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-363, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... was previously published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2011, at 76 FR 21912, allowing for a 60... required to respond, as well as a brief abstract: Primary: Individuals or Households. Form I- 363 is used by applicants to ensure the financial support of a U.S. citizen. Without the use of Form I-363,...

  5. 78 FR 62644 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Temporary Protected Status, Form I-821...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... for Temporary Protected Status, Form I-821; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 30-day... collection: Form I-821; USCIS. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond, as well as a... allowing for a 60-day public comment period for this information collection was previously published in...

  6. 75 FR 75182 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-914, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Information Collection under Review: Form I- 914 and Supplements A and B, Application for T Nonimmigrant... Federal Register on September 8, 2010, at 75 FR 54646, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS... average respondent to respond: Form I-914, 500 responses at 2.25 hours per response; Supplement A,...

  7. 75 FR 71451 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-470, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2010, at 75 FR 51096... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 470, Application to Preserve Residence for Naturalization; OMB...) Title of the Form/Collection: Application to Preserve Residence for Naturalization. (3) Agency...

  8. 77 FR 65705 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Monthly Report on Naturalization Papers, Form Number N...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ..., at 77 FR 41796, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received one comment in connection... on Naturalization Papers, Form Number N-4; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved... Report on Naturalization Papers. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the...

  9. 77 FR 41796 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Monthly Report on Naturalization Papers, Form N-4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... on Naturalization Papers, Form N-4; Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment... existing information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Monthly Report on Naturalization Papers... USCIS of all persons to whom the oath of allegiance for naturalization is administered, within 30...

  10. 76 FR 11807 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... 75 FR 80835, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments for this... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 565, Application for Replacement Naturalization/Citizenship.../Collection: Application for Replacement Naturalization/Citizenship Document. (3) Agency form number, if...

  11. 75 FR 80835 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Collection Under Review; Form N- 565, Application for Replacement Naturalization/Citizenship Document; OMB... Replacement Naturalization/Citizenship Document. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component... certificate of naturalization as a U.S. citizen to be recognized by a foreign country. (5) An estimate of...

  12. 78 FR 11898 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Naturalization Oath Ceremony, Form N-445...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The November 8, 2012, at 77 FR 67018, allowing for a 60... Naturalization Oath Ceremony, Form N-445; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved Collection AGENCY: U... Naturalization Oath Ceremony. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the DHS...

  13. 77 FR 24507 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-25, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 16, 2012, at 77 FR 9258, allowing for a 60-day public comment... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 25, Request for Verification of Naturalization. The Department of.../Collection: Request for Verification of Naturalization. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  14. 76 FR 53144 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336; Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 336, Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization... Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization Proceedings (Under Section 336 of the INA). (3) Agency form number... a method for applicants, whose applications for naturalization are denied, to request a new...

  15. 75 FR 5098 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... 74 FR 58037, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments for this... information collection under review: Form N- 565, Application for Replacement Naturalization/Citizenship... information collection. ] (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Replacement...

  16. 77 FR 18255 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-565; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... collection under review; Form N- 565, Application for Replacement Naturalization/Citizenship Document; OMB... Replacement Naturalization/Citizenship Document. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component... certificate of naturalization as a U.S. citizen to be recognized by a foreign country. (5) An estimate of...

  17. 76 FR 69276 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336, Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Federal Register on August 25, 2011, at 76 FR 53144, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 336, Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization... Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization Proceedings (Under Section 336 of the INA). (3) Agency form...

  18. 75 FR 52540 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-130; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Collection Under Review; Form I- 130, Petition for Alien Relative; OMB Control No. 1615-0012. The Department...: Petition for Alien Relative. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department... States to petition on behalf of certain alien relatives who wish to immigrate to the United States....

  19. 77 FR 71432 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, Form I-526...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, Form I-526, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day... information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur. (3) Agency... the USCIS to determine if an alien can enter the U.S. to engage in commercial enterprise. (5)...

  20. 78 FR 13886 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate (2 Forms)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Estimate (2 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a... furnish estimates covering the previous year's nonfuel mineral industry. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-0065. Form Numbers: 9-4042-A and 9-4124-A. Title: Production Estimate. Type of Request: Extension of...

  1. 78 FR 46597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate (2 Forms)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Estimate (2 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a... preliminary publication to furnish estimates covering the previous year's nonfuel mineral industry. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-0065. Form Numbers: 9-4042-A and 9-4124-A. Title: Production Estimate....

  2. Application of a heterogeneous immunoassay for the quality control testing of release-active forms of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Pschenitza, Michael; Gavrilova, Elena S; Tarasov, Sergey А; Knopp, Dietmar; Niessner, Reinhard; Epstein, Oleg I

    2014-07-01

    We report on a specially designed diclofenac-ELISA for the determination of diclofenac in the presence of release-active forms of diclofenac in lactose dissolved in water solutions according to a predefined schedule in single-blind experiments. In accordance with the objective of this project, a number of experiments were conducted to determine the optimal ELISA conditions for detecting potential modulatory effects of release-active forms of diclofenac depending on their ability to affect the binding of diclofenac to anti-diclofenac antibodies. As a feature, the diclofenac antibodies were previously incubated with manufactured pharmaceutical samples containing release-active forms of diclofenac or placebo. For comparison of the sample types, measured in ELISA optical densities were chosen. For statistic analysis, Student's two-sample t-test and single-factor ANOVA were applied. The extremely low concentrations of diclofenac of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ng mL(-1) seem most appropriate for routine assay performance. The source of diclofenac used for standard solution preparation is not important but it could be important as the source of diclofenac for release active form of diclofenac preparation. As an outcome, the ELISA appeared to be suitable for the detection of the modifying effects of release-active forms of diclofenac toward the pharmaceutical substance in vitro.

