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Sample records for activities include development

  1. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  2. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  3. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  4. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  5. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  6. [Development of asymmetric synthesis of optically active compounds including fluoroorganic molecules].

    PubMed

    Iseki, K

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis of chiral fluorinated molecules is important in the biological and medicinal chemistry fields in view of the influence of fluorine's unique properties on biological activity. In recent years, we have studied asymmetric synthesis focussing on such optically active compounds. This review describes 1) diastereoselective trifluoromethylation of chiral N-acyloxazolidinones, 2) catalytic enantioselective aldol reactions of fluorine-substituted ketene silyl acetals, and 3) catalytic enantioselective allylation of aldehydes mediated by chiral Lewis bases. The trifluoromethylation of lithium enolates of N-acyloxazolidinones with iodotrifluoromethane is mediated by triethylborane to give the corresponding trifluoromethylated products with up to 86% diastereomeric excess. The stereoselective reaction is considered to proceed through the attack of the trifluoromethyl radical on the less hindered face of the lithium imide. Difluoroketene and bromofluoroketene trimethylsilyl ethyl acetals react with various aldehydes in the presence of chiral Lewis acids to afford the corresponding desired aldols with up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee). It is noteworthy that the aldol reactions of the fluorine-substituted acetals at -78 degrees C and at higher temperatures (-45 or -20 degrees C) provide the (+)- and (-)-aldols, respectively, with excellent-to-good enantioselectivity. Chiral phosphoramides newly prepared from (S)-proline were found to catalyze the allylation and crotylation of aromatic aldehydes with allylic trichlorosilanes in good enantioselective yields (up to 90% ee). (S,S)-Bis(alpha-methylbenzyl)formamide developed as an efficient catalyst for the allylation and crotylation of aliphatic aldehydes mediates the enantioselective addition with the assistance of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% ee.

  7. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  9. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  10. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells.

  11. Development of multidrug resistance due to multiple factors including P-glycoprotein overexpression under K-selection after MYC and HRAS oncogene activation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukari; Sato, Hiroyuki; Motokura, Toru

    2006-05-15

    Multistep tumorigenesis is a form of microevolution consisting of mutation and selection. To clarify the role of selection modalities in tumor development, we examined two alternative evolutionary conditions, r-selection in sparse culture, which allows cells to proliferate rapidly, and K-selection in confluent culture, in which overcrowding constrains cell proliferation. Using MYC- and EJ-RAS-transformed rat embryo fibroblasts, we found that K-selected cells acquired and stably maintained multidrug resistance (MDR) to DOX, VCR, MTX and Ara-C. Then, we examined the involvement of a number of factors potentially causal of the development of MDR, that is, ploidy, Tp53 mutation, doubling time and the expression levels of genes related to drug resistance. Although ploidy status and Tp53 mutations did not correlate with MDR, we found that Abcb1/Mdr1, encoding P-glycoprotein (Pgp), was significantly upregulated after K-selection. Cyclosporin A, a competitive inhibitor of Pgp, increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and reduced the resistance to it. Indeed, the population of Pgp-transfected cells significantly expanded under K-, but not under r-selection. In addition to Pgp upregulation, altered expression of other genes such as Cda/cytidine deaminase and Slc29a1/equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and prolonged doubling times were associated with MDR. This system reproduces events associated with MDR in vivo and would be useful for analysis of MDR development.

  12. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  13. Development of an Aeroelastic Analysis Including a Viscous Flow Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Bakhle, Milind A.

    2001-01-01

    Under this grant, Version 4 of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes aeroelastic code (TURBO-AE) has been developed and verified. The TURBO-AE Version 4 aeroelastic code allows flutter calculations for a fan, compressor, or turbine blade row. This code models a vibrating three-dimensional bladed disk configuration and the associated unsteady flow (including shocks, and viscous effects) to calculate the aeroelastic instability using a work-per-cycle approach. Phase-lagged (time-shift) periodic boundary conditions are used to model the phase lag between adjacent vibrating blades. The direct-store approach is used for this purpose to reduce the computational domain to a single interblade passage. A disk storage option, implemented using direct access files, is available to reduce the large memory requirements of the direct-store approach. Other researchers have implemented 3D inlet/exit boundary conditions based on eigen-analysis. Appendix A: Aeroelastic calculations based on three-dimensional euler analysis. Appendix B: Unsteady aerodynamic modeling of blade vibration using the turbo-V3.1 code.

  14. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  15. Initiatives to Develop Web Sites Including Information about Brownfields Properties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site was created to assist in planning, designing, and operating web sites that include information about individual brownfields properties. The report is of value to parties designing or managing such sites.

  16. Including Teachers in the Design of Collaborative Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Improving instruction has been shown to be among the best means of improving student achievement, and professional development has, in turn, been shown to be integral to improving instruction. Moreover, to be effective, professional development programs should be based on adult learning principles and incorporate teacher input. The problem serving…

  17. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  18. Algorithm-development activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.

    1994-01-01

    The task of algorithm-development activities at USF continues. The algorithm for determining chlorophyll alpha concentration, (Chl alpha) and gelbstoff absorption coefficient for SeaWiFS and MODIS-N radiance data is our current priority.

  19. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her...) Other market promotion activities. Credit-Back shall be granted for market promotion other than...

  20. CNES gondola development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André; Verdier, Nicolas; Escarnot, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, André

    Recent safety rules and gondola obsolescence oblige CNES to initiate new developments to improve performances according scientific needs. A large project called NOSYCA will able to offer versatile housekeeping and science telemetry system for Zero Pressure Balloons. This concept is modular, use IP protocol for scientific high data rate and mix telemetry systems to perform long duration flight. To respect safety duties, the long duration flight ISBA gondola is modified. New functions are implemented to increase reliability for stratospheric super and zero Pressure balloons flights. "Pointed gondola activity" is also concerned by improvements. After the First Fireball flight, new equipment designs are in progress for future missions. At least, boundary layer balloons performances of science payload and housekeeping system increase with new instrumentation and network telemetry concepts.

  1. Nuclear actin activates human transcription factor genes including the OCT4 gene.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shota; Yamamoto, Koji; Tokunaga, Makio; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    RNA microarray analyses revealed that nuclear actin activated many human transcription factor genes including OCT4, which is required for gene reprogramming. Oct4 is known to be activated by nuclear actin in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings imply that this process of OCT4 activation is conserved in vertebrates and among cell types and could be used for gene reprogramming of human cells.

  2. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans including syndecan-3 modulate BMP activity during limb cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie C; Li, Yingcui; Seghatoleslami, M Reza; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in multiple aspects of limb development including regulation of cartilage differentiation. Several BMPs bind strongly to heparin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix have recently been implicated as modulators of BMP signaling in some developing systems. Here we have explored the role of HSPGs in regulating BMP activity during limb chondrogenesis by evaluating the effects of exogenous heparan sulfate (HS), heparitinase treatment, and overexpression of the HSPG syndecan-3 on the ability of BMP2 to modulate the chondrogenic differentiation of limb mesenchymal cells in micromass culture. Exogenous HS dramatically enhances the ability of BMP2 to stimulate chondrogenesis and cartilage specific gene expression, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to stimulate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, HS stimulates BMP2-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8, transcriptional mediators of BMP2 signaling, indicating that HS enhances the interaction of BMP2 with its receptors. Pretreatment of micromass cultures with heparitinase to degrade endogenous HSPGs also enhances the chondrogenic activity of BMP2, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together these results indicate that exogenous HS or heparitinase enhance the chondrogenic activity of BMP2 by interfering with its interaction with endogenous HSPGs that would normally restrict its interaction with its receptors. Consistent with the possibility that HSPGs are negative modulators of BMP signaling during chondrogenesis, we have found that overexpression of syndecan-3, which is one of the major HSPGs normally expressed during chondrogenesis, greatly impairs the ability of BMP2 to promote cartilage differentiation. Furthermore, retroviral overexpression of syndecan-3 inhibits BMP2-mediated Smad phosphorylation in the regions of the cultures in which chondrogenesis is

  3. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  4. Developing Internal Controls through Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, F. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Life events can include the Tuesday afternoon cooking class with the group worker or the Saturday afternoon football game, but in the sense that Fritz Redl thought of them, these activities are only threads in a fabric of living that includes all the elements of daily life: playing, working, school-based learning, learning through activities,…

  5. Modelling of an activated primary settling tank including the fermentation process and VFA elutriation.

    PubMed

    Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2002-10-01

    A complete model of a primary settler including both sedimentation and biological processes is presented. It is a one-dimensional model based on the solids flux concept and the conservation of mass that uses the Takács model for the settling velocity, which is corrected by a compression function in the lower layers. The biological model is based on the ASM2 and enlarged with the fermentation model proposed by this research group. The settler was split in ten layers and the flux terms in the mass balance for each layer is obtained by means of the settling model. A pilot plant has been operated to study the primary sludge fermentation and volatile fatty acids (VFA) elutriation in a primary settler tank. The model has been tested with pilot plant experimental data with very good results. It has been able to simulate the VFA production in the settler and their elutriation with the influent wastewater for all the studied experiments. The developed model is easily applicable to secondary settlers and thickeners, also taking into account biological activity inside them.

  6. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  7. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  8. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  9. Modifying Physical Activities to Include Individuals with Disabilities: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Effectively including individuals with disabilities in a physical activity setting can often be a challenge due to constraints related to equipment, class size, curriculum, and the various ability levels of individuals with and without disabilities. However, there are ways the instructor can control the environment and tasks to meet the needs of…

  10. Aerospace Activities and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha

    1975-01-01

    Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)

  11. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2008-09-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to have potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of such particles, and ignore interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we develop a new parameterization framework that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler Theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frankel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory, and i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH for which activation into cloud droplets is not possible, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. Parameterization formulations are developed for sectional and lognormal aerosol size distribution functions. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2 ~0.98.

  12. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  13. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-02-01

    In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw control is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.

  14. Mimetics of caloric restriction include agonists of lipid-activated nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Corton, J Christopher; Apte, Udayan; Anderson, Steven P; Limaye, Pallavi; Yoon, Lawrence; Latendresse, John; Dunn, Corrie; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Voss, Kenneth A; Swanson, Cynthia; Kimbrough, Carie; Wong, Jean S; Gill, Sarjeet S; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Stulnig, Thomas M; Steffensen, Knut R; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mehendale, Harihara M

    2004-10-29

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized countries is associated with increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and certain types of cancer. In animal models, caloric restriction (CR) suppresses these diseases as well as chemical-induced tissue damage. These beneficial effects of CR overlap with those altered by agonists of nuclear receptors (NR) under control of the fasting-responsive transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha). In a screen for compounds that mimic CR effects in the liver, we found statistically significant overlaps between the CR transcript profile in wild-type mice and the profiles altered by agonists of lipid-activated NR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), liver X receptor, and their obligate heterodimer partner, retinoid X receptor. The overlapping genes included those involved in CVD (lipid metabolism and inflammation) and cancer (cell fate). Based on this overlap, we hypothesized that some effects of CR are mediated by PPARalpha. As determined by transcript profiling, 19% of all gene expression changes in wild-type mice were dependent on PPARalpha, including Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14, involved in fatty acid omega-oxidation, acute phase response genes, and epidermal growth factor receptor but not increases in PGC-1alpha. CR protected the livers of wild-type mice from damage induced by thioacetamide, a liver toxicant and hepatocarcinogen. CR protection was lost in PPARalpha-null mice due to inadequate tissue repair. These results demonstrate that PPARalpha mediates some of the effects of CR and indicate that a pharmacological approach to mimicking many of the beneficial effects of CR may be possible.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of soy has been demonstrated to reduce circulating cholesterol levels, most notably reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The component or components that might be responsible for this effect is still a matter of debate or controversy among many researchers. Candidate agents include an activity of soy protein itself, bioactive peptides produced during the digestive process, or the soy isoflavones. Although soy intake may provide other health benefits including preventative or remediative effects on cancer, osteoporosis and symptoms of menopause, this review will focus on isoflavones as agents affecting lipid metabolism. Isoflavones were first discovered as a bioactive agent disrupting estrogen action in female sheep, thereby earning the often-used term 'phytoestrogens'. Subsequent work confirmed the ability of isoflavones to bind to estrogen receptors. Along with the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy intake, research that is more recent has pointed to a beneficial antidiabetic effect of soy intake, perhaps mediated by soy isoflavones. The two common categories of antidiabetic drugs acting on nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are the fibrates and glitazones. We and others have recently asked the research question 'do the soy isoflavones have activities as either "phytofibrates" or "phytoglitazones"?' Such an activity should be able to be confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. In both the in vivo and in vitro cases, this action has indeed been confirmed. Further work suggests a possible action of isoflavones similar to the nonestrogenic ligands that bind the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Recently, these receptors have been demonstrated to contribute to lipolytic processes. Finally, evaluation of receptor activation studies suggests that thyroid receptor activation may provide additional clues explaining the metabolic action of isoflavones. The recent

  16. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  17. Laboratory Activities for Developing Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Services to Education, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This workbook contains laboratory exercises designed for use in a college introductory biology course. Each exercise helps the student develop a basic science skill. The exercises are arranged in a hierarchical sequence suggesting the scientific method. Each skill facilitates the development of succeeding ones. Activities include Use of the…

  18. Advanced Technology Development for Active Acoustic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III; Nishida, Toshikazu; Kurdila, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives include: (1) Develop electro-mechanical/acoustic models of a Helmholtz resonator possessing a compliant diaphragm coupled to a piezoelectric device; (2) Design and fabricate the energy reclamation module and active Helmholtz resonator; (3) Develop and build appropriate energy reclamation/storage circuit; (4) Develop and fabricate appropriate piezoelectric shunt circuit to tune the compliance of the active Helmholtz resonator via a variable capacitor; (5) Quantify energy reclamation module efficiency in a grazing-flow plane wave tube possessing known acoustic energy input; and (6) Quantify actively tuned Helmholtz resonator performance in grazing-flow plane wave tube for a white-noise input

  19. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  20. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.

  1. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  2. Metabolic Profiling of Developing Pear Fruits Reveals Dynamic Variation in Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Including Plant Hormones.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Akira; Otsuka, Takao; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Murayama, Hideki; Saito, Kazuki; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Metabolites in the fruits of edible plants include sweet sugars, visually appealing pigments, various products with human nutritional value, and biologically active plant hormones. Although quantities of these metabolites vary during fruit development and ripening because of cell division and enlargement, there are few reports describing the actual dynamics of these changes. Therefore, we applied multiple metabolomic techniques to identify the changes in metabolite levels during the development and ripening of pear fruits (Pyrus communis L. 'La France'). We quantified and classified over 250 metabolites into six groups depending on their specific patterns of variation during development and ripening. Approximately half the total number of metabolites, including histidine and malate, accumulated transiently around the blooming period, during which cells are actively dividing, and then decreased either rapidly or slowly. Furthermore, the amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids also increased in pear fruits around 3-4 months after the blooming period, when fruit cells are enlarging, but virtually disappeared from ripened fruits. Some metabolites, including the plant hormone abscisic acid, accumulated particularly in the receptacle prior to blooming and/or fruit ripening. Our results show several patterns of variation in metabolite levels in developing and ripening pear fruits, and provide fundamental metabolomic data that is useful for understanding pear fruit physiology and enhancing the nutritional traits of new cultivars.

  3. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.623 How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  4. Low voltage 30-cm ion thruster development. [including performance and structural integrity (vibration) tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The basic goal was to advance the development status of the 30-cm electron bombardment ion thruster from a laboratory model to a flight-type engineering model (EM) thruster. This advancement included the more conventional aspects of mechanical design and testing for launch loads, weight reduction, fabrication process development, reliability and quality assurance, and interface definition, as well as a relatively significant improvement in thruster total efficiency. The achievement of this goal was demonstrated by the successful completion of a series of performance and structural integrity (vibration) tests. In the course of the program, essentially every part and feature of the original 30-cm Thruster was critically evaluated. These evaluations, led to new or improved designs for the ion optical system, discharge chamber, cathode isolator vaporizer assembly, main isolator vaporizer assembly, neutralizer assembly, packaging for thermal control, electrical terminations and structure.

  5. Antipsychotic drugs alter neuronal development including ALM neuroblast migration and PLM axonal outgrowth in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Dallas R; Weeks, Kathrine; Aamodt, Eric J; Dwyer, Donard S

    2008-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are increasingly being prescribed for children and adolescents, and are used in pregnant women without a clear demonstration of safety in these populations. Global effects of these drugs on neurodevelopment (e.g., decreased brain size) have been reported in rats, but detailed knowledge about neuronal effects and mechanisms of action are lacking. Here we report on the evaluation of a comprehensive panel of antipsychotic drugs in a model organism (Caenorhabditis elegans) that is widely used to study neuronal development. Specifically, we examined the effects of the drugs on neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth in mechanosensory neurons visualized with green fluorescent protein expressed from the mec-3 promoter. Clozapine, fluphenazine, and haloperidol produced deficits in the development and migration of ALM neurons and axonal outgrowth in PLM neurons. The defects included failure of neuroblasts to migrate to the proper location, and excessive growth of axons past their normal termination point, together with abnormal morphological features of the processes. Although the antipsychotic drugs are potent antagonists of dopamine and serotonin receptors, the neurodevelopmental deficits were not rescued by co-incubation with serotonin or the dopaminergic agonist, quinpirole. Other antipsychotic drugs, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, trifluoperazine and olanzapine, also produced modest, but detectable, effects on neuronal development. This is the first report that antipsychotic drugs interfere with neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth in a developing nervous system.

  6. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  7. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

  8. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  9. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  10. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  11. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  12. Developing new dental communication skills assessment tools by including patients and other stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Wener, Mickey Emmons; Schönwetter, Dieter J; Mazurat, Nita

    2011-12-01

    Effectively using patients as teachers to provide authentic feedback is an underused strategy in dental education, but it has potential for integrating the teaching of therapeutic communication skills within the dental clinic setting. This study focuses on the absence of patient input into the design of instruments used to assess students' clinical communication skills and demonstrates how a holistic approach, with input from key stakeholders including patients, was used to produce two such instruments. The development of complementary communication assessment instruments, one for patient use and one for student use, took place in three phases. In Phase I the authors reviewed a sample of existing patient satisfaction surveys; in Phase II they captured input from stakeholders; and Phase III resulted in the generation of the patient communication assessment instrument and the student communication self-assessment instrument. This article highlights communication skill issues relevant to the education of oral health professionals and describes the rationale and process for the development of the first iteration of the patient assessment and student self-assessment clinical communication instruments.

  13. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  14. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  15. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  16. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C. Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-01-01

    A “supermarket revolution” has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the “newcomers”—India and Vietnam—have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been “precocious” penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a “hub” or “platform” or “park” the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including “bringing modern markets to farmers” by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets. PMID:21135250

  17. Developing Photo Activated Localization Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Photo Activated Localization Microscopy, PALM, acquires super-resolution images by activating a subset of activatable fluorescent labels and estimating the center of the each molecular label to sub-diffractive accuracy. When this process is repeated thousands of times for different subsets of molecules, then an image can be rendered from all the center coordinates of the molecules. I will describe the circuitous story of its development that began with another super-resolution technique, NSOM, developed by my colleague Eric Betzig, who imaged single molecules at room temperature, and later we spectrally resolved individual luminescent centers of quantum wells. These two observations inspired a generalized path to localization microscopy, but that path was abandoned because no really useful fluorescent labels were available. After a decade of nonacademic industrial pursuits and the subsequent freedom of unemployment, we came across a class of genetically expressible fluorescent proteins that were switchable or convertible that enabled the concept to be implemented and be biologically promising. The past ten years have been very active with many groups exploring applications and enhancements of this concept. Demonstrating significant biological relevance will be the metric if its success.

  18. Should professional development include analyzing and coaching ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction in elementary classrooms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zee, Emily H.

    2009-12-01

    In this commentary, I first consider what Oliveira defines inquiry-based science instruction to be. Next I discuss what the discourse practices are that he is advocating. Then I examine what he presents as evidence of changes in two teachers' discourse practices due to a summer institute and how their pragmatic awareness seems to have been enhanced through institute activities. Finally I ponder whether, when, how, and why professional development should include a focus on ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction.

  19. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  20. Control of cortex development by ULK4, a rare risk gene for mental disorders including schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Bing; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Guanyu; Hu, Ling; Lan, Wei; Zhao, Lei; Hunter, Irene; Pruski, Michal; Song, Ning-Ning; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ling; St Clair, David; McCaig, Colin D.; Ding, Yu-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating familial neuropsychiatric disorder which affects 1% of people worldwide. Although the heritability for schizophrenia approaches 80% only a small proportion of the overall genetic risk has been accounted for, and to date only a limited number of genetic loci have been definitively implicated. We have identified recently through genetic and in vitro functional studies, a novel serine/threonine kinase gene, unc-51-like kinase 4 (ULK4), as a rare risk factor for major mental disorders including schizophrenia. Now using the approach of in utero gene transfer we have discovered that Ulk4 plays a key modulatory role in corticogenesis. Knockdown of Ulk4 leads to significantly decreased cell proliferation in germinal zones and profound deficits in radial migration and neurite ramification. These abnormalities can be reversed successfully by Ulk4 gene supplementation. Ulk4 also regulated acetylation of α-tubulin, an important post-translational modification of microtubules. We conclude that Ulk4 plays an essential role in normal brain development and when defective, the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia is increased. PMID:27670918

  1. Developing a Vision for Communicating Physics, Including Astronomy, in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. J.; Bardeen, M.; Barnett, M.; Campbell, D.; Landsberg, R.; Ruchti, R.; Simmons, E.; Aspen Physics E&O; Workshop Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    Physicists and astronomers are excited and fascinated by what they observe in nature. Sharing this excitement with students and the general public is rewarding to them as individuals and is extraordinarily beneficial for democratic societies. Educational outreach plays an increasing role in the careers of working physicists; many are already involved in outreach, and all are being encouraged by the federal granting agencies to share the excitement of their research fields with a broader audience. A two-week workshop at the Aspen Center for Physics in the summer of 2004 brought together physicists from several disciplines, including astronomy; K-12 educators; informal science educators; developers of educational materials; as well as professional science communicators from the media and publishing worlds. The participants shared their ongoing education and outreach projects, as well as their needs and wishes, in a mixture of presentations, demonstrations, and informal discussions. The rich panoply of education products and services produced by physicists and their organizations was apparent even from this relatively small cross-section. However, the full potential impact of these efforts may not be realized if the target audience, such as teachers, are either not aware of the opportunities or have difficulty implementing them due to time or curriculum needs. Hence, much of the discussion centered on access rather than new education initiatives. Teachers need one-stop shopping for materials and programs, as well as stronger grass-roots locally tailored partnerships with universities, research institutes, and museums. One of the proposals for addressing these and other needs is a small national virtual institute for physics education and outreach, patterned along the lines of successful virtual research institutes, such as the virtual Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter (ICAM). EJH is supported by an NSF AAPF. The Aspen Workshop was funded by NSF's MPS Directorate

  2. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  3. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  4. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  5. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  6. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  7. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  8. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  9. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  10. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  11. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  12. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  13. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  14. Navy GTE seal development activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grala, Carl P.

    1993-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology Initiative, the Naval Air Warfare Center conducts advanced development programs for demonstration in the next generation of air-breathing propulsion systems. Among the target technologies are gas path and lube oil seals. Two development efforts currently being managed by NAWCAD are the High Performance Compressor Discharge Film-Riding Face Seal and the Subsonic Core High Speed Air/Oil Seal. The High Performance Compressor Discharge Film-Riding Face Seal Program aims at reducing parasitic leakage through application of a film-riding face sea concept to the compressor discharge location of a Phase 2 IHPTET engine. An order-of-magnitude leakage reduction relative to current labyrinth seal configurations is expected. Performance goals for these seals are (1) 1200 F air temperature, (2) 800 feet-per-second surface velocity, and (3) 600 SPI differential pressure. The two designs chosen for fabrication and rig test are a spiral groove and a Rayleigh step seal. Rig testing is currently underway. The Subsonic Core High Speed Air/Oil Seal Program is developing shaft-to-ground seals for next-generation propulsion systems that will minimize leakage and provide full life. Significantly higher rotor speeds and temperatures will be experienced. Technologies being exploited include, hydrodynamic lift assist features, ultra light weight designs, and improved cooling schemes. Parametric testing has been completed; a final seal design is entering the endurance test phase.

  15. Navy GTE seal development activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grala, Carl P.

    1993-10-01

    Under the auspices of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology Initiative, the Naval Air Warfare Center conducts advanced development programs for demonstration in the next generation of air-breathing propulsion systems. Among the target technologies are gas path and lube oil seals. Two development efforts currently being managed by NAWCAD are the High Performance Compressor Discharge Film-Riding Face Seal and the Subsonic Core High Speed Air/Oil Seal. The High Performance Compressor Discharge Film-Riding Face Seal Program aims at reducing parasitic leakage through application of a film-riding face sea concept to the compressor discharge location of a Phase 2 IHPTET engine. An order-of-magnitude leakage reduction relative to current labyrinth seal configurations is expected. Performance goals for these seals are (1) 1200 F air temperature, (2) 800 feet-per-second surface velocity, and (3) 600 SPI differential pressure. The two designs chosen for fabrication and rig test are a spiral groove and a Rayleigh step seal. Rig testing is currently underway. The Subsonic Core High Speed Air/Oil Seal Program is developing shaft-to-ground seals for next-generation propulsion systems that will minimize leakage and provide full life. Significantly higher rotor speeds and temperatures will be experienced. Technologies being exploited include, hydrodynamic lift assist features, ultra light weight designs, and improved cooling schemes. Parametric testing has been completed; a final seal design is entering the endurance test phase.

  16. Development and application of modern devices in vascular surgery including comment on modern antithrombotic and lytic drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, P N

    1990-01-01

    Since modern vascular surgery started with the discovery of heparin and the development of modern vascular grafts including autogenous saphenous vein, the speciality has been technologically driven. At the outset, vascular surgery depended almost entirely on the development of specialized clamps, instruments, and tools to permit decisive attack on the problems of occlusion. No less important was the development of insight into the basis of atherosclerosis, the discovery that atherogenesis with thrombosis is electrochemically identical to corrosion in pipes and therefore subject to chemical forces, which have not yet been delineated, as well as mechanical forces which have been delineated and permit one to attack the atheroma directly. Thus, classic replumbing techniques including bypass and endarterectomy have long been a part of the fundamental firmament of vascular surgery. Most recently, modern techniques in cleaning out blood vessels, removing occlusive processes, and modern thrombus-dissolving enzymes have all come to the forefront. Frequently multiple techniques are used simultaneously. This article is an attempt to summarize various aspects of this activity and describe several of the patents which have been seminal in the ultimate application of the techniques in both experimental animals and man. This should be the first of a series of efforts to summarize this area. The process of change has never been more kinetic than now.

  17. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, intrahepatic cholestasis, and other cholestatic conditions. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of the disease pathophysiology, our understanding of the effects of UDCA remains unclear. Possibly underlying its cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative effects, UDCA was reported to regulate the expression of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines. However, it is not known if this effect involves also modulation of ADAM family of metalloproteinases, which are responsible for release of ectodomains of inflammatory cytokines from the cell surface. We hypothesized that UDCA modulates ADAM17 activity, resulting in amelioration of cholestasis in a murine model of bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The effect of UDCA on ADAM17 activity was studied using the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Untransfected cells or cells ectopically expressing human ADAM17 were cultured with or without UDCA and further activated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The expression and release of ADAM17 substrates, TNFα, TGFα, and c-Met receptor (or its soluble form, sMet) were evaluated using ELISA and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Immunoblotting analyses were conducted to evaluate expression and activation of ADAM17 as well as the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after UDCA treatment. The regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) by UDCA was studied using zymography and qRT-PCR. A mouse model of acute cholestasis was induced by common BDL technique, during which mice received daily orogastric gavage with either UDCA or vehicle only. Liver injury was quantified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP), relative liver weight, and confirmed by histological analysis. ADAM17 substrates in sera were assessed using a bead multiplex assay. Results UDCA decreases amount of shed TNFα, TGFα, and sMet in cell culture media and the phosphorylation of

  18. 34 CFR 606.11 - What must be included in individual development grant applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEVELOPING HISPANIC-SERVING... grants awarded under the Developing Hispanic-Serving Institutions Program that expired within five years... funding order. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1840-0114)...

  19. A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cangiani, A; Natalini, R

    2010-12-21

    We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.

  20. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must BIA include when it develops an IRR... What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? (a) At a minimum, an IRR TFMMS system must include components for: (1) Uniformly...

  1. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must BIA include when it develops an IRR... What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? (a) At a minimum, an IRR TFMMS system must include components for: (1) Uniformly...

  2. NIAM-Deficient Mice Are Predisposed to the Development of Proliferative Lesions including B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sara M.; Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P.; Rosean, Timothy R.; Borcherding, Nick; Sciegienka, Sebastian; Goeken, J. Adam; Naumann, Paul W.; Zhang, Weizhou; Tompkins, Van S.; Janz, Siegfried; Meyerholz, David K.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Interactor of ARF and Mdm2 (NIAM, gene designation Tbrg1) is a largely unstudied inhibitor of cell proliferation that helps maintain chromosomal stability. It is a novel activator of the ARF-Mdm2-Tip60-p53 tumor suppressor pathway as well as other undefined pathways important for genome maintenance. To examine its predicted role as a tumor suppressor, we generated NIAM mutant (NIAMm/m) mice homozygous for a β-galactosidase expressing gene-trap cassette in the endogenous gene. The mutant mice expressed significantly lower levels of NIAM protein in tissues compared to wild-type animals. Fifty percent of aged NIAM deficient mice (14 to 21 months) developed proliferative lesions, including a uterine hemangioma, pulmonary papillary adenoma, and a Harderian gland adenoma. No age-matched wild-type or NIAM+/m heterozygous animals developed lesions. In the spleen, NIAMm/m mice had prominent white pulp expansion which correlated with enhanced increased reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and evidence of systemic inflammation. Notably, 17% of NIAM mutant mice had splenic white pulp features indicating early B-cell lymphoma. This correlated with selective expansion of marginal zone B cells in the spleens of younger, tumor-free NIAM-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, basal p53 expression and activity was largely unaffected by NIAM loss in isolated splenic B cells. In sum, NIAM down-regulation in vivo results in a significant predisposition to developing benign tumors or early stage cancers. These mice represent an outstanding platform for dissecting NIAM's role in tumorigenesis and various anti-cancer pathways, including p53 signaling. PMID:25393878

  3. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... handling costs only); and (K) Development and use of web-site on the Internet for advertising and public...-commerce administration, Extranet (restricted Web sites within the Internet), Intranet (inter-office communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For...

  4. Development of electromagnetic cascades in the atmosphere including the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, R. E.; Stephens, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical solutions have been obtained for the one-dimensional atmospheric electromagnetic cascade diffusion equations, including the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal and screening effects. Spectra produced by primary gamma rays of various energies are given at a number of deths in the atmosphere.

  5. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  6. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  7. Mapping Access to Community-Developed Healthy Food Baskets Including Cost and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginn, Alison; Majumdar, Anne; Carr, Marimba; Eastwood, Ginny; Menger, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food security is a topical issue but one that can be difficult to measure. Objective: To develop a community-approved food basket tool and use this to investigate the availability and affordability of a healthy diet in a multicultural urban setting. Design: A 7-day healthy food basket (HFB) containing 96 foods for six household types…

  8. With Development, List Recall Includes More Chunks, Not Just Larger Ones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Hismjatullina, Anna; Aubuchon, Angela M.; Saults, J. Scott; Horton, Neil; Leadbitter, Kathy; Towse, John

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the childhood development of immediate recall has been difficult to determine. There could be a developmental increase in either the number of chunks held in working memory or the use of grouping to make the most of a constant capacity. In 3 experiments with children in the early elementary school years and adults, we show that…

  9. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  10. The Politics and Consequences of Including Stakeholders in International Development Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Anne E.; Coryn, Chris L. S.; Rugh, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Participatory evaluation approaches have a relatively long history of advocacy and application in the international development evaluation community. Despite widespread use and apparent resonance with practitioners and donors alike, very little empirical research exists on why and how participatory evaluation approaches are used in international…

  11. North Sea development activity surges

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that operators in the North Sea have reported a burst of upstream activity. Off the U.K.: Amoco (U.K.) Exploration Co. installed three jackets in its North Everest and Lomond fields. It also completed laying the Central Area Transmission System (CATS) pipeline, which will carry the fields' gas to shore. BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd. installed the jacket for it Unity riser platform 5 {1/2} km from its Forties Charlie platform. Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. tested a successful appraisal well in Britannia field in Block 15/30, about 130 miles northeast of Aberdeen. In the Norwegian North Sea, Saga Petroleum AS placed Snorre oil and gas field on production 6 weeks ahead of schedule and 1.5 billion kroner under budget at a cost of 16.6 billion kroner; and downstream off the U.K., Phillips Petroleum Co. (U.K.) Ltd. awarded Allseas Marine Contractors SA, Essen, Belgium, a pipelay and trenching contract for its Ann field development project in Block 49/6a.

  12. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  13. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  14. With Development, List Recall Includes More Chunks, Not Just Larger Ones

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson; Hismjatullina, Anna; AuBuchon, Angela M.; Saults, J. Scott; Horton, Neil; Leadbitter, Kathy; Towse, John

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the childhood development of immediate recall has been difficult to determine. There could be a developmental increase in either the number of chunks held in working memory or the use of grouping to make the most of a constant capacity. In 3 experiments with children in the early elementary school years and adults, we show that improvements in the immediate recall of word and picture lists come partly from increases in the number of chunks of items retained in memory. This finding was based on a distinction between access to a studied group of items (i.e., recall of at least 1 item from the group) and completion of the accessed group (i.e., the proportion of the items recalled from the group). Access rates increased with age, even with statistical controls for completion rates, implicating development of capacity in chunks. PMID:20822227

  15. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, R.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.; Zachia-Zlatea, D.

    2010-08-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  16. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  17. Development of a Virtual Museum Including a 4d Presentation of Building History in Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Deggim, S.

    2017-02-01

    In the last two decades the definition of the term "virtual museum" changed due to rapid technological developments. Using today's available 3D technologies a virtual museum is no longer just a presentation of collections on the Internet or a virtual tour of an exhibition using panoramic photography. On one hand, a virtual museum should enhance a museum visitor's experience by providing access to additional materials for review and knowledge deepening either before or after the real visit. On the other hand, a virtual museum should also be used as teaching material in the context of museum education. The laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has developed a virtual museum (VM) of the museum "Alt-Segeberger Bürgerhaus", a historic town house. The VM offers two options for visitors wishing to explore the museum without travelling to the city of Bad Segeberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Option a, an interactive computer-based, tour for visitors to explore the exhibition and to collect information of interest or option b, to immerse into virtual reality in 3D with the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System.

  18. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  19. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities; modifications. 440.11 Section 440.11 Aeronautics and... Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted...

  20. Current developments in avian influenza vaccines, including safety of vaccinated birds as food.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, most vaccines against avian influenza were based on oil-emulsified inactivated low- or high-pathogenicity viruses. Now, recombinant fowl pox and avian paramyxovirus type 1 vaccines with avian influenza H5 gene inserts (+ or - N1 gene insert) are available and licensed. New technologies might overcome existing limitations to make available vaccines that can be grown in tissue culture systems for more rapid production; provide optimized protection, as a result of closer genetic relations to field viruses; allow mass administration by aerosol, in drinking-water or in ovo; and allow easier strategies for identifying infected birds within vaccinated populations (DIVA). The technologies include avian influenza viruses with partial gene deletions, avian influenza-Newcastle disease virus chimeras, vectored vaccines such as adenoviruses and Marek's disease virus, and subunit vaccines. These new methods should be licensed only after their purity, safety, efficacy and potency against avian influenza viruses have been demonstrated, and, for live vectored vaccines, restriction of viral transmission to unvaccinated birds. Use of vaccines in countries affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza will not only protect poultry but will provide additional safety for consumers. Experimental studies have shown that birds vaccinated against avian influenza have no virus in meat and minimal amounts in eggs after HPAI virus challenge, and that replication and shedding from their respiratory and alimentary tracts is greatly reduced.

  1. Chronic widespread pain, including fibromyalgia: a pathway for care developed by the British Pain Society.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Ellis, B; Price, C; Baranowski, A P

    2014-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP), including fibromyalgia, is a highly prevalent condition with a range of disabling symptoms, both physical and psychological. The British Pain Society (BPS) is supporting the treatment of this group of patients through a care pathway and this article describes the rationale and discussion points relevant to the CWP and fibromyalgia pathway. There are several aims in producing this pathway: to reduce variation in the standards of care, to reduce delays at all stages of care, and in particular, to enable clinicians to help patients accept a diagnosis of CWP. This diagnosis should be based on the presence and distribution of symptoms in the absence of another defined pathological process: the features in the history or clinical examination are generally more important than laboratory investigations. There is an emphasis on addressing all aspects of symptomatology (physical, psychological, social, and personal needs) without an overemphasis on any one treatment modality. The pathway has focused on the potential pitfalls in the use of long-term opioids and the rationale is provided why these are not recommended. Patients with CWP value explanation and education and although clinicians may be unfamiliar with the condition, the majority of clinicians have generic skills in managing long-term conditions which can be supplemented by the interventions and actions detailed in this pathway.

  2. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  3. Including operational data in QMRA model: development and impact of model inputs.

    PubMed

    Jaidi, Kenza; Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Desjardins, Raymond; Prévost, Michèle

    2009-03-01

    A Monte Carlo model, based on the Quantitative Microbial Risk Analysis approach (QMRA), has been developed to assess the relative risks of infection associated with the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water. The impact of various approaches for modelling the initial parameters of the model on the final risk assessments is evaluated. The Monte Carlo simulations that we performed showed that the occurrence of parasites in raw water was best described by a mixed distribution: log-Normal for concentrations > detection limit (DL), and a uniform distribution for concentrations < DL. The selection of process performance distributions for modelling the performance of treatment (filtration and ozonation) influences the estimated risks significantly. The mean annual risks for conventional treatment are: 1.97E-03 (removal credit adjusted by log parasite = log spores), 1.58E-05 (log parasite = 1.7 x log spores) or 9.33E-03 (regulatory credits based on the turbidity measurement in filtered water). Using full scale validated SCADA data, the simplified calculation of CT performed at the plant was shown to largely underestimate the risk relative to a more detailed CT calculation, which takes into consideration the downtime and system failure events identified at the plant (1.46E-03 vs. 3.93E-02 for the mean risk).

  4. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  5. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  6. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  7. Active Thermal Control System Development for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westheimer, David

    2007-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has been actively developing technologies that will enable future missions or will provide significant improvements over the state of the art technologies. These technologies have are targeted for application on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), or Orion, and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  8. Proteomic and metabolic analyses of early berry development in Vitis spp. including the period of ontogenic gain of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early development of grape berries is marked by several biological changes, including cell division and expansion, as berries initiate double sigmoid growth. In most genotypes, a significant gain of ontogenic resistance (OR) to some pathogens, including powdery mildew (PM) (Uncinula necator), also o...

  9. 25 CFR 115.420 - When developing a minor's distribution plan, what information must be considered and included in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... information must be considered and included in the evaluation? 115.420 Section 115.420 Indians BUREAU OF... following information must be considered and included in the evaluation: (a) Documentation which establishes... INDIANS IIM Accounts: Minors § 115.420 When developing a minor's distribution plan, what information...

  10. Human Development Program: Level V Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 5. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential Human…

  11. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  12. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  13. Spontaneous network activity and synaptic development

    PubMed Central

    Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Throughout development, the nervous system produces patterned spontaneous activity. Research over the last two decades has revealed a core group of mechanisms that mediate spontaneous activity in diverse circuits. Many circuits engage several of these mechanisms sequentially to accommodate developmental changes in connectivity. In addition to shared mechanisms, activity propagates through developing circuits and neuronal pathways (i.e. linked circuits in different brain areas) in stereotypic patterns. Increasing evidence suggests that spontaneous network activity shapes synaptic development in vivo. Variations in activity-dependent plasticity may explain how similar mechanisms and patterns of activity can be employed to establish diverse circuits. Here, I will review common mechanisms and patterns of spontaneous activity in emerging neural networks and discuss recent insights into their contribution to synaptic development. PMID:24280071

  14. Manipulations of PKA in chick limb development reveal roles in digit patterning including a positive role in Sonic Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Tiecke, Eva; Turner, Roisin; Sanz-Ezquerro, Juan Jose; Warner, Anne; Tickle, Cheryll

    2007-05-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling by the polarizing region, at the posterior of the vertebrate limb bud, is pivotal in determining digit number and identity. Shh establishes a gradient of the bifunctional transcriptional effector, Gli3, with high levels of full-length activator (Gli3A) in the posterior bud, where digits form, and high levels of shorter repressor (Gli3R) in the anterior. Repressor formation depends on protein kinase A (PKA), but in Drosophila, PKA also plays a role in activator function. Increasing PKA levels in chick limb development using Forskolin had no effect on posterior polarizing activity but weak polarizing activity, based on ligand-independent Shh signaling, was induced in anterior limb bud cells resulting in extra digits. Manipulating PKA activity levels directly with a retrovirus expressing activated PKA induced extra digits similar to those induced by Forskolin treatment suggesting that PKA may have a previously unrecognized positive role in Shh signaling in vertebrate limbs. Expressing dominant negative PKA also induced extra, sometimes multiple digits, from anterior limb bud demonstrating the negative role in Shh signaling. PKA levels in the limb bud are high posteriorly and low anteriorly, suggesting that PKA activity may influence the outcome of Shh signaling in normal development.

  15. Canada's physical activity guides: background, process, and development.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources).

  16. Development of a topically active imiquimod formulation.

    PubMed

    Chollet, J L; Jozwiakowski, M J; Phares, K R; Reiter, M J; Roddy, P J; Schultz, H J; Ta, Q V; Tomai, M A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a topical formulation of imiquimod, a novel immune response modifier, to induce local cytokine production for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. A pH-solubility profile and titration data were used to calculate a pKa of 7.3, indicative of a weak base. Solubility experiments were conducted to identify a solvent that dissolves imiquimod to achieve a 5% formulation concentration. Studies to select surfactants, preservatives, and viscosity-enhancing excipients to formulate an oil-in-water cream indicated that fatty acids were the preferred solvent for topical imiquimod formulations, and isostearic acid (ISA) was selected. A relationship existed between the fatty acid composition of four commercially available ISA sources and the solubility of imiquimod. A combination of polysorbate 60, sorbitan monostearate, and xanthan gum was used to produce a physically stable cream. The preservative system included parabens and benzyl alcohol to meet the USP criteria for preservative activity. An in vitro method was developed to demonstrate that imiquimod was released from the formulation. Topical application of the formulation induced local cytokine activity in mice.

  17. Cyfip1 Regulates Presynaptic Activity during Development

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Kuangfu; Harony-Nicolas, Hala; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variations encompassing the gene encoding Cyfip1 have been associated with a variety of human diseases, including autism and schizophrenia. Here we show that juvenile mice hemizygous for Cyfip1 have altered presynaptic function, enhanced protein translation, and increased levels of F-actin. In developing hippocampus, reduced Cyfip1 levels serve to decrease paired pulse facilitation and increase miniature EPSC frequency without a change in amplitude. Higher-resolution examination shows these changes to be caused primarily by an increase in presynaptic terminal size and enhanced vesicle release probability. Short hairpin-mediated knockdown of Cyfip1 coupled with expression of mutant Cyfip1 proteins indicates that the presynaptic alterations are caused by dysregulation of the WAVE regulatory complex. Such dysregulation occurs downstream of Rac1 as acute exposure to Rac1 inhibitors rescues presynaptic responses in culture and in hippocampal slices. The data serve to highlight an early and essential role for Cyfip1 in the generation of normally functioning synapses and suggest a means by which changes in Cyfip1 levels could impact the generation of neural networks and contribute to abnormal and maladaptive behaviors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Several developmental brain disorders have been associated with gene duplications and deletions that serve to increase or decrease levels of encoded proteins. Cyfip1 is one such protein, but the role it plays in brain development is poorly understood. We asked whether decreased Cyfip1 levels altered the function of developing synapses. The data show that synapses with reduced Cyfip1 are larger and release neurotransmitter more rapidly. These effects are due to Cyfip1's role in actin polymerization and are reversed by expression of a Cyfip1 mutant protein retaining actin regulatory function or by inhibiting Rac1. Thus, Cyfip1 has a more prominent early role regulating presynaptic activity during a stage of development when

  18. Minimum Activities for National Library and Bibliographic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    In this document the author attempts to set forth the activities, items, or criteria susceptible of development in librarianship, information science, and bibliography. The list attempts to include all facets of a reasonably extensive development, one which no country has quite reached. On the other hand, among highly developed countries, progress…

  19. [Perinatal innate immune activation and neuropsychological development].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Taku

    2013-08-01

    Development of animal models is a crucial issue in biological psychiatry for the search of novel drug targets as well as the screening of candidate compounds. Epidemiologic studies suggest that environmental insults, such as prenatal infection and perinatal complication, are involved in the development of schizophrenia. Recently, we have developed a novel mouse model of viral infection during the perinatal stage by injecting polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (polyI:C) into neonatal mice. Neonatal treatment of mice with polyI:C, an inducer of innate immune responses via toll-like receptor 3, caused a significant increase in interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) levels in the astrocytes of the hippocampus, which resulted in long-lasting brain dysfunction, including cognitive and emotional impairments as well as a deficit in depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the hippocampus in adulthood. Neonatal polyI:C-induced neuronal impairments have not been observed in IFITM3-KO mice. These findings suggest that the induction of IFITM3 expression in astrocytes by the activation of the innate immune system during the early stages of neurodevelopment has non-cell autonomous effects that affect subsequent neurodevelopment, leading to neuropathological impairments and brain dysfunction, by impairing endocytosis in astrocytes.

  20. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  1. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  2. Mechanisms underlying spontaneous patterned activity in developing neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Aaron G.; Feller, Marla B.

    2010-01-01

    Patterned, spontaneous activity occurs in many developing neural circuits, including the retina, the cochlea, the spinal cord, the cerebellum and the hippocampus, where it provides signals that are important for the development of neurons and their connections. Despite differences in adult architecture and output across these various circuits, the patterns of spontaneous network activity and the mechanisms that generate it are remarkably similar and can include a depolarizing action of GABA, transient synaptic connections, extrasynaptic transmission, gap junction coupling and the presence of pacemaker-like neurons. Interestingly, spontaneous activity is robust; if one element of a circuit is disrupted another will generate similar activity. This research suggests that developing neural circuits exhibit transient and tunable features that maintain a source of correlated activity during critical stages of development. PMID:19953103

  3. Activities to Develop Your Students' Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Mary Kay; Safran, Joan S.

    1986-01-01

    Instructions and illustrations support this discussion of learning activities designed to remediate deficiences and build skills in balance and/or motor skills for mildly handicapped students who may not have access to physical therapy or adaptive physical education. Appropriate for both regular and special classes, activities include arm…

  4. Biologically active peptides: prospects for drug development.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J

    1980-08-11

    Biologically active peptides aree typified by their unbiquity of distribution, their high receptor affinity and an almost infinite diversity of structure. For these reasons, considerable effort is now being expended to elucidate the possible role of peptides in brain function. This effort has been stimulated by the discovery of a number of new endogenous peptides, such as the enkephalins, endorphins, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neurotensin. At present, there is no clearly defined role for these peptides, although they may form an important basis for the chemical coding of various brain functions, including pain, mood and memory. At present, the potential for drug development of peptide agonists remains in fairly circumscribed areas such as analgesia, pituitary hormone control, and gastrointestinal motor and secretory control. Peptide antagonists may provide a vast field for future development, although only one area, that of antifertility drugs based on LHRH antagonists, shows any promise of immediate success. Industrial research approaches to new peptide agonists and antagonists mainly rely at present on rational drug design through structural analogies. Other fruitful approaches to be considered are the screening of natural microbial and plant products and the possible application of genetic engineering techniques.

  5. Vehicle Engineering Development Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.; Champion, Robert H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    New initiatives in the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center include an emphasis on Vehicle Engineering to enhance the strong commitment to the Directorate's projects in the development of flight hardware and flight demonstrators for the advancement of space transportation technology. This emphasis can be seen in the activities of a newly formed organization in the Transportation Directorate, The Vehicle Subsystems Engineering Group. The functions and type of activities that this group works on are described. The current projects of this group are outlined including a brief description of the status and type of work that the group is performing. A summary section is included to describe future activities.

  6. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials with activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiruveedhula, V.V.N. Phani Babu; Witzigmann, Christopher M.; Verma, Ranjit; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Rott, Marc; Schwan, William R.; Medina-Bielski, Sara; Lane, Michelle; Close, William; Polanowski, Rebecca L.; Sherman, David; Monte, Aaron; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Cook, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase in bacterial resistance over the last decade along with a dramatic decrease in new treatments for infections has led to problems in the healthcare industry. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths per year. A world-wide threat with HIV co-infected with multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of TB has emerged. In this regard, herein, novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives were synthesized in simple, efficient routes and evaluated as potential agents against several Mycobacterium species. These were synthesized via a stereospecific process for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays indicated that esters 12, 13, and 20 exhibited greater in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis than rifampin, one of the current, first-line anti-mycobacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Based on these studies the acrylic ester 20 has been developed as a potential lead compound which was found to have an MIC value of 0.4 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The SAR and biological activity of this series is presented; a Michael – acceptor mechanism appears to be important for potent activity of this series of analogs. PMID:24200931

  7. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  8. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  9. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  10. Development of a global motor rating scale for young children (0-4 years) including eye-hand grip coordination.

    PubMed

    Vaivre-Douret, L; Burnod, Y

    2001-11-01

    A comparative study of the eight motor rating scales available in Western countries demonstrated methodological differences in the choice of items and standardization. We have developed a global motor rating scale that includes items which measure postural-motor, locomotor (PML) and eye-hand grip coordination (EHGC), and which allows the assessment of an average of motor function level (MFL), PML and EHGC development. Scores obtained were used to define the acquisition of motor age based on the skills completed. The items were selected on the basis of the average age at which the function developed in two populations of healthy full-term French infants, followed from birth to 4 months (n = 60) and from 4 months to 4 years (n = 63). Recent French developmental standards (mean age and standard deviation) of acquisition allow the identification of neuro-psychomotor deviations from normal motor behaviour. This includes both static and dynamic motor coordination sequences. Inter-examiner correlations (n = 3) for 15 randomly selected children indicated a coefficient of 0.90. The scale revealed a sequence in the organization of learned postural-motor, locomotor and eye-hand gripping skills which can contribute to the understanding of brain areas implicated in this maturation process.

  11. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    PubMed

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  12. Manufacturing development of low activation vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Baxi, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    General Atomics is developing manufacturing methods for vanadium alloys as part of a program to encourage the development of low activation alloys for fusion use. The culmination of the program is the fabrication and installation of a vanadium alloy structure in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the Radiative Divertor modification. Water-cooled vanadium alloy components will comprise a portion of the new upper divertor structure. The first step, procuring the material for this program has been completed. The largest heat of vanadium alloy made to date, 1200 kg of V-4Cr-4Ti, has been produced and is being converted into various product forms. Results of many tests on the material during the manufacturing process are reported. Research into potential fabrication methods has been and continues to be performed along with the assessment of manufacturing processes particularly in the area of joining. Joining of vanadium alloys has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for their use in the Radiative Divertor Program. Joining processes under evaluation include resistance seam, electrodischarge (stud), friction and electron beam welding. Results of welding tests are reported. Metallography and mechanical tests are used to evaluate the weld samples. The need for a protective atmosphere during different welding processes is also being determined. General Atomics has also designed, manufactured, and will be testing a helium-cooled, high heat flux component to assess the use of helium cooled vanadium alloy components for advanced tokamak systems. The component is made from vanadium alloy tubing, machined to enhance the heat transfer characteristics, and joined to end flanges to allow connection to the helium supply. Results are reported.

  13. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  14. Introduction to the special issue on history development of solar terrestrial sciences including auroral sub-storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Parks, G.; Svalgaard, L.; Kamide, Y.; Lui, T.

    2016-12-01

    Solar terrestrial (ST) sciences started centuries ago and branched into different disciplines. Starting with naked eye to highly sophisticated novel experimental techniques, observations have revealed the secrets of the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, plasmasphere, and ionosphere-atmosphere components of the ST system. Theories and theoretical models have been developed for the different components independently and together. World-wide efforts under different umbrella are being persuaded to understand the challenges of the ST system. The onset problem and role of O+ ions in sub-storm physics are two issues that are hotly debated. The onset problem is whether sub-storm is triggered by magnetic reconnection in the tail region at 15-20 Re or by a current disruption at ~12 Re. The issue on O+ role is whether O+ ions affect the dynamics of sub-storms under magnetic storm and non-storm conditions differently. This special issue of Geoscience Letters contains a collection of 15 papers on the history and development of solar terrestrial sciences including auroral sub-storms. Over half of the papers are based on the presentations in a session on the same topic organized at the AOGS (Asia Oceania geosciences Society) General Assembly held in Singapore during 02-07 August 2015. The rest of the papers from outside the assembly also falls within the theme of the special issue. The papers are organized in the order of history and development of ST coupling, sub-storms, and outer heliosphere.

  15. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now.

  16. Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.

  17. Spontaneous activity in the developing auditory system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han Chin; Bergles, Dwight E

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous electrical activity is a common feature of sensory systems during early development. This sensory-independent neuronal activity has been implicated in promoting their survival and maturation, as well as growth and refinement of their projections to yield circuits that can rapidly extract information about the external world. Periodic bursts of action potentials occur in auditory neurons of mammals before hearing onset. This activity is induced by inner hair cells (IHCs) within the developing cochlea, which establish functional connections with spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) several weeks before they are capable of detecting external sounds. During this pre-hearing period, IHCs fire periodic bursts of Ca(2+) action potentials that excite SGNs, triggering brief but intense periods of activity that pass through auditory centers of the brain. Although spontaneous activity requires input from IHCs, there is ongoing debate about whether IHCs are intrinsically active and their firing periodically interrupted by external inhibitory input (IHC-inhibition model), or are intrinsically silent and their firing periodically promoted by an external excitatory stimulus (IHC-excitation model). There is accumulating evidence that inner supporting cells in Kölliker's organ spontaneously release ATP during this time, which can induce bursts of Ca(2+) spikes in IHCs that recapitulate many features of auditory neuron activity observed in vivo. Nevertheless, the role of supporting cells in this process remains to be established in vivo. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for generating IHC activity in the developing cochlea will help reveal how these events contribute to the maturation of nascent auditory circuits.

  18. Development of a computer algorithm for the analysis of variable-frequency AC drives: Case studies included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Benjamin, Owen

    1991-01-01

    The development of computer software for performance prediction and analysis of voltage-fed, variable-frequency AC drives for space power applications is discussed. The AC drives discussed include the pulse width modulated inverter (PWMI), a six-step inverter and the pulse density modulated inverter (PDMI), each individually connected to a wound-rotor induction motor. Various d-q transformation models of the induction motor are incorporated for user-selection of the most applicable model for the intended purpose. Simulation results of selected AC drives correlate satisfactorily with published results. Future additions to the algorithm are indicated. These improvements should enhance the applicability of the computer program to the design and analysis of space power systems.

  19. [Development of advanced educational programs, including research programs, for undergraduate students in National Universities: the facts in 2010].

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Yuji; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Santa, Tomofumi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes detailed facts obtained from the questionnaire conducted in 2010 at about 14 National Universities on the topic of "Research programs and advanced educational programs for undergraduate students". The contents of the questionnaire included: (1) Research programs based on the coalition of university and hospital and/or community pharmacy, other Graduate Schools, such as School of Medicine etc., and the University Hospital, (2) Educational systems for the achievement of research programs and their research outcomes, (3) Research programs based on pharmacist practices, (4) Ongoing advanced educational programs for undergraduate students, taking advantage of the coalition with Graduate School, School of Medicine (and Dentistry), and University Hospital. Some of the advanced educational programs outlined in this questionnaire will be carried out by our group in the coming years and the educational benefits together with associated problems shall as well be clarified. This approach will be informative for the development of the leader-oriented pharmacist programs for the college of Pharmacy.

  20. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  1. Developing Web Literacy in Collaborative Inquiry Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiper, Els; Volman, Monique; Terwel, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Although many children are technically skilled in using the Web, their competences to use it in a critical and meaningful way are usually less well developed. In this article, we report on a multiple case study focusing on the possibilities and limitations of collaborative inquiry activities as an appropriate context to acquire Web literacy skills…

  2. Moving toward Teamwork through Professional Development Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Meghan M.; Theilheimer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study of three Head Start Centers analyzed surveys, interviews, and focus group data to determine how education coordinators, teachers, and teacher assistants believed professional development activities could support teamwork at their centers. The researchers sorted data related to teamwork into four categories: knowledge and…

  3. Development of a space activity suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.; Webb, P.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a series of prototype space activity suit (SAS) assemblies is discussed. The SAS is a new type of pressure suit designed especially for extravehicular activity. It consists of a set of carefully tailored elastic fabric garments which have been engineered to supply sufficient counterpressure to the body to permit subjects to breath O2 at pressures up to 200 mm Hg without circulatory difficulty. A closed, positive pressure breathing system (PPBS) and a full bubble helmet were also developed to complete the system. The ultimate goal of the SAS is to improve the range of activity and decrease the energy cost of work associated with wearing conventional gas filled pressure suits. Results are presented from both laboratory (1 atmosphere) and altitude chamber tests with subjects wearing various SAS assemblies. In laboratory tests lasting up to three hours, the SAS was worn while subjects breathed O2 at pressures up to 170 mm Hg without developing physiological problems. The only physiological symptoms apparent were a moderate tachycardia related to breathing pressures above 130 mm Hg, and a small collection of edema fluid in the hands. Both problems were considered to be related to areas of under-pressurization by the garments. These problems, it is suggested, can ultimately be corrected by the development of new elastic fabrics and tailoring techniques. Energy cost of activity, and mobility and dexterity of subjects in the SAS, were found to be superior to those in comparable tests on subjects in full pressure suits.

  4. Developing a New Activity: STUDENT APPROVED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Julie; Cavallo-Medved, Dora; Poling, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Do you have an idea for a new activity or laboratory exercise that you would like to incorporate into your course but feel unsure as to how it will be received by your students? This was our concern when developing first-year biology labs for a biology majors' course at University of Windsor. Through a Centred on Learning Innovation Fund (CLIF)…

  5. Active Learning through Toy Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zane, Linda; Sirinterlikci, Aleea L.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an initiative that is based on active learning pedagogy by engaging elementary and middle school students in the toy design and development field. The case study presented in this article is about student learning experiences during their participation in the TOYchallenge National Toy Design Competition. Students followed the…

  6. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  7. miR-124 function during Ciona intestinalis neuronal development includes extensive interaction with the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jerry S; Pedro, Matthew San; Zeller, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    The nervous system-enriched microRNA miR-124 is necessary for proper nervous system development, although the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, through a comprehensive analysis of miR-124 and its gene targets, we demonstrate that, in the chordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis, miR-124 plays an extensive role in promoting nervous system development. We discovered that feedback interaction between miR-124 and Notch signaling regulates the epidermal-peripheral nervous system (PNS) fate choice in tail midline cells. Notch signaling silences miR-124 in epidermal midline cells, whereas in PNS midline cells miR-124 silences Notch, Neuralized and all three Ciona Hairy/Enhancer-of-Split genes. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-124 is sufficient to convert epidermal midline cells into PNS neurons, consistent with a role in modulating Notch signaling. More broadly, genome-wide target extraction with validation using an in vivo tissue-specific sensor assay indicates that miR-124 shapes neuronal progenitor fields by downregulating non-neural genes, notably the muscle specifier Macho-1 and 50 Brachyury-regulated notochord genes, as well as several anti-neural factors including SCP1 and PTBP1. 3'UTR conservation analysis reveals that miR-124 targeting of SCP1 is likely to have arisen as a shared, derived trait in the vertebrate/tunicate ancestor and targeting of PTBP1 is conserved among bilaterians except for ecdysozoans, while extensive Notch pathway targeting appears to be Ciona specific. Altogether, our results provide a comprehensive insight into the specific mechanisms by which miR-124 promotes neuronal development.

  8. EGFR-activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Heike N; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H; Sequist, Lecia V; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-10-15

    In patients with lung cancer whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGF receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared with wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of cross-linker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2-M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR-mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer.

  9. Exploring Key Sustainable Development Themes through Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Heather; Fenner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine how a number of key themes are introduced in the Master's programme in Engineering for Sustainable Development, at Cambridge University, through student-centred activities. These themes include dealing with complexity, uncertainty, change, other disciplines, people, environmental limits, whole life…

  10. Development of novel active transport membrande devices

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Air Products has undertaken a research program to fabricate and evaluate gas separation membranes based upon promising ``active-transport`` (AT) materials recently developed in our laboratories. Active Transport materials are ionic polymers and molten salts which undergo reversible interaction or reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide. The materials are useful for separating these gases from mixtures with hydrogen. Moreover, AT membranes have the unique property of possessing high permeability towards ammnonia and carbon dioxide but low permeability towards hydrogen and can thus be used to permeate these components from a gas stream while retaining hydrogen at high pressure.

  11. Ultrasonic Data Display and Analysis System Developed (Including Fuzzy Logic Analysis) for the Windows-Based PC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, Jeffrey J.; Cios, Kryzsztof J.; Roth, Don J.; cAO, wEI n.

    2001-01-01

    Post-Scan Interactive Data Display (PSIDD) III is a user-oriented Windows-based system that facilitates the display and comparison of ultrasonic contact measurement data obtained at NASA Glenn Research Center's Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation measurement facility. The system is optimized to compare ultrasonic measurements made at different locations within a material or at different stages of material degradation. PSIDD III provides complete analysis of the primary waveforms in the time and frequency domains along with the calculation of several frequency-dependent properties including phase velocity and attenuation coefficient and several frequency-independent properties, like the cross correlation velocity. The system allows image generation on all the frequency-dependent properties at any available frequency (limited by the bandwidth used in the scans) and on any of the frequency-independent properties. From ultrasonic contact scans, areas of interest on an image can be studied with regard to underlying raw waveforms and derived ultrasonic properties by simply selecting the point on the image. The system offers various modes of indepth comparison between scan points. Up to five scan points can be selected for comparative analysis at once. The system was developed with Borland Delphi software (Visual Pascal) and is based on an SQL data base. It is ideal for the classification of material properties or the location of microstructure variations in materials. Along with the ultrasonic contact measurement software that it is partnered with, this system is technology ready and can be transferred to users worldwide.

  12. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  13. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  14. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  15. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  16. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... licensed launch or permitted activities is sufficiently small that financial responsibility is no...

  17. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  18. Hospital chief executive officer perspective on professional development activities.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Amir A; Walston, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to develop understanding of hospital chief executive officers' (CEOs') perspectives concerning importance and impact of professional development activities in US hospitals. It was also intended to reveal CEO preferences for various modalities of professional development including membership in professional societies, attainment of credentials, and coaching by mentors. A mail survey of 582 hospital CEOs made use of a pilot-tested questionnaire with 30 close ended multipart questions. Results showed that most CEOs assigned a high level of importance to professional development and favored conferences, seminars, and networking opportunities, but low priority assigned to online activities such as webinars. They reported lending support to senior managers for participation in these activities by providing financial resources and by allowing time off to engage in these activities. The respondents indicated that the importance of various modalities of professional development has either increased or remained high over the recent 5 years. Conclusions suggest that verifiable quantitative data are needed for understanding of the frequency of participation and resource commitment of health care organizations toward the professional development of CEOs and senior managers. The results of this perceptual study reveal a high level of importance accorded to various forms of professional development activities by the participating CEOs.

  19. Stress and Androgen Activity During Fetal Development

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and more recent evidence suggests that it may also affect androgen activity. In animal models, prenatal stress disrupts the normal surge of testosterone in the developing male, whereas in females, associations differ by species. In humans, studies show that (1) associations between prenatal stress and child outcomes are often sex-dependent, (2) prenatal stress predicts several disorders with notable sex differences in prevalence, and (3) prenatal exposure to stressful life events may be associated with masculinized reproductive tract development and play behavior in girls. In this minireview, we examine the existing literature on prenatal stress and androgenic activity and present new, preliminary data indicating that prenatal stress may also modify associations between prenatal exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, (a synthetic, antiandrogenic chemical) and reproductive development in infant boys. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to both chemical and nonchemical stressors may alter sex steroid pathways in the maternal-placental-fetal unit and ultimately alter hormone-dependent developmental endpoints. PMID:26241065

  20. Development of a lightning activity nowcasting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiannidis, Athanassios; Lagouvardos, Kostas; Kotroni, Vassiliki

    2015-04-01

    Electrical phenomena inside thunderstorm clouds are a significant threat to numerous activities. Summertime convective activity is usually associated to local thermal instability, which is hard to predict using numerical weather prediction models. Despite their relatively small areal extend, these thunderstorms can be violent, resulting to infrastructure damage and loss of life. In the frame of TALOS project the National Observatory of Athens has developed a lightning activity nowcasting tool. This tool uses as sole inputs: (i) real time infrared Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) imagery and (ii) real time flashes provided by the VLF lightning detection system ZEUS, which is operated by the National Observatory of Athens. The MSG SEVIRI 10.8 and 6.2μm channels data are utilized to produce 3 Interest Fields (IFs). These fields are the TB10.8 brightness temperature (indicative of the cloud top glaciation), the TB6.2-TB10.8 difference (indicative of the cloud depth) and the TB10.8 15 minute trend, which will be referenced as "TB10.8trend" (indicative of the cloud growth rate). The latter is defined as the difference between two successive 15 minutes images of the TB10.8. When a predefined threshold value is surpassed, the delimited area is considered to be favorable for lightning activity. A statistical procedure is employed to identify the optimum threshold values for the three IFs, based on the performance of each one. The assessment of their efficiency showed that these three IFs can be used independently as predictors of lightning activity. However, in an effort to improve the tool's efficiency a combined estimation is performed. When all three IFs agree that lightning activity is expected over an area, then a Warning Level 3 (WL3) is issued. When 2 or 1 IFs indicate upcoming activity then a WL2 or WL1 is issued. The assessment of the efficiency of the combined IF tool showed that the combined estimation is more skillful than the individual IFs estimations. In a

  1. Development of a PCR-based strategy for CYP2D6 genotyping including gene multiplication of worldwide potential use.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Pedro; Cáceres, Macarena; Pozo-Guisado, Eulalia; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio; Llerena, Adrián

    2005-10-01

    There is growing consensus on the potential use of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice, and hopes have been expressed for application to the improvement of global health. However, two major challenges may lead to widening the "biotechnological gap" between the developing and the industrial world; first the unaffordability of some current technologies for poorer countries, and second the necessity of analyzing all described alleles for every clinical case due to the inability to predict the ethnic group of a given patient. Because of its role in the metabolism of a number of drugs, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an excellent candidate for use in the optimization of drug therapy. CYP2D6 is a highly polymorphic gene locus with more than 50 variant alleles, and subjects can be classified as poor metabolizers (PM), extensive metabolizers (EM), or ultrarapid metabolizers (UM) of a given CYP2D6 substrate. Several strategies and methods for CYP2D6 genotyping exist. Some, however, are expensive and laborious. The aim of this study was to design a PCR-based genotyping methodology to allow rapid, straightforward, and inexpensive identification of 90%-95% of CYP2D6 PM or UM genotypes for routine clinical use, independent of the individual's ethnic group. CYP2D6 is amplified in initial extra long PCRs (XL-PCRs), which subsequently undergo fragment-length polymorphism analysis for the determination of carriers of CYP2D6 allelic variants. The same XL-PCRs are also used for the determination of CYP2D6 multiplication and 2D6*5 allele (abolished activity). The application of this new strategy for the detection of CYP2D6 mutated alleles and multiplications to routine clinical analysis will enable the PM and UM phenotypes to be predicted and identified at a reasonable cost in a large number of individuals at most locations.

  2. Development of a PCR-based strategy for CYP2D6 genotyping including gene multiplication of worldwide potential use.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Pedro; Cáceres, Macarena C; Pozo-Guisado, Eulalia; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio; Llerena, Adrian

    2005-10-01

    There is growing consensus on the potential use of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice, and hopes have been expressed for application to the improvement of global health. However, two major challenges may lead to widening the "biotechnological gap" between the developing and the industrial world;first the unaffordability of some current technologies for poorer countries, and second the necessity of analyzing all described alleles for every clinical case due to the inability to predict the ethnic group of a given patient. Because of its role in the metabolism of a number of drugs, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an excellent candidate for use in the optimization of drug therapy. CYP2D6 is a highly polymorphic gene locus with more than 50 variant alleles, and subjects can be classified as poor metabolizers (PM), extensive metabolizers (EM), or ultrarapid metabolizers (UM) of a given CYP2D6 substrate. Several strategies and methods for CYP2D6 genotyping exist. Some, however, are expensive and laborious. The aim of this study was to design a PCR-based genotyping methodology to allow rapid, straightforward, and inexpensive identification of 90%-95% of CYP2D6 PM or UM genotypes for routine clinical use, independent of the individual's ethnic group. CYP2D6 is amplified in initial extra long PCRs (XL-PCRs), which subsequently undergo fragment-length polymorphism analysis for the determination of carriers of CYP2D6 allelic variants. The same XL-PCRs are also used for the determination of CYP2D6 multiplication and 2D6*5 allele (abolished activity). The application of this new strategy for the detection of CYP2D6 mutated alleles and multiplications to routine clinical analysis will enable the PM and UM phenotypes to be predicted and identified at a reasonable cost in a large number of individuals at most locations.

  3. New Theoretical Developments in Exploring Electronically Excited States: Including Localized Configuration Interaction Singles and Application to Large Helium Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closser, Kristina Danielle

    superpositions of atomic states with surface states appearing close to the atomic excitation energies and interior states being blue shifted by up to ≈2 eV. The dynamics resulting from excitation of He_7 were subsequently explored using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). These simulations were performed with classical adiabatic dynamics coupled to a new state-following algorithm on CIS potential energy surfaces. Most clusters were found to completely dissociate and resulted in a single excited atomic state (90%), however, some trajectories formed bound, He*2 (3%), and a few yielded excited trimers (<0.5%). Comparisons were made with available experimental information on much larger clusters. Various applications of this state following algorithm are also presented. In addition to AIMD, these include excited-state geometry optimization and minimal energy path finding via the growing string method. When using state following we demonstrate that more physical results can be obtained with AIMD calculations. Also, the optimized geometries of three excited states of cytosine, two of which were not found without state following, and the minimal energy path between the lowest two singlet excited states of protonated formaldimine are offered as example applications. Finally, to address large clusters, a local variation of CIS was developed. This method exploits the properties of absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs) to limit the total number of excitations to scaling only linearly with cluster size, which results in formal scaling with the third power of the system size. The derivation of the equations and design of the algorithm are discussed in detail, and computational timings as well as a pilot application to the size dependence of the helium cluster spectrum are presented.

  4. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  5. Cosmic X-ray Physics: Sounding rocket investigations of the diffuse X-ray background, including instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, Dan

    We propose an investigation to improve our understanding of the Galactic diffuse X-ray background. The ultimate purpose of this is to determine the role of hot phases of the interstellar medium in mediating stellar feedback in star formation, in transport of metals, and in determining the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. It directly addresses SMD's astrophysics goal No. 2, to explore the origin and evolution of the galaxies, stars and planets that make up our universe. This work will involve a flight of an existing payload with small modifications in Woomera, South Australia, to observe the Galactic soft X-ray bulge and attempt to determine its nature and emission mechanisms. This flight should also either confirm or put strict upper limits on the "sterile neutrino" model for the 3.5 keV signal observed near the Galactic Center by XMM-Newton. Our investigation includes the development of thermal detectors with superconducting transition edge thermometers capable of 1-2 eV FWHM energy resolution in the 100-400 eV range with the intent of obtaining a scientifically useful spectrum on a sounding rocket flight of the emission from one million degree gas in this energy range. This will require a total area of 1-2 square centimeters for the detector array. To enable routine testing of such detectors in the lab and for necessary in-flight gain and resolution monitoring, we are trying to develop a pulsed-UV laser calibration source. In collaboration with Goddard Space Flight Center, we are investigating the practicality of waveguide-below-cutoff filters to provide the necessary attenuation of infrared radiation for these detectors while still allowing good x-ray transmission below 150 eV. The detectors, calibration source, filters, optimal high-rate pulse analysis and flight experience with the detector readouts are all relevant to future NASA major missions. The detectors we're working on for a low-energy sounding rocket flight would be an excellent match to what is

  6. Autonomic control network active in Aplysia during locomotion includes neurons that express splice variants of R15-neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; McKay, Natasha; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Koester, John

    2007-01-01

    Splice-variant products of the R15 neuropeptide gene are differentially expressed within the CNS of Aplysia. The goal of this study was to test whether the neurons in the abdominal ganglion that express the peptides encoded by this gene are part of a common circuit. Expression of R15 peptides had been demonstrated previously in neuron R15. Using a combination of immunocytochemical and analytical methods, this study demonstrated that R15 peptides are also expressed in heart exciter neuron RB(HE), the two L9(G) gill motoneurons, and L40--a newly identified interneuron. Mass spectrometric profiling of individual neurons that exhibit R15 peptide-like immunoreactivity confirmed the mutually exclusive expression of two splice-variant forms of R15 peptides in different neurons. The L9(G) cells were found to co-express pedal peptide in addition to the R15 peptides. The R15 peptide-expressing neurons examined here were shown to be part of an autonomic control circuit that is active during fictive locomotion. Activity in this circuit contributes to implementing a central command that may help to coordinate autonomic activity with escape locomotion. Chronic extracellular nerve recording was used to determine the activity patterns of a subset of neurons of this circuit in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using shared patterns of neuropeptide expression as a guide for neural circuit identification.

  7. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  8. Development of entrepreneurial activity in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paula; Bridgwood, Bernadeta; Jester, Rebecca

    The provision of health care and healthcare education in the UK is undergoing rapid change and development, and is subject to intense market forces. A reduction in the amount of money being spent on nurses' education and training, together with changes in working practices in health care, are affecting the provision of healthcare education significantly. This article gives an overview of the changes influencing providers of pre and post-registration healthcare education, and describes how education providers are generating income through enterprise activity.

  9. Developing a national physical activity plan: the Kuwait example.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Jasem; Vuori, Ilkka; Lankenau, Becky; Schmid, Tom; Pratt, Michael

    2010-06-01

    A rapid increase in economic well-being and urbanization in Kuwait have been accompanied by profound changes in lifestyle, including low levels of physical activity in all population groups. These changes have contributed to a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and to the escalation of the non-communicable disease rates, particularly coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension and diabetes. The evolution of physical activity promotion, internationally, and a series of related meetings in Kuwait and neighboring countries, have started to generate an awareness among health authorities of the importance of physical activity in health promotion and disease prevention. A National Physical Activity Committee has been formed to design and implement a National Physical Activity Plan, which could also serve as a model for other countries. The authors describe the background and principles behind the development of the National Plan, summarize a template based upon the Kuwait experience and share the lessons learned from these efforts.