  3. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  4. Microsomal activation of constituents of white snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum Houtt) to form toxic products.

    PubMed

    Beier, R C; Norman, J O; Irvin, T R; Witzel, D A

    1987-04-01

    Components of white snakeroot, a plant toxic to livestock and human beings, were activated by Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver microsomes. The toxic products of microsomal activation were evaluated in murine melanoma (B16F1) cell cultures. Toxic products in white snakeroot were inactive in cell culture systems without microsomal activation. This activation system revealed that at least 2 fractions of white snakeroot were metabolically activated to cytotoxic agents. The autocatalytic inactivator of cytochrome P-450, 1-aminobenzotriazole, inhibited activation of white snakeroot constituents by rat liver microsomes. PMID:3592355

  5. Effect of Plasma-Polymerized Layer Formed on a Surface of Titanium Dioxide Particle on Its Photocatalytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kenji; Iwasawa, Naoko; Sonoda, Tatsuhiko; Yamane, Hirokazu; Matsushima, Shigenori; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    If TiO2 particles are used as components of paint without any surface modification, binding resin of the paint will be easily decomposed by the photocatalytic activity of the particles. In this work, plasma polymerization of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane as a siloxane monomer is tried to form thin layer stable to the photocatalytic activity on the surface of TiO2 particles. The plasma-polymerized layer containing Si-O and Si-C bonds is formed on the surface of the particles and shows stability to the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The particles surface-modified with the plasma polymerization exhibit visible-light activity. The visible-light activity is originated from carbon doping which brings about in the particles during the plasma polymerization, and is thermally stable to be maintained after annealing at 673 K.

  6. Advantages of Gardening as a Form of Physical Activity in an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Joshua; Hermann, Janice R.; Parker, Stephany P.; Denney, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Children who normally abstain from physical activity may view gardening as a viable non-competitive alternative. The study reported here evaluated the effect of an Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service after-school gardening program on self-reported physical activity level of children in 3rd through 5th grade using the ACTIVITY self-report…

  7. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  8. 78 FR 45919 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... the Federal Register (78 FR 28820, 5/16/2013) requesting public comments. FERC received no comments on... throughout the form. Specifically, FERC clarified and simplified instructions, removed redundancy in...

  9. 75 FR 13771 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-102; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... until May 24, 2010. During this 60-day period, USCIS will be evaluating whether to revise the Form I-102... their arrival evidence document. (5) An estimate of the total number of respondents and the amount...

  10. 75 FR 80836 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-881; Extension of An Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... of Removal (Pursuant to Section 203 of Public Law 105-100, NACARA); OMB Control No. 1615-0072. The... (Pursuant to Section 203 of Public Law 105-100, NACARA). (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  11. 75 FR 1069 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... published in the Federal Register (74 FR 54840) on October 23, 2009, allowing for a 60-day comment period.... Abstract: Form I-418 is used by masters or owners of vessels or aircraft in complying with Sections 231...

  12. 78 FR 36633 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements, Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements... Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... Highway Traffic Safety Administration Title: Ejection Mitigation Phase in Reporting Requirements--Part...

  13. 75 FR 58443 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Form 5500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ..., and economic trends and policies. Form 5500 constitutes an information collection within the meaning... on June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35843). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB,...

  14. Physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract.

    PubMed

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Larpmahawong, Papassara; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Veeranondha, Sukitaya

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of formulation compositions on physicochemical properties and anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity of film-forming solutions containing alpha-mangostin-rich extract (AM). Film-forming solution bases and film-forming solutions containing AM were prepared by using Eudragit RL PO or Klucel LF or combinations of them as film-forming polymers. Rheological properties, pH values of the solutions, and mechanical properties of the dry films were investigated. An optimized formulation was selected and evaluated for the film surface, in vitro AM release, an anti-P. acnes activity, and potential for being a skin irritant. It was found that mechanical properties of the dry films were affected by total polymer contents, ratios of Klucel LF/Eudragit RL PO, AM, and contents of triethyl citrate. The film-forming solutions containing AM had pH values around 7.0. Their flow curves exhibited Newtonian flow behaviors. The optimized formulation provided films possessing smooth and nonporous surfaces. These films showed greater anti-P. acnes activity than their base films without toxicity to skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, AM released from the film matrix obeyed Higuchi's equation. In conclusion, the film-forming solutions containing AM had potential for treatment of acne vulgaris caused by P. acnes. However, further in vivo study is necessary to determine their efficacy and safety for using in patients suffering from acne vulgaris. PMID:24327275

  15. Processing 3D form and 3D motion: respective contributions of attention-based and stimulus-driven activity.

    PubMed

    Paradis, A-L; Droulez, J; Cornilleau-Pérès, V; Poline, J-B

    2008-12-01

    This study aims at segregating the neural substrate for the 3D-form and 3D-motion attributes in structure-from-motion perception, and at disentangling the stimulus-driven and endogenous-attention-driven processing of these attributes. Attention and stimulus were manipulated independently: participants had to detect the transitions of one attribute--form, 3D motion or colour--while the visual stimulus underwent successive transitions of all attributes. We compared the BOLD activity related to form and 3D motion in three conditions: stimulus-driven processing (unattended transitions), endogenous attentional selection (task) or both stimulus-driven processing and attentional selection (attended transitions). In all conditions, the form versus 3D-motion contrasts revealed a clear dorsal/ventral segregation. However, while the form-related activity is consistent with previously described shape-selective areas, the activity related to 3D motion does not encompass the usual "visual motion" areas, but rather corresponds to a high-level motion system, including IPL and STS areas. Second, we found a dissociation between the neural processing of unattended attributes and that involved in endogenous attentional selection. Areas selective for 3D-motion and form showed either increased activity at transitions of these respective attributes or decreased activity when subjects' attention was directed to a competing attribute. We propose that both facilitatory and suppressive mechanisms of attribute selection are involved depending on the conditions driving this selection. Therefore, attentional selection is not limited to an increased activity in areas processing stimulus properties, and may unveil different functional localization from stimulus modulation.

  16. Pathogenic forms of tau inhibit kinesin-dependent axonal transport through a mechanism involving activation of axonal phosphotransferases.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Morfini, Gerardo A; LaPointe, Nichole E; Pigino, Gustavo F; Patterson, Kristina R; Song, Yuyu; Andreadis, Athena; Fu, Yifan; Brady, Scott T; Binder, Lester I

    2011-07-01

    Aggregated filamentous forms of hyperphosphorylated tau (a microtubule-associated protein) represent pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. While axonal transport dysfunction is thought to represent a primary pathogenic factor in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, the direct molecular link between pathogenic forms of tau and deficits in axonal transport remain unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that filamentous, but not soluble, forms of wild-type tau inhibit anterograde, kinesin-based fast axonal transport (FAT) by activating axonal protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), independent of microtubule binding. Here, we demonstrate that amino acids 2-18 of tau, comprising a phosphatase-activating domain (PAD), are necessary and sufficient for activation of this pathway in axoplasms isolated from squid giant axons. Various pathogenic forms of tau displaying increased exposure of PAD inhibited anterograde FAT in squid axoplasm. Importantly, immunohistochemical studies using a novel PAD-specific monoclonal antibody in human postmortem tissue indicated that increased PAD exposure represents an early pathogenic event in AD that closely associates in time with AT8 immunoreactivity, an early marker of pathological tau. We propose a model of pathogenesis in which disease-associated changes in tau conformation lead to increased exposure of PAD, activation of PP1-GSK3, and inhibition of FAT. Results from these studies reveal a novel role for tau in modulating axonal phosphotransferases and provide a molecular basis for a toxic gain-of-function associated with pathogenic forms of tau.

  17. Life form and water source interact to determine active time and environment in cryptogams: an example from the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2013-09-01

    Antarctica, with its almost pristine conditions and relatively simple vegetation, offers excellent opportunities to investigate the influence of environmental factors on species performance, such information being crucial if the effects of possible climate change are to be understood. Antarctic vegetation is mainly cryptogamic. Cryptogams are poikilohydric and are only metabolically and photosynthetically active when hydrated. Activity patterns of the main life forms present, bryophytes (10 species, ecto- and endohydric), lichens (5 species) and phanerogams (2 species), were monitored for 21 days using chlorophyll a fluorescence as an indicator of metabolic activity and, therefore, of water regime at a mesic (hydration by meltwater) and a xeric (hydration by precipitation) site on Léonie Island/West Antarctic Peninsula (67°36'S). Length of activity depended mainly on site and form of hydration. Plants at the mesic site that were hydrated by meltwater were active for long periods, up to 100 % of the measurement period, whilst activity was much shorter at the xeric site where hydration was entirely by precipitation. There were also differences due to life form, with phanerogams and mesic bryophytes being most active and lichens generally much less so. The length of the active period for lichens was longer than in continental Antarctica but shorter than in the more northern Antarctic Peninsula. Light intensity when hydrated was positively related to the length of the active period. High activity species were strongly coupled to the incident light whilst low activity species were active under lower light levels and essentially uncoupled from incident light. Temperatures were little different between sites and also almost identical to temperatures, when active, for lichens in continental and peninsular Antarctica. Gradients in vegetation cover and growth rates across Antarctica are, therefore, not likely to be due to differences in temperature but more likely to

  18. Life form and water source interact to determine active time and environment in cryptogams: an example from the maritime Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Schlensog, Mark; Green, T G Allan; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2013-09-01

    Antarctica, with its almost pristine conditions and relatively simple vegetation, offers excellent opportunities to investigate the influence of environmental factors on species performance, such information being crucial if the effects of possible climate change are to be understood. Antarctic vegetation is mainly cryptogamic. Cryptogams are poikilohydric and are only metabolically and photosynthetically active when hydrated. Activity patterns of the main life forms present, bryophytes (10 species, ecto- and endohydric), lichens (5 species) and phanerogams (2 species), were monitored for 21 days using chlorophyll a fluorescence as an indicator of metabolic activity and, therefore, of water regime at a mesic (hydration by meltwater) and a xeric (hydration by precipitation) site on Léonie Island/West Antarctic Peninsula (67°36'S). Length of activity depended mainly on site and form of hydration. Plants at the mesic site that were hydrated by meltwater were active for long periods, up to 100 % of the measurement period, whilst activity was much shorter at the xeric site where hydration was entirely by precipitation. There were also differences due to life form, with phanerogams and mesic bryophytes being most active and lichens generally much less so. The length of the active period for lichens was longer than in continental Antarctica but shorter than in the more northern Antarctic Peninsula. Light intensity when hydrated was positively related to the length of the active period. High activity species were strongly coupled to the incident light whilst low activity species were active under lower light levels and essentially uncoupled from incident light. Temperatures were little different between sites and also almost identical to temperatures, when active, for lichens in continental and peninsular Antarctica. Gradients in vegetation cover and growth rates across Antarctica are, therefore, not likely to be due to differences in temperature but more likely to