  10. IT-Based Activity in Physiology Education: An Experience from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kommalage, Mahinda; Gunawardena, Sampath

    2008-01-01

    Information technology (IT)-based components are included as active learning activities in medical curricula that have been shown to be more effective than most passive learning activities. In developing countries, these activities are not popular compared with developed countries. In this study, an IT-based assignment was carried out in…

  11. Gender role across development in adults with 46,XY disorders of sex development including perineoscrotal hypospadias and small phallus raised male or female.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Kara B; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J

    2008-07-01

    Self-rated degree of femininity and masculinity across development were evaluated for 40 adults affected by 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSDs) who presented at birth with a small phallus and perineoscrotal hypospadias, raised either male (n = 22) or female (n = 18). Most participants were confirmed or presumed to be affected by partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (n = 14), partial gonadal dysgenesis (n = 11), or were considered to have a poorly defined case of 46,XY DSD including ambiguous external genitalia (n = 15). Participants retrospectively evaluated their degree of masculinity and femininity during their childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and in the past 12 months of filling out a questionnaire pertaining to their psychosexual development. Participants raised male reported more masculinity than those raised female due to an increase in masculinization during adolescence and adulthood. Participants raised male also reported less femininity than those raised female throughout development. Participants raised female reported more femininity than those raised male due to an increase in feminization during adolescence and adulthood. Participants raised female also reported less masculinity than those raised male throughout development. These data support the proposition that some aspects of gender role (GR), such as masculinity and femininity, are capable of proceeding along female- or male-typic patterns depending on sex of rearing among individuals affected by specific types of 46,XY DSD. Furthermore, regardless of male or female rearing, GR increasingly corresponds with assigned sex as individuals proceed through sexual maturity and into adulthood. These results are consistent with the idea that socialization/learning contributes to GR development in humans in addition to data from others demonstrating endocrine influences.

  12. Kinetic Structure of Large-Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channels Suggests that the Gating Includes Transitions through Intermediate or Secondary States

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Brad S.; Magleby, Karl L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms for the Ca2+-dependent gating of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were developed using two-dimensional analysis of single-channel currents recorded with the patch clamp technique. To extract and display the essential kinetic information, the kinetic structure, from the single channel currents, adjacent open and closed intervals were binned as pairs and plotted as two-dimensional dwell-time distributions, and the excesses and deficits of the interval pairs over that expected for independent pairing were plotted as dependency plots. The basic features of the kinetic structure were generally the same among single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but channel-specific differences were readily apparent, suggesting heterogeneities in the gating. Simple gating schemes drawn from the Monod- Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model for allosteric proteins could approximate the basic features of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. However, consistent differences between the observed and predicted dependency plots suggested that additional brief lifetime closed states not included in MWC-type models were involved in the gating. Adding these additional brief closed states to the MWC-type models, either beyond the activation pathway (secondary closed states) or within the activation pathway (intermediate closed states), improved the description of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. Secondary closed states are consistent with the closing of secondary gates or channel block. Intermediate closed states are consistent with mechanisms in which the channel activates by passing through a series of intermediate conformations between the more stable open and closed states. It is the added secondary or intermediate closed states that give rise to the majority of the brief closings (flickers) in the gating. PMID:9607935

  13. An Intramolecular Silylene Borane Capable of Facile Activation of Small Molecules, Including Metal-Free Dehydrogenation of Water.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhenbo; Szilvási, Tibor; Zhou, Yu-Peng; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    The first single-component N-heterocyclic silylene borane 1 (LSi-R-BMes2 ; L=PhC(N(t) Bu)2 ; R=1,12-xanthendiyl spacer; Mes=2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 ), acting as a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) in small-molecule activation, can be synthesized in 65 % yields. Its HOMO is largely localized at the silicon(II) atom and the LUMO has mainly boron 2p character. In small-molecule activation 1 allows access to the intramolecular silanone-borane 3 featuring a Si=O→B interaction through reaction with O2 , N2 O, or CO2 , and formation of silanethione borane 4 from reaction with S8 . The Si(II) center in 1 undergoes immediate hydrogenation if exposed to H2 at 1 atm pressure in benzene, affording the silane borane 5-H2 , L(H2 )Si-R-BMes2 . Remarkably, no H2 activation occurs if the single silylene LSiPh and Mes3 B intermolecularly separated are exposed to dihydrogen. Unexpectedly, the pre-organized Si-B separation in 1 enables a metal-free dehydrogenation of H2 O to give the silanone-borane 3 as reactive intermediate.

  14. Development of magnetostrictive active members for control of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Avakian, Kevin M.; Fenn, Ralph C.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Boudreau, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this Phase 2 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project was to determine the technical feasibility of developing magnetostrictive active members for use as truss elements in space structures. Active members control elastic vibrations of truss-based space structures and integrate the functions of truss structure element, actively controlled actuator, and sensor. The active members must control structural motion to the sub-micron level and, for many proposed space applications, work at cryogenic temperatures. Under this program both room temperature and cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive active members were designed, fabricated, and tested. The results of these performance tests indicated that room temperature magnetostrictive actuators feature higher strain, stiffness, and force capability with lower amplifier requirements than similarly sized piezoelectric or electrostrictive active members, at the cost of higher mass. Two different cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive materials were tested at liquid nitrogen temperatures, both with larger strain capability than the room temperature magnetostrictive materials. The cryogenic active member development included the design and fabrication of a cryostat that allows operation of the cryogenic active member in a space structure testbed.

  15. Development of Observational Activities for Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Kevin; Wilson, J.

    2007-05-01

    During the spring of 2006 new laboratory activities were developed for introductory astronomy classes at Georgia State University. The purpose of these labs was to develop hands-on astronomy activates. We first purchased Project Star refracting telescope kits and spectrometer kits, and a Meade Deep Sky Imager CCD. The new materials were tried on a single lab section of 22 students. For comparison purposes a traditional lab section from the same large lecture class was selected as a control group. The students in the experimental group constructed the telescopes and measured their telescope’s, light gathering ability and its angular resolution and compared them to the human eye, and its magnification. The students also built spectrometers and learned how to use them identify different types of light sources such as Mercury vapor lights, high and low pressure sodium lights, fluorescent lights, and other typical light sources. Each student then performed a light pollution investigation of their neighborhood using the spectroscopes they had constructed. In addition all students used these spectroscopes to observe solar Fraunhofer lines. In lab students used a small Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and the Meade Deep Sky Imager to take photos of objects inside the lab room. After this they took telescopic pictures of the sun and moon on several occasions. The students rally enjoyed most of these activities. Student in the experimental group had slightly higher final exam scores than the students in the control group. However, the drop rate for the control group was higher then the experimental group and so the statistical significance of the result could not be determined. The authors would like to thank the Partnership for Reform in Science and Mathematics (PRISM), funded by NSF, for providing a mini-grant to support this work.

  16. Extravehicular Activity Technology Development Status and Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of NASA s current EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be to reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA hardware life and limited availability of the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) will eventually become a critical issue. The current EMU has successfully served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability will be needed and the current architectures and technologies under development offer significant improvements over the current flight systems. In addition to ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for missions to Near Earth Objects (NEO), Phobos, or future surface missions. Surface missions could include either exploration of the Moon or Mars. Providing an

  17. Guiding Learners to near Native Fluency in English through an Adaptive Programme of Activities Which Includes Phoneme and Prosody Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Alistair; Attridge, Ann; Lapok, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many students of English language find pronunciation difficult to master. This work in progress paper discusses an incremental and iterative approach towards developing requirements for software applications to assist learners with the perception and production of English pronunciation in terms of phonemes and prosody. It was found that prompts…

  18. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  19. Predicted residual activity of rilpivirine in HIV-1 infected patients failing therapy including NNRTIs efavirenz or nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Theys, K; Camacho, R J; Gomes, P; Vandamme, A M; Rhee, S Y

    2015-06-01

    Rilpivirine is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) currently indicated for first-line therapy, but its clinical benefit for HIV-1 infected patients failing first-generation NNRTIs is largely undefined. This study quantified the extent of genotypic rilpivirine resistance in viral isolates from 1212 patients upon failure of efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing antiretroviral treatment, of whom more than respectively 80% and 90% showed high-level genotypic resistance to the failing NNRTI. Of all study patients, 47% showed a rilpivirine resistance-associated mutation (RPV-RAM), whereas preserved residual rilpivirine activity was predicted in half of the patients by three genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms. An NNRTI-dependent impact on rilpivirine resistance was detected. Compared with the use of nevirapine, the use of efavirenz was associated with a 32% lower risk of having a RPV-RAM and a 50% lower risk of predicted reduced rilpivirine susceptibility. Most prevalent RPV-RAMs after nevirapine experience were Y181C and H221Y, whereas L100I+K103N, Y188L and K101E occurred most in efavirenz-experienced patients. Predicted rilpivirine activity was not affected by HIV-1 subtype, although frequency of individual mutations differed across subtypes. In conclusion, this genotypic resistance analysis strongly suggests that the latest NNRTI, rilpivirine, may retain activity in a large proportion of HIV-1 patients in whom resistance failed while they were on an efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing regimen, and may present an attractive option for second-line treatment given its good safety profile and dosing convenience. However, prospective clinical studies assessing the effectiveness of rilpivirine for NNRTI-experienced patients are warranted to validate knowledge derived from genotypic and phenotypic drug resistance studies.

  20. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development... Eligible Activities § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in addition to other activities authorized in this subpart...

  1. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special economic development... Eligible Activities § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in addition to other activities authorized in this subpart...

  2. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special economic development... Eligible Activities § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in addition to other activities authorized in this subpart...

  3. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  4. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  5. Development of gemifloxacin in vitro susceptibility test methods for gonococci including quality control guidelines. The Quality Control Study Group.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N; Erwin, M E

    2000-07-01

    Gemifloxacin (formerly SB-265805 or LB20304a) is a new fluoronapthyridone with documented activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms. The activity of gemifloxacin was tested against 150 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, using reference agar dilution, standardized disk diffusion, and Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) methods. Gemifloxacin was very potent against ciprofloxacin (CIPRO)-susceptible strains (MIC(90,) 0.008 microg/ml) but was significantly less active against the CIPRO-resistant gonococci (MIC(90,) 0.12 microg/ml). Etest and reference agar dilution MIC results showed excellent correlation (r = 0.96), and 98.7% MICs were within +/- one log(2) dilution. Agar dilution MICs were also compared to zone diameters obtained using gemifloxacin 5-microg disks; and complete intermethod categorical agreement (100%) was achieved applying breakpoints proposed as follows: < or =0.25 microg/ml (zone, > or =25 mm) for susceptible and > or =1 microg/ml (zone, < or =21 mm) for resistant. Gemifloxacin MIC and disk diffusion te quality control (QC) ranges were established for N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226. Data were collected from > or = seven laboratories, three GC agar medium lots for both agar MICs and disk methods, and two lots each of the 5- and 10-microg disks. The proposed MIC QC range was 0.002 to 0.016 microg/ml and the calculated mm zone ranges (median +/- 0.5x average mm range) for both disks were similar, but contained only 88.1 to 91.9% of participant results. To achieve the acceptable > or = 95% of all study results within range, a 43 to 54 mm limits (5-microg disks) were necessary. The excellent broad-spectrum activity and a low reported adverse effects profile of gemifloxacin shows a potential for treatment of fluoroquinolone-resistant gonorrhea.

  6. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  7. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  8. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are derived. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both classical plate theory (CPT) and first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) are presented. The effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads are included in the in-plane stability equations. Numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are presented. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPT are made. The computational effort required by the new analysis is compared to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  9. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries (including shape characterization). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, H.P.; Goetz, P.J.; Sharma, A.; Han, W; Bliss, T.C.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) sensor projects was to develop and commercialize a sensor system capable of particle analysis, in terms of size distributions, using concentrated suspensions at high solids concentrations. The early research was focused on application of ultrasonic spectroscopy of inorganic pigment slurries (e.g. titanium dioxide) commonly encountered on paper industry. During the project prototypes were tested in both academic and industrial laboratories. Work also involved successful field tests of the on-line prototype at a pigment manufacturing facility. Pen Kem continued the work at its cost beyond the initial funded period from March `92 to September `94. The first project (DE- FC05-88CE40684), which began in September 1988, culminated in a commercial laboratory instrument, Pen Kem AcoustoPhor {trademark} 8000, put on the market in June 1993. The follow-on project was aimed at investigation of shape and orientation effects on ultrasonic spectroscopy. A new cooperative agreement was awarded in September 1994 (DE-FC05-94CE40005) to develop shape characterization capabilities deemed critical by the clay industry. This follow-on project achieved following successes: A theoretical model was developed to account for the effects of size-dependent aspect ratios of spheroid particles under different orientations on ultrasound attenuation spectra of concentrated slurries. The theoretical model was confirmed by laboratory tests on kaolin slurries. An algorithm was developed to simulate evolution of particle orientation fields in simple squeezing flows.

  10. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  11. The Development of an Information System for Teacher Turnover in Public Schools (Including Uniform Reporting and a Computer Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlich, Donald C.; Craven, Evelyn M.

    A descriptive research study was conducted to (1) develop an information system for collecting and processing information on teacher mobility, (2) obtain information concerning current conditions of teacher turnover in Idaho, (3) field test the instrument and computer programs and (4) provide accurate data about teacher turnover in the nation and…

  12. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  13. How Somatic Adult Tissues Develop Organizer Activity.

    PubMed

    Vogg, Matthias C; Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The growth and patterning of anatomical structures from specific cellular fields in developing organisms relies on organizing centers that instruct surrounding cells to modify their behavior, namely migration, proliferation, and differentiation. We discuss here how organizers can form in adult organisms, a process of utmost interest for regenerative medicine. Animals like Hydra and planarians, which maintain their shape and fitness thanks to a highly dynamic homeostasis, offer a useful paradigm to study adult organizers in steady-state conditions. Beside the homeostatic context, these model systems also offer the possibility to study how organizers form de novo from somatic adult tissues. Both extracellular matrix remodeling and caspase activation play a key role in this transition, acting as promoters of organizer formation in the vicinity of the wound. Their respective roles and the crosstalk between them just start to be deciphered.

  14. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  15. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  16. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  17. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David Michael

    1997-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. The formulation uses the principle of virtual work. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are then derived after the application of several simplifying assumptions. These equations are then modified to allow the reference surface of the plate to be located at a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described as well. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both Classical Plate Theory (CPT) and first-order Shear-Deformation Plate Theory (SDPT) are presented. The necessary steps to include the effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads in the in-plane stability equations are also outlined. Numerical results are presented using the newly implemented capability. Comparisons of results for several example problems with different loading states are made. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPF are also made. Results comparing the computational effort required by the new analysis to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program are presented. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  18. Statistical investigation of surface bound ions and further development of BION server to include pH and salt dependence.

    PubMed

    Petukh, Marharyta; Zhang, Min; Alexov, Emil

    2015-12-15

    Ions are engaged in multiple biological processes in cells. By binding to the macromolecules or being mobile in the solvent, they maintain the integrity of the structure of macromolecules; participate in their enzymatic activity; or screen electrostatic interactions. While experimental methods are not always able to assign the exact location of ions, computational methods are in demand. Although the majority of computational methods are successful in predicting the position of ions buried inside macromolecules, they are less effective in deciphering positions of surface bound ions. Here, we propose the new BION algorithm (http://compbio.clemson.edu/bion_server_ph/) that predicts the location of the surface bound ions. It is more efficient and accurate compared to the previous version since it uses more advanced clustering algorithm in combination with pairing rules. In addition, the BION webserver allows specifying the pH and the salt concentration in predicting ions positions.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICITY MODEL USING NON ASSOCIATED FLOW RULE FOR HCP MATERIALS INCLUDING ZIRCONIUM FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael V. Glazoff; Jeong-Whan Yoon

    2013-08-01

    In this report (prepared in collaboration with Prof. Jeong Whan Yoon, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia) a research effort was made to develop a non associated flow rule for zirconium. Since Zr is a hexagonally close packed (hcp) material, it is impossible to describe its plastic response under arbitrary loading conditions with any associated flow rule (e.g. von Mises). As a result of strong tension compression asymmetry of the yield stress and anisotropy, zirconium displays plastic behavior that requires a more sophisticated approach. Consequently, a new general asymmetric yield function has been developed which accommodates mathematically the four directional anisotropies along 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and biaxial, under tension and compression. Stress anisotropy has been completely decoupled from the r value by using non associated flow plasticity, where yield function and plastic potential have been treated separately to take care of stress and r value directionalities, respectively. This theoretical development has been verified using Zr alloys at room temperature as an example as these materials have very strong SD (Strength Differential) effect. The proposed yield function reasonably well models the evolution of yield surfaces for a zirconium clock rolled plate during in plane and through thickness compression. It has been found that this function can predict both tension and compression asymmetry mathematically without any numerical tolerance and shows the significant improvement compared to any reported functions. Finally, in the end of the report, a program of further research is outlined aimed at constructing tensorial relationships for the temperature and fluence dependent creep surfaces for Zr, Zircaloy 2, and Zircaloy 4.

  20. Development of numerical modeling program for organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by including tail/Interfacial states models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kuan-Ying; Lu, I.-Hsin; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2016-03-01

    A numerical model for PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell has been developed and the structure has been simulated and analyzed. The limiting factor leading to low open circuit voltage (Voc) in PEDOT:PSS/SiNW hybrid solar cell is investigated. By adding a p-type silicon layer into the device to create an electric field in the silicon layer, the recombination at interface is improved and the Voc increases. The efficiency is improved to over 15% and more optimized work can be done in the future.

  1. Launch Deployment Assembly Extravehicular Activity Neutral Buoyancy Development Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T.

    1996-01-01

    This test evaluated the Launch Deployment Assembly (LDA) design for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) work sites (setup, igress, egress), reach and visual access, and translation required for cargo item removal. As part of the LDA design, this document describes the method and results of the LDA EVA Neutral Buoyancy Development Test to ensure that the LDA hardware support the deployment of the cargo items from the pallet. This document includes the test objectives, flight and mockup hardware description, descriptions of procedures and data collection used in the testing, and the results of the development test at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS).

  2. Let's Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Marrinan, Hannah; Firth, Sonja; Hipgrave, David; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-06-27

    In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT) has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings.

  3. Including health equity considerations in development of instruments for rheumatology research: an introduction to a novel OMERACT paradigm.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Jennifer; Rader, Tamara; Guillemin, Francis; Boonen, Annelies; Christensen, Robin; Lyddiatt, Anne; Pardo, Jordi Pardo; Welch, Vivian; Singh, Jasvinder A; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Equity Special Interest Group (SIG) was established in 2008 to create a preliminary core set of outcome measures for clinical trials that can assess equity gaps in healthcare and the effectiveness of interventions to close or narrow gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged populations with musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions. At the OMERACT 11 meeting in 2012, the Equity SIG workshop focused on health assessment scales and their applicability for disadvantaged patients with MSK conditions. The intent was to determine whether the items and domains in 2 common questionnaires, the Health Assessment Questionnaire and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 Survey, are appropriate for the activities and life experiences of certain disadvantaged populations, and whether completion of any of the scales would present a challenge to disadvantaged persons. To generate discussion, we considered the reading level of items in these questionnaires and whether they would be accessible to people with different levels of literacy. The group concluded that the choice of measurement instrument may contribute to "outcome measure-generated inequalities" because disadvantaged groups might have difficulty understanding some of the questions. The future work of the Equity SIG will explore the appropriateness of different measurement scales as they relate to inequities in arthritis as well as the risk of exacerbating disadvantages for patients with low literacy.

  4. Development and verification of long-range atmospheric transport model of radon-222 and lead-210 including scavenging process

    SciTech Connect

    Hirao, Shigekazu; Nono, Yuki; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun; Iida, Takao; Yoshioka, Katsuhiro

    2008-08-07

    A three-dimensional Eulerian atmospheric long-range transport model of radon-222 ({sup 222}Rn) and lead-210 ({sup 210}Pb) coupled with meteorological model MM5 was developed. The model calculates advection, diffusion, radiation decay and deposition processes in a horizontal scale of several thousand kilometers. This model was applied to East Asia. Performance of the model was evaluated with measured hourly surface air {sup 222}Rn concentration and monthly {sup 210}Pb deposition. The model verification was done with respect to the following points: 1) the sensitivity of vertical distribution of turbulent diffusivity and 2) the accuracy of spatial distribution of precipitation. In this report, improvement of the model performance is also discussed.

  5. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  6. Effect of the Heat-exposure on Peripheral Sudomotor Activity Including the Density of Active Sweat Glands and Single Sweat Gland Output.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2010-10-01

    Tropical inhabitants are able to tolerate heat through permanent residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. The goal of this study was to clarify the peripheral mechanisms involved in thermal sweating pre and post exposure (heat-acclimatization over 10 days) by studying the sweating responses to acetylcholine (ACh), a primary neurotransmitter of sudomotor activity, in healthy subjects (n=12). Ten percent ACh was administered on the inner forearm skin for iontophoresis. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing, after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with ACH, was performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, as well as oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The post exposure activity had a short onset time (p<0.01), higher active sweat rate [(AXR (p<0.001) and DIR (p<0.001)], higher sweat output per gland (p<0.001) and higher transepidermal water loss (p<0.001) compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The activated sweat rate in the sudomotor activity increased the output for post-exposure compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The results suggested that post-exposure activity showed a higher active sweat gland output due to the combination of a higher AXR (DIR) sweat rate and a shorter onset time. Therefore, higher sudomotor responses to ACh receptors indicate accelerated sympathetic nerve responsiveness to ACh sensitivity by exposure to environmental conditions.

  7. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Anderson, Melvin S.

    1998-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations that include transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Using several simplifying assumptions, linearized, stability equations are derived that describe the response of the plate just after bifurcation buckling occurs. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(c), from the centroid surface which is convenient for modeling stiffened-plate assemblies. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design program code is described. Either classical plate theory (CPT) or first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) may be selected in VICONOPT. Comparisons of numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are made. Results from the new curved-plate analysis compare well with closed-form solution results and with results from known example problems in the literature. Finally, a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression is presented.

  8. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  9. Excellence in Physics Education Award Talk: Sharing Active Learning Strategies in the Developed and Developing Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, David

    2010-02-01

    Since the first series of National Microcomputer Based Laboratory (MBL) Institutes for Teachers of Physics in Summer, 1987, the Activity Based Physics Group (ABP) has presented numerous professional development institutes and workshops to thousands of high school, college and university faculty, sponsored by National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Education, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and others. An overview of these programs and details of our instructional strategies will be presented. Some common features of these include: (1) motivating participants through introduction to active learning research literature, including exposure to conceptual evaluations and student learning gains in traditional and active learning courses, (2) exposing participants to active learning strategies through intensive hands-on work using classroom tested curricular materials, (3) relying on these materials to enhance teacher knowledge and correct misconceptions---when necessary, (4) providing opportunities to practice active learning instruction with other participants and (5) distributing or facilitating procurement of equipment and supplies needed to get started. Recently, ABP group members have been working with physics educators from other countries to introduce active learning strategies in the developing world. New programs such as Active Learning in Optics and Photonics (ALOP, UNESCO) and Physware (ICTP/UNESCO/IUPAP), that support active learning using low-cost equipment, have been developed for this purpose. To date, ALOP workshops have been presented to over 500 secondary and college faculty in Ghana, Tunisia, Morocco, India, Tanzania, Brazil, Mexico, Zambia, Cameroon, Colombia, Nepal and Chile, and the ALOP Training Manual has been translated into French and Spanish. The first Physware workshop, held at ICTP in Trieste in 2009, had 32 participants most of whom were from developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America. These programs will be described. )

  10. SORBENT DEVELOPMENT FOR MERCURY CONTROL. Final topical report including semiannual for January 1, 1998 through June 30, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Hassett; Edwin S. Olson; Grant E. Dunham; Ramesh K. Sharma; Ronald C. Timpe; Stanley J. Miller

    1998-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) draft Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) estimated anthropogenic mercury emissions to be 253 tons/yr in the US, with the majority (216 tons/yr) from combustion sources. The three main combustion sources listed were coal (72 tons/yr), medical waste incinerators (65 tons/yr), and municipal waste combustors (64 tons/yr). The emissions from both medical waste incinerators and municipal waste combustors were recently regulated, which, together with the reduction of mercury in consumer products such as batteries and fluorescent lights, has already reduced the emissions from these sources, as stated in the final EPA Mercury Report to Congress (2). EPA now estimates total point-source mercury emissions to be 158 tons/yr, with coal remaining at 72 tons/yr, while medical waste incinerators are down to 16 tons/yr and municipal waste combustors are at 30 tons/yr. Coal is now the primary source of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the US, accounting for 46%. In addition, the use of coal in the US has been increasing every year and passed the 1-billion-ton-per-year mark for the first time in 1997 (3). At the current rate of increase, coal consumption would reach 1.4 billion tons annually by the year 2020. On a worldwide basis, the projected increase in coal usage over the next two decades in China, India, and Indonesia will dwarf the current US coal consumption level. Therefore, in the US coal will be the dominant source of mercury emissions and worldwide coal may be the cause of significantly increased mercury emissions unless an effective control strategy is implemented. However, much uncertainty remains over the most technically sound and cost-effective approach for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and a number of critical research needs will have to be met to develop better control (2).

  11. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  12. Standards Development Activities at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. L.; Beeson, H. D.; Saulsberry, R. L.; Julien, H. L.; Woods, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of standards and standard activities at the JSC White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has been expanded to include the transfer of technology and standards to voluntary consensus organizations in five technical areas of importance to NASA. This effort is in direct response to the National Technology Transfer Act designed to accelerate transfer of technology to industry and promote government-industry partnerships. Technology transfer is especially important for WSTF, whose longterm mission has been to develop and provide vital propellant safety and hazards information to aerospace designers, operations personnel, and safety personnel. Meeting this mission is being accomplished through the preparation of consensus guidelines and standards, propellant hazards analysis protocols, and safety courses for the propellant use of hydrogen, oxygen, and hypergols, as well as the design and inspection of spacecraft pressure vessels and the use of pyrovalves in spacecraft propulsion systems. The overall WSTF technology transfer program is described and the current status of technology transfer activities are summarized.

  13. [Actively promote the development of neuro-ophthalmology in China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Shi-hui; Zhao, Jia-liang

    2010-12-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology is a medical subspecialty concerned on the nervous system diseases with ocular manifestations, this could be both sensory and motor, including ocular movements, papillary responses, and the structure changes of the brain and nervous system with ocular manifestations. Although neuro-ophthalmology in China has achieved some progress, certain problems still exist, such as the professional neuro-ophthalmology team and related academic organization are still absent in China; neuro-ophthalmology knowledge has not been popularized; the new technologies for diagnosis and treatment in neuro-ophthalmology have not been absorbed and applied; the coordination and cooperation with other related disciplines are not enough. We should actively promote the development of neuro-ophthalmology in China, including organization of a professional team of neuro-ophthalmology, popularization of neuro-ophthalmology knowledge to the ophthalmologists, development of research work in neuro-ophthalmology and the collaboration with international neuro-ophthalmologists.

  14. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  15. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiping; Lester, Robert L; Dickson, Robert C

    2005-06-17

    The Pkh1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes. Phytosphingosine (PHS), a sphingoid long chain base, is hypothesized to be a lipid activator of Pkh1 and thereby controls the activity of Ypk1/2. Here we present biochemical evidence supporting this hypothesis, and in addition we demonstrate that PHS also stimulates autophosphorylation and activation of Ypk1/2. Greatest stimulation of Ypk1/2 phosphorylation and activity are achieved by inclusion of both PHS and Pkh1 in an in vitro kinase reaction. We also demonstrate for the first time that Pkh1 phosphorylates the Sch9 protein kinase in vitro and that such phosphorylation is stimulated by PHS. This is the first biochemical demonstration of Sch9 activators, and the results further support roles for long chain bases in heat stress resistance in addition to implying roles in chronological aging and cell size determination, since Sch9 functions in these processes. Thus, our data support a model in which PHS, rather than simply being an upstream activator of Pkh1, also activates kinases that are downstream targets of Pkh1 including Ypk1/2 and Sch9.

  16. Mechanical research and development activities at the European space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrinidis, C.

    1996-02-01

    The research and development activities of satellite mechanical systems at ESA are driven by the requirements of future European space programmes, evolution of technologies resulting in new technical capabilities, and the need to reduce the cost, to increase the reliability of the European space effort and to improve the competitiveness of the European space industry. Technology developments require in many cases several years from initial concept to technological readiness, and this needs to be taken into account when considering satellite mission requirements. On the other hand difficulties encountered with the performance of existing mechanical system need to be resolved in a shorter timescale. Agency research and development activities of mechanical systems include: - new materials applications - design and manufacture techniques - structural dynamics and low disturbance environment - high precision reflectors - vibroacoustics - meteoroid and debris protection - tribology - pyrotechnics The activities take into account requirements of future space missions for science, earth observation, telecommunications, launchers, and microgravity applications. There are efforts to improve the competitive edge of space industry for example through the European Coordination for Space Standardization (ECSS).

  17. Pathways to URM Retention: IBP's Professional Development and Mentoring Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Fauver, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Thomas, S. H.; Valaitis, S.

    2013-05-01

    As a not for profit organization, the Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) hosts a variety of initiatives designed to increase the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students pursuing pathways in STEM. IBP also assists with formative program evaluation design and implementation to help strengthen URM recruitment and retention elements. Successful initiatives include virtual and face-to-face components that bring together URM students with established URM and other scientists in academia, government and industry. These connections provide URMs with mentoring, networking opportunities, and professional skill development contributing to an improved retention rate of URM students. IBP's initiatives include the NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative (NASA OSSI), Pathways to Ocean Science and Engineering, and the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science (ESS) Professional Development Program. The NASA OSSI recruits and facilitates student engagement in NASA education and employment opportunities. Pathways to Ocean Science connects and supports URM students with Ocean Science REU programs and serves as a resource for REU program directors. Pathways to Engineering has synthesized mentoring resources into an online mentoring manual for URM students that has been extensively vetted by mentoring experts throughout the country. The mentoring manual, which is organized by roles, provides undergraduates, graduates, postdocs, faculty and project directors with valuable resources. MS PHD'S, one of IBP's longest running and most successful initiatives, focuses on increasing the retention rate of URM students receiving advanced degrees in ESS. The program addresses barriers to retention in ESS including isolation, lack of preparation and professional development, and lack of mentoring. Program activities center on peer-to-peer community building, professional development exercises, networking experiences, one

  18. Active diffraction gratings: Development and tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, S.; Frassetto, F.; Zanchetta, E.; Della Giustina, G.; Brusatin, G.; Poletto, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present the realization and characterization of an active spherical diffraction grating with variable radius of curvature to be used in grazing-incidence monochromators. The device consists of a bimorph deformable mirror on the top of which a diffraction grating with laminar profile is realized by UV lithography. The experimental results show that the active grating can optimize the beam focalization of visible wavelengths through its rotation and focus accommodation.

  19. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development... § 570.203 Special economic development activities. A recipient may use CDBG funds for special economic... part of an economic development project. Guidelines for selecting activities to assist under...

  20. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special economic development... § 570.203 Special economic development activities. A recipient may use CDBG funds for special economic... part of an economic development project. Guidelines for selecting activities to assist under...

  1. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special economic development... § 570.203 Special economic development activities. A recipient may use CDBG funds for special economic... part of an economic development project. Guidelines for selecting activities to assist under...

  2. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Special economic development... § 570.203 Special economic development activities. A recipient may use CDBG funds for special economic... part of an economic development project. Guidelines for selecting activities to assist under...

  3. Armenia as a Regional Centre for Astronomy for Development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO, Armenia, http://www.bao.am) are among the candidate IAU Regional Nodes for Astronomy for Development activities. It is one of the main astronomical centers of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East region. At present there are 48 qualified researchers at BAO, including six Doctors of Science and 30 PhDs. Five important observational instruments are installed at BAO, the larger ones being 2.6m Cassegrain (ZTA-2.6) and 1m Schmidt (the one that provided the famous Markarian survey). BAO is regarded as a national scientific-educational center, where a number of activities are being organized, such as: international conferences (4 IAU symposia and 1 IAU colloquium, JENAM-2007, etc.), small workshops and discussions, international summer schools (1987, 2006, 2008 and 2010), and Olympiads. BAO collaborates with scientists from many countries. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS, http://www.aras.am/) is an NGO founded in 2001; it has 93 members and it is rather active in the organization of educational, amateur, popular, promotional and other matters. The Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, http://www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) is one of the 17 national VO projects forming the International Virtual Observatories Alliance (IVOA) and is the only VO project in the region serving also for educational purposes. A number of activities are planned, such as management, coordination and evaluation of the IAU programs in the area of development and education, establishment of the new IAU endowed lectureship program and organization of seminars and public lectures, coordination and initiation of fundraising activities for astronomy development, organization of regional scientific symposia, conferences and workshops, support to Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP), production/publication of educational and promotional materials, etc.

  4. Utilizing Student Feedback to Inform Faculty Development Activities for Online Course Development and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Andria; Hoerig, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe faculty development activities at one university and to show how these activities were reviewed for relevance to students. As a means to validate faculty development activities and make adjustments for future development activities, a survey of students was undertaken. A survey was completed by…

  5. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  6. Development of Aspherical Active Gratings at NSRRC

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, T.-C.; Wang, D.-J.; Perng, S.-Y.; Chen, C.-T.; Lin, C.-J.; Kuan, C.-K.; Ho, H.-C.; Wang, J.; Fung, H.S.; Chang, S.-H.

    2007-01-19

    An active grating based on a novel optical concept with bendable polynomial surface profile to reduce the coma and defocus aberrations had been designed and proved by the prototype testing. Due to the low glass transition temperature of the glue and the difference of thermal expansion coefficient between the 17-4 steel bender and silicon, the prototype distorted from flat polished condition when thermally de-blocked the polishing pitch. To improve the thermal deformation of the active grating in the polishing process, a new invar bender and high curing temperature glue were adapted to glue a silicon substrate on the bender. After some tests and manufacturer polishing, it showed acceptable conditions. In this paper we will present the design and preliminary tests of the invar active grating. Meanwhile, the design and analysis of a new 17-4 PH steel bender to be electro-less nickel plating and mechanical ruling for a new beamline will also be discussed.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  8. Professional Development: Identifying Effective Instructional Coaching Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannino, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the instructional coaching activities most used by instructional coaches in southeast Texas school districts and to test if there was a relationship between the use of instructional coaching and perceived improvement in the instructional practices of teachers and student achievement. The participants for…

  9. Developing Metacognition: A Basis for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.

    2004-01-01

    The reasons to introduce formats of active learning in engineering (ALE) such as project work, problem-based learning, use of cases, etc. are mostly based on practical experience, and sometimes from applied research on teaching and learning. Such research shows that students learn more and different abilities than in traditional formats of…

  10. Using Hybrid Modeling to Develop Innovative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Brenda; Avans, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid activities model that physical educators can use with students in grades four and above to create virtually a limitless array of novel games. A brief introduction to the basic theory is followed by descriptions of some hybrid games. Hybrid games are typically the result of merging two traditional sports or other…

  11. Development of active-transport membrane devices

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-07-01

    This report introduces the concept of Air Products` AT membranes for the separation of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} from process gas streams and presents results from the first year fabrication concept development studies.

  12. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  13. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  14. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching mathematics. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting…

  15. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  16. Linking Employee Development Activity, Social Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Heather R.; Maurer, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined "perceived beneficiary" of employee development (self, organization) for relationships with employee development activity. Perceived organizational support served as a moderator. The authors conclude that employees may engage in development activities to partly benefit their organization to the extent that a positive exchange…

  17. Past Activeness, Solidarity, and Local Development Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekeri, Andrew A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Draws upon community field theory and human ecology and uses data from 120 rural Pennsylvania school districts to examine the relative contributions of past community actions, development of solidarity, and ecological variables (socioeconomic status, remoteness, previous industrialization, and percentage of residents commuting to work) to the…

  18. Meristematic Activity during Adventitious Root Primordium Development

    PubMed Central

    Haissig, Bruce E.

    1972-01-01

    Intact brittle willows (Salix fragilis L.) were treated so that developing adventitious root primordia in the stems would be subjected to elevated gibberellic acid or reduced endogenous auxin levels. Observations were made of primordia that were initiated during the experiments and of primordia that were established before the experiments began. The results indicated that as primordia became older and contained more cells, auxin basipetally transported in the stem seemed to be of less importance in determining cell number per primordium. Thus, established primordia depended upon this auxin to a lesser extent than primordia which were being initiated. These observations were explained on the basis of differential contributions during primordium development of cell division in the cambium of the stem and in the primordia themselves. As opposed to the effects of reduced auxin levels, applied gibberellic acid reduced the cell number per primordium most in established primordia. Initiating primordia were least affected by gibberellic acid treatment. Gibberellic acid treatment seemed mainly to reduce intraprimordium cell division, on which continued development of established primordia most depends. Seemingly, at least in brittle willow, applied gibberellic acid blocks the action of auxin in primordium development subsequent to the initiation phase. PMID:16658077

  19. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  20. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special economic development activities. 570.203 Section 570.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  1. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  2. Review of active radiation shielding developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Roberto

    The radiation risk due to ionizing particles is a critical issue for long duration manned space missions. The ionization losses in the materials of the spacecraft provide passive shielding effectively stopping low energy particles. However, the estimates of the material required to obtain an acceptable level of radiation result in a prohibitive mass. Active electromagnetic shields, which deflect the charged particles, have been considered as an alternative solution. During the last 10 years the interest in this area has grown. A study of active magnetic shielding based on high-temperature superconductors (HTS) was initiated in an ESA study in 2010, continued in the context of the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) programs (2011-2014) as well as within a dedicated FP7 EU program, SR2S (2013-2015). The aim of these effort was to provide a realistic evaluation of the possibilities based on current technology levels as well extrapolating to reasonable technology advances expected during the next decade. The different configurations considered were assessed in terms of their technical feasibility and shielding efficiency. We present here a status report of the ongoing work and some preliminary results.

  3. A proposed 30-45 minute 4 page standard protocol to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) that includes measures of inflammatory activity, joint damage, and longterm outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pincus, T; Brooks, R H; Callahan, L F

    1999-02-01

    A proposed 4 page, 30-45 minute standard protocol to assess rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) is described that includes all relevant measures of inflammatory activity such as joint swelling, measures of joint damage such as joint deformity, and outcomes such as joint replacement surgery, to monitor patients in longterm observational studies. Forms are included: (1) a patient self-report modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ) to assess function, pain, fatigue, psychological distress, symptoms, and drugs used; (2) assessor-completed forms: "RA clinical features" --criteria for RA, functional class, family history, extraarticular disease, comorbidities, joint surgery, radiographic score, and laboratory findings. (3) A 32 joint count with 5 variables: (a) a "shorthand" normal/abnormal so that normal joints require no further detailed assessment; (b) tenderness or pain on motion; (c) swelling; (d) limited motion or deformity; (e) previous surgeries; physical measures of function, i.e., grip strength, walk time, and button test. (4) Medication review of previous disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD), work history, and years of education. The forms allow cost effective acquisition of all relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in routine clinical care, and allow recognition that measures of activity may show similar or improved values over 5-10 years, while measures of damage and outcomes indicate severe progression in the same patients. The SPERA is feasible to acquire most known relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in RA in 30-45 min in usual clinical settings, to provide a complete database for analyses of longterm outcomes.

  4. Desulfurization sorbent development activities at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    Development of a suitable regenerable sorbent is a major barrier issue in the hot gas cleanup program for integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. This has been a challenging problem during the last 20 years, since many of the sorbents developed in the program could not retain their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration reactions. A series of promising sorbents (METC 2-10), which were capable of sustaining their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated sulfidation/ regeneration cycles, have been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). These sorbents were tested both in low-pressure (260 KPa/23 psig) and high-pressure (520 KPa/60.7 psig) fixed-bed reactors at 538{degrees}C (1000{degrees}F) with simulated coal gas. High-pressure testing was continued for 20 cycles with steam regeneration. A major research goal during the last year was to lower the cost of materials utilized during the sorbent preparation. The METC 9 sorbent was prepared by substituting low-cost materials for some of the materials in METC 6 sorbent. The sulfur capacity of the two sorbents were similar during the 20-cycle testing. METC 2 sorbent was exposed to coal gas in the Modular Gas Cleanup Rig and it was later tested in the high-pressure fixed-bed reactor. The reactivity of the METC 2 sorbent was unaffected by the exposure to the coal gas. Development of these sorbents will be continued for both fluid-bed and moving-bed applications.

  5. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  6. Active microrheology of fluids inside developing zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Mike; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2014-03-01

    Biological fluids are a source of diverse and interesting behavior for the soft matter physicist. Since their mechanical properties must be tuned to fulfill functional roles important to the development and health of living things, they often display complex behavior on length and time scales spanning many orders of magnitude. For microbes colonizing an animal host, for example, the mechanical properties of the host environment are of great importance, affecting mobility and hence the ability to establish a stable population. Indeed, some species possess the ability to affect the fluidity of their environment, both directly by chemically modifying it, and indirectly by influencing the host cells' secretion of mucus. Driving magnetically doped micron-scale probes which have been orally micro-gavaged into the intestinal bulb of a larval zebrafish allows the rheology of the mucosal layer within the fish to be measured over three decades of frequency, complementing ecological data on microbial colonization with physical information about the gut environment. Here, we describe the technique, provide the first measurement of mucosal viscosity in a developing animal, and explore the technique's applicability to other small-volume or spatially inhomogeneous fluid samples.

  7. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit. PMID:27248826

  8. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P < 0.002) influencing all enzyme expressions but not activities. The cholesterol supplement decreased most enzyme expression and activity. W-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of GPx, GR, Mn-SOD, and Cu,Zn-SOD and decreased that of catalase. N-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of catalase and Mn-SOD. GR activity increased in W-RM rats while SOD activity increased, but that of Se-GPx decreased in N animals. W-RM increased total and reduced glutathione and decreased the redox index. CN diet induced significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) than the CW diet. In conclusion, Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  9. A Summary of Closed Brayton Cycle Development Activities at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has been involved in the development of Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) power conversion technology since the 1960's. CBC systems can be coupled to reactor, isotope, or solar heat sources and offer the potential for high efficiency, long life, and scalability to high power. In the 1960's and 1970's, NASA and industry developed the 10 kW Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) and the 2 kW mini-BRU demonstrating technical feasibility and performance, In the 1980's, a 25 kW CBC Solar Dynamic (SD) power system option was developed for Space Station Freedom and the technology was demonstrated in the 1990's as part of the 2 kW SO Ground Test Demonstration (GTD). Since the early 2000's, NASA has been pursuing CBC technology for space reactor applications. Before it was cancelled, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (HMO) mission was considering a 100 kWclass CBC system coupled to a gas-cooled fission reactor. Currently, CBC technology is being explored for Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems to provide base power on the moon and Mars. These recent activities have resulted in several CBC-related technology development projects including a 50 kW Alternator Test Unit, a 20 kW Dual Brayton Test Loop, a 2 kW Direct Drive Gas Brayton Test Loop, and a 12 kW FSP Power Conversion Unit design.

  10. Recent Electric Propulsion Development Activities for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    (The primary source of electric propulsion development throughout NASA is managed by the In-Space Propulsion Technology Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center for the Science Mission Directorate. The objective of the Electric Propulsion project area is to develop near-term electric propulsion technology to enhance or enable science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Major hardware tasks include developing NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), developing a long-life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HIVHAC), developing an advanced feed system, and developing cross-platform components. The objective of the NEXT task is to advance next generation ion propulsion technology readiness. The baseline NEXT system consists of a high-performance, 7-kW ion thruster; a high-efficiency, 7-kW power processor unit (PPU); a highly flexible advanced xenon propellant management system (PMS); a lightweight engine gimbal; and key elements of a digital control interface unit (DCIU) including software algorithms. This design approach was selected to provide future NASA science missions with the greatest value in mission performance benefit at a low total development cost. The objective of the HIVHAC task is to advance the Hall thruster technology readiness for science mission applications. The task seeks to increase specific impulse, throttle-ability and lifetime to make Hall propulsion systems applicable to deep space science missions. The primary application focus for the resulting Hall propulsion system would be cost-capped missions, such as competitively selected, Discovery-class missions. The objective of the advanced xenon feed system task is to demonstrate novel manufacturing techniques that will significantly reduce mass, volume, and footprint size of xenon feed systems over conventional feed systems. This task has focused on the development of a flow control module, which consists of a three-channel flow system based on a piezo-electrically actuated

  11. Development of Spontaneous Activity in the Avian Hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Momose-Sato, Yoko; Sato, Katsushige

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous activity in the developing central nervous system occurs before the brain responds to external sensory inputs, and appears in the hindbrain and spinal cord as rhythmic electrical discharges of cranial and spinal nerves. This spontaneous activity recruits a large population of neurons and propagates like a wave over a wide region of the central nervous system. Here, we review spontaneous activity in the chick hindbrain by focusing on this large-scale synchronized activity. Asynchronous activity that is expressed earlier than the above mentioned synchronized activity and activity originating in midline serotonergic neurons are also briefly mentioned. PMID:27570506

  12. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  13. Ukrainian Teacher Candidates Develop Dispositions of Socially Meaningful Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshmanova, Tetyana; Ravchyna, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses how the method of peer mediation can be utilized by teacher educators in developing students' attitudes to care for those who are in need, how to actively participate in socially meaningful activity without any expectation of reward, and how to contribute to the democratic development of a post-conflict country via active…

  14. Planning and Development of Lab Training Activities for Powerline Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, A.; Hatziprokopiou, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the planning and development of student training and activities for the Powerline Communications Laboratory at the Technical Education Institute (TEI), Patras, Greece. Powerline communications is currently an active area of research and development that combines three separate specializations from the standard training of…

  15. The Relation between Employee Organizational and Professional Development Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; Andersson, Lynne; Davis, Kathleen; Daymont, Tom; Hochner, Arthur; Koziara, Karen; Portwood, Jim; Holladay, Blair

    2008-01-01

    A model is presented showing hypothesized common and parallel antecedents of employee organizational development activity (ODA) versus professional development activity (PDA). A common antecedent is expected to affect both ODA and PDA, while a parallel antecedent is expected to affect its corresponding work referent. This model was tested using a…

  16. Developing Science and Math Integrated Activities for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, Sonya Ellouise; Dwyer, Jerry; Narayan, Ratna

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the development and refinement of science and mathematics integrated activities for middle school students. The expectations of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics that students develop an understanding of mathematics and an ability to apply it gave birth to these activities. The expectations of the National…

  17. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document contains teaching activities which are intended to strengthen students' mathematics skills and concepts, while broadening their understanding of energy concepts. Each of the 24…

  18. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the NPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Woods, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Since 2001, four national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted four samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the most recent being that of the NPL (UK). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 8 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  19. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the CIEMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; García-Toraño, E.; Los Arcos, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, five national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted five samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the CIEMAT (Spain). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  20. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kossert, K.; Janßen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted six samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the PTB (Germany). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value, with the agreement of the CCRI(II). The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been recalculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  1. UPDATE ON PEC ACTIVITIES INCLUDING NEW EVALUATION CRITERIA, THE APPLICATION COMPLETENESS CHECKLIST, AND STATUS OF THE WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has updated the evaluation criteria it uses to make recommendations of equivalency (to processes acceptable under 40CFR503) on innovative or alternative sludge pathogen reduction processes. These criteria will be presented along with ...

  2. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  3. In vitro activity of fosfomycin against blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, including those nonsusceptible to tigecycline and/or colistin.

    PubMed

    Endimiani, Andrea; Patel, Gopi; Hujer, Kristine M; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Perez, Federico; Rice, Louis B; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In vitro activity of fosfomycin was evaluated against 68 bla(KPC)-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpKPC) isolates, including 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains. By agar dilution, 93% of the overall KpKPC were susceptible (MIC(50/90) of 16/64 microg/ml, respectively). The subgroup of 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains showed susceptibility rates of 87% (MIC(50/90) of 32/128 microg/ml, respectively). Notably, 5 out of 6 extremely drug-resistant (tigecycline and colistin nonsusceptible) KpKPC were susceptible to fosfomycin. Compared to agar dilution, disk diffusion was more accurate than Etest.

  4. Natural product derivatives with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joshua B; Smith, Adrienne E; Kusche, Brian R; Bessette, Bradley A; Swain, P Whitney; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McMills, Mark C; Wright, Dennis L; Priestley, Nigel D

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that the intentional engineering of a natural product biosynthesis pathway is a useful way to generate stereochemically complex scaffolds for use in the generation of combinatorial libraries that capture the structural features of both natural products and synthetic compounds. Analysis of a prototype library based upon nonactic acid lead to the discovery of triazole-containing nonactic acid analogs, a new structural class of antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against drug resistant, Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  5. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  6. New species of Scalibregmatidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the East Antarctic Peninsula including a description of the ecology and post-larval development of species of Scalibregma and Oligobregma.

    PubMed

    Blake, James A

    2015-10-21

    A large collection of scalibregmatid polychaetes from the east Antarctic Peninsula in May 2000 has yielded specimens of three new species of Scalibregma, Pseudoscalibregma, and Oligobregma. The new species of Scalibregma is represented by more than 400 specimens that include post-larval and juvenile forms which, for the first time, provide data on the sequence of development of key characters of a scalibregmatid. These data demonstrate that taxonomic characters including the form of the prostomium and presence of branchiae develop late in ontogeny and that small specimens cannot be reliably referred to a species or genus without a growth sequence. Juvenile morphology is also presented for the new species of Oligobregma. The new species of Scalibregma is compared with five northern hemisphere species and differs in details of the peristomium, upper and lower lips of the mouth, dorsal and ventral cirri, and nature of the short spinous setae of setiger 1. The new species of Pseudoscalibregma is unique in the nature of asymmetrical ventral cirri of posterior setigers. The new species of Oligobregma has large acicular spines in both noto- and neuropodia and these are present in juveniles. However, the final adult configuration of the prostomium is not evident until late in development. The taxonomic significance of the timing of development of post-larval and juvenile morphology elucidated in this study is discussed in relation to the validity of certain taxa and the current system of genera used in the family.

  7. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  8. New development activities in the field of wet welding

    SciTech Connect

    Szelagowski, P.; Osthus, V.; Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R.; Lafaye, G.

    1995-12-31

    The Wet Welding process has now become an interesting alternative repair process due to its high flexibility, its low investment costs and its high versatility. However, due to the prior bad reputation of the in former times achievable low weldment quality, due to extremely high hardness, high porosity, high hydrogen contamination and in combination with this high cracking susceptibility the wet welding process nowadays requires further activities to improve its reputation and credibility. New acceptance criteria, more detailed information on the achievable weldment quality and especially the development of life prediction data for wet welded components are now required. Advanced testing methods are necessary, additional design criteria are to be developed and achievable weldment quality data are to be included in acknowledged and approved standards and recommendations. Only by the provision of such data the credibility of the process and the problem of quality assurance for wet welded joints can be improved. In two comprehensive projects, sponsored by the European Community under the Thermie Programme, process development and new testing procedures have bene procured and are still under progress to generate the required data and new design criteria for the future application of the wet welding process to main components of offshore structures. The water depths in the range of 50 to 100 msw have been selected for the application of the wet welding process to structural components, as these depths include that range of application in which this process can become competitive to the hyperbaric dry welding process. The international trend to mechanize and automate the hyperbaric welding processes in dry environments can even be completed by the application of a semiautomatic wet welding process, which has already shown very promising results. This process is applicable to mechanized systems (e.g. to a wet robot system).

  9. Reduced-activation steels: Future development for improved creep strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueh, R. L.

    2008-08-01

    Reduced-activation steels for fusion applications were developed in the 1980s to replace the elevated-temperature commercial steels first considered. The new steels were patterned after the commercial steels, with the objective that the new steels have yield stress and ultimate tensile strength and impact toughness in a Charpy test comparable to or better than the steels they replaced. That objective was achieved in reduced-activation steels developed in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Although tensile and impact toughness of the reduced-activation steels exceed those of the commercial steels they were patterned after, their creep-rupture properties are inferior to some commercial steels they replaced. They are even more inferior to commercial steels developed since the 1980s. In this paper, compositional differences between reduced-activation steels and new commercial steels are examined, and compositions are proposed for development of new-and-improved reduced-activation steels.

  10. Creative Activity in Conception of Sustainable Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slahova, Aleksandra; Savvina, Jolanta; Cacka, Maris; Volonte, Ilze

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the stages in the development of creative activity considering the distinctive features of all stages and the modes of dynamics of the development of a creative person. Design/methodology/approach: The paper analyses scientific investigations and pedagogical experiences in order to develop the…

  11. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  12. Design and Implementation of Alkali Activated Cement For Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseson, Alexander James

    Herein, progress is presented on the design and implementation of technology for sustainable development in general and international development in particular. Necessarily interdisciplinary, the work draws upon the tools and techniques of Mechanical, Materials, and Civil Engineering; and History & Politics. The work was conducted along two paths, the first being the theory and methodology of sustainable development. A flexible design and dissemination framework was developed, Technology Seeding, defined as: development by the transfer and participatory adaptation of appropriate proven conceptual designs. The methodology was developed in part through two case studies which implemented, respectively, wood-turning lathes in Tanzania and upland rice planters in Thailand. The second path is the design and investigation of alkali-activated cements (AACs) for practical use. Those developed herein, for US markets, comprise ground granulated blast furnace slag, soda ash (sodium carbonate), and up to 68 wt.% granular limestone. Mixture Design of Experiment (DOE) was utilized to guide empirical and theoretical analysis of performance (e.g. compressive strength), economic & ecological aspects (e.g. cost, CO2 production, energy consumption), and chemistry (e.g. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffractograms). Models were derived to understand the impact of mix design on performance and for optimization. Successful formulations are hydraulic and cure at room temperature, with strengths as high as 41 MPa at 3 days and 65 MPa at 28 days. Some of these formulations, compared to OPC, are competitive in performance, reduce cost by up to 40%, and reduce both CO2 production and energy consumption by up to 97%. Major chemical products include calcium silicate hydrates / calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (C-(A)-S-H), gaylussite, and calcite (both newly formed and remaining from limestone). Calcite/dolomite and C-(A)-S-H both contribute to strength. A fraction of the limestone is consumed

  13. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Home Economics component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  14. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  15. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Language Arts component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Among the lessons included are an energy debate, puzzles, energy poetry, and energy life styles. Also contained in the IDEAS program are activity sets…

  16. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Introduction for the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Included in the program are activity sets for Home Economics (SE 034 678), Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681),…

  17. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler: 6-12. Social Studies. Revised 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    Thirty-eight energy related classroom activities for sixth to twelfth grade are included in this document. The activities are based on the following conceptual themes: (1) energy is basic; (2) energy's usefulness is limited; (3) energy exchanges affect the environment; (4) energy conservation is essential; and (5) people can develop and share…

  18. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  19. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program: 1995 activities and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.E.; Wright, L.L.; Tuskan, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) has led the nation in developing short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and herbaceous energy crops (HEC) as feedstocks for renewable energy. Since 1978, approximately $60 million has been invested in research projects involving more than 100 federal, university, and private research institutions. The research has been highly leveraged with cost-sharing from USDA Forest Service, private industry, and state agencies. The performance of 154 woody species and 35 herbaceous species has been examined in field trials across the U.S. Results of this effort include the prescription of silvi-cultural systems for hybrid poplars and hybrid willows and agricultural systems for switchgrass. Selected clones of woody species are producing dry weight yields in research plots on agricultural land that are 3 to 7 times greater than those obtained from mixed species stands on forest land, and at least 2 times the yields of southern plantation pines. Selected switchgrass varieties are producing dry weight yields 2 to 7 times greater than average forage grass yields on pasture and crop land. Crop development research is continuing efforts to translate this potential to commercial enterprises over a more geographically diverse acreage. Environmental research on biomass crops is aimed at developing sustainable systems that will contribute to the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. Systems integration and analysis aim to understand all factors affecting price and potential supplies of biomass crops at regional and national scales. Scale-up studies, feasibility analysis and demonstrations are establishing actual costs and facilitating the commercialization of integrated biomass systems. Information management and dissemination activities are facilitating the communication of results among a community of researchers, policy-makers, and potential users and producers of energy crops. 15 refs.

  20. Development of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Qiong; Zhang, Jun; Muller, Claude P; Chen, Jing-Xian; Yang, Zi-Feng; Zhang, Ren; Li, Juan; He, Yun-Shao

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are endemic in wild birds and, if transmitted to poultry, can cause serious economic losses. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for rapid detection of influenza virus type A, including H5 and H9 subtypes. The selected primers and various labeled TaqMan reporter probes corresponding to matrix, H5, and H9 genes were used in a multiplex real-time RT-PCR to simultaneously detect triple fluorescent signals. The results showed that the multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay can be applied to detect RNA of influenza virus type A including H5 and H9 subtypes with a high specificity and a sensitivity of 10 copies per reaction. As a result of its short turnaround times and a high specificity and sensitivity, the assay is very suitable for large-scale screening during AIV outbreaks.

  1. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system

    PubMed Central

    Ackman, James B.; Burbridge, Timothy J.; Crair, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The morphologic and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to demonstrate in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina, and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter- hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision. PMID:23060192

  2. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system.

    PubMed

    Ackman, James B; Burbridge, Timothy J; Crair, Michael C

    2012-10-11

    The morphological and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to show in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter-hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision.

  3. Development of a Practical Broadband Active Vibration Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop robust, lightweight, and low-power control units that can be used to suppress structural vibration in flexible aerospace structures. In particular, this paper focuses on active damping, which is implemented using compact decentralized control units distributed over the structure. Each control unit consists of a diamond-shaped piezoelectric patch actuator, three miniature accelerometers, and analog electronics. The responses from the accelerometers are added together and then integrated to give a signal proportional to velocity. The signal is then inverted, amplified, and applied to the actuator, which generates a control force that is out of phase with the measured velocity. This paper describes the development of the control system, including a detailed description of the control and power electronics. The paper also presents experimental results acquired on a Plexiglas window blank. Five identical control units installed around the perimeter of the window achieved 10 dB peak reductions and a 2.4 dB integrated reduction of the spatially averaged velocity of the window between 500 and 3000 Hz.

  4. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  5. Developing specialized guided worksheets for active learning in physics lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujarittham, T.; Emarat, N.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, I.; Tanamatayarat, J.

    2016-03-01

    As universities attempt to integrate active learning into their lectures, a range of strategies is emerging. Amongst the strategies is pre-prepared worksheets which students work through, facilitated by the lecturer. Despite the fact that worksheets have not yet been the subject of much research activity, there are instances of their use. Once such instance is by a pair of physics lecturers at Mahidol University, Thailand. The worksheets, called guided worksheets as they provide structure for students to take notes as the content in the lectures progresses, are prepared by the lecturers and have been in use since 2004. Evaluations showed that the guided worksheets met their intent but there were issues around certain topics which students found challenging. Concerted effort lead to the development of research based specialized guided worksheets for those topics that had issues. These specialized guided worksheets requiring substantially more interactions and student problem solving in line with active learning strategies, have been in use since 2012. This paper aims to describe the design of the specialized guided worksheets for the topic of electric field, and its evaluation. Pre- and post-tests were implemented over 2 years. The first was with guided worksheets with 260 students in 2011, and the second included specialized guided worksheets with 163 students in 2012. Gains on student understanding were higher in 2012 and students who were interviewed indicated that they found the specialized guided worksheets helpful for learning. The results indicate that the specialized guided worksheets made a difference in topics that students find challenging.

  6. Acoustic Emission Transducers: Calibration Activities and Transducer Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    transducer calibration and development activities -j at NBS is summiarized. DO Fo"� roiion or olv as is OBSOLETE DOS/N 0 102. LP.60 4. 6601...developed. This development was partially supported by the Electric Power Research Institute and the Office of Naval Research. The calibration subjects the...and tangential components of motion must be measured tb describe the dynamic displacement at a point on a surface. We previously have developed the NBS

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the field of environmental toxicology, structure activity relationships (SARs) have developed as scientifically-credible tools for predicting the effects of chemicals when little or no empirical data are available.

  8. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  9. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Preston T.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  10. Establishment of reference intervals for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in dogs including an assessment of the effects of sex and anticoagulant use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Eralp, Oya; Moritz, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF)- and kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) have been performed in a small number of healthy dogs, but reference intervals have not been assessed in a larger number of dogs. The goal of the current study was to establish reference intervals and assess intra-assay repeatability for kaolin-activated TEG in dogs. Additionally, the impact of sex and the influence of anticoagulant (native blood vs. recalcified citrate anticoagulated blood) were evaluated. Thromboelastography analyses were performed in 56 healthy dogs including German Shepherd Dogs (n = 19), Beagles (n = 15), and others (n = 22). Median age was 2 years (range: 1-6 years) and sex was evenly distributed (31 males and 25 females). To establish reference intervals, citrated whole-blood samples were collected, and TEG was performed 1 hr after sampling. Five TEG variables (R = reaction time; K = clot formation time; alpha = angle alpha; MA = maximal amplitude; G-value reflecting clot stability) were evaluated, and reference intervals were defined as the mean +/- 1.96-fold standard deviation. Intra-assay repeatability was assessed by calculating the pooled variance estimate in duplicate measurements of 6 healthy dogs. The effect of anticoagulant was assessed in 17 specimens. Reference intervals were as follows: R = 1.8-8.6 min; angle alpha = 36.9-74.6 degrees; K = 1.3-5.7 min; MA = 42.9-67.9 mm, and G = 3.2-9.6 Kdyn/cm(2). Coefficients of variation for R, K, angle alpha, MA, and G were 7.6%, 17.7%, 7.4%, 2.9%, and 6.6%, respectively. There was no significant impact of sex or anticoagulant on results. Interindividual variation was higher in native samples than in citrated whole blood. A limitation of the current study was that most of the samples were obtained from Beagles and German Shepherd Dogs. This study provides useful reference intervals for kaolin-activated TEG.

  11. Interactional Competence and the Development of Alignment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dings, Abby

    2014-01-01

    Based on qualitative analysis of conversational interactions collected over the course of a Spanish language learner's academic year abroad, this article explores the development of interactional resources related to alignment activity in the learner's conversational participation. Alignment activity refers to the means interlocutors use…

  12. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  13. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  14. Breaking the Ice: Career Development Activities for Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Bob G.; Wilburn, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two co-curricular career development activities, mock interviews and speed networking that we provide for accounting majors at our university. The driving force behind both activities was to increase comfort levels for students when interacting with professionals and to enhance their job interview and networking skills.…

  15. Youth Development in After-School Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Denise M.; Gottfredson, Denise C.; Cross, Amanda B.; Rorie, Melissa; Connell, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Leisure activities that occur outside of the school hours may facilitate positive youth development.The experiences of youth in three categories of activities (basketball and football, other sports, and nonsports) are examined in this study. Based on prior research, it is hypothesized that students participating in basketball and football will…

  16. Development and final design of FAME active array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Szigfrid; Agócs, Tibor; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Bettonvil, Felix; Black, Martin; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jaskó, Attila; Miller, Chris; Schnetler, Hermine; van Duffelen, Farian; Venema, Lars

    2016-07-01

    FAME (Freeform Active Mirror Experiment - part of the FP7 OPTICON/FP7 development programme) intends to demonstrate the huge potential of active mirrors and freeform optical surfaces. Freeform active surfaces can help to address the new challenges of next generation astronomical instruments, which are bigger, more complex and have tighter specifications than their predecessors. The FAME design consists of a pre-formed, deformable thin mirror sheet with an active support system. The thin face sheet provides a close to final surface shape with very high surface quality. The active array provides the support, and through actuation, the control to achieve final surface shape accuracy. In this paper the development path, trade-offs and demonstrator design of the FAME active array is presented. The key step in the development process of the active array is the design of the mechanical structure and especially the optimization of the actuation node positions, where the actuator force is transmitted to the thin mirror sheet. This is crucial for the final performance of the mirror where the aim is to achieve an accurate surface shape, with low residual (high order) errors using the minimum number of actuators. These activities are based on the coupling of optical and mechanical engineering, using analytical and numerical methods, which results in an active array with optimized node positions and surface shape.

  17. Development of a universal approach to increase physical activity among adolescents: the GoActive intervention

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Kirsten; Schiff, Annie; Kesten, Joanna M; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a physical activity (PA) promotion intervention for adolescents using a process addressing gaps in the literature while considering participant engagement. We describe the initial development stages; (1) existing evidence, (2) large scale opinion gathering and (3) developmental qualitative work, aiming (A) to gain insight into how to increase PA among the whole of year 9 (13–14 years-old) by identifying elements for intervention inclusion (B) to improve participant engagement and (C) to develop and refine programme design. Methods Relevant systematic reviews and longitudinal analyses of change were examined. An intervention was developed iteratively with older adolescents (17.3±0.5 years) and teachers, using the following process: (1) focus groups with (A) adolescents (n=26) and (B) teachers (n=4); (2) individual interviews (n=5) with inactive and shy adolescents focusing on engagement and programme acceptability. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results Limitations of the existing literature include lack of evidence on whole population approaches, limited adolescent involvement in intervention development, and poor participant engagement. Qualitative work suggested six themes which may encourage adolescents to do more PA; choice, novelty, mentorship, competition, rewards and flexibility. Teachers discussed time pressures as a barrier to encouraging adolescent PA and suggested between-class competition as a strategy. GoActive aims to increase PA through increased peer support, self-efficacy, group cohesion, self-esteem and friendship quality, and is implemented in tutor groups using a student-led tiered-leadership system. Conclusions We have followed an evidence-based iterative approach to translate existing evidence into an adolescent PA promotion intervention. Qualitative work with adolescents and teachers supported intervention design and addressed lack of engagement with health promotion programmes within this age group

  18. The role of the United States military in the development of vector control products, including insect repellents, insecticides, and bed nets.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Lynn W; Lawrence, Kendra L; Coleman, Russell E

    2009-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These diseases are transmitted by a variety of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, sand flies, and biting midges. In addition to disease threats, biting arthropods can cause dermatitis, allergic reactions, and sleep loss; therefore, monitoring of vector impact and integrated use of personal protective measures (PPM) and methods to reduce the vector populations are needed to protect service members. The U.S. military has played a vital role in vector identification tools and the development and testing of many of the most effective PPM and vector control products available today, including the topical repellent DEET and the repellent/insecticide permethrin, which is applied to clothing and bed nets. Efforts to develop superior products are ongoing. Although the U.S. military often needs vector control products with rather specific properties (e.g., undetectable, long-lasting in multiple climates) in order to protect its service members, many Department of Defense vector control products have had global impacts on endemic disease control.

  19. Ohio's "Career Development Blueprint" and Career Activity Packets: Resources for the Classroom Educator. AACE Bonus Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahris, Cynthia

    Ohio's Career Development Blueprint is a key component of the state's career development program. The blueprint is a document that includes learner outcomes, indicators, and suggested classroom activities organized by 12 key topic areas: self-awareness, career information, academic planning, future trends, economics, vocational orientation,…

  20. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  1. Support of Research and Development Activities via the Internet: NASA's Access Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Denise; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a prototype information access system developed by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) called NAM (NASA Access Mechanism) to access the Internet for research and development activities. Topics addressed include the Science and Technical Information Program, information needs, networking requirements, functional and…

  2. The Brd4 Extraterminal Domain Confers Transcription Activation Independent of pTEFb by Recruiting Multiple Proteins, Including NSD3 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shaila; Sowa, Mathew E.; Ottinger, Matthias; Smith, Jennifer A.; Shi, Yang; Harper, J. Wade; Howley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) plays critical roles in development, cancer progression, and virus-host pathogenesis. To gain mechanistic insight into the various biological functions of Brd4, we performed a proteomic analysis to identify and characterize Brd4-associated cellular proteins. We found that the extraterminal (ET) domain, whose function has to date not been determined, interacts with NSD3, JMJD6, CHD4, GLTSCR1, and ATAD5. These ET-domain interactions were also conserved for Brd2 and Brd3, the other human BET proteins tested. We demonstrated that GLTSCR1, NSD3, and JMJD6 impart a pTEFb-independent transcriptional activation function on Brd4. NSD3 as well as JMJD6 is recruited to regulated genes in a Brd4-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that depletion of Brd4 or NSD3 reduces H3K36 methylation, demonstrating that the Brd4/NSD3 complex regulates this specific histone modification. Our results indicate that the Brd4 ET domain through the recruitment of the specific effectors regulates transcriptional activity. In particular, we show that one of these effectors, NSD3, regulates transcription by modifying the chromatin microenvironment at Brd4 target genes. Our study thus identifies the ET domain as a second important transcriptional regulatory domain for Brd4 in addition to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) that interacts with pTEFb. PMID:21555454

  3. Assessment of ixekizumab, an interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, for potential effects on reproduction and development, including immune system function, in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D O; Hilbish, K G; Waters, D G; Newcomb, D L; Chellman, G J

    2015-12-01

    The reproductive and developmental toxicity of ixekizumab, a selective inhibitor of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), was assessed in the following studies in cynomolgus monkeys: fertility (3-month dosing), embryo-fetal development (EFD; dosing from gestation day (GD) 20 through 139), and pre-postnatal development (PPND; dosing from GD 20 through parturition). Because IL-17A has functional roles in innate and humoral immunity, immune system modulation was evaluated in the EFD and PPND studies; immunological evaluations in infants comprised peripheral blood immunophenotyping, Natural Killer cell cytolytic activity, and T-cell-dependent antibody (IgG and IgM) primary and secondary responses to antigen challenge. Ixekizumab exposure was sustained during the dosing periods in most adult monkeys. Fetal exposure at Cesarean section (GD 140-142; EFD study) was 18-25% of maternal exposure and ixekizumab was present in infants for up to 29 weeks postpartum. There were no adverse effects attributed to ixekizumab in any study. Importantly, immune system development and maturation were unaffected.

  4. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  5. Detection of silent cells, synchronization and modulatory activity in developing cellular networks.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Johannes J J; Dawitz, Julia; Kroon, Tim; Pires, Johny; Dassen, Valerie J; Berkhout, Janna A; Emperador Melero, Javier; Nadadhur, Aish G; Alevra, Mihai; Toonen, Ruud F; Heine, Vivi M; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Meredith, Rhiannon M

    2016-04-01

    Developing networks in the immature nervous system and in cellular cultures are characterized by waves of synchronous activity in restricted clusters of cells. Synchronized activity in immature networks is proposed to regulate many different developmental processes, from neuron growth and cell migration, to the refinement of synapses, topographic maps, and the mature composition of ion channels. These emergent activity patterns are not present in all cells simultaneously within the network and more immature "silent" cells, potentially correlated with the presence of silent synapses, are prominent in different networks during early developmental periods. Many current network analyses for detection of synchronous cellular activity utilize activity-based pixel correlations to identify cellular-based regions of interest (ROIs) and coincident cell activity. However, using activity-based correlations, these methods first underestimate or ignore the inactive silent cells within the developing network and second, are difficult to apply within cell-dense regions commonly found in developing brain networks. In addition, previous methods may ignore ROIs within a network that shows transient activity patterns comprising both inactive and active periods. We developed analysis software to semi-automatically detect cells within developing neuronal networks that were imaged using calcium-sensitive reporter dyes. Using an iterative threshold, modulation of activity was tracked within individual cells across the network. The distribution pattern of both inactive and active, including synchronous cells, could be determined based on distance measures to neighboring cells and according to different anatomical layers.

  6. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  7. Heat shock factor 2 is activated during mouse heart development.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, M; Jokinen, E; Sistonen, L; Leppä, S

    2000-08-01

    Two members of the heat shock transcription factor family, HSF1 and HSF2, have been identified as activators of mammalian heat shock gene expression. HSF1 acts as a classical stress-responsive factor, whereas HSF2 might play a role in embryogenesis, since it is active during pre- and post-implantation periods up to 15.5 days of mouse embryonic development. In this study, we analyzed HSF1 and HSF2 expression and activation during mouse heart formation. Our results show an abundant expression of HSF1 throughout heart development. In contrast, expression of the alternatively spliced HSF2-alpha and HSF2-beta, and an additional higher molecular weight isoform is strongly upregulated in the developing mouse heart at E11.5-12.5, a stage after which tubular heart has looped and chambers formed, and the myocardial walls are maturating and the valves differentiating. At the same developmental stage, HSF2 DNA-binding activity is transiently induced, whereas the weak HSE-binding activity, which is detected throughout heart development, consists primarily of HSF1. Interestingly, heat shock gene expression shows no temporal or spatial correlation with HSF2 expression and activation. Taken together, our results indicate that HSF2 activation is associated with specific stages of heart formation but is not involved in the regulation of inducible heat shock gene expression.

  8. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Patnaik, Santosh; Mishra, Pravash; Behera, Priyamadhaba; Dwivedi, Sada Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. Materials and Methods: We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. Results: The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or “frosties,” show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50–85%). Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol. PMID:27512686

  9. Adult Learning Principles in Designing Learning Activities for Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…

  10. Development of Active Learning with Simulations and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapalska, Alina; Brozik, Dallas; Rudd, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Educational games and simulations are excellent active learning tools that offer students hands-on experience. Little research is available on developing games and simulations and how teachers can be assisted in making their own games and simulations. In this context, the paper presents a multi-step process of how to develop games and simulations…

  11. Update on CMM/CBM development activity in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-15

    Current coal mine methane (CMM) and coalbed methane (CBM) development efforts in Ukraine are reviewed. These include the Donetsk CMM/CBM project and the Ukraine Methane Group CMM project (15 MW power production). 4 figs.

  12. Telomerase Activity is Downregulated Early During Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Abbas; Hanson, Peter S.; Morris, Christopher M.; Saretzki, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hTERT splice variant expression have been proposed to facilitate the decrease of telomerase activity during fetal development in various human tissues. Here, we analyzed the expression of telomerase RNA (hTR), wild type and α-spliced hTERT in developing human fetal brain (post conception weeks, pcw, 6–19) and in young and old cortices using qPCR and correlated it to telomerase activity measured by TRAP assay. Decrease of telomerase activity occurred early during brain development and correlated strongest to decreased hTR expression. The expression of α-spliced hTERT increased between pcw 10 and 19, while that of wild type hTERT remained unchanged. Lack of expression differences between young and old cortices suggests that most changes seem to occur early during human brain development. Using in vitro differentiation of neural precursor stem cells (NPSCs) derived at pcw 6 we found a decrease in telomerase activity but no major expression changes in telomerase associated genes. Thus, they do not seem to model the mechanisms for the decrease in telomerase activity in fetal brains. Our results suggest that decreased hTR levels, as well as transient increase in α-spliced hTERT, might both contribute to downregulation of telomerase activity during early human brain development between 6 and 17 pcw. PMID:27322326

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  14. LABORATORY DIRECTED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ACTIVITIES FOR FY2002.

    SciTech Connect

    FOX,K.J.