  19. Five of 12 forms of vaccinia virus-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450 metabolically activate aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, T; Yamano, S; Guzelian, P S; Gelboin, H V; Gonzalez, F J

    1990-06-01

    Twelve forms of human hepatic cytochrome P450 were expressed in hepatoma cells by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The expressed P450s were analyzed for their abilities to activate the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 to metabolites having mutagenic or DNA-binding properties. Five forms, P450s IA2, IIA3, IIB7, IIIA3, and IIIA4, activated aflatoxin B1 to mutagenic metabolites as assessed by the production of His revertants of Salmonella typhimurium in the Ames test. The same P450s catalyzed conversion of aflatoxin B1 to DNA-bound derivatives as judged by an in situ assay in which the radiolabeled carcinogen was incubated with cells expressing the individual P450 forms. Seven other human P450s, IIC8, IIC9, IID6, IIE1, IIF1, IIIA5, and IVB1, did not significantly activate aflatoxin B1 as measured by both the Ames test and the DNA-binding assay. Moreover, polyclonal anti-rat liver P450 antibodies that crossreact with individual human P450s IA2, IIA3, IIIA3, and IIIA4 each inhibited aflatoxin B1 activation catalyzed by human liver S-9 extracts. Inhibition ranged from as low as 10% with antibody against IIA3 to as high as 65% with antibody against IIIA3 and IIIA4. These results establish that metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 in human liver involves the contribution of multiple forms of P450. PMID:2162057

  20. An activated form of ADAM10 is tumor selective and regulates cancer stem-like cells and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Atapattu, Lakmali; Saha, Nayanendu; Chheang, Chanly; Eissman, Moritz F; Xu, Kai; Vail, Mary E; Hii, Linda; Llerena, Carmen; Liu, Zhanqi; Horvay, Katja; Abud, Helen E; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Moritz, Robert L; Ding, Bi-Sen; Cao, Zhongwei; Rafii, Shahin; Ernst, Matthias; Scott, Andrew M; Nikolov, Dimitar B; Lackmann, Martin; Janes, Peter W

    2016-08-22

    The transmembrane metalloprotease ADAM10 sheds a range of cell surface proteins, including ligands and receptors of the Notch, Eph, and erbB families, thereby activating signaling pathways critical for tumor initiation and maintenance. ADAM10 is thus a promising therapeutic target. Although widely expressed, its activity is normally tightly regulated. We now report prevalence of an active form of ADAM10 in tumors compared with normal tissues, in mouse models and humans, identified by our conformation-specific antibody mAb 8C7. Structure/function experiments indicate mAb 8C7 binds an active conformation dependent on disulfide isomerization and oxidative conditions, common in tumors. Moreover, this active ADAM10 form marks cancer stem-like cells with active Notch signaling, known to mediate chemoresistance. Importantly, specific targeting of active ADAM10 with 8C7 inhibits Notch activity and tumor growth in mouse models, particularly regrowth after chemotherapy. Our results indicate targeted inhibition of active ADAM10 as a potential therapy for ADAM10-dependent tumor development and drug resistance. PMID:27503072

  1. 77 FR 77067 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form No. 556); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...-8659 for TTY. Docket: Users interested in receiving automatic notification of activity in this docket... transmission services priced on a nondiscriminatory basis; Operate in ``parallel'' with other...

  2. A facile reflux procedure to increase active surface sites form highly active and durable supported palladium@platinum bimetallic nanodendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Li, Yingjun; Liu, Baocang; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    A series of well-dispersed bimetallic Pd@Pt nanodendrites uniformly supported on XC-72 carbon black are fabricated by using different capping agents. These capping agents are essential for the branched morphology control. However, the surfactant adsorbed on the nanodendrites surface blocks the access of reactant molecules to the active surface sites, and the catalytic activities of these bimetallic nanodendrites are significantly restricted. Herein, a facile reflux procedure to effectively remove the capping agent molecules without significantly affecting their sizes is reported for activating supported nanocatalysts. More significantly, the structure and morphology of the nanodendrites can also be retained, enhancing the numbers of active surface sites, catalytic activity and stability toward methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions. The as-obtained hot water reflux-treated Pd@Pt/C catalyst manifests superior catalytic activity and stability both in terms of surface and mass specific activities, as compared to the untreated catalysts and the commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts. We anticipate that this effective and facile removal method has more general applicability to highly active nanocatalysts prepared with various surfactants, and should lead to improvements in environmental protection and energy production.

  3. 76 FR 9810 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous Metals Surveys (17 Forms)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... (17 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a...-226-9445 (phone); 970-226-9230 (fax); or pondsp@usgs.gov (e-mail). Please reference Information... (telephone); ckostick@usgs.gov (e-mail); or by mail at U.S. Geological Survey, 985 National Center,...

  4. 76 FR 11806 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-1145, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... notified via e-mail and/or text message on their cell phone that their application or petition has been accepted, they are requested to provide their e-mail address and/or cell phone number on Form G-1145, and... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on December 14, 2010, at 75 FR...

  5. 76 FR 78080 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    .... Affected Public: Officers or members of a crew who suffered death, injury, or illness while employed on... surviving dependents, beneficiaries, and legal representatives of officers or crew members. Forms: None... suffered while serving as officers or members of a crew on board a vessel owned or operated by the...

  6. Arousal Model Components in Television Programming: Form Activity and Violent Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; Krull, Robert

    In research reported in this paper, an attempt was made to isolate arousal components due to the "form" of a television program from arousal components due to the "content" of the program. The following hypotheses were formulated: (1) emotional arousal will take place in programing segments depicting violent acts, (2) arousal due to the cognitive…

  7. 78 FR 8500 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 6-Q); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Financial Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. DATES: Comments on the collection of information are due April 8...: Title: FERC Form 6-Q (Quarterly Financial Report of Oil Pipeline Companies). OMB Control No.: 1902-0206... profitability, efficiency, risk and in its overall monitoring. Type of Respondents: Oil Pipelines. Estimate...

  8. 78 FR 63487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker, Form I-129...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... notice was previously published in the Federal Register on July 5, 2013, at 78 FR 40490, allowing for a... the proposed collection of information, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used... respondents at 1 hour; Q-1 Classification Supplement to Form I-129--155 respondents at .34 hours; and...

  9. 75 FR 21014 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-694; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information..., Chief, Regulatory Products Division, Clearance Officer, 111 Massachusetts Avenue, NW., Washington, DC...: Extension of an existing information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Notice of Appeal...

  10. 78 FR 73237 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... comment period was published on September 5, 2013 (78 FR 54722). DATES: Comments must be submitted on or... trends lead the agency to estimate that NHTSA will receive approximately 460 requests for confidential... collection techniques or other forms of information technology. A comment to OMB is most effective if...

  11. 76 FR 40386 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-905, Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... FR 20362, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received one comment after publishing..., Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 905, Application for Authorization to Issue Certification for Health...

  12. 76 FR 3599 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request Form FNS-798 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Approved Collection Form. Abstract: Section 17(f)(4) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1786(f... for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are required to conduct an annual closeout and reconciliation..., 2011. Julia Paradis, Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. BILLING CODE 3410-30-P...

  13. 77 FR 75112 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing Collection; Comment Request-Forms FNS-806-A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...), and FNS-806-B, Claim for Reimbursement (Special Milk Program for Children) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... Special Milk Program. DATES: Written comments must be received on or before February 19, 2013. ADDRESSES... Lunch Program, Part 220 School Breakfast Program, and Part 215 Special Milk Program. Form Number:...

  14. 75 FR 32799 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Form I-777; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    .... 1615-0042. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has submitted the following information collection request for review and clearance in accordance with the... to revise Form I-777 we will advise the public when we publish the 30-day notice in the...

  15. 76 FR 11807 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form G-646, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... United States; OMB Control No. 1615-0097. * * * * * The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship...) Title of the Form/Collection: Sworn Statement of Refugee Applying for Admission to the United States. (3... the applicants to the United States as refugees. (5) An estimate of the total number of......

  16. 78 FR 67397 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Short-Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... year renewal approvals, contain fillable- fileable, and E-signature capabilities, and the FARA eFile system in operation since March 1, 2011, permits registrants to file their ] registration forms electronically to the FARA Registration Unit, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. FARA eFile is accessed via...

  17. 75 FR 78264 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336, Revision to an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Register at 75 FR 51095 announcing the extension of the Form N-336. The 60-day notice announced that during..., USCIS published a 30-day extension notice in the Federal Register at 75 FR 70277. The notice should have... published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2010, at 75 FR 51095, allowing for a 60-day public...

  18. 75 FR 70277 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form N-336, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... on August 18, 2010, at 75 FR 51095, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not... Information Collection Under Review: Form N- 336, Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization.../Collection: Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization Proceedings Under Section 336. (3)...

  19. 77 FR 55897 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements: Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...: Maritime Administration (MARAD). Title: Request for Transfer of Ownership, Registry, and Flag, or Charter... foreign transfer of U.S.-flag vessels. Forms: MA-29, MA-29A, MA-29B (Note: MA-29A is used only in cases of... the sale, transfer, charter, lease, or mortgage of U.S. documented vessels to non-citizens, or...

  20. 75 FR 52538 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-566; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... From A or G Status or Requesting A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization; OMB Control No. 1615... Status or Requesting A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization. (3) Agency form number, if any..., international organizations, and NATO personnel by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, and the...

  1. 76 FR 51382 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-566; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Collection Under Review: Form I- 566, Interagency Record of Request, A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or Change/Adjustment of Status To/From A, G, or NATO Status. The Department of Homeland Security... Request, A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or Change/Adjustment of Status To/From A, G,...

  2. 78 FR 24402 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC Form 80); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... responses response burden (A) (B) (A) x (B) = (D) (C) x (D) (C) 400 0.167 66.8 3 200 ] The total estimated... unconstructed project shall file an initial Form No. 80 after such project has been in operation for a full calendar year prior to the filing deadline. Each licensee of an existing (constructed) project shall...

  3. 77 FR 12107 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ..., Local, or Tribal Governments; Shippers; Maritime Related Organizations and Associations; Local Municipal Planning Organizations; Rail and Land Transportation Companies. Forms: Shipper Survey. Abstract: This three... well as its expected burden. The Federal Register Notice (76 FR 67250) with a 60-day comment...

  4. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ...As part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C....

  5. 77 FR 56232 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Forms for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... contractors complete forms ETA-790 (the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance Order) and ETA-795 (the Agricultural Food and Food Processing Clearance Memorandum) to recruit agricultural workers in compliance with... published in the Federal Register on May 15, 2012 (77 FR 28625). Interested parties are encouraged to...