    2002-12-31

    and a means to address national needs within the overall mission of the DOE and BNL. The LDRD Annual Report contains summaries of all research activities funded during Fiscal Year 2002. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, the LDRD activities have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals and presentations at meetings and forums. All Fy 2002 projects are listed and tabulated in the Project Funding Table. Also included in this Annual Report in Appendix A is a summary of the proposed projects for FY 2003. The BNL LDRD budget authority by DOE in FY 2002 was $7 million. The actual allocation totaled $6.7 million. The following sections in this report contain the management processes, peer review, and the portfolio's relatedness to BNL's mission, initiatives and strategic plans. Also included is a metric of success indicators.

  15. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  16. Education for sustainable development using indoor and outdoor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žigon, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    Environmental education became an important part of our development in the last years. We put a lot of effort into a task how to improve students'values, skills, understanding and how to significantly enhance their learning and achievements regarding ecological problems. At the same time we also know that environmental learning is easier when our students have the opportunity to feel, see, touch, taste and smell the nature. Therefore teachers in my school develop regular access to the outdoors as a learning resource. Students understand the impact of their activities on the environment and they also like to participate in the nature protection. My school (Biotechnical Centre)is an example of educational centre where different research and development programes are strongly oriented to the sustainable development. Students are educated to become experts in biotechnology, agronomy, food technology and horticulture. At the same time they are educated how to care for the nature. The institution itself cooperates with different fields of economy (farms, food - baker industry, floristry, country design etc.). For these reasons the environmental education is an essential dimension of basic education focused on a sphere of interaction that lies at the root of personal and social development. We try to develop different outdoor activities through all the school year. These activities are: analyse the water quality; research waste water treatment plants; exploration of new food sources (like aquaponics - where fish and plants grow together); collecting plants with medical activities; care for the plants in the school yard; growing new plants in the poly tunnel; learning about unknown plants - especially when visiting national and regional parks; selling different things in the school shop - also for local citizens; participating in the world wide activity - "Keep the country tidy" etc. Students and teachers enjoy to participate in different outdoor activities; we both

  17. Uptake and clearance of exogenous estradiol-17β and testosterone during the early development of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), including eggs, alevins and fry.

    PubMed

    Piferrer, F; Donaldson, E M

    1994-07-01

    The uptake and clearance of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) were examined during the initial stages of development of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), including eyed-eggs, newly hatched alevins and first feeding fry. Radiolabeled steroids were administered through the water in tracer amounts with or without their nonradioactive form at 400 μg l(-1). Regardless of developmental stage, saturation levels were invariably attained earlier for T than for E2, thus resulting in a higher incorporation of E2. However, both steroids had similar clearance patterns. Uptake and clearance was clearly stage-dependent, being fastest in fry, intermediate in alevins and slowest in eggs. Furthermore, combined uptake and clearance patterns showed that exposure to steroid was also higher for E2 than for T and stage-dependent, but always markedly highest in alevins. Subsequently, based on the observed elimination of the estrogen, a double immersion in E2 at 400 μg 1(-1), administered 2 days apart to maximize exposure during the alevin stage, was assayed for its effect on sex reversal and found to induce the production of 100% females. We suggest that the yolk, which is present in substantial amounts during the initial stages of development in salmonids, can retain the exogenously administered liposoluble steroids, thus providing developing embryos with an extended supply of, and exposure to, these steroids well after the treatment is finished. Together, these findings help to explain the previously observed high effectiveness of sex steroids administered during early development in regulating gonadal differentiation in salmonids, the higher effectiveness of E2 compared to T, and clarify the localization of the most sensitive period to the action of exogenous steroids at the alevin stage in the coho salmon.

  18. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  19. Concerning the Development of the Wide-Field Optics for WFXT Including Methods of Optimizing X-Ray Optical Prescriptions for Wide-Field Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a progress report on the various endeavors we are undertaking at MSFC in support of the Wide Field X-Ray Telescope development. In particular we discuss assembly and alignment techniques, in-situ polishing corrections, and the results of our efforts to optimize mirror prescriptions including polynomial coefficients, relative shell displacements, detector placements and tilts. This optimization does not require a blind search through the multi-dimensional parameter space. Under the assumption that the parameters are small enough so that second order expansions are valid, we show that the performance at the detector can be expressed as a quadratic function with numerical coefficients derived from a ray trace through the underlying Wolter I optic. The optimal values for the parameters are found by solving the linear system of equations creating by setting derivatives of this function with respect to each parameter to zero.

  20. Selected advanced aerodynamic and active control concepts development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented of results obtained during analysis, design and test activities on six selected technical tasks directed at exploratory improvement of fuel efficiency for new and derivative transports. The work included investigations into the potential offered by natural laminar flow, improved surface coatings and advanced high lift concepts. Similar investigations covering optimum low-energy flight path control, integrated application of active controls and evaluation of primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance are also summarized. Recommendations are included for future work needed to exploit potential advancements.

  1. In Planta Expression Screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effectors Reveal Diverse Phenotypes, Including Activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum Disease Resistance Protein Rpi-blb2[W

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cano, Liliana M.; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I.B.; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A.G.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2009-01-01

    The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD3645-1, suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34–amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

  2. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions.

  3. Gadd45a and Gadd45b protect hematopoietic cells from UV-induced apoptosis via distinct signaling pathways, including p38 activation and JNK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mamta; Gupta, Shiv Kumar; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2006-06-30

    Gadd45a, Gadd45b, and Gadd45g (Gadd45/MyD118/CR6) are genes that are rapidly induced by genotoxic stress and have been implicated in genotoxic stress-induced responses, notably in apoptosis. Recently, using myeloid-enriched bone marrow (BM) cells obtained from wild-type (WT), Gadd45a-deficient, and Gadd45b-deficient mice, we have shown that in hematopoietic cells Gadd45a and Gadd45b play a survival function to protect hematopoietic cells from DNA-damaging agents, including ultra violet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to decipher the molecular paths that mediate the survival functions of Gadd45a and Gadd45b against genotoxic stress induced by UV radiation. It is shown that in hematopoietic cells exposed to UV radiation Gaddd45a and Gadd45b cooperate to promote cell survival via two distinct signaling pathways involving activation of the GADD45a-p38-NF-kappaB-mediated survival pathway and GADD45b-mediated inhibition of the stress response MKK4-JNK pathway.

  4. Preliminary development of the Active Colonoscopy Training Model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JungHun; Ravindra, Kale; Robert, Randolph; Drozek, David

    2011-01-01

    Formal colonoscopy training requires a significant amount of time and effort. In particular, it requires actual patients for a realistic learning experience. The quality of colonoscopy training varies, and includes didactic courses and procedures proctored by skilled surgeons. A colonoscopy training model is occasionally used as part of the training method, but the effects are minute due to both the simple and tedious training procedures. To enhance the educational effect of the colonoscopy training model, the Active Colonoscopy Training Model (ACTM) has been developed. ACTM is an interactive colonoscopy training device which can create the environment of a real colonoscopy procedure as closely as possible. It comprises a configurable rubber colon, a human torso, sensors, a display, and the control part. The ACTM provides audio and visual interaction to the trainee by monitoring important factors, such as forces caused by the distal tip and the shaft of the colonoscope and the pressure to open up the lumen and the localization of the distal tip. On the computer screen, the trainee can easily monitor the status of the colonoscopy, which includes the localization of the distal tip, maximum forces, pressure inside the colon, and surgery time. The forces between the rubber colon and the constraints inside the ACTM are measured and the real time display shows the results to the trainee. The pressure sensors will check the pressure at different parts of the colon. The real-time localized distal tip gives the colonoscopy trainee easier and more confident operation without introducing an additional device in the colonoscope. With the current need for colonoscopists and physicians, the ACTM can play an essential role resolving the problems of the current colonoscopy training model, and significantly improve the training quality of the colonoscopy. PMID:22915931

  5. Mechanisms of spontaneous activity in developing spinal networks.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M J; Chub, N; Wenner, P

    1998-10-01

    Developing networks of the chick spinal cord become spontaneously active early in development and remain so until hatching. Experiments using an isolated preparation of the spinal cord have begun to reveal the mechanisms responsible for this activity. Whole-cell and optical recordings have shown that spinal neurons receive a rhythmic, depolarizing synaptic drive and experience rhythmic elevations of intracellular calcium during spontaneous episodes. Activity is expressed throughout the neuraxis and can be produced by different parts of the cord and by the isolated brain stem, suggesting that it does not depend upon the details of network architecture. Two factors appear to be particularly important for the production of endogenous activity. The first is the predominantly excitatory nature of developing synaptic connections, and the second is the presence of prolonged activity-dependent depression of network excitability. The interaction between high excitability and depression results in an equilibrium in which episodes are expressed periodically by the network. The mechanism of the rhythmic bursting within an episode is not understood, but it may be due to a "fast" form of network depression. Spontaneous embryonic activity has been shown to play a role in neuron and muscle development, but is probably not involved in the initial formation of connections between spinal neurons. It may be important in refining the initial connections, but this possibility remains to be explored.

  6. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS FOR INDIAN TRIBES AND ALASKA NATIVE VILLAGES... this section do not include assistance for the construction of new housing. Special economic... or public or private nonprofit subrecipients. (b) The provision of assistance to a private...

  7. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS FOR INDIAN TRIBES AND ALASKA NATIVE VILLAGES... this section do not include assistance for the construction of new housing. Special economic... or public or private nonprofit subrecipients. (b) The provision of assistance to a private...

  8. Development of a TaqMan Array Card for Acute-Febrile-Illness Outbreak Investigation and Surveillance of Emerging Pathogens, Including Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Ochieng, Caroline; Wiersma, Steve; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S.; Whitmer, Shannon; Nichol, Stuart T.; Moore, Christopher C.; Kersh, Gilbert J.; Kato, Cecilia; Sexton, Christopher; Petersen, Jeannine; Massung, Robert; Hercik, Christine; Crump, John A.; Kibiki, Gibson; Maro, Athanasia; Mujaga, Buliga; Gratz, Jean; Jacob, Shevin T.; Banura, Patrick; Scheld, W. Michael; Juma, Bonventure; Onyango, Clayton O.; Montgomery, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results and can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan and Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and Yersinia pestis), and 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 and bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction and amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, and specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, and the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity and a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus. PMID:26491176

  9. A Multi Wavelength Study of Active Region Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kundu, M. R.; Perez-Enriquez, R.; Koshiishi, H.; Enome, S.

    1996-05-01

    We report on a study of the evolution of several active regions during 1993 April 17-28 using data obtained at multiple wavelengths that probe various heights of the active region corona. We use simultaneous microwave (1.5 and 17 GHz) and Soft X-ray images obtained by the Very Large Array (VLA), the Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NRH) and the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on board the Yohkoh spacecraft. We also use photospheric magnetograms from Kitt Peak National Observatory to study the development of Solar Active Regions. We have followed the development of various observed parameters such as brightness temperature and polarization using radio images. The X-ray data were used to track the development of density and temperature of active regions. Using the fact that the quiet active region radiation is thermal and adopting proper emission mechanism at each frequency domain, we construct a consistent picture for the three dimensional structure of the active regions. Particular attention has been paid to the mode coupling observed at 17 GHz while the active regions crossed the solar disk.

  10. Massively augmented hippocampal dentate granule cell activation accompanies epilepsy development.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Christopher G; Yue, Cuiyong; Takano, Hajime; Coulter, Douglas A

    2017-02-20

    In a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy, multicellular calcium imaging revealed that disease emergence was accompanied by massive amplification in the normally sparse, afferent stimulation-induced activation of hippocampal dentate granule cells. Patch recordings demonstrated reductions in local inhibitory function within the dentate gyrus at time points where sparse activation was compromised. Mimicking changes in inhibitory synaptic function and transmembrane chloride regulation was sufficient to elicit the dentate gyrus circuit collapse evident during epilepsy development. Pharmacological blockade of outward chloride transport had no effect during epilepsy development, and significantly increased granule cell activation in both control and chronically epileptic animals. This apparent occlusion effect implicates reduction in chloride extrusion as a mechanism contributing to granule cell hyperactivation specifically during early epilepsy development. Glutamine plays a significant role in local synthesis of GABA in synapses. In epileptic mice, sparse granule cell activation could be restored by glutamine application, implicating compromised GABA synthesis. Glutamine had no effect on granule cell activation earlier, during epilepsy development. We conclude that compromised feedforward inhibition within the local circuit generates the massive dentate gyrus circuit hyperactivation evident in animals during and following epilepsy development. However, the mechanisms underlying this disinhibition diverge significantly as epilepsy progresses.

  11. Massively augmented hippocampal dentate granule cell activation accompanies epilepsy development

    PubMed Central

    Dengler, Christopher G.; Yue, Cuiyong; Takano, Hajime; Coulter, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    In a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy, multicellular calcium imaging revealed that disease emergence was accompanied by massive amplification in the normally sparse, afferent stimulation-induced activation of hippocampal dentate granule cells. Patch recordings demonstrated reductions in local inhibitory function within the dentate gyrus at time points where sparse activation was compromised. Mimicking changes in inhibitory synaptic function and transmembrane chloride regulation was sufficient to elicit the dentate gyrus circuit collapse evident during epilepsy development. Pharmacological blockade of outward chloride transport had no effect during epilepsy development, and significantly increased granule cell activation in both control and chronically epileptic animals. This apparent occlusion effect implicates reduction in chloride extrusion as a mechanism contributing to granule cell hyperactivation specifically during early epilepsy development. Glutamine plays a significant role in local synthesis of GABA in synapses. In epileptic mice, sparse granule cell activation could be restored by glutamine application, implicating compromised GABA synthesis. Glutamine had no effect on granule cell activation earlier, during epilepsy development. We conclude that compromised feedforward inhibition within the local circuit generates the massive dentate gyrus circuit hyperactivation evident in animals during and following epilepsy development. However, the mechanisms underlying this disinhibition diverge significantly as epilepsy progresses. PMID:28218241

  12. Equine disorders of sexual development in 17 mares including XX, SRY-negative, XY, SRY-negative and XY, SRY-positive genotypes.

    PubMed

    Villagómez, D A F; Lear, T L; Chenier, T; Lee, S; McGee, R B; Cahill, J; Foster, R A; Reyes, E; St John, E; King, W A

    2011-01-01

    We described the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular findings of 17 clinical equine cases presented for abnormal sexual development and infertility. Six horses with an enlarged clitoris had an XX, SRY-negative genotype, which displayed male-like behavior (adult individuals). Bilateral ovotestes were noted in 2 of those cases, while another case showed increased levels of circulating testosterone. Six horses with a female phenotype, including normal external genitalia, had an XY, SRY-negative genotype. These individuals had small gonads and an underdeveloped internal reproductive tract. Four horses with normal appearing external genitalia had an XY, SRY-positive genotype, 3 of them had hypoplastic testes and male-like behavior. In addition, one young filly with enlarged clitoris and hypoplastic testes had the same genotype but did not show male-like behavior due to her age. Three of these horses were related with 2 being siblings. These findings demonstrate the diversity of disorders of sexual development seen in the horse. Furthermore, they emphasize the need for further research to identify genes involved in abnormal sex determination and differentiation in the horse.

  13. Development of a TaqMan assay for sensitive detection of all pestiviruses infecting cattle, including the emerging HoBi-like strains.

    PubMed

    Losurdo, Michele; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Padalino, Iolanda; Cavaliere, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio; Decaro, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    A real-time RT-PCR assay based on the TaqMan technology was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of pestiviruses infecting cattle, i.e., bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1, BVDV-2, and the emerging HoBi-like pestiviruses. The assay was linear and reproducible, being able to detect as few as 10 copies of viral RNA. By real-time RT-PCR analysis of 986 biological samples collected from cattle herd with clinical signs suggestive of pestivirus infection and from animals recruited in a pestivirus surveillance programme, 165 pestivirus positive samples were detected, including 6 specimens, 2 nasal swabs, and 4 EDTA-blood samples, that tested negative by a gel-based RT-PCR assay targeting the 5'UTR. The developed TaqMan assay represents a new reliable and effective tool for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of infections caused by all pestiviruses circulating in cattle, thus being useful for extensive surveillance programs in geographic areas where HoBi-like pestiviruses are co-circulating with BVDV-1 and BVDV-2.

  14. UWALK: the development of a multi-strategy, community-wide physical activity program.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Cally A; Berry, Tanya R; Carson, Valerie; Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Duncan, Mitch J; Loitz, Christina C; McCormack, Gavin R; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Spence, John C; Vallance, Jeff K; Mummery, W Kerry

    2016-06-09

    UWALK is a multi-strategy, multi-sector, theory-informed, community-wide approach using e and mHealth to promote physical activity in Alberta, Canada. The aim of UWALK is to promote physical activity, primarily via the accumulation of steps and flights of stairs, through a single over-arching brand. This paper describes the development of the UWALK program. A social ecological model and the social cognitive theory guided the development of key strategies, including the marketing and communication activities, establishing partnerships with key stakeholders, and e and mHealth programs. The program promotes the use of physical activity monitoring devices to self-monitor physical activity. This includes pedometers, electronic devices, and smartphone applications. In addition to entering physical activity data manually, the e and mHealth program provides the function for objective data to be automatically uploaded from select electronic devices (Fitbit®, Garmin and the smartphone application Moves) The RE-AIM framework is used to guide the evaluation of UWALK. Funding for the program commenced in February 2013. The UWALK brand was introduced on April 12, 2013 with the official launch, including the UWALK website on September 20, 2013. This paper describes the development and evaluation framework of a physical activity promotion program. This program has the potential for population level dissemination and uptake of an ecologically valid physical activity promotion program that is evidence-based and theoretically framed.

  15. Implementation of a comprehensive program including psycho-social and treatment literacy activities to improve adherence to HIV care and treatment for a pediatric population in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Van Winghem, Joelle; Telfer, Barbara; Reid, Tony; Ouko, Judith; Mutunga, Angela; Jama, Zaina; Vakil, Shobha

    2008-01-01

    Background To achieve good clinical outcomes with HAART, patient adherence to treatment and care is a key factor. Since the literature on how to care for pediatric HIV patients is limited, we describe here adherence interventions implemented in our comprehensive care program in a resource-limited setting in Kenya. Methods We based our program on factors reported to influence adherence to HIV care and treatment. We describe, in detail, our program with respect to how we adapted our clinical settings, implemented psycho-social support activities for children and their caregivers and developed treatment literacy for children and teenagers living with HIV/AIDS. Results This paper focused on the details of the program, with the treatment outcomes as secondary. However, our program appeared to have been effective; for 648 children under 15 years of age who were started on HAART, the Kaplan-Meier mortality survival estimate was 95.27% (95%CI 93.16–96.74) at 12 months after the time of initiation of HAART. Conclusion Our model of pediatric HIV/AIDS care, focused on a child-centered approach with inclusion of caregivers and extended family, addressed the main factors influencing treatment adherence. It appeared to produce good results and is replicable in resource-limited settings. PMID:19025581

  16. Overexpression of OsRAA1 causes pleiotropic phenotypes in transgenic rice plants, including altered leaf, flower, and root development and root response to gravity.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lei; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, Ming-Li; Xu, Yun-Yuan; Tan, Ke-hui; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Chong, Kang

    2004-07-01

    There are very few root genes that have been described in rice as a monocotyledonous model plant so far. Here, the OsRAA1 (Oryza sativa Root Architecture Associated 1) gene has been characterized molecularly. OsRAA1 encodes a 12.0-kD protein that has 58% homology to the AtFPF1 (Flowering Promoting Factor 1) in Arabidopsis, which has not been reported as modulating root development yet. Data of in situ hybridization and OsRAA1::GUS transgenic plant showed that OsRAA1 expressed specifically in the apical meristem, the elongation zone of root tip, steles of the branch zone, and the young lateral root. Constitutive expression of OsRAA1 under the control of maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter resulted in phenotypes of reduced growth of primary root, increased number of adventitious roots and helix primary root, and delayed gravitropic response of roots in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa), which are similar to the phenotypes of the wild-type plant treated with auxin. With overexpression of OsRAA1, initiation and growth of adventitious root were more sensitive to treatment of auxin than those of the control plants, while their responses to 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid in both transgenic line and wild type showed similar results. OsRAA1 constitutive expression also caused longer leaves and sterile florets at the last stage of plant development. Analysis of northern blot and GUS activity staining of OsRAA1::GUS transgenic plants demonstrated that the OsRAA1 expression was induced by auxin. At the same time, overexpression of OsRAA1 also caused endogenous indole-3-acetic acid to increase. These data suggested that OsRAA1 as a new gene functions in the development of rice root systems, which are mediated by auxin. A positive feedback regulation mechanism of OsRAA1 to indole-3-acetic acid metabolism may be involved in rice root development in nature.

  17. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  18. Development of a new biosensor for determination of catalase activity.

    PubMed

    Teke, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is one of the major antioxidant enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of H2O2. The aim of this study was to suggest a new method for the assay of catalase activity. For this purpose, an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase for determination of catalase activity was developed. Immobilization of glucose oxidase was made by a cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde on a Clark-type electrode (dissolved oxygen probe). Optimization and characterization properties of the biosensor were studied and determination of catalase activity in defined conditions was investigated in artificial serum solution. The results were compared with a reference method.

  19. Development of a Validated LC Method for Separation of Process-Related Impurities Including the R-Enantiomer of S-Pramipexole on Polysaccharide Chiral Stationary Phases.

    PubMed

    Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao; Kuntamukkala, Ramakrishna; Arnipalli, Manikanta Swamy

    2015-07-01

    Despite the availability of a few methods for individual separation of S-pramipexole from its process-related impurities, no common liquid chromatography (LC) method is reported so far in the literature. The present article describes the development of a single-run LC method for simultaneous determination of S-pramipexole and its enantiomeric and process-related impurities on a Chiralpak AD-H (150 x 4.6 mm, 5μm) column using n-hexane/ethanol/n-butylamine (75:25:0.1 v/v/v) as a mobile phase in an isocratic mode of elution at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min at 30°C. The chromatographic eluents were monitored at a wavelength of 260 nm using a photodiode array detector. Excellent enantioseparation with good resolutions (Rs ≥ 2.88) and peak shapes (As ≤ 1.21) for all analytes was achieved. The proposed method was validated according to International Conference Harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and linearity. Limits of quantification of impurities (0.25-0.55 μg/ml) indicate the highest sensitivity achievable by the proposed method. The method has an advantage of selectivity and suitability for routine determination of not only chiral impurity but also all possible related substances in active pharmaceutical ingredients of S-pramipexole.

  20. The spread of pathogens through trade in honey bees and their products (including queen bees and semen): overview and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Mutinelli, F

    2011-04-01

    International trade in bees and bee products is a complex issue, affected bytheir different origins and uses. The trade in bees, which poses the main risk for disease dissemination, is very active and not all transactions may be officially registered by the competent authorities. Globally, bee health continues to deteriorate as pathogens, pests, parasites and diseases are spread internationally through legitimate trade, smuggling and well-intentioned but ill-advised bee introductions by professionals. International trade rules strengthen the ability of many countries to protect bee health while trading but also carry obligations. Countries that are Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) should only restrict imports to protect against identifiable health risks. If imports are safe, trade should be permitted. The trading rules of the WTO have given greater importance to the international standards applicable to bee health, developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health, which aims to prevent the spread of animal diseases while facilitating international trade in animals and animal products.

  1. Participant Perceptions of Character Concepts in a Physical Activity-Based Positive Youth Development Program.

    PubMed

    Riciputi, Shaina; McDonough, Meghan H; Ullrich-French, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity-based positive youth development (PYD) programs often aim to foster character development. This study examined youth perspectives of character development curricula and the impact these activities have on their lives within and beyond the program. This case study examined youth from low-income families in a physical activity-based summer PYD program that integrated one character concept (respect, caring, responsibility, trust) in each of 4 weeks. Participants (N = 24) included a cross section of age, gender, ethnicity, and past program experience. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis and constant comparative methods. Thirteen themes were grouped in four categories: building highquality reciprocal relationships; intrapersonal improvement; moral reasoning and understanding; and rejection, resistance, and compliance. The findings provide participant-centered guidance for understanding youth personal and social development through physical activity in ways that are meaningful to participants, which is particularly needed for youth in low-income communities with limited youth programming.

  2. Development of the anatomical quality assessment (AQUA) tool for the quality assessment of anatomical studies included in meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Roy, Joyeeta; Vikse, Jens; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2017-01-01

    Critical appraisal of anatomical studies is essential before the evidence from them undergoes meta-epidemiological synthesis. However, no instrument for appraising anatomical studies with inherent applicability to different study designs is available. We aim to develop a generic yet comprehensive tool for assessing the quality of anatomical studies using a formal consensus method. The study steering committee formulated an initial conceptual design and generated items for a preliminary tool on the basis of a literature review and expert opinion. A Delphi procedure was then adopted to assess the validity of the preliminary tool. Feedback from the Delphi panelists was used to improve it. The Delphi procedure involved 12 experts in anatomical research. It comprised two rounds, after which unanimous consensus was reached about the items to be included. The preliminary tool consisted of 20 items, which were phrased as signaling questions and organized into five domains: 1. Aim and subject characteristics, 2. Study design, 3. Characterization of methods, 4. Descriptive anatomy, and 5. Results reporting. Each domain was set to end with a risk of bias question. Following round 1, some of the items underwent major revision, although agreement was reached regarding inclusion of all the domains and signaling questions in the preliminary tool. The tool was revised only for minor language inaccuracies after round 2. The AQUA Tool was designed to assess the quality and reliability of anatomical studies. It is currently undergoing a validation process. Clin. Anat. 30:6-13, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Increasing Pupil Physical Activity: A Comprehensive Professional Development Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To determine if pupil physical activity and Body Mass Index classifications maintained or improved after a one-year professional development program involving both classroom and physical education teachers. Guskey's model of teacher change guided this study. Material and methods: Indigenous children from ten schools (N = 320) in grades…

  4. 48 CFR 927.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cosponsored research and development activities. 927.408 Section 927.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights...

  5. 48 CFR 927.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cosponsored research and development activities. 927.408 Section 927.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights...

  6. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cosponsored research and development activities. 27.408 Section 27.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights...

  7. Measuring Active Citizenship through the Development of a Composite Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Bryony L.; Mascherini, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    This article defines Active Citizenship within a European context as a broad range of value based participation. It develops a framework for measuring this phenomenon which combines the four dimensions of Protest and Social Change, Community Life, Representative Democracy and Democratic values. The European Social Survey 2002 is used to populate…

  8. 250+ Activities and Ideas for Developing Literacy Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Hilda L.; Jay, M. Ellen

    Designed for use at school or at home, this book focuses on the development of seven types of literacy: linguistic, visual, mathematical, scientific, geographic, economic, and computer. The book's suggested activities are each introduced with a detailed discussion of the necessary prerequisite skills, the concepts to be mastered, the materials…

  9. CurioCity, Developing an "Active Learning" Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lynne

    1999-01-01

    Describes a case study that takes readers through a human-centered design process used in developing an "Active Learning" tool, CurioCity, a game for students in grades 7-10. Attempts to better understand multiculturalism and to bridge formal in-school learning with informal field trip learning. (SC)

  10. Development and Pilot Investigation of Behavioral Activation for Negative Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mairs, Hilary; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Keeley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Negative symptoms cause functional impairment and impede recovery from psychosis, not least, because of limited developments in empirically validated treatments. This article details a pilot evaluation of a behavioral activation (BA) treatment with eight people presenting with psychosis and marked negative symptoms. The rationale for this…

  11. Development of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Razan; AlHeresh, Rawan; Dahab, Sana Abu; Collins, Brittany; Fryer, Jasmine; Holm, Margo B.

    2011-01-01

    Participation is an indicator of healthy functioning and well-being, as emphasized by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (World Health Organization, 2001). The Activity Card Sort (ACS) is a valid and reliable assessment tool that measures participation. This study describes the process of developing the Arab…

  12. Development of Intellectual Activity in Solving Exponential Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpyssov, Akan; Mukanova, Zhazira; Kireyeva, Assel; Sakenov, Janat; Kervenev, Kabylgazy

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the possibilities and the main directions of development of intellectual activity in teaching mathematics in school. The aims and specific features of application of international comparative TIMSS and PISA studies, as well as their results in the field of mathematics education in relation to the pupils in Kazakhstan are…

  13. Heat-activated heat-pump development and potential application of Stirling-engine technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, P. D.; West, C. D.

    1982-06-01

    Presented is a brief overview of the heat-activated heat pump technology development program being carried out with emphasis on the Stirling engine technology projects. The major projects are reviewed as they were formulated and carried out under the previous product development guidelines. The revised technology development focus and current status of those major hardware projects are discussed. The key issues involved in applying Stirling engine technology to heat pump equipment are assessed. The approach and planned future activities to address those issues are described. Also included are brief descriptions of two projects in this area supported by the Gas Research Institute.

  14. Remote maintenance design activities and research and development accomplishments for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) requires the use of remote handling technology to carry out maintenance operations. The remote operations consist of removing and replacing such components as first wall armor protection tiles, radio-frequency (rf) heating modules, and diagnostic modules. The major pieces of equipment being developed for maintenance activities internal to the vacuum vessel include an articulated boom manipulator (ABM), an inspection manipulator, and special tooling. For activities external to the vessel, the equipment includes a bridge-mounted manipulator system, decontamination equipment, hot cell equipment, and solid radiation-waste (rad-waste) handling and packaging equipment. The CIT Project is completing the conceptual design phase; research and development (R and D) activities, which include demonstrations of remote maintenance operations on full-size partial mock-ups are under way. 5 figs.

  15. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  16. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  17. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  18. Developing active noise control systems for noise attenuation in ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Rosely V.; Ivo, Rodrigo C.; Medeiros, Eduardo B.

    2002-11-01

    The present work describes some of the research effort on Active Noise Control (ANC) being jointly developed by the Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-MINAS) and the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). Considerations about the implementation of Digital Signal Processing for noise control in ducts has been presented. The objective is to establish a study on Active Noise Control in ducts combining geometry and acoustic parameters modification together with adaptive digital filtering implementation. Both algorithm and digital signal processing details are also discussed. The main results for a typical application where real attenuation has been obtained are presented and considered according to their use in developing real applications. The authors also believe that the present text should provide an interesting overview for both designers and students concerned about Active Noise Control in ducts. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  19. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Looney,J.P.; Fox, K.

    2009-04-01

    with limited management filtering to encourage the creativity of individual researchers. The competition is open to all BNL staff in programmatic, scientific, engineering, and technical support areas. Researchers submit their project proposals to the Assistant Laboratory Director for Policy and Strategic Planning. A portion of the LDRD budget is held for the Strategic LDRD (S-LDRD) category. Projects in this category focus on innovative R&D activities that support the strategic agenda of the Laboratory. The Laboratory Director entertains requests or articulates the need for S-LDRD funds at any time. Strategic LDRD Proposals also undergo rigorous peer review; the approach to review is tailored to the size and scope of the proposal. These Projects are driven by special opportunities, including: (1) Research project(s) in support of Laboratory strategic initiatives as defined and articulated by the Director; (2) Research project(s) in support of a Laboratory strategic hire; (3) Evolution of Program Development activities into research and development activities; and (4) ALD proposal(s) to the Director to support unique research opportunities. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred fronl the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. We explicitly indicate that research conducted under the LDRD Program should be highly innovative, and an element of high risk as to success is acceptable. To be one of the premier DOE National Laboratories, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program

  20. Design and development of an active Gurney flap for rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Gómez, Jon; Booker, Julian D.; Mellor, Phil H.

    2013-03-01

    The EU's Green Rotorcraft programme will develop an Active Gurney Flap (AGF) for a full-scale helicopter main rotor blade as part of its `smart adaptive rotor blade' technology demonstrators. AGFs can be utilized to provide a localized and variable lift enhancement on the rotor, enabling a redistribution of loading on the rotor blade around the rotor azimuth. Further advantages include the possibility of using AGFs to allow a rotor speed reduction, which subsequently provides acoustic benefits. Designed to be integrable into a commercial helicopter blade, and thereby capable of withstanding real in-flight centrifugal loading, blade vibrations and aerodynamic loads, the demonstrator is expected to achieve a high technology readiness level (TRL). The AGF will be validated initially by a constant blade section 2D wind tunnel test and latterly by full blade 3D whirl tower testing. This paper presents the methodology adopted for the AGF concept topology selection, based on a series of both qualitative and quantitative performance criteria. Two different AGF candidate mechanisms are compared, both powered by a small commercial electromagnetic actuator. In both topologies, the link between the actuator and the control surface consists of two rotating torque bars, pivoting on flexure bearings. This provides the required reliability and precision, while making the design virtually frictionless. The engineering analysis presented suggests that both candidates would perform satisfactorily in a 2D wind tunnel test, but that equally, both have design constraints which limit their potential to be further taken into a whirl tower test under full scale centrifugal and inertial loads.

  1. Including Complexity, Heterogeneity and Vegetation Response Characteristics into Carbon Balance Assessments at Continental Scale: Stepwise Development of a Simulation Framework with the Bottom-Up Core Model PIXGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenhunen, J.; Geyer, R.; Owen, K.; Falge, E.; Reichstein, M.

    2005-12-01

    The cultural landscapes of the European continent are characterized by highly fragmented land cover, distributed along the gradient from extremely sparse, dry Mediterranean shrublands to sub-arctic wetlands and forests. In addition, several mountain systems, in particular the Alps, modify vegetation and land surface exchange characteristics. In the recently begun CARBOEUROPE project, energy, water and CO2 exchanges of selected ecosystem types are monitored via eddy covariance methods. The model PIXGRO is being developed to help relate measurements at flux tower sites to measurements carried out at larger scale and to CO2 exchange estimates obtained with atmospheric inversion techniques. The main question addressed in this modelling effort is how to efficiently include a spectrum of vegetation characteristics into carbon balance assessments at large scale and in such a way that the influence of local response on regional fluxes may be visualized and analyzed. Furthermore, the modelling attempts to demonstrate both strengths and weaknesses in existing ecosystem process information required to understand carbon balances. The model PIXGRO attempts to define continental distribution and controls on net ecosystem CO2 exchange for ca. 12 ecosystem types, including coniferous forest, deciduous forest, grassland, cropland (assumed dominated by grain crops), northern boreal mixed forest, tundra, wetlands, alpine forest, evergreen forest, evergreen shrubland, and Mediterranean oak woodland. The model uses a single layer canopy with two leaf classes (sun and shade) and a three layered rooting zone to estimate GPP, ecosystem respiration and overall ecosystem gas exchange. Maximum LAI is determined during each year from the MODIS LAI-product. In the case of grassland, crops, tundra and wetlands, classical growth routines estimate dynamic changes in the vegetation canopy. Soil/canopy coupling in response to drought reflects a root system hormonal signalling and is calibrated with

  2. Development of an ESL curriculum to educate Chinese immigrants about physical activity.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Victoria M; Cripe, Swee May; Acorda, Elizabeth; Teh, Chong; Coronado, Gloria; Do, Hoai; Woodall, Erica; Hislop, T Gregory

    2008-08-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of many chronic conditions. Multiple studies have shown that Asians in North America engage in less physical activity than the general population. One area for strategic development in the area of health education is the design and evaluation of English as a second language (ESL) curricula. The PRECEDE model and findings from focus groups were used to develop a physical activity ESL curriculum for Chinese immigrants. In general, focus group participants recognized that physical activity contributes to physical and mental wellbeing. However, the benefits of physical activity were most commonly described in terms of improved blood circulation, immune responses, digestion, and reflexes. The importance of peer pressure and the encouragement of friends in adhering to regular physical activity regimens were mentioned frequently. Reported barriers to regular physical activity included lack of time, weather conditions, and financial costs. The ESL curriculum aims to both promote physical activity and improve knowledge, and includes seven different ESL exercises. Our curriculum development methods could be replicated for other health education topics and in other limited English-speaking populations.

  3. Neuronal activity controls the development of interneurons in the somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Babij, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neuronal activity in cortical areas regulates neurodevelopment by interacting with defined genetic programs to shape the mature central nervous system. Electrical activity is conveyed to sensory cortical areas via intracortical and thalamocortical neurons, and includes oscillatory patterns that have been measured across cortical regions. OBJECTIVE In this work, we review the most recent findings about how electrical activity shapes the developmental assembly of functional circuitry in the somatosensory cortex, with an emphasis on interneuron maturation and integration. We include studies on the effect of various neurotransmitters and on the influence of thalamocortical afferent activity on circuit development. We additionally reviewed studies describing network activity patterns. METHODS We conducted an extensive literature search using both the PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. The following keywords were used in various iterations: “interneuron”, “somatosensory”, “development”, “activity”, “network patterns”, “thalamocortical”, “NMDA receptor”, “plasticity”. We additionally selected papers known to us from past reading, and those recommended to us by reviewers and members of our lab. RESULTS We reviewed a total of 132 articles that focused on the role of activity in interneuronal migration, maturation, and circuit development, as well as the source of electrical inputs and patterns of cortical activity in the somatosensory cortex. 79 of these papers included in this timely review were written between 2007 and 2016. CONCLUSIONS Neuronal activity shapes the developmental assembly of functional circuitry in the somatosensory cortical interneurons. This activity impacts nearly every aspect of development and acquisition of mature neuronal characteristics, and may contribute to changing phenotypes, altered transmitter expression, and plasticity in the adult. Progressively changing oscillatory network patterns

  4. Masterpiece Me: Children's Activities in Anatomy and Development. Children's Activity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Sally

    The supplemental teaching resources provided in this book offer a variety of concrete, visual activities designed for the use of classroom and daycare center teachers to help young children feel proud and comfortable about their changing bodies. The lessons help children develop a healthy, age-appropriate foundation in anatomy and development.…

  5. Thermal Technology Development Activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center - 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of thermal technology development activities carried out at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center during 2001. Specific topics covered include: two-phase systems (heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, vapor compression systems and phase change materials), variable emittance systems, advanced coatings, high conductivity materials and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thermal coatings. The application of these activities to specific space missions is also discussed.

  6. Expanding the MTM1 mutational spectrum: novel variants including the first multi-exonic duplication and development of a locus-specific database

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jorge; Oliveira, Márcia E; Kress, Wolfram; Taipa, Ricardo; Pires, Manuel Melo; Hilbert, Pascale; Baxter, Peter; Santos, Manuela; Buermans, Henk; den Dunnen, Johan T; Santos, Rosário

    2013-01-01

    Myotubular myopathy (MIM#310400), the X-linked form of Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is mainly characterized by neonatal hypotonia and inability to maintain unassisted respiration. The MTM1 gene, responsible for this disease, encodes myotubularin – a lipidic phosphatase involved in vesicle trafficking regulation and maturation. Recently, it was shown that myotubularin interacts with desmin, being a major regulator of intermediate filaments. We report the development of a locus-specific database for MTM1 using the Leiden Open Variation database software (http://www.lovd.nl/MTM1), with data collated for 474 mutations identified in 472 patients (by June 2012). Among the entries are a total of 25 new mutations, including a large deletion encompassing introns 2–15. During database implementation it was noticed that no large duplications had been reported. We tested a group of eight uncharacterized CNM patients for this specific type of mutation, by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. A large duplication spanning exons 1–5 was identified in a boy with a mild phenotype, with results pointing toward possible somatic mosaicism. Further characterization revealed that this duplication causes an in-frame deletion at the mRNA level (r.343_444del). Results obtained with a next generation sequencing approach suggested that the duplication extends into the neighboring MAMLD1 gene and subsequent cDNA analysis detected the presence of a MTM1/MAMLD1 fusion transcript. A complex rearrangement involving the duplication of exon 10 has since been reported, with detection also enabled by MLPA analysis. It is thus conceivable that large duplications in MTM1 may account for a number of CNM cases that have remained genetically unresolved. PMID:22968136

  7. SU-E-T-138: Automated Chart Review Module Including Cross-Vendor Data Transfer Verification Developed for IHE-RO Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, M; Gordon, C; Tien, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To follow the Integrating Healthcare Enterprise - Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO) initiative of proper cross-vendor technology integration, an automated chart checker (ACC) was developed. ACC compares extracted data from an approved patient plan in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) against data existing in the Mosaiq treatment management system (TMS). ACC automatically analyzes these parameters using built-in quality checklists to provide further aid in chart review. Methods: Eclipse TPS data are obtained using Eclipse scripting API (ESAPI) while Mosaiq TMS data are obtained from a radiotherapy-treatment-planning (RTP) file. Using this information, ACC identifies TPS-TMS discrepancies in 18 primary beam parameters including MU, energy, jaw positions, gantry angle, table angle, accessories, and bolus for up to 31 beams. Next, approximately 40 items from traditional quality checklists are evaluated such as prescription consistency, DRR graticule placement, plan approval status, global max dose, and dose tracking coefficients. Parameters were artificially modified to determine if ACC would detect an error in data transfer and to test each component of quality checklists. Results: Using ESAPI scripting and RTP file-processing, ACC was able to properly aggregate data from TPS and TMS for up to 31 beams. Errors were artificially introduced into each plan parameter, and ACC was able to successfully detect all of them within seconds. Next, ACC was able to successfully detect mistakes in the chart by identifying deviations with its quality checklists, within seconds. Conclusion: ACC effectively addresses the potential issue of faulty cross-vendor data transfer, as described by IHE-RO. In addition, ACC was also able to detect deviations from its built-in quality checklists. ACC is already an invaluable tool for efficient and standardized chart review and will continue to improve as its incorporated checklists become more comprehensive.

  8. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance.

  9. Carbon-dioxide storage in the subsurface: towards an understanding of crack development in the cap-rock including phase transition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häberle, K.; Ehlers, W.

    2012-04-01

    Supercritical CO2 can be injected into deep saline aquifers to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and thus, lessen the impact on the global warming. Qualified reservoirs should be in a sufficient depth to guarantee the thermodynamical environment for the supercritical state of CO2. Furthermore, an impermeable cap-rock layer must confine the reservoir layer, in order to collect the CO2 in the desired region. In CO2 storage it is crucial to guarantee the safety of the storage site and to eliminate possibilities of leakage. Therefore, deformation processes of the rock matrix and the cap-rock layer, which might be induced by the high pressure injection of CO2, must be investigated. The increase in stress may also cause crack development in the cap-rock layer. These could either be new developing fractures or the break-up of already existing but cemented cracks or faults. If such cracks occur, CO2 could migrate to shallower regions where the temperature and pressure cannot support the supercritical condition of the CO2 anymore. Thus, it is important to describe the phase transition process between supercritical, liquid and gaseous CO2. This requires a proper understanding of the thermodynamical behaviour of CO2 within the reservoir. The Theory of Porous Media (TPM) provides a useful continuum-mechanical basis to describe real natural systems in a thermodynamically consistent way. Hence, the TPM is applied to model multiphasic flow of CO2 and water and include elasto-plastic solid deformations of the porous matrix. The Peng-Robinson equation is implemented as a cubic equation of state to describe the phase behaviour of CO2 in the liquid, gaseous and supercritical region. However, in the two-phase region the isotherms show a horizontal section and kinks at the boiling and vapour curve. This cannot be represented by a continuously differentiable function such as the Peng-Robinson equation. To circumvent this problem, the Antoine equation provides additional

  10. A reevaluation of the lineage development of Pararotalia and Praepararotalia including new material from the Rupelian of the southern Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkenseer, C.; Spezzaferri, S.

    2009-04-01

    more rapid increase of chamber size. The necessity of a new genus is in discussion. The second group includes the small intermediate species as Pararotalia ishamae, characterized by inflated globular chambers, a general absence of a keel, partial development of small pseudospines and umbilical plugs. This group can be traced up to recent, as is indicated by the occurrence of small sized Pararotalia cananeiaensis (DEBENAY et al. 2001). Material from the research area (PIRKENSEER 2007), though of generally larger size is attributed to the Rupelian P. curryi. It however shows variation in the development of pseudospines, the lateral profile and umbilicus. The latter species may be a synonym of the similar Late Eocene P. parva. The third group consists only of Pararotalia spinigera (Lutetian) and Pararotalia canui (Rupelian) with an inflated angular lateral profile and a relatively large size. Material from the research area attributed to P. canui shows massive well-developed peripheral pseudospines, a strong umbilical plug and a rounded keel. Double pseudospines occur sporadically. The apertural lip is heavily toothed. The fourth group consists of species with a very angular lateral profile, conical chambers, distinct umbilical plug and a moderate to very large size (up to 600µm), ranging from the Thanetian (Pararotalia minimalis) at least to the Pliocene (P. padana, MANCIN et al. 2000). This reevaluation indicates the perseverance of the "primitive" group of Pararotalia macneilli until today. It thus contradicts a gradual development of the genus Pararotalia to more spineous, angular and larger forms. The latter morphogroup exists well defined since the Paleocene with representatives throughout the Paleogene and Neogene. This study was partly funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation projects 109457 and 118025. References: DEBENAY, J. P., DULEBA, W., BONETTI, C., et al. (2001): Pararotalia cananeiaensis n. sp.: indicator of marine influence and water circulation

  11. Creative Thinking Development Program for Learning Activity Management of Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukdeewut, Sutinan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Satapornwong, Pattananusorn

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: to design a creative thinking development program for learning activity management of secondary school teachers, and to study the program's efficiency and effectiveness of usage. The results of the study were as follows: the program includes the vision, principles, objectives, content, program development…

  12. The Development of Spatial Skills through Interventions Involving Block Building Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…

  13. The Components of Effective Professional Development Activities in Terms of Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparedness is linked to student achievement, yet regularly teachers are entering the profession unprepared. In-service training, or professional development activities, are increasingly being used to remedy this situation. There is little agreement regarding exactly what key components should be included in an effective professional…

  14. The Development of Strategic Thinking: Learning to Impact Human Systems in a Youth Activism Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed; Hansen, David

    2005-01-01

    Human systems, including institutional systems and informal social networks, are a major arena of modern life. We argue that distinct forms of pragmatic reasoning or "strategic thinking" are required to exercise agency within such systems. This article explores the development of strategic thinking in a youth activism program in which young people…

  15. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-03-16

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function.

  16. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human

    PubMed Central

    Koolen, N.; Dereymaeker, A.; Räsänen, O.; Jansen, K.; Vervisch, J.; Matic, V.; Naulaers, G.; De Vos, M.; Van Huffel, S.; Vanhatalo, S.

    2016-01-01

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. PMID:26876605

  17. Development of a complex of activity in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.; Svestka, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Using Skylab observations of soft solar X-rays, the development of a complex of activity in the solar corona during its whole lifetime of seven solar rotations is studied. The basic components of the activity complex were determined to be permanently interconnected through sets of magnetic field lines, which suggests similar connections also below the photosphere. The visibility of individual loops in these connections, however, was greatly variable and typically shorter than one day. Each brightening of a coronal loop in X-rays seems to be related to a variation in the photospheric magnetic field near its footprint.

  18. Polymeric drugs: Advances in the development of pharmacologically active polymers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Fei; Chen, Yi; Oupický, David

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers play a critical role in pharmaceutical discovery and development. Current research and applications of pharmaceutical polymers are mainly focused on their functions as excipients and inert carriers of other pharmacologically active agents. This review article surveys recent advances in alternative pharmaceutical use of polymers as pharmacologically active agents known as polymeric drugs. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of polymeric drugs that are associated with their macromolecular character and their ability to explore biologically relevant multivalency processes. We discuss the main therapeutic uses of polymeric drugs as sequestrants, antimicrobials, antivirals, and anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26410809

  19. Nitric oxide mediates local activity-dependent excitatory synapse development.

    PubMed

    Nikonenko, Irina; Nikonenko, Alexander; Mendez, Pablo; Michurina, Tatyana V; Enikolopov, Grigori; Muller, Dominique

    2013-10-29

    Learning related paradigms play an important role in shaping the development and specificity of synaptic networks, notably by regulating mechanisms of spine growth and pruning. The molecular events underlying these synaptic rearrangements remain poorly understood. Here we identify NO signaling as a key mediator of activity-dependent excitatory synapse development. We find that chronic blockade of NO production in vitro and in vivo interferes with the development of hippocampal and cortical excitatory spine synapses. The effect results from a selective loss of activity-mediated spine growth mechanisms and is associated with morphological and functional alterations of remaining synapses. These effects of NO are mediated by a cGMP cascade and can be reproduced or prevented by postsynaptic expression of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phospho-mimetic or phospho-resistant mutants. In vivo analyses show that absence of NO prevents the increase in excitatory synapse density induced by environmental enrichment and interferes with the formation of local clusters of excitatory synapses. We conclude that NO plays an important role in regulating the development of excitatory synapses by promoting local activity-dependent spine-growth mechanisms.

  20. Active Reading Experience Questionnaire: Development and Validation of an Instrument for Studying Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The increasing adoption of mobile platforms and digital textbooks in university classrooms continues to have a profound impact on higher education. Advocates believe that providing students digital textbooks with built-in annotation features and interactive study tools will improve learning by facilitating active reading, a task essential to…

  1. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life.

  2. Activity-based intervention in motor skill development.

    PubMed

    Apache, R R Goyakla

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an activity-based intervention program and a direct instruction program for preschool children with disabilities. Two groups of preschool students (average age=4.1 yr.), classified as having developmental delays or at risk for such delays, were selected. They were provided 15 weeks of physical education through activity-based intervention and 15 weeks of physical education by direct instruction. Instruction was provided three times a week for 30-min. each session. In the fall semester the morning group received physical education through activity-based intervention, while the afternoon group received physical education through direct instruction. In the spring semester delivery of instruction was reversed for each group. The curriculum and activities provided to each group were identical with only the instructional delivery format altered. Two sets of pre- and post-tests using the Test of Gross Motor Development were administered before and after each 15-wk. instructional period. Group improvement in skills was compared between instructional methods. Significant improvement in both locomotor and object control skills through the activity-based intervention was found compared to direct instruction. Activity-based intervention was shown to be easily adapted to a naturalistic educational setting befitting that of preschool education.

  3. Optical Mapping of Electrical Activation in the Developing Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedmera, David; Reckova, Maria; Rosengarten, Carlin; Torres, Maria I.; Gourdie, Robert G.; Thompson, Robert P.

    2005-06-01

    Specialized conduction tissues mediate coordinated propagation of electrical activity through the adult vertebrate heart. Following activation of the atria, the activation wave is slowed down in the atrioventricular canal or node, after which it spreads rapidly into the left and right ventricles via the His-Purkinje system (HPS). This results in the ventricles being activated from the apex toward the base, which is a hallmark of HPS function. The development of mature HPS function follows significant phases of cardiac morphogenesis. Initially, the cardiac impulse propagates in a slow, linear, and isotropic fashion from the sinus venosus at the most caudal portion of the tubular heart. Although the speed of impulse propagation gradually increases as it travels toward the anterior regions of the heart tube, the actual sequence of ventricular activation in the looped heart proceeds in the same direction as blood flow. Eventually, the immature base-to-apex sequence of ventricular activation undergoes an apparent reversal, changing to the mature apex-to-base pattern. Using an optical mapping approach, we demonstrate that the timing of this last transition shows striking dependence on hemodynamic loading of the ventricle, being accelerated by pressure overload and delayed in left ventricular hypoplasia. Comparison of chick and mammalian hearts revealed some striking similarities as well as key differences in the timing of such events during cardiac organogenesis.

  4. Dystonia redefined as central non-paretic loss of control of muscle action: a concept including inability to activate muscles required for a specific movement, or 'negative dystonia'.

    PubMed

    Mezaki, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. Although this definition comprises an essential feature of dystonia, the clinical observation indicates that there is an additional aspect of dystonia; failure to adequately activate muscles required for specific movement, exemplified by the lack of contractions of the levator palpebrae superioris muscles in apraxia of lid opening, as well as by inability to activate appropriate muscles in cervical dystonia or in the paretic form of writer's cramp, and possibly by dropped head syndrome or camptocormia seen in parkinsonian patients without apparent truncal dystonia or rigidity. Taking this "negative dystonia" into consideration, the author proposes a revised definition of dystonia as a symptom characterized by the central non-paretic loss of voluntary control of muscle activities, which may result in either excessive or deficient contractions of muscles, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, limitation of movements, or abnormal postures.

  5. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Control Model Development Roadmap and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Hypersonic project is directed towards fundamental research for two classes of hypersonic vehicles: highly reliable reusable launch systems (HRRLS) and high-mass Mars entry systems (HMMES). The objective of the hypersonic guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) discipline team is to develop advanced guidance and control algorithms to enable efficient and effective operation of these challenging vehicles. The ongoing work at the NASA Glenn Research Center supports the hypersonic GN&C effort in developing tools to aid the design of advanced control algorithms that specifically address the propulsion system of the HRRLSclass vehicles. These tools are being developed in conjunction with complementary research and development activities in hypersonic propulsion at Glenn and elsewhere. This report is focused on obtaining control-relevant dynamic models of an HRRLS-type hypersonic vehicle propulsion system.

  6. Moments of movement: active learning and practice development.

    PubMed

    Dewing, Jan

    2010-01-01

    As our understanding of practice development becomes more sophisticated, we enhance our understanding of how the facilitation of learning in and from practice, can be more effectively achieved. This paper outlines an approach for enabling and maximizing learning within practice development known as 'Active Learning'. It considers how, given establishing a learning culture is a prerequisite for the sustainability of PD within organisations, practice developers can do more to maximize learning for practitioners and other stakeholders. Active Learning requires that more attention be given by organisations committed to PD, at a corporate and strategic level for how learning strategies are developed in the workplace. Specifically, a move away from a heavy reliance on training may be required. Practice development facilitators also need to review: how they organise and offer learning, so that learning strategies are consistent with the vision, aims and processes of PD; have skills in the planning, delivery and evaluation of learning as part of their role and influence others who provide more traditional methods of training and education.

  7. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Geothermal materials development: FY 1990 accomplishments and current activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in the development of hydrothermally stable materials, the commercial availabilities of which are considered essential for the attainment of the Geothermal Division's (GD) Hydrothermal Category Objectives, continue to be made. Fiscal year 1990 R D was focused on reducing well drilling and completion costs, energy conversion costs, and on mitigating corrosion in well casing. Activities on lost circulation control materials, CO{sub 2}-resistant lightweight cements and thermally conductive corrosion and scale-resistant linear systems have reached the final development stages. In addition, field tests to determine the feasibility for the use of polymer cement liners to mitigate HCl-induced corrosion at the Geysers were performed. Technology transfer efforts on high temperature elastomers for use in drilling tools such as drillpipe protectors and rotating head seals were continued under Geothermal Drilling Organization sponsorship. Recent accomplishments and ongoing work on each of these activities are described in the paper. 8 refs.

  9. Development of universal antidotes to control aptamer activity.

    PubMed

    Oney, Sabah; Lam, Ruby T S; Bompiani, Kristin M; Blake, Charlene M; Quick, George; Heidel, Jeremy D; Liu, Joanna Yi-Ching; Mack, Brendan C; Davis, Mark E; Leong, Kam W; Sullenger, Bruce A

    2009-10-01

    With an ever increasing number of people taking numerous medications, the need to safely administer drugs and limit unintended side effects has never been greater. Antidote control remains the most direct means to counteract acute side effects of drugs, but, unfortunately, it has been challenging and cost prohibitive to generate antidotes for most therapeutic agents. Here we describe the development of a set of antidote molecules that are capable of counteracting the effects of an entire class of therapeutic agents based upon aptamers. These universal antidotes exploit the fact that, when systemically administered, aptamers are the only free extracellular oligonucleotides found in circulation. We show that protein- and polymer-based molecules that capture oligonucleotides can reverse the activity of several aptamers in vitro and counteract aptamer activity in vivo. The availability of universal antidotes to control the activity of any aptamer suggests that aptamers may be a particularly safe class of therapeutics.

  10. Nucleophosmin leukemogenic mutant activates Wnt signaling during zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elisa; Deflorian, Gianluca; Pezzimenti, Federica; Valli, Debora; Saia, Marco; Meani, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a ubiquitous multifunctional phosphoprotein with both oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions. Mutations of the NPM1 gene are the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and result in the expression of a mutant protein with aberrant cytoplasmic localization, NPMc+. Although NPMc+ causes myeloproliferation and AML in animal models, its mechanism of action remains largely unknown. Here we report that NPMc+ activates canonical Wnt signaling during the early phases of zebrafish development and determines a Wnt-dependent increase in the number of progenitor cells during primitive hematopoiesis. Coherently, the canonical Wnt pathway is active in AML blasts bearing NPMc+ and depletion of the mutant protein in the patient derived OCI-AML3 cell line leads to a decrease in the levels of active β-catenin and of Wnt target genes. Our results reveal a novel function of NPMc+ and provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis of AML bearing NPM1 mutations. PMID:27486814

  11. Development of a second-generation linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic and thermal (PVT) concentrator array, including fabrication and installation of a 200 square meter collector field

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    This report summarizes work performed in two areas: development of a second-generation linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator array, and development and fabrication of a 22 kilowatt photovoltaic and thermal concentrator array. Under these programs, ENTECH, Inc. developed a new second-generation linear Fresnel lens PVT concentrator system, and deployed a 200 square meter collector field of the new design at Sandia-Albuquerque. The new system combines excellent performance and low mass-production cost.

  12. FBI-1 can stimulate HIV-1 Tat activity and is targeted to a novel subnuclear domain that includes the Tat-P-TEFb-containing nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, P Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-03-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain-containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor-rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

  13. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  14. [Development and optimization of the methods for determining activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in plasma].

    PubMed

    Roka-Moĭia, Ia M; Zhernosiekov, D D; Kondratiuk, A S; Hrynenko, T V

    2013-01-01

    The activity and content of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are important indicators of pathological processes, because its content in plasma increases at acute myocardium infarction, tumor, diabetes mellitus, etc. The present work is dedicated to the development and optimization of the methods of PAI-1 activity definition, which can be used in clinical practice. We have proposed the modification of the method COATEST PAI with the usage of chromogenic substrate S2251. According to our modification, the cyanogen bromide fragments of human fibrinogen have been changed into bovine desAB-fibrin. We have also developed the method with the usage of fibrin films. In this method fibrin is used as a stimulator of activation reaction and as a substrate at the same time. Using fibrin, the native substrate of plasmin, we provide high specificity of the reaction and exclude the cross-reaction with other plasma enzymes.

  15. Development of Active Catheter,Active Guide Wire and Micro Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Y.; Mineta, T.; Totsu, K.; Makishi, W.; Esashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Summary Active catheters and active guide wires which move like a snake have been developed for catheter-based minimally invasive diagnosis and therapy. Communication and control IC chips in the active catheter reduce the number of lead wires for control. The active catheter can be not only bent but also torsioned and extended. An ultra minature fiber-optic pressure sensor; a forward-looking ultrasonic probe and a magnetic position and orientation sensor have been developed for catheters and guide wires. These moving mechanisms and several sensors which are fitted near the tip of the catheter and the guide wire will provide detailed information near the tip and enable delicate and effective catheter intervention. PMID:20663389

  16. Developing supplemental activities for primary health care maternity services.

    PubMed

    Panitz, E

    1990-12-01

    Supplemental health care activities are described in the context of the augmented product. The potential benefits of supplemental services to recipients and provider are discussed. The author describes a study that was the basis for (re)developing a supplemental maternity service. The implementation of the results in terms of changes in the marketing mix of this supplemental program is discussed. The effects of the marketing mix changes on program participation are presented.

  17. Development of an improved active gas target design for ANASEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, Sabina; Blackmon, J. C.; Deibel, C. M.; Macon, K. T.; Rasco, B. C.; Wiedenhoever, I.

    2014-09-01

    The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure with Exotic Nuclei (ANASEN) is a charged particle detector array with an active gas target-detector capability for sensitive measurements using radioactive ion beams. One of the main goals is to improve our understanding of nuclear reactions important in stellar explosions. Following initial experimental campaigns with ANASEN, we have been developing an improved active gas target design for ANASEN that incorporates an innovative cylindrical gas ionization detector for heavy ions surrounding the beam axis inside of the other ANASEN charged particle detectors. The detection of heavy ions in coincidence with lighter ions in a redesigned proportional counter will provide greater discriminating power. The new active gas target design will be presented, and its simulated performance will be compared with test data. The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure with Exotic Nuclei (ANASEN) is a charged particle detector array with an active gas target-detector capability for sensitive measurements using radioactive ion beams. One of the main goals is to improve our understanding of nuclear reactions important in stellar explosions. Following initial experimental campaigns with ANASEN, we have been developing an improved active gas target design for ANASEN that incorporates an innovative cylindrical gas ionization detector for heavy ions surrounding the beam axis inside of the other ANASEN charged particle detectors. The detection of heavy ions in coincidence with lighter ions in a redesigned proportional counter will provide greater discriminating power. The new active gas target design will be presented, and its simulated performance will be compared with test data. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Dept of Energy's Office of Science.

  18. Low-Speed Active Flow Control Laboratory Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    The future of aviation propulsion systems is increasingly focused on the application of control technologies to significantly enhance the performance of a new generation of air vehicles. Active flow control refers to a set of technologies that manipulate the flow of air and combustion gases deep within the confines of an engine to dynamically alter its performance during flight. By employing active flow control, designers can create engines that are significantly lighter, are more fuel efficient, and produce lower emissions. In addition, the operating range of an engine can be extended, yielding safer transportation systems. The realization of these future propulsion systems requires the collaborative development of many base technologies to achieve intelligent, embedded control at the engine locations where it will be most effective. NASA Glenn Research Center s Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch has developed a state-of-the-art low-speed Active Flow Control Laboratory in which emerging technologies can be integrated and explored in a flexible, low-cost environment. The facility allows the most promising developments to be prescreened and optimized before being tested on higher fidelity platforms, thereby reducing the cost of experimentation and improving research effectiveness.

  19. Effects of Making Sense of SCIENCE[TM] Professional Development on the Achievement of Middle School Students, Including English Language Learners. Final Report. NCEE 2012-4002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Joan I.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated an approach to professional development for middle school science teachers by closely examining one grade 8 course that embodies that approach. Using a cluster-randomized experimental design, the study tested the effectiveness of the Making Sense of SCIENCE[TM] professional development course on force and motion (Daehler,…

  20. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  1. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  2. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    PubMed Central

    Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Boon, Mariëtte R; Khedoe, P. Padmini S. J.; Bartelt, Alexander; Schlein, Christian; Worthmann, Anna; Kooijman, Sander; Hoeke, Geerte; Mol, Isabel M.; John, Clara; Jung, Caroline; Vazirpanah, Nadia; Brouwers, Linda P.J.; Gordts, Philip L.S.M.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Havekes, Louis M.; Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg; Rensen, Patrick C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation protects from atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism that unlike hyperlipidemic Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice expresses functional apoE and LDLR. BAT activation increases energy expenditure and decreases plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that BAT activation enhances the selective uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins into BAT, subsequently accelerating the hepatic clearance of the cholesterol-enriched remnants. These effects depend on a functional hepatic apoE-LDLR clearance pathway as BAT activation in Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice does not attenuate hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. We conclude that activation of BAT is a powerful therapeutic avenue to ameliorate hyperlipidaemia and protect from atherosclerosis. PMID:25754609

  3. Mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, derived from mefloquine and arenecarbaldehydes: In vitro activity including against the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strain T113.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Raoni S B; Kaiser, Carlos R; Lourenço, Maria C S; Bezerra, Flavio A F M; de Souza, Marcus V N; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Henriques, Maria das Graças M de O; Costa, Thadeu

    2012-01-01

    Ten new mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(aryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (1: aryl=substituted phenyl) and 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(heteroaryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline [2: heteroaryl=5-nitrothien-2-yl (2a); 5-nitrofuran-2-yl (2b) and 4H-imidazol-2-yl) (2c)], have been synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compounds 1f (aryl=3-ethoxyphenyl), 1g (Ar=3,4,5-(MeO)(3)-C(6)H(2)) and 2c were slightly more active than mefloquine (MIC=33μM) with MICs=24.5, 22.5 and 27.4, respectively, whereas compounds 1e (aryl=3,4-(MeO)(2)-C(6)H(3)) and 2a (MICs=11.9 and 12.1μM, respectively) were ca. 2.7 times more active than mefloquine, with a better tuberculostatic activity than the first line tuberculostatic agent ethambutol (MIC=15.9). The compounds were also assayed against the MDR strain T113 and the same MICs were observed. Thus the new derivatives have advantages over such anti-TB drugs as isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and ofloxacin, for which this strain is resistant. The most active compounds were not cytotoxic to Murine Macrophages Cells in a concentration near their MIC values.

  4. Changes in free amino acid content and activities of amination and transamination enzymes in yeasts grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Norkrans, B; Tunblad-Johansson, I

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns inter- and intraspecific differences between yeasts at assimilation of different nitrogen sources. Alterations in the content of free amino acids in cells and media as well as in the related enzyme activities during growth were studied. The hydroxylamine (HA)-tolerant Endomycopsis lipolytica was examined and compared with the nitrate-reducing Cryptococcus albidus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. Special attention was paid to alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, the amino acids closely related to the Krebs cycle keto acids. The amino acids were analyzed as their n-propyl N-acetyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The composition of the amino acid pool was similar for the three yeasts. Glutamic acid was predominant; in early log-phase cells of E. lipolytica contents of 200-234 micromol . g(-1) dry weight were found. A positive correlation between the specific growth rate and the size of the amino acid pool was observed. The assimilation of ammonia was mediated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The NADP-GDH was the dominating enzyme in all three yeasts showing the highest specific activity in Cr. albidus grown on nitrate (6980 nmol . (min(-1)).(mg protein(-1)). Glutamine synthetase (GS) displayed a high specific activity in S. cerevisiae, which also had a high amount of glutamine. The assimilation of HA did not differ greatly from the assimilation of ammonium in E. lipolytica. The existing differences could rather be explained as provoked by the concentration of available nitrogen.

  5. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Background Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed. Conclusion The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a

  7. Presenilin-dependent γ-secretase activity modulates thymocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Doerfler, Petra; Shearman, Mark S.; Perlmutter, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    In neuronal cells, presenilin-dependent γ-secretase activity cleaves amyloid precursor proteins to release Aβ peptides, and also catalyzes the release of the intracellular domain of the transmembrane receptor Notch. Accumulation of aberrant Aβ peptides appears to be causally related to Alzheimer's disease. Inhibition of Aβ peptide production is therefore a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Notch proteins play an important role in cell fate determination in many different organisms and at different stages of development, for example in mammalian T cell development. We therefore addressed whether structurally diverse γ-secretase inhibitors impair Notch function by studying thymocyte development in murine fetal thymic organ cultures. Here we show that high concentrations of the most potent inhibitors blocked thymocyte development at the most immature stage. In contrast, lower concentrations or less potent inhibitors impaired differentiation at a later stage, most notably suppressing the development of CD8 single-positive T cells. These phenotypes are consistent with an impairment of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitors and define a strict Notch dose dependence of consecutive stages during thymocyte development. PMID:11470902

  8. Antibacterial Honey (Medihoney™): in-vitro Activity Against Clinical Isolates of MRSA, VRE, and Other Multiresistant Gram-negative Organisms Including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    George, Narelle May; Cutting, Keith F

    2007-09-01

    The clinical use of honey has received increasing interest in recent years, particularly its use as a topical antibacterial dressing. Results thus far are extremely encouraging, and demonstrate that honey is effective against a broad range of microorganisms, including multiresistant strains. This in-vitro study complements the work of others and focuses on the impact that a standardized honey can have on multiresistant bacteria that are regularly found in wounds and are responsible for increased morbidity.

  9. Developer and Realtor Perspectives on Factors That Influence Development, Sale, and Perceived Demand for Activity-Friendly Communities

    PubMed Central

    Carnoske, Cheryl; Hoehner, Christine; Ruthmann, Nicholas; Frank, Lawrence; Handy, Susan; Hill, James; Ryan, Sherry; Sallis, James; Glanz, Karen; Brownson, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Background Although public support for physical activity-friendly Traditional Neighborhood Developments (TNDs) appears to be growing, information is lacking on private sector perspectives and how economic factors (eg, fuel prices) might influence the development and sale of TNDs. Methods A sample of realtors from the National Association of Realtors (n = 4950) and developers from the National Association of Home Builders (n = 162) were surveyed in early 2009 to assess factors influencing homebuyers’ decisions; incentives and barriers to developing TNDs; effects of depressed housing market conditions and financing on sales; trends in buying; and energy considerations (eg, green building). Results Realtors believed that homebuyers continue to rank affordability, safety and school quality higher than TND amenities. Developers reported numerous barriers to TNDs, including the inability to overcome governmental/political hurdles, lack of cooperation between government agencies, and lack of market demand. Yet, realtors believed clients are increasingly influenced by gas and oil prices, and developers reported that clients are looking for energy efficient homes, reduced commute time, and walkable neighborhoods. Respondents reported consumers are more interested in living in a TND than 5 years ago. Conclusions Activity-friendly TNDs appear to be increasing in demand, but developers and realtors reported significant barriers to creating these communities. PMID:20440012

  10. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO.

  11. Small Business Management Volume IV: Final Report. An Adult Education Program. Development, Demonstration and Evaluation of Management Education Programs for Small Business Entrepreneurs, Including Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Edgar A.; Swanson, Gordon I.

    The purpose of the small business management program is to help families improve the effectiveness of their business operation and enable them to reach family and business goals. Similar to a successful program in farm management education operational in Minnesota since 1952, the program includes classroom instruction, small group instruction,…

  12. Lessons from Nature: Sources and Strategies for Developing AMPK Activators for Cancer Chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Arkwright, Richard T; Deshmukh, Rahul; Adapa, Nikhil; Stevens, Ryan; Zonder, Emily; Zhang, Zhongyu; Farshi, Pershang; Ahmed, Reda Saber Ibrahim; El-Banna, Hossny Awad; Chan, Tak-Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase or AMPK is a highly-conserved master-regulator of numerous cellular processes, including: Maintaining cellular-energy homeostasis, modulation of cytoskeletaldynamics, directing cell growth-rates and influencing cell-death pathways. AMPK has recently emerged as a promising molecular target in cancer therapy. In fact, AMPK deficiencies have been shown to enhance cell growth and proliferation, which is consistent with enhancement of tumorigenesis by AMPK-loss. Conversely, activation of AMPK is associated with tumor growth suppression via inhibition of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex-1 (mTORC1) or the mTOR signal pathway. The scientific communities' recognition that AMPK-activating compounds possess an anti-neoplastic effect has contributed to a rush of discoveries and developments in AMPK-activating compounds as potential anticancer-drugs. One such example is the class of compounds known as Biguanides, which include Metformin and Phenformin. The current review will showcase natural compounds and their derivatives that activate the AMPK-complex and signaling pathway. In addition, the biology and history of AMPK-signaling and AMPK-activating compounds will be overviewed, their anticancer-roles and mechanisms-of-actions will be discussed, and potential strategies for the development of novel, selective AMPK-activators with enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity will be proposed.

  13. Development of an activity disease score in patients with uveitis (UVEDAI).

    PubMed

    Pato, Esperanza; Martin-Martinez, Mª Auxiliadora; Castelló, Adela; Méndez-Fernandez, Rosalía; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Martinez-Costa, Lucia; Valls, Elia; Reyes, Miguel; Francisco, Félix; Esteban, Mar; Fonollosa, Alex; Sanchez-Alonso, Fernando; Fernández-Espartero, Cruz; Diaz-Valle, Teresa; Carrasco, José Miguel; Beltran-Catalán, Emma; Hernández-Garfella, Marisa; Hernández, María Victoria; Pelegrin, Laura; Blanco, Ricardo; Diaz-Valle, David

    2017-04-01

    To develop a disease activity index for patients with uveitis (UVEDAI) encompassing the relevant domains of disease activity considered important among experts in this field. The steps for designing UVEDAI were: (a) Defining the construct and establishing the domains through a formal judgment of experts, (b) A two-round Delphi study with a panel of 15 experts to determine the relevant items, (c) Selection of items: A logistic regression model was developed that set ocular inflammatory activity as the dependent variable. The construct "uveitis inflammatory activity" was defined as any intraocular inflammation that included external structures (cornea) in addition to uvea. Seven domains and 15 items were identified: best-corrected visual acuity, inflammation of the anterior chamber (anterior chamber cells, hypopyon, the presence of fibrin, active posterior keratic precipitates and iris nodules), intraocular pressure, inflammation of the vitreous cavity (vitreous haze, snowballs and snowbanks), central macular edema, inflammation of the posterior pole (the presence and number of choroidal/retinal lesions, vascular inflammation and papillitis), and global assessment from both (patient and physician). From all the variables studied in the multivariate model, anterior chamber cell grade, vitreous haze, central macular edema, inflammatory vessel sheathing, papillitis, choroidal/retinal lesions and patient evaluation were included in UVEDAI. UVEDAI is an index designed to assess the global ocular inflammatory activity in patients with uveitis. It might prove worthwhile to motorize the activity of this extraarticular manifestation of some rheumatic diseases.

  14. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A LONGITUDINAL DISCORDANT TWIN-PAIR STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Aaltonen, Sari; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kujala, Urho M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous longitudinal research suggests that motor proficiency in early life predicts physical activity in adulthood. Familial effects including genetic and environmental factors could explain the association, but no long-term follow-up studies have taken into account potential confounding by genetic and social family background. The present twin study investigated whether childhood motor skill development is associated with leisure-time physical activity levels in adulthood independent of family background. Methods Altogether, 1 550 twin pairs from the FinnTwin12 study and 1 752 twin pairs from the FinnTwin16 study were included in the analysis. Childhood motor development was assessed by the parents’ report of whether one of the co-twins had been ahead of the other in different indicators of motor skill development in childhood. Leisure-time physical activity (MET hours/day) was self-reported by the twins in young adulthood and adulthood. Statistical analyses included conditional and ordinary linear regression models within twin pairs. Results Using all activity-discordant twin pairs, the within-pair difference in a sum score of motor development in childhood predicted the within-pair difference in the leisure-time physical activity level in young adulthood (p<0.001). Within specific motor development indicators, learning to stand unaided earlier in infancy predicted higher leisure-time MET values in young adulthood statistically significantly in both samples (FinnTwin12 p=0.02, FinnTwin16 p=0.001) and also in the pooled dataset of the FinnTwin12 and FinnTwin16 studies (p<0.001). Having been more agile than the co-twin as a child predicted higher leisure-time MET values up to adulthood (p=0.03). Conclusions More advanced childhood motor development is associated with higher leisure-time MET values in young adulthood at least partly independent of family background, in both men and women. PMID:26378945

  15. Effect of pH, water activity and gel micro-structure, including oxygen profiles and rheological characterization, on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Theys, T E; Geeraerd, A H; Verhulst, A; Poot, K; Van Bree, I; Devlieghere, F; Moldenaers, P; Wilson, D; Brocklehurst, T; Van Impe, J F

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tryptic Soy Broth was examined at different pH (4.50-5.50), water activity a(w) (0.970-0.992) and gelatin concentration (0%, 1% and 5% ) at 20 degrees C. Experiments in TSB with 0% gelatin were carried out in shaken erlenmeyers, in the weak 1% gelatin media in petri plates and in the firm 5% gelatin media in gel cassettes. A quantification of gel strength was performed by rheological measurements and the influence of oxygen supply on the growth of S. Typhimurium was investigated. pH, as well as a(w) as well as gelatin concentration had an influence on the growth rate. Both in broth and in gelatinized media, lowering pH or water activity caused a decrease of growth rate. In media with 1% gelatin a reduction of growth rate and maximal cell density was observed compared to broth at all conditions. However, the effects of decreasing pH and a(w) were less pronounced. A further increase in gelatin concentration to 5% gelatin caused a small or no additional drop of growth rate. The final oxygen concentration dropped from 5.5 ppm in stirred broth to anoxic values in petri plates, also when 0% and 5% gelatin media were tested in this recipient. Probably, not stirring the medium, which leads to anoxic conditions, has a more pronounced effect on the growth rate of S. Typhimurium then medium solidness. Finally, growth data were fitted with the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J. and Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294]. An additional factor was introduced into the secondary model of Ross et al. [Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. and Mellefont, L. A. and McMeekin, T. A., 2003. Modelling the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth rate of Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 33-43.] to incorporate the effect of gelatin concentration, next to

  16. Development of Solar Activity Cycle 24: Some Comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    Our forecast for the development phase of the solar cycle 23 turned out to be right on the mark; one of the very few to have acquired this status out of nearly 40 forecasts made for cycle 23. This is the first time in the 400 year history of the sunspot observations that a forecast was made for a solar cycle, it was defended against a severe peer criticism and came out true. We review the details of our actual forcast and how they fared as the events unfolded during cycle 23. We then consider the present status of the solar wind, the geomagnetic planetary indices, and the recovery of the galactic cosmic rays from cycle 23 modulation. Next, we draw inferences as to what to expect for the development phase of solar cycle 24. We are aware that several forecasts have already been made for the development of solar cycle 24 activity. They cover all possible scenarios, ranging from the most active to the quietest ever cycle. Clearly, some of these forecasts are unlikely to materialize. We discuss emerging details of the physical link between the observations and the workings of the solar dynamo.

  17. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  18. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  19. Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Duhnam-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Cruz, Adriana R.; Moore, Meagan W.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Velez-Climent, Leonor; Shupe, Jonathan; Krueger, Winfried; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-β and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1β, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-β and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. PMID:19461888

  20. Mapping Numerical Processing, Reading, and Executive Functions in the Developing Brain: An fMRI Meta-Analysis of 52 Studies Including 842 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houde, Olivier; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amelie; Joliot, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Tracing the connections from brain functions to children's cognitive development and education is a major goal of modern neuroscience. We performed the first meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained over the past decade (1999-2008) on more than 800 children and adolescents in three core systems of cognitive…

  1. Miconazole activity against Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, S; Dorocka-Bobkowska, B; Prylinski, M; Konopka, K; Duzgunes, N

    2014-08-01

    Oral candidiasis in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CaDS) is associated with Candida adhesion and biofilm formation on the fitting surface of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dentures. Candida biofilms show considerable resistance to most conventional antifungal agents, a phenomenon that is considered a developmental-phase-specific event that may help explain the high recurrence rates associated with CaDS. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of miconazole towards in vitro-grown mature Candida biofilms formed on heat-cured PMMA discs as a standardized model. The effect of miconazole nitrate on Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs was determined for C. albicans MYA-2732 (ATCC), C. glabrata MYA-275 (ATCC), and clinical isolates, C. albicans 6122/06, C. glabrata 7531/06, C. tropicalis 8122/06, and C. parapsilosis 11375/07. Candida biofilms were developed on heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) discs and treated with miconazole (0.5 - 96 μg/ml). The metabolic activity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of miconazole against Candida species were determined by the microdilution method. The MICs for miconazole for the investigated strains ranged from 0.016-32 μg/ml. Treatment with miconazole resulted in a significant reduction of biofilm metabolic activity for all strains. The highest inhibition was observed at 96 μg/ml miconazole. In the case of C. glabrata MYA-275 and C. tropicalis 8122/06 this corresponded to 83.7% and 75.4% inhibition, respectively. The lowest reduction was observed for C. parapsilosis 11375/07-46.1%. For all Candida strains there was a strong correlation between MIC values and miconazole concentrations corresponding to a reduction of metabolic activity of the biofilm by 50%. Miconazole exhibits high antifungal activity against Candida biofilms developed on the surface of PMMA discs. The study provides support for the use of miconazole as an

  2. Using Recent Planetary Science Data to Develop Advanced Undergraduate Physics and Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckloff, Jordan; Lindell, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Teaching science by having students manipulate real data is a popular trend in astronomy and planetary science education. However, many existing activities simply couple this data with traditional "cookbook" style verification labs. As with most topics within science, this instructional technique does not enhance the average students' understanding of the phenomena being studied. Here we present a methodology for developing "science by doing" activities that incorporate the latest discoveries in planetary science with up-to-date constructivist pedagogy to teach advanced concepts in Physics and Astronomy. In our methodology, students are first guided to understand, analyze, and plot real raw scientific data; develop and test physical and computational models to understand and interpret the data; finally use their models to make predictions about the topic being studied and test it with real data.To date, two activities have been developed according to this methodology: Understanding Asteroids through their Light Curves (hereafter "Asteroid Activity"), and Understanding Exoplanetary Systems through Simple Harmonic Motion (hereafter "Exoplanet Activity"). The Asteroid Activity allows students to explore light curves available on the Asteroid Light Curve Database (ALCDB) to discover general properties of asteroids, including their internal structure, strength, and mechanism of asteroid moon formation. The Exoplanet Activity allows students to investigate the masses and semi-major axes of exoplanets in a system by comparing the radial velocity motion of their host star to that of a coupled simple harmonic oscillator. Students then explore how noncircular orbits lead to deviations from simple harmonic motion. These activities will be field tested during the Fall 2016 semester in an advanced undergraduate mechanics and astronomy courses at a large Midwestern STEM-focused university. We will present the development methodologies for these activities, description of the

  3. (Workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities)

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, P.A.

    1988-10-12

    P.A. Layton attended a workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities,'' which was organized by the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA) Task II. The traveler spent 1 d prior to the meeting to visit scientists and administrators of Shell Research Limited. Physiology and Biological Chemistry Division to discus their interest in biomass production research as well as their other research interests in tissue culture, biotechnology, and management of forests and agricultural crops that are pertinent to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biomass Production program.

  4. Active Blade Vibration Control Being Developed and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter

    2003-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are currently being designed to have increased performance, lower weight and manufacturing costs, and higher reliability. Consequently, turbomachinery components, such as turbine and compressor blades, have designs that are susceptible to new vibration problems and eventual in-service failure due to high-cycle fatigue. To address this problem, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing and testing innovative active blade vibration control concepts. Preliminary results of using an active blade vibration control system, involving a rotor supported by an active magnetic bearing in Glenn's Dynamic Spin Rig, indicate promising results (see the photograph). Active blade vibration control was achieved using feedback of blade strain gauge signals within the magnetic bearing control loop. The vibration amplitude was reduced substantially (see the graphs). Also, vibration amplitude amplification was demonstrated; this could be used to enhance structural mode identification, if desired. These results were for a nonrotating two-bladed disk. Tests for rotating blades are planned. Current and future active blade vibration control research is planned to use a fully magnetically suspended rotor and smart materials. For the fully magnetically suspended rotor work, three magnetic bearings (two radial and one axial) will be used as actuators instead of one magnetic bearing. This will allow additional degrees of freedom to be used for control. For the smart materials work, control effectors located on and off the blade will be considered. Piezoelectric materials will be considered for on-the-blade actuation, and actuator placement on a stator vane, or other nearby structure, will be investigated for off-the-blade actuation. Initial work will focus on determining the feasibility of these methods by performing basic analysis and simple experiments involving feedback control.

  5. Twist1 activity thresholds define multiple functions in limb development.

    PubMed

    Krawchuk, Dayana; Weiner, Shoshana J; Chen, You-Tzung; Lu, Benson C; Costantini, Frank; Behringer, Richard R; Laufer, Ed

    2010-11-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 is essential for normal limb development. Twist1(-/-) embryos die at midgestation. However, studies on early limb buds found that Twist1(-/-) mutant limb mesenchyme has an impaired response to FGF signaling from the apical ectodermal ridge, which disrupts the feedback loop between the mesenchyme and AER, and reduces and shifts anteriorly Shh expression in the zone of polarizing activity. We have combined Twist1 null, hypomorph and conditional alleles to generate a Twist1 allelic series that survives to birth. As Twist1 activity is reduced, limb skeletal defects progress from preaxial polydactyly to girdle reduction combined with hypoplasia, aplasia or mirror symmetry of all limb segments. With reduced Twist1 activity there is striking and progressive upregulation of ectopic Shh expression in the anterior of the limb, combined with an anterior shift in the posterior Shh domain, which is expressed at normal intensity, and loss of the posterior AER. Consequently limb outgrowth is initially impaired, before an ectopic anterior Shh domain expands the AER, promoting additional growth and repatterning. Reducing the dosage of FGF targets of the Etv gene family, which are known repressors of Shh expression in anterior limb mesenchyme, strongly enhances the anterior skeletal phenotype. Conversely this and other phenotypes are suppressed by reducing the dosage of the Twist1 antagonist Hand2. Our data support a model whereby multiple Twist1 activity thresholds contribute to early limb bud patterning, and suggest how particular combinations of skeletal defects result from differing amounts of Twist1 activity.

  6. Twist1 activity thresholds define multiple functions in limb development

    PubMed Central

    Krawchuk, Dayana; Weiner, Shoshana J.; Chen, You-Tzung; Lu, Benson; Costantini, Frank; Behringer, Richard R.; Laufer, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Summary The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 is essential for normal limb development. Twist1−/− embryos die at midgestation. However, studies on early limb buds found that Twist1−/− mutant limb mesenchyme has an impaired response to FGF signaling from the apical ectodermal ridge, which disrupts the feedback loop between the mesenchyme and AER, and reduces and shifts anteriorly Shh expression in the zone of polarizing activity. We have combined Twist1 null, hypomorph and conditional alleles to generate a Twist1 allelic series that survives to birth. As Twist1 activity is reduced, limb skeletal defects progress from preaxial polydactyly to girdle reduction combined with hypoplasia, aplasia or mirror symmetry of all limb segments. With reduced Twist1 activity there is striking and progressive upregulation of ectopic Shh expression in the anterior of the limb, combined with an anterior shift in the posterior Shh domain, which is expressed at normal intensity, and loss of the posterior AER. Consequently limb outgrowth is initially impaired, before an ectopic anterior Shh domain expands the AER, promoting additional growth and repatterning. Reducing the dosage of FGF targets of the Etv gene family, which are known repressors of Shh expression in the anterior limb mesenchyme, strongly enhances the anterior skeletal phenotype. Conversely this and other phenotypes are suppressed by reducing the dosage of the Twist1 antagonist Hand2. Our data support a model whereby multiple Twist1 activity thresholds contribute to early limb bud patterning, and suggest how particular combinations of skeletal defects result from differing amounts of Twist1 activity. PMID:20732316

  7. Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis is hosting an interdisciplinary working group of USGS scientists to conduct a temporal and spatial analysis of surface-water and groundwater quality in areas of unconventional oil and gas development. The analysis uses existing national and regional datasets to describe water quality, evaluate water-quality changes over time where there are sufficient data, and evaluate spatial and temporal data gaps.

  8. Development of High Spectral Resolution Technique for Registration Quasielastic Light Scattering Spectra Including Rayleigh and Brillouin Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool in Materials Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    develop and build an optical device, fitted to a Fabry - Perot interferometer, to perform high-resolution quasieleastic light scattering spectroscopy...scattering spectra based on the use of a scanning by gas pressure Fabry - Perot interferometer coupled to the double grating monochromator...8a. Technical Progress We have designed and built new special metallic box with two optical windows for the Fabry - Perot interferometer and fine

  9. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research.

  10. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development and monitoring activities: Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, S.S.; Margulies, D.; Zacherle, A.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report includes descriptions of projects which were partially funded by the Federal Government, although the Federal contributions are not considered in the funding analyses. This report only considers marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities. ''Research'' projects include studies, investigations, and surveys to study the sources, behavior, and effects of pollutants and polluting activities as well as studies concerning natural oceanic processes if these studies are conducted to improve understanding concerning pollutants and polluting activities. ''Development'' projects include efforts to provide analytical methods, instrumentation, and equipment necessary for research and monitoring of marine pollution. ''Monitoring'' projects include time-series observations of marine environmental conditions to determine the existing levels, trends in time and space, and natural variations in parameters measured. Some projects fall into the category of ''compliance'' monitoring. ''Compliance'' monitoring is generally undertaken for a permitted or licensed resource development activity to assure that an unacceptable level of environmental change has not occurred.

  11. Development history of real-time imaging active gated TV: 1970 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimer, Steven E.; Baker, Bob; Torgerson, John

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the development history of real-time imaging active gated TV sensors from 1970 to present at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. A number of AGTV systems are covered including: Video Imaging Detection and Ranging which was developed for hydrofoils in Southeast Asia, AC- 130U gunship, Airborne Laser-Based Enhanced Detection and Observation System search and rescue system for the Canadian Government, and several long-range surveillance systems. Technology developments related to sensor and illuminator over the past 3 decades are also discussed.

  12. Evaluation development for a physical activity positive youth development program for girls.

    PubMed

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Cole, Amy N; Montgomery, Anna K

    2016-04-01

    Girls on the Run (GOTR) is an after school program for girls in third through fifth grade which utilizes a physical activity based positive youth development curriculum that culminates with completing a 5K run. Unfortunately, there is little empirical data documenting GOTR participant changes that align with the curriculum and describe the evaluation process. Therefore, this study presents an evaluation of GOTR consisting of three main processes: curriculum content analysis and stakeholder focus groups (N=11) to identify key outcomes of the program; community-based participatory research to collaborate with program personnel to further identify important outcomes; and the design and pilot testing of an instrument (N=104) for assessing changes in the theoretically grounded outcomes over time. Findings demonstrated a positive collaborative process that led to important information to be used for an impact evaluation of Girls on the Run and for future evaluation development efforts for physical activity based positive youth development.

  13. Development of a Scottish physical activity questionnaire: a tool for use in physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, M.; Mutrie, N.; Loughlan, C.; McFarlane, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Three studies were undertaken to establish the reliability and validity of the Scottish physical activity questionnaire (SPAQ), developed to aid seven day recall of leisure and occupational physical activity. METHODS: To establish reliability, SPAQs (n = 34) were completed on a Monday and the following Wednesday. Thus each questionnaire measured four identical days. To establish concurrent validity, 94 participants completed a SPAQ and an adapted stage of exercise behaviour change questionnaire. Responses to SPAQ were then analysed by stage of exercise behaviour change. In a further study of criterion validity, 30 volunteers wore a Caltrac motion sensor for four consecutive days, after which they completed a SPAQ. RESULTS: In the first study, total physical activity had a coefficient of repeatability (R) of 53 minutes. Occupational physical activity showed a similar variance (R = 54.6 minutes) but leisure physical activity was more reliable (R = 29.3 minutes). The main variation in occupational physical activity was found to be walking (R = 39.8 minutes). In study 2, a one way analysis of variance showed the expected relation between physical activity and stage of exercise behaviour change, confirming the concurrent validity of SPAQ with the stage of exercise behaviour change model. In study 3, several erroneous recordings affected both SPAQ and the Caltrac results (kcal). After relevant corrections had been made, the correlation between the two measurement devices was 0.52 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SPAQ has been shown to be reliable and to hold strong concurrent validity and limited criterion validity. The main limitation in SPAQ appears to be the measurement of occupational walking. It is therefore recommended that further work be conducted to refine the measurement of this physical activity component. It is evident nonetheless that SPAQ can be used with confidence to measure outcomes in physical activity interventions when account is taken of its

  14. Development and Testing of a New Optimum Design Code for Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Nozzles, Including Boundary Layer, Turbulence, and Real Gas Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    relaxation time between species i and species k and is computed with the form developed by Millikan and White [33]. Vibration-vibration coupling is...obtained in the same time as on the order of an Euler solution [48]. As shown below, space- marching comes about as a result of dropping the time derivative...that the Q vector, Q (0, CO, 0, 0)T (46) which Korte recommends using has been dropped due to its de- stabilizing effect on the PNS solver, as

  15. Development of novel catalytically active polymer-metal-nanocomposites based on activated foams and textile fibers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report the intermatrix synthesis of Ag nanoparticles in different polymeric matrices such as polyurethane foams and polyacrylonitrile or polyamide fibers. To apply this technique, the polymer must bear functional groups able to bind and retain the nanoparticle ion precursors while ions should diffuse through the matrix. Taking into account the nature of some of the chosen matrices, it was essential to try to activate the support material to obtain an acceptable value of ion exchange capacity. To evaluate the catalytic activity of the developed nanocomposites, a model catalytic reaction was carried out in batch experiments: the reduction of p-nitrophenol by sodium borohydride. PMID:23680063

  16. Summary of BISON Development Activities: NEAMS FY14 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R. L.; Novascone, S. R.; Hales, J. D.; Spencer, B. W.; Liu, W.; Pastore, G.; Perez, D. M.; Gardner, R. J.; Stafford, D. S.; Gamble, K. A.

    2014-10-01

    This summary report contains an overview of work performed under the work package entitled “FY2014 NEAMS INL-Engineering Scale Fuel Performance & Interface with RPL Tools.” A first chapter identifies the specific FY-14 milestones, providing a basic description of the associated work and references to related detailed documentation. Where applicable, a representative technical result is provided. A second chapter summarizes substantial additional work including 1) efforts to improve numerical convergence and contact in BISON, 2) development of capability to simulate hydrogen behavior in Zircaloy cladding and 3) efforts to enhance collaborative work with the Halden Research Program. A final chapter briefly outlines planned future work.

  17. Digestive enzymatic activity during ontogenetic development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Guerrera, Maria Cristina; De Pasquale, Francesca; Muglia, Ugo; Caruso, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Despite the growing importance of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an experimental model in biomedical research, some aspect of physiological and related morphological age dependent changes in digestive system during larval development are still unknown. In this paper, a biochemical and morphological study of the digestive tract of zebrafish was undertaken to record the functional changes occurring in this species during its ontogenetic development, particularly from 24 hr to 47 days post fertilization (dpf). Endo- and exo-proteases, as well as α-amylase enzymes, were quantified in zebrafish larvae before first feeding (7 dpf). The most morphologically significant events during the ontogenesis of the gut occurred between 3 dpf (mouth opening) and 7 dpf (end of exocrine pancreas differentiation). The presence of a wide range of digestive enzymes, already active at earlier zebrafish larval stages, closely related with the omnivorous diet of this species. Increasing enzyme activities were found with increasing age, probably in relation with intestinal mucosa folding and consequent absorption surface increase. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 699-706, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Amine oxidase activity regulates the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Marttila-Ichihara, Fumiko; Elima, Kati; Auvinen, Kaisa; Veres, Tibor Z; Rantakari, Pia; Weston, Christopher; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Adams, David; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Salmi, Marko

    2017-03-01

    In pulmonary fibrosis, an inflammatory reaction and differentiation of myofibroblasts culminate in pathologic deposition of collagen. Amine oxidase copper containing-3 (AOC3) is a cell-surface expressed oxidase that regulates leukocyte extravasation. Here we analyzed the potential role of AOC3 using gene-modified and inhibitor-treated mice in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model. Inflammation and fibrosis of lungs were assessed by histologic, flow cytometric, and quantitative PCR analysis. AOC3-deficient mice showed a 30-50% reduction in fibrosis, collagen synthesis, numbers of myofibroblasts, and accumulation of CD4(+) lymphocytes, NK T cells, macrophages, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells compared with wild-type control mice. AOC3 knock-in mice, which express a catalytically inactive form of AOC3, were also protected from lung fibrosis. In wild-type mice, a small-molecule AOC3 inhibitor treatment reduced leukocyte infiltration, myofibroblast differentiation, and fibrotic injury both in prophylactic and early therapeutic settings by about 50% but was unable to reverse the established fibrosis. AOC3 was also induced in myofibroblasts in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, the oxidase activity of AOC3 contributes to the development of lung fibrosis mainly by regulating the accumulation of pathogenic leukocyte subtypes, which drive the fibrotic response.-Marttila-Ichihara, F., Elima, K., Auvinen, K., Veres, T. Z., Rantakari, P., Weston, C., Miyasaka, M., Adams, D., Jalkanen, S., Salmi, M. Amine oxidase activity regulates the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  19. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System Promotes Colitis Development

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yongyan; Liu, Tianjing; He, Lei; Dougherty, Urszula; Chen, Li; Adhikari, Sarbani; Alpert, Lindsay; Zhou, Guolin; Liu, Weicheng; Wang, Jiaolong; Deb, Dilip K.; Hart, John; Liu, Shu Q.; Kwon, John; Pekow, Joel; Rubin, David T.; Zhao, Qun; Bissonnette, Marc; Li, Yan Chun

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays pathogenic roles in renal and cardiovascular disorders, but whether it is involved in colitis is unclear. Here we show that RenTgMK mice that overexpress active renin from the liver developed more severe colitis than wild-type controls. More than 50% RenTgMK mice died whereas all wild-type mice recovered. RenTgMK mice exhibited more robust mucosal TH17 and TH1/TH17 responses and more profound colonic epithelial cell apoptosis compared to wild-type controls. Treatment with aliskiren (a renin inhibitor), but not hydralazine (a smooth muscle relaxant), ameliorated colitis in RenTgMK mice, although both drugs normalized blood pressure. Chronic infusion of angiotensin II into wild-type mice mimicked the severe colitic phenotype of RenTgMK mice, and treatment with losartan [an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB)] ameliorated colitis in wild-type mice, confirming a colitogenic role for the endogenous RAS. In human biopsies, pro-inflammatory cytokines were suppressed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were on ARB therapy compared to patients not receiving ARB therapy. These observations demonstrate that activation of the RAS promotes colitis in a blood pressure independent manner. Angiotensin II appears to drive colonic mucosal inflammation by promoting intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal TH17 responses in colitis development. PMID:27271344

  20. Development of the Arab heritage Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Razan; Alheresh, Rawan; Dahab, Sana Abu; Collins, Brittany; Fryer, Jasmine; Holm, Margo B

    2011-12-01

    Participation is an indicator of healthy functioning and well-being, as emphasized by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (World Health Organization, 2001). The Activity Card Sort (ACS) is a valid and reliable assessment tool that measures participation. This study describes the process of developing the Arab heritage version of the ACS (A-ACS). The original ACS was translated to Arabic using World Health Organization forward-backward translation guidelines, and activities that are common in Arab cultures were nominated using the ACS investigators' guidelines. Participant respondents were 156 Jordanians, from different age groups and socioeconomic classes. The process initially yielded 179 activities common to all international versions of the ACS, 19 of which were unique to the Arab culture. Eighty-eight items were validated for the A-ACS. The A-ACS validated in this study is the first assessment tool, for Arab adults whose heritage is in the Middle-East and North Africa, that measures participation. We expect the tool to have excellent clinical utility not only in Arab countries, but also for immigrants and citizens of Arab origins worldwide.

  1. Development of a radiative cloud parameterization scheme of stratocumulus and stratus clouds which includes the impact of CCN on cloud albedo

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    The objective of this research is to develop a parameterization scheme that is able to dispose or predict changes in stratocumulus cloud cover, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) stability, liquid water paths (LWPs), and cloud albedo due to changes in sea-surface temperatures, large scale vertical motion and wind shear, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The motivation for developing such a parameterization scheme is that it is hypothesized that anthropogenic sources of CCN can result in increased concentrations of cloud droplets. The higher concentrations of CCN result in higher concentrations of cloud droplets, thereby enhancing cloud albedo which in the absence of other effects will induce a climate forcing opposed to that associated with ``Greenhouse`` warming. As a result of the complicated interactions between cloud microstructure, cloud macrostructure, and cloud radiative transfer, only a limited range of clouds are susceptible to changes in CCN concentrations causing changes in cloud albedo. It is the intent of this research to determine the range of cloud types that are susceptible to albedo changes by anthropogenic CCN and incorporate that information into a cloud parameterization scheme.

  2. Development and Assessment of CFD Models Including a Supplemental Program Code for Analyzing Buoyancy-Driven Flows Through BWR Fuel Assemblies in SFP Complete LOCA Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artnak, Edward Joseph, III

    This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.

  3. Development of Active Learning Curriculum for CASPER's Microgravity Drop Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Wang, Li; York, Judy; Matthews, Lorin; Laufer, Rene; Cook, Mike; Schmoke, Jimmy; Hyde, Truell

    2016-10-01

    As CASPER's new drop tower comes on line, plans for correlated educational research curricula are underway. CASPER's educational research team is working on developing curricula specific to the CASPER drop tower, modeled on a contest currently in use by (BEST) Robotics Inc. within central Texas independent school districts. The curricula integrates age specific use of computer programming software packages such as ``Scratch'' with industry standard communication protocols and augmented reality applications. Content is constructed around an earth and space science framework, covering subjects such as stars and galaxies, matter and energy, fusion and fission at a middle school level. CASPER faculty are partnering with the Region 12 Service Center; this combination provides a wide range of expertise that includes professional development, pedagogical methods, computational thinking in addition to microgravity and space science research expertise. The details of this work will be presented and samples of the manner in which it is impacting the CASPER research and educational outreach partnership will be discussed.

  4. Development and First Validation of a Disease Activity Score for Gout

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Greta; Viroli, Cinzia; Cimmino, Marco A.; Taylor, William J.; Manara, Maria; Govoni, Marcello; Salaffi, Fausto; Punzi, Leonardo; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Matucci‐Cerinic, Marco; Minisola, Giovanni; Ariani, Alarico; Galossi, Alessandra; Lauriti, Ciro; Fracassi, Elena; Idolazzi, Luca; Bardelli, Marco; Selvi, Enrico; Tirri, Enrico; Furini, Federica; Inverardi, Flora; Calabrò, Andrea; Porta, Francesco; Bittelli, Raffaele; Venturino, Francesco; Capsoni, Franco; Prevete, Immacolata; Sebastiani, Giandomenico; Selmi, Carlo; Fabbriciani, Gianluigi; D'Avola, Giovanni; Botticella, Giulia; Serale, Francesca; Seminara, Giulia; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Santo, Leonardo; Longato, Lorena; Zaccara, Eleonora; Sinigaglia, Luigi; Atteritano, Marco; Broggini, Marco; Caprioli, Marta; Favero, Marta; Sallì, Salvatore; Scarati, Marco; Parisi, Simone; Malavolta, Nazzarena; Corvaglia, Stefania; Scarpato, Salvatore; Veneto, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a new composite disease activity score for gout and provide its first validation. Methods Disease activity has been defined as the ongoing presence of urate deposits that lead to acute arthritis and joint damage. Every measure for each Outcome Measures in Rheumatology core domain was considered. A 3‐step approach (factor analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and linear regression) was applied to derive the Gout Activity Score (GAS). Decision to change treatment or 6‐month flare count were used as the surrogate criteria of high disease activity. Baseline and 12‐month followup data of 446 patients included in the Kick‐Off of the Italian Network for Gout cohort were used. Construct‐ and criterion‐related validity were tested. External validation on an independent sample is reported. Results Factor analysis identified 5 factors: patient‐reported outcomes, joint examination, flares, tophi, and serum uric acid (sUA). Discriminant function analysis resulted in a correct classification of 79%. Linear regression analysis identified a first candidate GAS including 12‐month flare count, sUA, visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, VAS global activity assessment, swollen and tender joint counts, and a cumulative measure of tophi. Alternative scores were also developed. The developed GAS demonstrated a good correlation with functional disability (criterion validity) and discrimination between patient‐ and physician‐reported measures of active disease (construct validity). The results were reproduced in the external sample. Conclusion This study developed and validated a composite measure of disease activity in gout. Further testing is required to confirm its generalizability, responsiveness, and usefulness in assisting with clinical decisions. PMID:26815286

  5. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-05-15

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  6. Mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is required for cartilage development

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yingjie; Yang, Xu; Yang, Wentian; Charbonneau, Cherie; Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical stress regulates development by modulating cell signaling and gene expression. However, the cytoplasmic components mediating mechanotransduction remain unclear. In this study, elimination of muscle contraction during chicken embryonic development resulted in a reduction in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the cartilaginous growth plate. Inhibition of mTOR activity led to significant inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation, cartilage tissue growth, and expression of chondrogenic genes, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a critical mediator of mechanotransduction. Conversely, cyclic loading (1 Hz, 5% matrix deformation) of embryonic chicken growth plate chondrocytes in 3-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffolding induced sustained activation of mTOR. Mechanical activation of mTOR occurred in serum-free medium, indicating that it is independent of growth factor or nutrients. Treatment of chondrocytes with Rapa abolished mechanical activation of cell proliferation and Ihh gene expression. Cyclic loading of chondroprogenitor cells deficient in SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) further enhanced mechanical activation of mTOR, cell proliferation, and chondrogenic gene expression. This result suggests that Shp2 is an antagonist of mechanotransduction through inhibition of mTOR activity. Our data demonstrate that mechanical activation of mTOR is necessary for cell proliferation, chondrogenesis, and cartilage growth during bone development, and that mTOR is an essential mechanotransduction component modulated by Shp2 in the cytoplasm.—Guan, Y., Yang, X., Yang, W., Charbonneau, C., Chen, Q. Mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is required for cartilage development. PMID:25002119

  7. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  8. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  9. Synthesis and Exploratory Catalysis of 3d Metals: Group-Transfer Reactions, and the Activation and Functionalization of Small Molecules Including Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2014-05-07

    Our work over the past three years has resulted in the development of electron rich and low-coordinate vanadium fragments, molecular nitrides of vanadium and parent imide systems of titanium, and the synthesis of phosphorus containing molecules of the 3d transition metal series. Likewise, with financial support from BES Division in DOE (DE-FG02-07ER15893), we now completed the full characterization of the first single molecular magnet (SMM) of Fe(III). We demonstrated that this monomeric form of Fe(III) has an unusual slow relaxation of the magnetization under zero applied field. To make matters more interesting, this system also undergoes a rare example of an intermediate to high-spin transition (an S = 3/2 to S = 5/2 transition). In 2010 we reported the synthesis of the first neutral and low-coordinate vanadium complexes having the terminal nitride functionality. We have now completed a full study to understand formation of the nitride ligand from the metastable azide precursor, and have also explored the reactivity of the nitride ligand in the context of incomplete and complete N-atom transfer. During the 2010-2013 period we also discovered a facile approach to assemble low-coordinate and low-valent vanadium(II) complexes and exploit their multielectron chemistry ranging from 1-3 electrons. Consequently, we can now access 3d ligand frameworks such as cyclo-P3 (and its corresponding radical anion), nitride radical anions and cations, low-coordinate vanadium oxo’s, and the first example of a vanadium thionitrosyl complex. A cis-divacant iron(IV) imido having some ligand centered radical has been also discovered, and we are in the process of elucidating its electronic structure (in particular the sign of zero field splitting and the origin of its magnitude), bonding and reactivity. We have also revisited some paramagnetic and classic metallocene compounds with S >1/2 ground states in order to understand their reactivity patterns and electronic structure. Lastly

  10. The development of a cholesterol biosensor using a liquid crystal/aqueous interface in a SDS-included β-cyclodextrin aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Munir, Sundas; Park, Soo-Young

    2015-09-17

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) including β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (β-CDSDS) was used to detect cholesterol at the 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB)/aqueous interface in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cells. The β-CD acts as a host for SDS (guest). The guest SDS enclosed within the β-CD cavity was replaced with cholesterol by injecting cholesterol solution into the TEM cell at concentrations greater than 3 μM. The replacement of SDS with cholesterol was confirmed by pH measurement and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The SDS excluded from the β-CD altered the planar orientation of the 5CB confined within the TEM grid cell to a homeotropic orientation. This planar-to-homeotropic transition was observed using a polarized optical microscope under crossed polarizers. This convenient TEM grid cell provides a new method for the selective detection of cholesterol without immobilization of the detecting receptors (enzyme, antibody, or aptamer) or the use of sophisticated instruments.

  11. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  12. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life.

  13. Spindle Activity Orchestrates Plasticity during Development and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Christoph; Ahlbeck, Joachim; Bitzenhofer, Sebastian H.; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.

    2016-01-01

    Spindle oscillations have been described during early brain development and in the adult brain. Besides similarities in temporal patterns and involved brain areas, neonatal spindle bursts (NSBs) and adult sleep spindles (ASSs) show differences in their occurrence, spatial distribution, and underlying mechanisms. While NSBs have been proposed to coordinate the refinement of the maturating neuronal network, ASSs are associated with the implementation of acquired information within existing networks. Along with these functional differences, separate synaptic plasticity mechanisms seem to be recruited. Here, we review the generation of spindle oscillations in the developing and adult brain and discuss possible implications of their differences for synaptic plasticity. The first part of the review is dedicated to the generation and function of ASSs with a particular focus on their role in healthy and impaired neuronal networks. The second part overviews the present knowledge of spindle activity during development and the ability of NSBs to organize immature circuits. Studies linking abnormal maturation of brain wiring with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders highlight the importance to better elucidate neonatal plasticity rules in future research. PMID:27293903

  14. Emerging importance of mismatch repair components including UvrD helicase and their cross-talk with the development of drug resistance in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Moaz; Tuteja, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Human malaria is an important parasitic infection responsible for a significant number of deaths worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The recent scenario has worsened mainly because of the emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites having the potential to spread across the world. Drug-resistant parasites possess a defective mismatch repair (MMR); therefore, it is essential to explore its mechanism in detail to determine the underlying cause. Recently, artemisinin-resistant parasites have been reported to exhibit nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in MMR pathways such as MutL homolog (MLH) and UvrD. Plasmodium falciparum MLH is an endonuclease required to restore the defective MMR in drug-resistant W2 strain of P. falciparum. Although the role of helicases in eukaryotic MMR has been questioned, the identification and characterization of the UvrD helicase and their cross-talk with MLH in P. falciparum suggests the possible involvement of UvrD in MMR. A comparative genome-wide analysis revealed the presence of the UvrD helicase in Plasmodium species, while it is absent in human host. Therefore, PfUvrD may emerge as a suitable drug target to control malaria. This review study is focused on recent developments in MMR biochemistry, emerging importance of the UvrD helicase, possibility of its involvement in MMR and the emerging cross-talk between MMR components and drug resistance in malaria parasite.

  15. An optical coherent transient true-time delay device: Concept development and experimental demonstrations including delay programming with frequency-chirped pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Kristian Doyle

    1998-09-01

    A coherent transient true-time delay regenerator is presented in terms of conceptual development, simulations and experimental demonstrations in Tm3+:YAG. Theory predicts the arrival time of the emitted signals for a three-pulse sequence of square pulses. A shifting of the emitted signal's arrival time as a function of the individual pulse's area and duration is experimentally demonstrated. A novel delay-programming scheme is presented using linear frequency-chirped pulses. This technique enables changing the programmed delay only by frequency-shifting one (or both) of these pulses without changing its timing, bandwidth or duration. A delay range of 500 ns with sub-100 ps resolution is demonstrated for a signal bandwidth of 40 MHz. A continuous data stream of 100 bits, of a duration longer than the dephasing time T2 of Tm3+:YAG, is also delayed by a grating stored with linear frequency-chirped pulses. Frequency division multiplexing of delays is experimentally demonstrated for two delays whose gratings are in adjacent frequency channels, and stored with linear frequency-chirped pulses. The application of a coherent transient true-time delay device in array antennas is considered, and future research directions for this implementation are given.

  16. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Schantz, Michele M.; Benner, Bruce A.; Heckert, N. Alan; Sander, Lane C.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Vasquez, Y.; Villegas, M.; Wise, Stephen A.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G.; Sjödin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers’ Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers’ Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants. PMID:25651899

  17. Development and validation of a stability-indicating assay including the isolation and characterization of degradation products of metaxalone by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Rao, R Nageswara; Farah, Hassan; Sahu, Prafulla Kumar; Janarthan, Muthumani; Naidu, Ch Gangu

    2013-12-01

    A stability-indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the assay of metaxalone through forced degradation under acidic, alkaline, photo, oxidative and peroxide stress conditions. Separation of degradation products was accomplished on a reverse-phase Phenomenex C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column thermostated at 25 °C using 10 mM aqueous ammonium acetate: methanol (35:65 v/v) as mobile phase in an isocratic mode of elution. The eluents were detected at 275 nm by photo diode array detector and mass detectors connected in series. Two unknown base hydrolysis products of metaxalone were identified and characterized as (a) methyl 3-(3,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylcarbamate and (b) 1-(3,5-dimethylphenoxy)-3-aminopropan-2-ol by MS, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and metaxalone was selectively determined in presence of its degradation impurities, demonstrating its stability-indicating nature.

  18. 1981 national survey of compensation paid scientists and engineers engaged in research and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The results of a compensation survey conducted by the Columbus Laboratories of Battelle are presented. The survey was entitled A National Survey of Compensation Paid to Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development Activities. Information is included on the: sampling procedures; basic data for survey analysis; beginning salaries for recent graduates with bachelor, master, or doctorate degrees; salary trends; geographic analysis; interpretation of results; and salary tables. (LCL)

  19. Clinically relevant HIF-1α-dependent metabolic reprogramming in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas includes coordinated activation of CAIX and the miR-210/ISCU signaling axis, but not MCT1 and MCT4 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Inés; Bernardo-Castiñeira, Cristóbal; Secades, Pablo; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Sandra; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Chiara, María-Dolores

    2017-01-13

    Metabolic reprogramming is a very heterogeneous phenomenon in cancer. It mostly consists on increased glycolysis, lactic acid formation and extracellular acidification. These events have been associated to increased activity of the hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1α. This study aimed at defining the metabolic program activated by HIF-1α in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and assessing its clinical impact. Global gene/miRNA expression was analyzed in SCC-derived cells exposed to hypoxia. Expression of HIF-1α, the carbonic anhydrase CAIX, and the lactate/H+ transporters MCT1 and MCT4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 246 SCCs. Cell-based analysis revealed that HIF-1α-driven metabolic program includes over-expression of glycolytic enzymes and the microRNA miR-210 coupled to down-regulation of its target, the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein, ISCU. pH-regulator program entailed over-expression of CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4. Accordingly, significant overlapping exists between over-expression of HIF-1α and CAIX, but not HIF-1α and MCT1 or MCT4, in tumor cells. Increased miR-210 and concomitant decreased ISCU RNA levels were found in ~40% of tumors and this was significantly associated with HIF-1α and CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4, over-expression. HIF-1α and/or CAIX over-expression was associated with high recurrence rate and low overall survival of surgically treated patients. By contrast, clinically significant correlations were not found in tumors with MCT1 or MCT4 over-expression. This is the first study that provides in vivo evidences of coordinated activation of HIF-1α, CAIX, miR-210 and ISCU in carcinoma and association with poor prognosis, a finding with important implications for the development of metabolic-targeting therapies against hypoxia.

  20. NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT): Professional Development for Montana K-12 Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Kathryn; McKenzie, D.; Des Jardins, A.; Key, J.; Kanode, C.; Willoughby, S.

    2012-05-01

    Piloted during the 2011-2012 academic year, the NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT) teacher workshop program has introduced five solar astronomy and space weather activities to over forty Montana K-12 teachers. Because many Montana schools are geographically isolated (40% of Montana students live more than 50 miles from a city) and/or serve traditionally underrepresented groups (primarily Native Americans), professional development for teachers can be costly and time consuming. However, with funding shared by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly EPO team and the Montana Space Grant Consortium, graduate student specialists are able to host the two-hour NEAT workshops on-site at the schools free of charge, and participating teachers earn two continuing education credits. Leveraging the existing catalogue of research-based NASA activities, the featured NEAT activities were chosen for their ease-of-use and applicability to Montana science standards. These include three advanced activities for older students, such as a paper plate activity for the June 5th, 2012 Transit of Venus, Kinesthetic Astronomy, and the Herschel Infrared experiment, along with two simpler activities for the younger students, such as Solar Cookies and the Electromagnetic War card game. Feedback surveys show that NEAT workshop participants were interested and engaged in the activities and planned on using the activities in their classrooms. With such positive responses, the NEAT program has been a huge success and can serve as a model for other institutions looking to increase their space public outreach and education.

  1. Developing and evaluating effective bioscience learning activities for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Salvage-Jones, Judith; Hamill, Jessie; Todorovic, Michael; Barton, Matthew J; Johnston, Amy N B

    2016-07-01

    Effective engagement of nursing students in the study of biosciences remains a challenge for many tertiary institutes. In this study we attempted to implement and then evaluate a simple hands-on intervention, consisting of a series of hands-on games and puzzles, to increase nursing student engagement with core concepts and anatomical learning involved in clinical anatomy and physiology. The study used a quazi-experimental longitudinal before and after design, to explore the effect of a learning intervention on student performance. Set across three different campuses of the same University, it included 1320 first year undergraduate nursing students from 2013 to 2014 who were studying Anatomy and Physiology. Students were exposed to the interventions or not, and concomitant academic performance, weekly quiz scores, performance in fortnightly worksheets and, across the semester, exam performance were compared. The results show that while the intervention appeared to increase academic performance in students on one campus (2013) compared to the other two, this difference was not sustained into 2014 when a bigger cohort was examined. Despite significant subjective student satisfaction and enthusiasm about these learning and teaching interventions, the data does not support the capacity of these activities to enhance student academic performance. Tertiary entrance scores, being a non-native English speakers and socio-economic status all had a bigger impact on student performance than engagement with fun anatomy and physiology activities.

  2. Best Practices in Career Development. Activities for First Grade. A Supplement to the Blueprint for Career Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains 16 lesson plans that can be used for career awareness activities in first grade. The lessons were developed by teachers and submitted as part of the Florida Blueprint for Career Preparation. The lesson plans include a topic, materials and information needed, and directions for activities. Lesson plans are designated by…

  3. The Ethico-Moral Nature of Identity: Prolegomena to the Development of Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), which had been termed the best-held secret of education about 15 years ago, has had an exponential growth over the past three decades. Because it thematizes largely the structural aspects of activity systems, the theory only recently has been developed to include emotional, motivational, and…

  4. Best Practices in Career Development. Activities for Third Grade. A Supplement to the Blueprint for Career Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains 19 lesson plans that can be used for career awareness activities in third grade. The lessons were developed by teachers and submitted as part of the Florida Blueprint for Career Preparation. The lesson plans include a topic, materials and information needed, and directions for activities. Lesson plans are designated by…

  5. Active Antenna Development for the Long Wavelength Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, K. P.; Hicks, B. C.; Crane, P. C.; Ray, P. S.; Gross, C.; Polisensky, E. J.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-12-01

    We are developing and testing active baluns and electrically short dipoles for possible use as the primary wideband receiving elements in the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) for HF-VHF radio astronomy. Several dipoles of various designs and dimensions have been built and tested. Their useful range occurs when the dipole arms are approximately 1/8 to one wavelength long and the feedpoint is less than 1/2 wavelength above ground. An eight-element NRL LWA Test Array (NLTA) interferometer has been built and fringes have been observed from the brightest celestial sources in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 50 MHz. The antenna temperatures vary from about 10% to 100% of the average brightness temperature of the galactic background. With these parameters it is easy to make the amplifier noise levels low enough that final system temperature is dominated by the galactic background.

  6. Meat-model system development for antibacterial activity determination.

    PubMed

    Vignolo, Graciela; Castellano, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial substances produced by many different bacterial species. Although the bacteriocins form a heterogenous group with respect to production of bacteria, antibacterial spectrum, mode of action, and chemical properties, they are by definition proteinaceous compounds that are bactericidal toward organisms taxonomically close to the producer. The ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to compete and finally dominate in mixed fermentations has been attributed to the production of several antimicrobial metabolites such as organic acids, carbon dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, and bacteriocins. The antimicrobial activities of the LAB have long been known, but their bacteriocins have received limited attention until recently. Numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria associated with food systems are capable of producing bacteriocins, or antibacterial proteins with activity against foodborne pathogens and contaminants. Recently, considerable enphasis has been placed on the physicochemical, biochemical, and genetic characterization of these proteins. Many methods for the detection of bacteriocin production as well as the determination of the potency of bacteriocin preparations have been described. All the usual techniques are based on the fact that bacteriocins can diffuse in solid or semisolid culture media, which are subsequently inoculated with a suitable indicator strain. This method has long been shown to have a good perfomance in the characterization of new bacteriocins. Although results obtained from broth systems show that bacteriocins inhibit target organisms, applied studies must be performed to confirm their effectiveness in food. As many lactic acid bacteria associated with meat products were described to be important natural bacteriocin producers, it has been necessary to assay their inhibitory efficacy in meat or meat products. Because of the complexity of these kinds of foods a simplified meat-model system was developed to

  7. Development of a novel ArcCHECK{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} insert for routine quality assurance of VMAT delivery including dose calculation with inhomogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Fakir, H.; Gaede, S.; Mulligan, M.; Chen, J. Z.

    2012-07-15

    insert depending on the inhomogeneity configuration and measurement location. SmartArc{sup Registered-Sign} and RapidArc{sup Registered-Sign} plans had similar plan quality but RapidArc{sup Registered-Sign} plans had significantly higher monitor units (up to 70%). Conclusions: A versatile, nonhomogeneous insert was developed for ArcCHECK{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} for an easy and quick evaluation of dose calculations with nonhomogeneous media and for comparison of different treatment planning systems. The device was tested for SmartArc{sup Registered-Sign} and RapidArc{sup Registered-Sign} plans for lung SBRT, showing the uncertainties of dose calculations with inhomogeneities. The new insert combines the convenience of the ArcCHECK{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} and the possibility of assessing dose distributions in inhomogeneous media.

  8. Shp2 SUMOylation promotes ERK activation and hepatocellular carcinoma development

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Rong; Zhao, Xian; Qu, YingYing; Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Changhong; Zhang, Hailong; Yuan, Haihua; Jin, Hui; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yanli; Chen, Qin; Huang, Jian; Yu, Jianxiu

    2015-01-01

    Shp2, an ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase, is essential for regulation of Ras/ERK signaling pathway and tumorigenesis. Here we report that Shp2 is modified by SUMO1 at lysine residue 590 (K590) in its C-terminus, which is reduced by SUMO1-specific protease SENP1. Analysis of wild-type Shp2 and SUMOylation-defective Shp2K590R mutant reveals that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes EGF-stimulated ERK signaling pathway and increases anchorage-independent cell growth and xenografted tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Furthermore, we find that mutant Shp2K590R reduces its binding with the scaffolding protein Gab1, and consistent with this, knockdown of SENP1 increased the interaction between Shp2 and Gab1. More surprisingly, we show that human Shp2 (hShp2) and mouse Shp2 (mShp2) have differential effects on ERK activation as a result of different SUMOylation level, which is due to the event of K590 at hShp2 substituted by R594 at mShp2. In summary, our data demonstrate that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes ERK activation via facilitating the formation of Shp2-Gab1 complex and thereby accelerates HCC cell and tumor growth, which presents a novel regulatory mechanism underlying Shp2 in regulation of HCC development. PMID:25823821

  9. Development of High Performance CFRP/Metal Active Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, Hiroshi; Haga, Osamu; Imori, Masataka

    This paper describes development of high performance CFRP/metal active laminates mainly by investigating the kind and thickness of the metal. Various types of the laminates were made by hot-pressing of an aluminum, aluminum alloys, a stainless steel and a titanium for the metal layer as a high CTE material, a unidirectional CFRP prepreg as a low CTE/electric resistance heating material, a unidirectional KFRP prepreg as a low CTE/insulating material. The aluminum and its alloy type laminates have almost the same and the highest room temperature curvatures and they linearly change with increasing temperature up to their fabrication temperature. The curvature of the stainless steel type jumps from one to another around its fabrication temperature, whereas the titanium type causes a double curvature and its change becomes complicated. The output force of the stainless steel type attains the highest of the three under the same thickness. The aluminum type successfully increased its output force by increasing its thickness and using its alloys. The electric resistance of the CFRP layer can be used to monitor the temperature, that is, the curvature of the active laminate because the curvature is a function of temperature.

  10. Role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon prepared by potassium carbonate activation of lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto; Nishio, Megumi; Mochizuki, Yuuki

    2016-05-01

    The present work focuses on the role of nitrogen in the development of pores in activated carbon produced from lignin by K2CO3 activation, employing a fixed bed reactor under a high-purity He stream at temperatures of 500-900 °C. The specific surface area and pore volume obtained by activation of lignin alone are 230 m2/g and 0.13 cm3/g at 800 °C, and 540 m2/g and 0.31 cm3/g at 900 °C, respectively. Activation of a mixture of lignin and urea provides a significant increase in the surface area and volume, respectively reaching 3300-3400 m2/g and 2.0-2.3 cm3/g after holding at 800-900 °C for 1 h. Heating a lignin/urea/K2CO3 mixture leads to a significant decrease in the yield of released N-containing gases compared to the results for urea alone and a lignin/urea mixture, and most of the nitrogen in the urea is retained in the solid phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses clearly show that part of the remaining nitrogen is present in heterocyclic structures (for example, pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen), and the rest is contained as KOCN at ≤600 °C and as KCN at ≥700 °C, such that the latter two compounds can be almost completely removed by water washing. The fate of nitrogen during heating of lignin/urea/K2CO3 and role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon are discussed on the basis of the results mentioned above.

  11. Proclamation No. 51 approving and adopting the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan for 1987 to 1992, including the supportive regional development plans and investment programs, 12 December 1986.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains certain provisions of the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan for 1987-92. Chapter 7 covers health, nutrition, and family planning (FP) and describes objectives in these areas as 1) improving the health and nutritional status of the population, 2) working toward achieving health for all by the year 2000 through primary health care, and 3) promoting FP to improve family well-being. Specific strategies include 1) improving provision and use of accessible, appropriate, and adequate services, especially to the poor and to high-risk groups; 2) integrating efforts within the planning sectors and ensuring multisectoral consistency and support; 3) promoting individual and collective responsibility for health, nutrition, and FP; 4) placing greater reliance on indigenous resources and technology; 5) strengthening and sustaining effective collaboration with the private sector; 6) placing greater emphasis on measures which promote good health and nutrition: 7) strengthening promotion of FP as a component of comprehensive maternal and child health; 8) enhancing the status and role of women as program benefactors and implementors; 9) increasing government allocations to the health, nutrition, and FP sector; 10) strengthening information and research-based decision-making and implementation; 11) developing manpower; and 12) improving regulations.

  12. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Newman,L.

    2007-12-31

    the Strategic Initiatives listed at the LDRD web site. These included support for NSLS-II, RHIC evolving to a quantum chromo dynamics (QCD) lab, nanoscience, translational and biomedical neuroimaging, energy and, computational sciences. As one of the premier scientific laboratories of the DOE, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and long-term vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community and foster new science and technology ideas, which becomes a major factor in achieving and maintaining staff excellence and a means to address national needs within the overall mission of the DOE and BNL.

  13. ISODEX: An entry point for developing countries into space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Mark Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Several threads current in the community of international space actors have led to calls at UN COPUOS Scientific & Technical Sub-Committee meetings for enhancing the scientific information available on man-made space objects, whilst fostering international space object data sharing. Growing awareness of the problems of space debris proliferation and space traffic management, especially amongst developing countries and non-traditional space faring nations, have fueled their desires to become involved in the areas of space object tracking, utilizing relatively modest astronomical instrumentation. Additionally, several commercial satellite operators, members of the Satellite Data Association, have called for augmentation of the information available from existing catalogs. This confluence of factors has led to an international discussion, at the UN and elsewhere, of the possibility of creating a clearing-house for parties willing to share data on space objects, with a working title of the “International Space Object Data Exchange” (ISODEX). We discuss the ideas behind this concept, how it might be implemented, and it might enhance the public’s knowledge of space activities, as well as providing an entry point into space for developing countries.

  14. Self-service for software development projects and HPC activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husejko, M.; Høimyr, N.; Gonzalez, A.; Koloventzos, G.; Asbury, D.; Trzcinska, A.; Agtzidis, I.; Botrel, G.; Otto, J.

    2014-05-01

    This contribution describes how CERN has implemented several essential tools for agile software development processes, ranging from version control (Git) to issue tracking (Jira) and documentation (Wikis). Running such services in a large organisation like CERN requires many administrative actions both by users and service providers, such as creating software projects, managing access rights, users and groups, and performing tool-specific customisation. Dealing with these requests manually would be a time-consuming task. Another area of our CERN computing services that has required dedicated manual support has been clusters for specific user communities with special needs. Our aim is to move all our services to a layered approach, with server infrastructure running on the internal cloud computing infrastructure at CERN. This contribution illustrates how we plan to optimise the management of our of services by means of an end-user facing platform acting as a portal into all the related services for software projects, inspired by popular portals for open-source developments such as Sourceforge, GitHub and others. Furthermore, the contribution will discuss recent activities with tests and evaluations of High Performance Computing (HPC) applications on different hardware and software stacks, and plans to offer a dynamically scalable HPC service at CERN, based on affordable hardware.

  15. Development of an in-vivo active reversible butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Košak, Urban; Brus, Boris; Knez, Damijan; Šink, Roman; Žakelj, Simon; Trontelj, Jurij; Pišlar, Anja; Šlenc, Jasna; Gobec, Martina; Živin, Marko; Tratnjek, Larisa; Perše, Martina; Sałat, Kinga; Podkowa, Adrian; Filipek, Barbara; Nachon, Florian; Brazzolotto, Xavier; Więckowska, Anna; Malawska, Barbara; Stojan, Jure; Raščan, Irena Mlinarič; Kos, Janko; Coquelle, Nicolas; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Gobec, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by severe basal forebrain cholinergic deficit, which results in progressive and chronic deterioration of memory and cognitive functions. Similar to acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to the termination of cholinergic neurotransmission. Its enzymatic activity increases with the disease progression, thus classifying BChE as a viable therapeutic target in advanced AD. Potent, selective and reversible human BChE inhibitors were developed. The solved crystal structure of human BChE in complex with the most potent inhibitor reveals its binding mode and provides the molecular basis of its low nanomolar potency. Additionally, this compound is noncytotoxic and has neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, this inhibitor moderately crosses the blood-brain barrier and improves memory, cognitive functions and learning abilities of mice in a model of the cholinergic deficit that characterizes AD, without producing acute cholinergic adverse effects. Our study provides an advanced lead compound for developing drugs for alleviating symptoms caused by cholinergic hypofunction in advanced AD. PMID:28000737

  16. MEMS Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2001-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) is currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. It uses a thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode, or it can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly are accomplished by wet etching and wafer bonding techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces and limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration.

  17. Endogenous activation of kainate receptors regulates glutamate release and network activity in the developing hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Sari E; Segerstråle, Mikael; Vesikansa, Aino; Maingret, Francois; Mulle, Christophe; Collingridge, Graham L; Isaac, John T R; Taira, Tomi

    2005-05-04

    Kainate receptors (KARs) are highly expressed throughout the neonatal brain, but their function during development is unclear. Here, we show that the maturation of the hippocampus is associated with a switch in the functional role of presynaptic KARs. In a developmental period restricted to the first postnatal week, endogenous L-glutamate tonically activates KARs at CA3 glutamatergic synapses to regulate release in an action potential-independent manner. At synapses onto pyramidal cells, KARs inhibit glutamate release via a G-protein and PKC-dependent mechanism. In contrast, at glutamatergic terminals onto CA3 interneurons, presynaptic KARs can facilitate release in a G-protein-independent mechanism. In both cell types, however, KAR activation strongly upregulates inhibitory transmission. We show that, through the interplay of these novel diverse mechanisms, KARs strongly regulate the characteristic synchronous network activity observed in the neonatal hippocampus. By virtue of this, KARs are likely to play a central role in the development of hippocampal synaptic circuits.

  18. Development of MHD Wave Diagnostic and Models of Coronal Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Davila, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the generation, propagation, and damping of MHD waves in active regions, with the goal to develop a diagnostic tool of active region structure, dynamics, and stability. We used 3D MHD model to study the generation and the propagation of EIT waves in a simple model of an active regions, and the interaction of EIT waves with the active region magnetic field. We model the oscillation of active region loops numerically using the 3D MHD model active regions. Such oscillations have been recently observed by TRACE. We use photospheric magnetograms as the boundary conditions for the magnetic field model, and construct an initial field using force-free extrapolation. Finite plasma temperature, density, and gravity are included in the model. We construct loop density structures in the model, guided by TRACE and EIT observations in the EUV. We demonstrate that by comparing the results of the MHD models of waves in an active region to observations we will be able to construct a diagnostic tool for the physical properties of the active regions, such as magnetic field and density structure.

  19. Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, E.; Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Zhou, Z.; Ackland, B.; Dickinson, A.; Eid, E.; Inglis, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research and development of CMOS active pixel image sensors for low cost commercial applications. A number of sensor designs have been fabricated and tested in both p-well and n-well technologies. Major elements in the development of the sensor include on-chip analog signal processing circuits for the reduction of fixed pattern noise, on-chip timing and control circuits and on-chip analog-to-digital conversion (ADC). Recent results and continuing efforts in these areas will be presented.

  20. Alaska dominates exploration and development activity on U. S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1991-04-08

    Alaska's accelerating exploration and development activity is setting the pace for the U.S. West Coast. Continued wildcatting in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea--albeit hamstrung by permitting problems--significant new development projects on the North Slope, and the most ambitious lease sale schedule in years highlight Alaskan action in 1991. California highlights include expansion of massive steamflood projects in San Joaquin Valley giant heavy oil fields and start-up of the long-delayed Point Arguello project. There is little of note in the Pacific Northwest outside extension of the Mist gas complex in Oregon.

  1. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  2. Why are early maturing girls less active? Links between pubertal development, psychological well-being, and physical activity among girls at ages 11 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Werder, Jessica L; Trost, Stewart G; Baker, Birgitta L; Birch, Leann L

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has shown that early maturing girls at age 11 have lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 in comparison to later maturing girls. Possible reasons for this association have not been assessed. This study examines girls’ psychological response to puberty and their enjoyment of physical activity as intermediary factors linking pubertal maturation and physical activity. Participants included 178 girls who were assessed at age 11, of whom 168 were reassessed at age 13. All participants were non-Hispanic white and resided in the U.S. Three measures of pubertal development were obtained at age 11 including Tanner breast stage, estradiol levels, and mothers’ reports of girls’ development on the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS). Measures of psychological well-being at ages 11 and 13 included depression, global self worth, perceived athletic competence, maturation fears, and body esteem. At age 13, girls’ enjoyment of physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and their daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using objective monitoring. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at age 11 and MVPA at age 13. In addition to a direct effect of pubertal development on MVPA, indirect effects were found for depression, global self worth and maturity fears controlling for covariates. In each instance, more advanced pubertal development at age 11 was associated with lower psychological well-being at age 13, which predicted lower enjoyment of physical activity at age 13 and in turn lower MVPA. Results from this study suggest that programs designed to increase physical activity among adolescent girls should address the self-consciousness and discontent that girls’ experience with their bodies during puberty, particularly if they mature earlier than their peers, and identify activities or settings that make differences in

  3. Modeling spontaneous activity in the developing spinal cord using activity-dependent variations of intracellular chloride.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Cristina; Tabak, Joel; Chub, Nikolai; O'Donovan, Michael J; Rinzel, John

    2005-04-06

    We investigated how spontaneous activity is generated in developing, hyperexcitable networks. We focused our study on the embryonic chick spinal cord, a preparation that exhibits rhythmic discharge on multiple timescales: slow episodes (lasting minutes) and faster intraepisode cycling (approximately 1 Hz frequency). For this purpose, we developed a mean field model of a recurrent network with slow chloride dynamics and a fast depression variable. We showed that the model, in addition to providing a biophysical mechanism for the slow dynamics, was able to account for the experimentally observed activity. The model made predictions on how interval and duration of episodes are affected when changing chloride-mediated synaptic transmission or chloride flux across cell membrane. These predictions guided experiments, and the model results were compared with experimental data obtained with electrophysiological recordings. We found agreement when transmission was affected through changes in synaptic conductance and good qualitative agreement when chloride flux was varied through changes in external chloride concentration or in the rate of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter. Furthermore, the model made predictions about the time course of intracellular chloride concentration and chloride reversal potential and how these are affected by changes in synaptic conductance. Based on the comparison between modeling and experimental results, we propose that chloride dynamics could be an important mechanism in rhythm generation in the developing chick spinal cord.

  4. Rattling Nucleons: New Developments in Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Runkle; David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  5. Development of an Active Plasma Control System for Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongard, M. W.

    2005-10-01

    The Phase II Pegasus ST experiment includes fully programmable power supplies for all magnet coils. These will be integrated with a digital feedback plasma control system (PCS), based on the PCS in use on DIII-D, to provide active feedback control of the plasma evolution. The initial goal is to control Ip(t), R(t), and Z(t). The feedback cycle consists of: 1) sampling magnetic diagnostics, 2) applying a response matrix derived from equilibrium reconstructions, 3) accounting for induced vessel currents and power supply frequency responses, and 4) adjusting the current demand, all on a timescale that is fast compared to the shot duration of ˜25 ms. Data is sampled via a 500 kHz, 96-channel CPCI digitizer from DTACQ Solutions, Ltd. The power supply control signals are generated by 16 analog waveform generators, with the option to utilize 32 digital I/O lines in the future. The PCS digitizer is controlled via a system of Linux-based computers that perform requisite computation-intensive tasks and interface to the existing LabVIEW control codes via a TCP/IP network link.

  6. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  7. Development and Demonstration of Active Noise Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R.; Hu, Z.; Sommerfeldt, S.; Walker, B.; Hersh, A.; Luo, H.; Spencer, M.; Hallman, D.; Mitchell, C.; Sutliff, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report details design methods for and feasibility of an Active Noise Control (ANC) system using flush-wall-mounted sensors and actuators to reduce turbofan engine rotor-stator interaction noise. ANC concepts capable of suppressing discrete-tone spinning modes containing several cut-on radial mode were identified, developed analytically, and evaluated. Separate ANC systems that suppressed at least three radial modes in a cylindrical inlet duct and three radial modes in an exhaust annulus were developed. These designs resulted in inlet duct and exhaust duct tests that were performed at NASA on the 4-ft ANC Fan in the NASA Glenn AAPL facility. Effective suppression of 2-BPF spinning mode m = 2 tone noise was achieved over a range of fan speeds 1800 to 2450 rpm, where up to 4 radials were present. In the inlet duct, up to 12 dB reduction was obtained for 3 radial modes, and up to 4 dB was obtained with 4 radial modes. In the exhaust duct, up to 15 dB PWL reduction was obtained with either two or three radial modes present. Thus, the ability to suppress multiple radial modes for tones in both the inlet and exhaust ducts has been successfully demonstrated. Implications of ANC system design requirements on installation and system integration issues for ANC systems capable of suppressing higher order radial mode content when applied to a 767 using twin CF6 engines were evaluated analytically. The analytical results indicated an ANC system must be part of an integrated design to be effective.

  8. Current radar responsive tag development activities at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, Kenneth W.; Ormesher, Richard C.

    2003-09-01

    Over the past ten years, Sandia has developed RF radar responsive tag systems and supporting technologies for various government agencies and industry partners. RF tags can function as RF transmitters or radar transponders that enable tagging, tracking, and location determination functions. Expertise in tag architecture, microwave and radar design, signal analysis and processing techniques, digital design, modeling and simulation, and testing have been directly applicable to these tag programs. In general, the radar responsive tag designs have emphasized low power, small package size, and the ability to be detected by the radar at long ranges. Recently, there has been an interest in using radar responsive tags for Blue Force tracking and Combat ID (CID). The main reason for this interest is to allow airborne surveillance radars to easily distinguish U.S. assets from those of opposing forces. A Blue Force tracking capability would add materially to situational awareness. Combat ID is also an issue, as evidenced by the fact that approximately one-quarter of all U.S. casualties in the Gulf War took the form of ground troops killed by friendly fire. Because the evolution of warfare in the intervening decade has made asymmetric warfare the norm rather than the exception, swarming engagements in which U.S. forces will be freely intermixed with opposing forces is a situation that must be anticipated. Increasing utilization of precision munitions can be expected to drive fires progressively closer to engaged allied troops at times when visual de-confliction is not an option. In view of these trends, it becomes increasingly important that U.S. ground forces have a widely proliferated all-weather radar responsive tag that communicates to all-weather surveillance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent, current, and future radar responsive research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories that support both the Blue Force Tracking

  9. An entrustable professional activity (EPA) for handoffs as a model for EPA assessment development.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Michael; Nixon, James; Gladding, Sophia

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is moving toward assessment of educational outcomes rather than educational processes. The American Board of Internal Medicine and American Board of Pediatrics milestones and the concept of entrustable professional activities (EPA)--skills essential to the practice of medicine that educators progressively entrust learners to perform--provide new approaches to assessing outcomes. Although some defined EPAs exist for internal medicine and pediatrics, the continued development and implementation of EPAs remains challenging. As residency programs are expected to begin reporting milestone-based performance, however, they will need examples of how to overcome these challenges. The authors describe a model for the development and implementation of an EPA using the resident handoff as an example. The model includes nine steps: selecting the EPA, determining where skills are practiced and assessed, addressing barriers to assessment, determining components of the EPA, determining needed assessment tools, developing new assessments if needed, determining criteria for advancement through entrustment levels, mapping milestones to the EPA, and faculty development. Following implementation, 78% of interns at the University of Minnesota Medical School were observed giving handoffs and provided feedback. The authors suggest that this model of EPA development--which includes engaging stakeholders, an iterative process to describing the behavioral characteristics of each domain at each level of entrustment, and the development of specific assessment tools that support both formative feedback and summative decisions about entrustment--can serve as a model for EPA development for other clinical skills and specialty areas.

  10. Promotion of sink activity of developing rose shoots by light.

    PubMed

    Mor, Y; Halevy, A H

    1980-11-01

    Holding young rose shoots (Rosa hybrida cv. Marimba) in darkness while the rest of the plant was in light reduced the amount of (14)C assimilates recovered from the darkened shoot by half. Relative specific activity of the shoot tip grown in light was 13.5 times greater than that of the darkened one. The flower bud at the shoot tip degenerated in darkness and died. Shoots 2 to 3 centimeters long, after flower initiation, were most sensitive to the dark treatment. The degeneration is a gradual and reversible process in the first 8 days of darkness, followed by irreversible damage and atrophy. Darkening enhanced the ability of the young leaves to compete for the available assimilates over that of the darkened shoot tip. The enhancement of the mobilizing ability of the shoot tip by light is independent of photosynthesis since spraying with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or holding shoots in a CO(2)-free atmosphere did not diminish the promoting effect of light on flower bud development or assimilate import. The possibility that light exerts its effect by photoproduction of ATP was also excluded inasmuch as no differences were found in ATP levels of shoot tips held in darkness and those held in light.

  11. The proteasome is responsible for caspase-3-like activity during xylem development.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia-Jia; Lin, Wei; Oda, Yoshihisa; Cui, Ke-Ming; Fukuda, Hiroo; He, Xin-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    Xylem development is a process of xylem cell terminal differentiation that includes initial cell division, cell expansion, secondary cell wall formation and programmed cell death (PCD). PCD in plants and apoptosis in animals share many common characteristics. Caspase-3, which displays Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) specificity, is a crucial executioner during animal cells apoptosis. Although a gene orthologous to caspase-3 is absent in plants, caspase-3-like activity is involved in many cases of PCD and developmental processes. However, there is no direct evidence that caspase-3-like activity exists in xylem cell death. In this study, we showed that caspase-3-like activity is present and is associated with secondary xylem development in Populus tomentosa. The protease responsible for the caspase-3-like activity was purified from poplar secondary xylem using hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), Q anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. After identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), it was revealed that the 20S proteasome (20SP) was responsible for the caspase-3-like activity in secondary xylem development. In poplar 20SP, there are seven α subunits encoded by 12 genes and seven β subunits encoded by 12 genes. Pharmacological assays showed that Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, suppressed xylem differentiation in the veins of Arabidopsis cotyledons. Furthermore, clasto-lactacystin β-lactone, a proteasome inhibitor, inhibited PCD of tracheary element in a VND6-induced Arabidopsis xylogenic culture. In conclusion, the 20S proteasome is responsible for caspase-3-like activity and is involved in xylem development.

  12. Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinases in neutrophil activation and the development of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Yum, H K; Arcaroli, J; Kupfner, J; Shenkar, R; Penninger, J M; Sasaki, T; Yang, K Y; Park, J S; Abraham, E

    2001-12-01

    Activated neutrophils contribute to the development and severity of acute lung injury (ALI). Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3-K) and the downstream serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B have a central role in modulating neutrophil function, including respiratory burst, chemotaxis, and apoptosis. In the present study, we found that exposure of neutrophils to endotoxin resulted in phosphorylation of Akt, activation of NF-kappaB, and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha through PI3-K-dependent pathways. In vivo, endotoxin administration to mice resulted in activation of PI3-K and Akt in neutrophils that accumulated in the lungs. The severity of endotoxemia-induced ALI was significantly diminished in mice lacking the p110gamma catalytic subunit of PI3-K. In PI3-Kgamma(-/-) mice, lung edema, neutrophil recruitment, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, and pulmonary levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were significantly lower after endotoxemia as compared with PI3-Kgamma(+/+) controls. Among neutrophils that did accumulate in the lungs of the PI3-Kgamma(-/-) mice after endotoxin administration, activation of NF-kappaB and expression of proinflammatory cytokines was diminished compared with levels present in lung neutrophils from PI3-Kgamma(+/+) mice. These results show that PI3-K, and particularly PI3-Kgamma, occupies a central position in regulating endotoxin-induced neutrophil activation, including that involved in ALI.

  13. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  14. Living in a Global Environment. Classroom Activities in Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, John, Ed.

    Forty classroom activities selected from New Internationalist Calendars published between 1984-1989 were collected. Each activity is presented in the form of a short story about a real-life person and a graphic spread of data consisting of maps, tables, photographs, diagrams, text, and student exercises. These activities have been written to…

  15. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  16. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-activity waste grout stabilization development program FY-97 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Marshall, D.W.; McCray, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-activity wastes (LAW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LAW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste, (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines, (3) facility decontamination processes, and (4) process equipment waste. Grout formulation studies for sodium-bearing LAW, including decontamination and process equipment waste, continued this fiscal year. A second task was to develop a grout formulation to solidify potential process residual heels in the tank farm vessels when the vessels are closed.

  17. Active sleep and its role in the prevention of apoptosis in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael J; Duntley, S P; Anch, A M; Nonneman, R

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify a possible function of Active Sleep (AS), also known as Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) in humans, as a protective state during early Central Nervous System (CNS) development. Previous research suggest pharmacological agents that inhibit high levels of neuronal activity in the CNS (e.g., benzodiazepines, ethanol, and anesthetics) precipitate massive CNS programmed cell death (PCD), in developing mammals. AS is characterized by high levels of CNS activity at levels comparable to waking. AS occupies up to 75% of the circadian cycle in developing mammals (rodents from postnatal days 1-14 days (p1-p14), and humans from prenatal month seven to postnatal year one). Many studies have implicated AS as having an active role in the normal development of the visual system and have documented myriad behavioral anomalies as a result of AS deprivation. Reduced adult brain mass has also been observed after AS deprivation in developing rats during this period, however, no study to date has documented this process as it occurs (i.e., the cellular mechanisms that result in behavioral anomalies or reduced adult brain mass). The purpose of this study is to begin documentation of this process by utilizing histological techniques that identify the PCD process, if it occurs, after acute and prolonged AS deprivation in rats from ages p7 to p14 (a time of active synaptogenesis). Our methodology includes utilization of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine, to deprive rat pups of AS at ages varying from p7 to p14. Pilot data from our laboratory has shown that an acute exposure to clonidine significantly reduces time spent in AS. The animals that were AS deprived also showed a statistically significant decrease in brain mass and have stained positively for PCD. If our hypotheses are correct, this research will have major implications with regard to determining the function(s) of REM sleep.

  18. Development of the equipment measuring the degree of the mental activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Miao, Tiejun; Takada, Shigeki

    2013-10-01

    In order to measure the mental activity, people measured the subject's oral consultation data, cardiac beats, a pulse wave, brain waves, an electromyogram, action patterns, and so on, together with analyzed data. Regarding the vital signs are the information on a complexity system, we were treating a slight change of vital signs as an error. However, very important information was included in this error. The degree of mental activity which is the information on the complexity system was not able to be solved by the conventional method. In this paper, nonlinear analysis of the pulse wave of a fingertip was conducted, and the fluctuation value was computed. Furthermore, the simulation of a mathematical model and the experiment of anesthesia proved that the value had the information on a central system. The apparatus which can measure the degree of mental activity was developed using this.

  19. Developing policy solutions for a more active nation: Integrating economic and public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Sara N; Sturm, Roland

    2009-10-01

    Both economic and public health/medical perspectives play an important role in the policy process but often approach policy questions in an incompatible way. Harnessing any synergy requires an understanding of the other perspective. We begin by comparing and contrasting the economic and public health perspectives, including introducing relevant economic concepts. We next identify economic considerations for the development of environmental incentives that promote physical activity. We then assess features of the political environment which could impact the success of policy alternatives aimed at increasing physical activity. We conclude with several policy levers that may promote active living. Throughout the manuscript, we use the term economics to refer to classical economics and utility maximization rather than behavioral economics. In addition, we focus mostly on normative economics (which offers prescriptions for what should be done) rather than positive economics (which offers predictions of economic outcomes conditional on various hypothetical scenarios).

  20. Evidence for evolutionary divergence of activity-dependent gene expression in developing neurons

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jing; McQueen, Jamie; Bilican, Bilada; Dando, Owen; Magnani, Dario; Punovuori, Karolina; Selvaraj, Bhuvaneish T; Livesey, Matthew; Haghi, Ghazal; Heron, Samuel; Burr, Karen; Patani, Rickie; Rajan, Rinku; Sheppard, Olivia; Kind, Peter C; Simpson, T Ian; Tybulewicz, Victor LJ; Wyllie, David JA; Fisher, Elizabeth MC; Lowell, Sally; Chandran, Siddharthan; Hardingham, Giles E

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary differences in gene regulation between humans and lower mammalian experimental systems are incompletely understood, a potential translational obstacle that is challenging to surmount in neurons, where primary tissue availability is poor. Rodent-based studies show that activity-dependent transcriptional programs mediate myriad functions in neuronal development, but the extent of their conservation in human neurons is unknown. We compared activity-dependent transcriptional responses in developing human stem cell-derived cortical neurons with those induced in developing primary- or stem cell-derived mouse cortical neurons. While activity-dependent gene-responsiveness showed little dependence on developmental stage or origin (primary tissue vs. stem cell), notable species-dependent differences were observed. Moreover, differential species-specific gene ortholog regulation was recapitulated in aneuploid mouse neurons carrying human chromosome-21, implicating promoter/enhancer sequence divergence as a factor, including human-specific activity-responsive AP-1 sites. These findings support the use of human neuronal systems for probing transcriptional responses to physiological stimuli or indeed pharmaceutical agents. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20337.001 PMID:27692071