  6. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  7. 76 FR 44349 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... Arrival/Departure), and the Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA). CBP is proposing that...

  8. 75 FR 76997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... Arrival/Departure), and the Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA). This is a...

  9. 78 FR 70570 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... reduce paperwork and respondent burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies...

  10. 77 FR 50521 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for an Individual Fee Waiver, Form Number I-912...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for an.... SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be... households. The collection of information on Form I-912 is necessary in order for U.S. Citizenship...

  11. 75 FR 65499 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-600/I-600A, Extension of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 23, 2010, at 75 FR 35824, allowing for a 60-day public comment... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-600/ I-600A, Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day...

  12. 77 FR 3486 - Agency Information Collection Activities: No Agency Form Number, File Number OMB 25, Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Register on October 28, 2011, at 76 FR 66945, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: No Agency Form.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection...

  13. 75 FR 65021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-485 and Supplements A and E, Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Federal Register on June 30, 2010, at 75 FR 37820, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-485 and... Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Noticeof New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 1253 - Prior Approval for Enterprise Products-Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior Approval for Enterprise Products... AGENCY ENTERPRISES PRIOR APPROVAL FOR ENTERPRISE PRODUCTS Pt. 1253, App. Appendix to Part 1253—Prior Approval for Enterprise Products—Instructions and Notice of New Activity Form ER02JY09.000...

  19. 78 FR 3900 - Generic Drug User Fee-Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and Finished Dosage Form Facility Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee--Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and Finished Dosage Form Facility Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rate for the...

  20. Reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Research Settings: Last 7-Day Self-Administered Long Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan S.; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the last 7-day long form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Craig et al., 2003) and to examine the construct validity for the measure in a research setting. Participants were 151 male (n = 52) and female (n = 99) university students (M age = 24.15 years, SD = 5.01)…

  1. A sandwich ELISA for the conformation-specific quantification of the activated form of human Bax.

    PubMed

    Teijido, Oscar; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Llanos, Raul; Peton, Ashley; Urtecho, Jean-Baptiste; Soprani, Adauri; Villamayor, Aimee; Antonsson, Bruno; Manon, Stéphen; Dejean, Laurent

    2016-03-15

    Bcl-2 family proteins are critical regulators of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which represents the point of no return of apoptotic cell death. The exposure of the Bax N-terminus at the mitochondria reflects Bax activation; and this activated configuration of the Bax protein is associated with MOMP. N-terminal exposure can be detected using specific monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies, and the onset of activated Bax has extensively been used as an early marker of apoptosis. The protocols of immunoprecipitation and/or immunocytochemistry commonly used to detect activated Bax are long and tedious, and allow semiquantification of the antigen at best. The sandwich ELISA protocol we developed has a 5 ng/mL detection limit and is highly specific for the activated conformation of Bax. This ELISA allows a rapid quantification of activated human Bax in whole cells and isolated mitochondria protein extracts. These properties grant this assay the potential to further clarify the prognostic and diagnostic value of activated Bax in disorders associated with deregulated apoptotic pathways such as degenerative diseases or cancer. PMID:26748144

  2. [Erythropoietin-forming and esterase activity of rat kidney subcellular fractions during stimulation of erythropoiesis].

    PubMed

    Novikov, N M; Voronkov, S F; Voloshchenko, L G; Mikhaĭlova, S N

    1977-01-01

    Stimulation of erythropoiesis in rats (hemolytic-phenylhydrazine and acute posthemorrhagic anemia, effect of hypoxic hypoxia) was accompanied by an increased erythropoietine-formating activity in kidney microsomes and light mitochondria. The phenomenon correlated with an increased esterase activity in hypotonic supernatant of kidney homogenate mainly due to the enzymatic fraction, corresponding to alpha2-globulin by its mobility. Histochemical examination of kidney showed that the most distinct alterations in the esterase activity were observed in epithelial cells of nephron proximal part and in capillary endothelium.

  3. 76 FR 8399 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT....), this notice announces that the Information Collection Request (ICR) abstracted below has been forwarded... the information collections and their expected burden. The Federal Register Notice with a...

  4. Identification and steroid receptor activity of products formed from the bromination of technical nonylphenol.

    PubMed

    Hill, Elizabeth M; Smith, Michael D

    2006-09-01

    Alkylphenols are commonly present in wastewater effluents and may contribute to the total hormonal loading of receiving waters due to their weakly estrogenic properties. However the presence of reactive bromine species in some treated wastewaters can result in the formation of brominated alkylphenols which may also possess steroid receptor activity. In this study, the products of bromination of technical nonylphenol (NP) were identified, purified and tested in vitro in recombinant yeast steroid receptor transcription assays. Bromination of NP in the presence of acetic acid resulted in the formation of one major product which was identified as 2-bromo-4-nonylphenol (NPBr). In the presence of methanol/water, bromination of NP resulted in the formation 2,6-dibromo-4-nonylphenol (NPBr2) as well as a number of other minor polybrominated products. The EC50 of NPBr in the yeast estrogen receptor transcription (YES) assay was 6.7x10(-6) M, which was 48 fold less active than NP and 86,000 fold less active than the estrogen agonist 17beta-estradiol NPBr2 was not active in the YES assay. NP, NPBr and NPBr2 were all weakly androgenic in the yeast androgen receptor transcription assay but at concentrations which were 100,000 fold less active than the androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone. Neither NP, NPBr or NPBr2 exhibited appreciable anti-estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity in the yeast receptor transcription assays. This study suggests that bromination of NP markedly reduces its estrogen receptor transcription activity but has no effect on the weak androgen receptor transcription activity of the alkylphenol. PMID:16473392

  5. Cytolytic and antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides derived from amoebapore, the pore-forming peptide of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Leippe, M; Andrä, J; Müller-Eberhard, H J

    1994-01-01

    The pore-forming peptide amoebapore is considered part of the cytolytic armament of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebapore is composed of 77 amino acid residues arranged in four alpha-helical domains. For structure-function analysis, synthetic peptides were constructed corresponding to these four domains: H1 (residues 1-22), H2 (25-39), H3 (40-64), and H4 (67-77). The peptides H1 and H3, representing two highly amphipathic alpha-helical regions of amoebapore, possessed pore-forming activity. Peptide H3 displayed cytolytic and antibacterial functions similar to those of natural amoebapore. The most potent antibacterial activity and the broadest activity spectrum were expressed by H1-Mel, a hybrid molecule composed of the N-terminal alpha-helix of amoebapore and the C-terminal hexapeptide of melittin from the venom of Apis mellifera. Images PMID:8146160

  6. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cells form spontaneously active neuronal networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Teemu J; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Lappalainen, Riikka S; Skottman, Heli; Suuronen, Riitta; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Hyttinen, Jari A K; Narkilahti, Susanna

    2009-07-01

    The production of functional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neuronal cells is critical for the application of hESCs in treating neurodegenerative disorders. To study the potential functionality of hESC-derived neurons, we cultured and monitored the development of hESC-derived neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that these networks were positive for the neuronal marker proteins beta-tubulin(III) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). The hESC-derived neuronal networks were spontaneously active and exhibited a multitude of electrical impulse firing patterns. Synchronous bursts of electrical activity similar to those reported for hippocampal neurons and rodent embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal networks were recorded from the differentiated cultures until up to 4 months. The dependence of the observed neuronal network activity on sodium ion channels was examined using tetrodotoxin (TTX). Antagonists for the glutamate receptors NMDA [D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid] and AMPA/kainate [6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione], and for GABAA receptors [(-)-bicuculline methiodide] modulated the spontaneous electrical activity, indicating that pharmacologically susceptible neuronal networks with functional synapses had been generated. The findings indicate that hESC-derived neuronal cells can generate spontaneously active networks with synchronous communication in vitro, and are therefore suitable for use in developmental and drug screening studies, as well as for regenerative medicine.

  7. An Autoinhibited Dimeric Form of BAX Regulates the BAX Activation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Garner, Thomas P; Reyna, Denis E; Priyadarshi, Amit; Chen, Hui-Chen; Li, Sheng; Wu, Yang; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Malashkevich, Vladimir N; Almo, Steve S; Cheng, Emily H; Gavathiotis, Evripidis

    2016-08-01

    Pro-apoptotic BAX is a cell fate regulator playing an important role in cellular homeostasis and pathological cell death. BAX is predominantly localized in the cytosol, where it has a quiescent monomer conformation. Following a pro-apoptotic trigger, cytosolic BAX is activated and translocates to the mitochondria to initiate mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Here, cellular, biochemical, and structural data unexpectedly demonstrate that cytosolic BAX also has an inactive dimer conformation that regulates its activation. The full-length crystal structure of the inactive BAX dimer revealed an asymmetric interaction consistent with inhibition of the N-terminal conformational change of one protomer and the displacement of the C-terminal helix α9 of the second protomer. This autoinhibited BAX dimer dissociates to BAX monomers before BAX can be activated. Our data support a model whereby the degree of apoptosis induction is regulated by the conformation of cytosolic BAX and identify an unprecedented mechanism of cytosolic BAX inhibition. PMID:27425408

  8. Potential Therapeutic Advantages of Doxorubicin when Activated by Formaldehyde to Function as a DNA Adduct-Forming Agent.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Suzanne M; Rephaeli, Ada; Nudelman, Abraham; Ugarenko, Michal; Phillips, Don R

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin has been in use as a key anticancer drug for forty years, either as a single agent or in combination chemotherapy. It functions primarily by interfering with topoisomerase II activity but in the presence of formaldehyde, it forms adducts with DNA, mainly with the exocyclic amine of guanine at GpC sites and these adducts are more cytotoxic than topoisomerase II induced damage. High levels of adducts form spontaneously from the endogenous level of formaldehyde in tumour cells (1,300 adducts per cell after a 4 hr treatment with doxorubicin), but substantially higher levels form with the addition of exogenous sources of formaldehyde, such as formaldehyde releasing prodrugs. The enhanced cytotoxicity of adducts has been confirmed in mouse models, with adduct-forming conditions resulting in much improved inhibition of tumour growth, as well as cardioprotection. Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity has been attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning, and the cardioprotection is consistent with a mechanism switch from topoisomerase II poisoning to covalent adduct formation. Although the adducts have a half-life of less than one day, a population remains as essentially permanent lesions. The capacity of doxorubicin to form adducts offers a range of potential advantages over the conventional use of doxorubicin (as a topoisomerase II poison), including: enhanced cell kill; tumour-selective activation, hence tumour-selective cell kill; decreased cardiotoxicity; decreased resistance to prolonged doxorubicin treatment. There is therefore enormous potential to improve clinical responses to doxorubicin by using conditions which favour the formation of doxorubicin-DNA adducts.

  9. Gender differences in circulating endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming capacity and migratory activity in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hoetzer, Greta L; MacEneaney, Owen J; Irmiger, Heather M; Keith, Rebecca; Van Guilder, Gary P; Stauffer, Brian L; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    Middle-aged women have a lower prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular events compared with men. The mechanisms responsible for this gender-specific difference are unclear. Numeric and functional impairments of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. It is currently unknown whether there are gender-related differences in EPC number and function in middle-aged adults. We tested the hypothesis that EPCs isolated from middle-aged women demonstrate greater colony-forming capacity and migratory activity compared with men of similar age. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 50 sedentary adults, 25 men (59 +/- 1 years of age) and 25 women (58 +/- 1 years of age). Mononuclear cells were isolated and preplated for 2 days, and nonadherent cells were further cultured for 7 days to determine EPC colony-forming units. Migratory activity of EPCs was determined using a modified Boyden chamber. The number of EPC colony-forming units was significantly higher (approximately 150%) in samples collected from women (16 +/- 3) compared with that collected from men (7 +/- 1). In addition, EPC migration (relative fluorescent units) was approximately 40% greater in women (729 +/- 74) than in men (530 +/- 67). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that EPC colony-forming capacity and migratory activity are higher in middle-aged women than in men.

  10. Opposite effects of visual and auditory word-likeness on activity in the visual word form area

    PubMed Central

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Schurz, Matthias; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The present fMRI study investigated the effects of word-likeness of visual and auditory stimuli on activity along the ventral visual stream. In the context of a one-back task, we presented visual and auditory words, pseudowords, and artificial stimuli (i.e., false-fonts and reversed-speech, respectively). Main findings were regionally specific effects of word-likeness on activation in a left ventral occipitotemporal region corresponding to the classic localization of the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). Specifically, we found an inverse word-likeness effect for the visual stimuli in the form of decreased activation for words compared to pseudowords which, in turn, elicited decreased activation compared to the artificial stimuli. For the auditory stimuli, we found positive word-likeness effects as both words and pseudowords elicited more activation than the artificial stimuli. This resulted from a marked deactivation in response to the artificial stimuli and no such deactivation for words and pseudowords. We suggest that the opposite effects of visual and auditory word-likeness on VWFA activation can be explained by assuming the involvement of visual orthographic memory representations. For the visual stimuli, these representations reduce the coding effort as a function of word-likeness. This results in highest activation to the artificial stimuli and least activation to words for which corresponding representations exist. The positive auditory word-likeness effects may result from activation of orthographic information associated with the auditory words and pseudowords. The view that the VWFA has a primarily visual function is supported by our findings of high activation to the visual artificial stimuli (which have no phonological or semantic associations) and deactivation to the auditory artificial stimuli. According to the phenomenon of cross-modal sensory suppression such deactivations during demanding auditory processing are expected in visual regions. PMID

  11. [Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on formation of active oxygen forms in wheat coleoptiles].

    PubMed

    Kolupaiev, Iu Ie; Iastreb, T O; Shvidenko, M V; Karpets', Iu V

    2011-01-01

    The comparative study of influence of exogenous salicylic (SaA) and succinic (SuA) acids on the production of reactive oxygen species by isolated wheat coleoptiles has been provided. Under the action of both acids the increase of generation of superoxide anion-radical (O2(.-)) was observed. This increase was partially suppressed by treatment of coleoptiles with inhibitors of peroxidase (salicylhydroxamic acid) and NADP H-oxidase (imidazole and alpha-naphthol). The increase of hydrogen peroxide content, activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was registered under the influence of SaA and SuA; catalase activity did not change essentially. The treatment of coleoptiles with the indicated acids resulted in the increase of their resistance to abiotic stress (damaging heating, 43 +/- 0,1 degrees C, 10 min). The conclusion is made, that the increase of O2(.-) generation in wheat coleoptiles under the action of SaA and SuA is related, probably, to the increase of apoplast peroxidase and NADP.H-oxidase activity, and the rise of H2O2 content is related to the growth of SOD activity. These enzymatic systems are involved in the induction of plant cells protective reactions to the hyperthermia. PMID:22276431

  12. 77 FR 73736 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements: Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment on proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency can collect certain information from the public, it must receive approval from the...

  13. 76 FR 64379 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; eForm 6 Access...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following information... Number: ATF F 5013.3. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who...

  14. 78 FR 18361 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Nonimmigrant Petition Based on Blanket L Petition; Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ..., at 78 FR 1218, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comment in... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Nonimmigrant...-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and...

  15. 77 FR 55486 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Employment Eligibility Verification, Form I-9, OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...-day notice) in the Federal Register at 77 FR 50710, requesting public comments in connection with... Register on August 22, 2012 at 77 FR 50710, especially regarding the estimated public burden and associated... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities:...

  16. 78 FR 5194 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Remove the Conditions on Residence, Form I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... at 77 FR 65708, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did receive 3 comments in... Register at 77 FR 65708 on October 30, 2012. If you need a copy of the information collection instrument... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition...

  17. 77 FR 64119 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status, Form Number I-643...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ..., at 77 FR 38650, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comment(s) in... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee...: 30-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and...

  18. 78 FR 2415 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Family Unity Benefits, Form Number I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ..., at 77 FR 65703, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments in... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application...-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and...

  19. 78 FR 32261 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition by Alien Entrepreneur, Form Number I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ..., 2012, at 77 FR 71432, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant...-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and...

  20. 77 FR 60453 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Sponsor's Notice of Change of Address, Form Number I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ..., at 77 FR 43345, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments in... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Sponsor's... Collection ACTION: 30-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship...