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Sample records for activities include exercises

  1. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  2. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fitness. Your fitness routine should include aerobic and strength-training activities, and may also include stretching activities. Aerobic ... Examples include walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, and tennis. Strength-training activities These activities increase the strength and endurance ...

  3. Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  4. From exercise to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Speck, Barbara J

    2002-10-01

    Recommendations for regular exercise have been evident in the nursing literature since the early 1900s. Health professionals and popular media have promoted vigorous exercise for positive health benefits since the 1960s. The concept of exercise as it appeared in the nursing literature during the early part of the 20th century is closer to the concept of physical activity of today--regular, moderate-intensity activities that become part of one's lifestyle. Nurses are in a unique position to counsel individuals, families, and communities on the importance of regular physical activity and to correct misconceptions that only vigorous exercise has health benefits. PMID:12465215

  5. [Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko

    2016-07-01

    The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment. It is also important to identify the adequate duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise intervention that is most effective for older individuals. PMID:27395464

  6. Exercise and physical activity of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lugo, L; Calderón, C; Visbal, G; Martínez, V

    1990-05-01

    Multiple studies point toward the beneficial role of regular exercise in preventing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of physical activity and exercise among adolescents from the only high school in Cataño, Puerto Rico. An open-ended, multiple choice questionnaire was administered to 106 students who were randomly chosen. Questions included frequency of exercise, type of sports which they practiced and would like to practice. Results were statistically analyzed. The study revealed that 53% of the participants did not exercise regularly, exercising less than once a week. Those who did exercise were involved in a competitive team sport (35% of females: volleyball; 65.8% of males: basketball). Approximately 1/3 of the females and of the males replied they would like to practice noncompetitive sports which should be incorporated into their lifestyles through early intervention in the school, home and through the primary care physician.

  7. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... basketball and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with ... biking. Group sports are another option, such as soccer, football, basketball, karate, or tennis. Choose an exercise ...

  8. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  9. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  10. Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises?

    PubMed

    Musgrove, John L; Morris, Jason; Estrada, Carlos A; Kraemer, Ryan R

    2016-05-01

    Background Published clinical problem solving exercises have emerged as a common tool to illustrate aspects of the clinical reasoning process. The specific clinical reasoning terms mentioned in such exercises is unknown. Objective We identified which clinical reasoning terms are mentioned in published clinical problem solving exercises and compared them to clinical reasoning terms given high priority by clinician educators. Methods A convenience sample of clinician educators prioritized a list of clinical reasoning terms (whether to include, weight percentage of top 20 terms). The authors then electronically searched the terms in the text of published reports of 4 internal medicine journals between January 2010 and May 2013. Results The top 5 clinical reasoning terms ranked by educators were dual-process thinking (weight percentage = 24%), problem representation (12%), illness scripts (9%), hypothesis generation (7%), and problem categorization (7%). The top clinical reasoning terms mentioned in the text of 79 published reports were context specificity (n = 20, 25%), bias (n = 13, 17%), dual-process thinking (n = 11, 14%), illness scripts (n = 11, 14%), and problem representation (n = 10, 13%). Context specificity and bias were not ranked highly by educators. Conclusions Some core concepts of modern clinical reasoning theory ranked highly by educators are mentioned explicitly in published clinical problem solving exercises. However, some highly ranked terms were not used, and some terms used were not ranked by the clinician educators. Effort to teach clinical reasoning to trainees may benefit from a common nomenclature of clinical reasoning terms.

  11. Exercising for Two. What's Safe for the Active Pregnant Woman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Clinical experience and recent research challenge the current standards of exercise duration and intensity for pregnant women. By carefully assessing patients' self-monitoring techniques, physicians can work with active women to create safe exercise programs during pregnancy. Safety guidelines for developing home exercise programs are included.…

  12. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  13. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2014 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  14. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...

  15. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating healthy foods, is the best way to lose weight. ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  16. Muscle activation during various hamstring exercises.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Matt J; Hammond, Kelley G; Schilling, Brian K; Ferreria, Lucas C; Reed, Jacob P; Weiss, Lawrence W

    2014-06-01

    The dorsal muscles of the lower torso and extremities have often been denoted the "posterior chain." These muscles are used to support the thoracic and lumbar spine and peripheral joints, including the hip, knee, and ankle on the dorsal aspect of the body. This study investigated the relative muscle activity of the hamstring group and selected surrounding musculature during the leg curl, good morning, glute-ham raise, and Romanian deadlift (RDL). Twelve healthy, weight-trained men performed duplicate trials of single repetitions at 85% 1-repetition maximum for each lift in random order, during which surface electromyography and joint angle data were obtained. Repeated measures analysis of variance across the 4 exercises was performed to compare the activity from the erector spinae (ES), gluteus medius (GMed), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas). Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were noted in eccentric muscle activity between exercise for the MGas (p < 0.027), ST (p < 0.001), BF (p < 0.001), and ES (p = 0.032), and in concentric muscle activity, for the ES (p < 0.001), BF (p = 0.010), ST (p = 0.009), MGas (p < 0.001), and the GMed (p = 0.018). Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed significant pairwise differences during eccentric actions for the BF, ST, and MGas. Post hoc analysis also revealed significant pairwise differences during concentric actions for the ES, BF, ST, MGas, and GMed. Each of these showed effect sizes that are large or greater. The main findings of this investigation are that the ST is substantially more active than the BF among all exercises, and hamstring activity was maximized in the RDL and glute-ham raise. Therefore, athletes and coaches who seek to maximize the involvement of the hamstring musculature should consider focusing on the glute-ham raise and RDL. PMID:24149748

  17. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Managing Activities and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Managing Activities and Exercise On this Page Avoiding Extremes Developing an Activity ... recent manageable level of activity. Strength and Conditioning Exercises Strength and conditioning exercises are an important component ...

  18. Active Inquiry, Web-based Oceanography Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckels-Martin, Ellen E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using web sites to develop active inquiry lessons that mimic some of the tasks and thought processes scientists use everyday. The exercises available at the web sites are designed to develop science process skills and convey basic course content. Exercises stress the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. (Author/SAH)

  19. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383

  20. Effects of exercise and physical activity on knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Esser, Stephan; Bailey, Allison

    2011-12-01

    Exercise is one of the most discussed and controversial nonpharmacologic management strategies for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Health care providers and patients share varied and often pseudoscientific beliefs regarding the effects of exercise on knee OA formulated on outdated notions of the etiology, pathophysiology, and progression of the condition. Based on the contemporary literature, regular light to moderate physical activity has both preventive and therapeutic benefits for individuals with knee OA. Exercise regimens with strong evidence of benefit include those that focus on aerobic/cardiovascular conditioning and lower extremity strength training. Health care providers should confidently incorporate exercise recommendations into clinical management and offer patients evidence-based and individually tailored exercise prescriptions to help manage the painful and often disabling symptoms of this condition.

  1. Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise among Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    This Digest discusses the importance of and ways to foster activity and exercise in children. Following an introduction, the Digest is organized into four sections. The first section deals with the significant health benefits of physical activity, including: reduction in chronic disease risk; lowered risk of colon cancer; increase in bone density;…

  2. Exercise, training and neutrophil microbicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Telford, R D; Mason, I B; Weidemann, M J

    1990-06-01

    The concentration in human plasma of putative neutrophil-"priming" cytokines like endogenous pyrogens is known to increase significantly in response to moderate exercise (11). This is characteristic of an acute-phase response. The ability of blood neutrophils isolated from both trained and untrained human subjects (n = 11, 9) to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen species was determined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence both before and after one hour of aerobic exercise at 60% VO2max. Irrespective of training and stimulus concentration, exercise nearly always caused significant "priming" of the capacity of neutrophils to produce H2O2 and HOCl upon stimulation with opsonized zymosan (P less than 0.01); however, compared to their untrained counterparts, the activity of cells isolated from trained individuals was depressed about 50% at unit stimulus concentration, both before and after exercise (P less than 0.075), whilst remaining unaltered at saturating concentrations. Although neutrophil oxygenation activity is only one parameter that contributes to immunological status, regular episodes of moderate exercise may increase resistance to infection by priming the "killing capacity" of neutrophils. In contrast, prolonged periods of intensive training may lead to increased susceptibility to common infections by diminishing this activity. PMID:2115507

  3. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  4. Estimation of Exercise Intensity in “Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro

    To maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens is quite important for Japan. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are estimated using 3D accelerometer for 25 daily activities. As the result, the exercise intensities were estimated to be within the root mean square error of 0.83 METs for all 25 activities.

  5. Activity Book. Fitting in Fitness: An Integrated Approach to Health, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bruce; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This integrated unit focuses on healthy hearts and how to use exercise and nutrition to be "heart smart" for life. The unit includes activities on heart function, exercise, workouts, family activities, nutrition, cholesterol, and food labels. The activities help develop research techniques, thinking skills, and cooperative learning habits. (SM)

  6. Exercise, an Active Lifestyle, and Obesity. Making the Exercise Prescription Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Ross E.

    1999-01-01

    An active lifestyle is important in helping overweight people both lose and manage their weight. Exercise has many health benefits beyond weight control. The traditional exercise prescription of regular bouts of continuous vigorous exercise may need modification to increase rates of adoption and compliance, with people needing encouragement to…

  7. Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition, Exercise, and Supplements for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children.

    PubMed

    Africa, Jonathan A; Newton, Kimberly P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used. Exercise is widely believed to improve NAFLD because a sedentary lifestyle, poor aerobic fitness, and low muscle mass are all risk factors for NAFLD. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials of exercise as a treatment for children with NAFLD. Studies of the combination of diet and exercise suggest a potential for improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and/or magnetic resonance imaging liver fat fraction with intervention. There is also enthusiasm for the use of dietary supplements; however, studies in children have shown inconsistent effects of vitamin E, fish oil, and probiotics. This review presents the available data from studies of lifestyle intervention and dietary supplements published to date and highlights challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the evidence base for the treatment of pediatric NAFLD. PMID:27041377

  8. Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition, Exercise, and Supplements for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children.

    PubMed

    Africa, Jonathan A; Newton, Kimberly P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used. Exercise is widely believed to improve NAFLD because a sedentary lifestyle, poor aerobic fitness, and low muscle mass are all risk factors for NAFLD. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials of exercise as a treatment for children with NAFLD. Studies of the combination of diet and exercise suggest a potential for improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and/or magnetic resonance imaging liver fat fraction with intervention. There is also enthusiasm for the use of dietary supplements; however, studies in children have shown inconsistent effects of vitamin E, fish oil, and probiotics. This review presents the available data from studies of lifestyle intervention and dietary supplements published to date and highlights challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the evidence base for the treatment of pediatric NAFLD.

  9. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  10. Effects of exercise pressor reflex activation on carotid baroreflex function during exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Raven, P. B.; Secher, N. H.

    2001-01-01

    1. This investigation was designed to determine the contribution of the exercise pressor reflex to the resetting of the carotid baroreflex during exercise. 2. Ten subjects performed 3.5 min of static one-legged exercise (20 % maximal voluntary contraction) and 7 min dynamic cycling (20 % maximal oxygen uptake) under two conditions: control (no intervention) and with the application of medical anti-shock (MAS) trousers inflated to 100 mmHg (to activate the exercise pressor reflex). Carotid baroreflex function was determined at rest and during exercise using a rapid neck pressure/neck suction technique. 3. During exercise, the application of MAS trousers (MAS condition) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma noradrenaline concentration (dynamic exercise only) and perceived exertion (dynamic exercise only) when compared to control (P < 0.05). No effect of the MAS condition was evident at rest. The MAS condition had no effect on heart rate (HR), plasma lactate and adrenaline concentrations or oxygen uptake at rest and during exercise. The carotid baroreflex stimulus-response curve was reset upward on the response arm and rightward to a higher operating pressure by control exercise without alterations in gain. Activation of the exercise pressor reflex by MAS trousers further reset carotid baroreflex control of MAP, as indicated by the upward and rightward relocation of the curve. However, carotid baroreflex control of HR was only shifted rightward to higher operating pressures by MAS trousers. The sensitivity of the carotid baroreflex was unaltered by exercise pressor reflex activation. 4. These findings suggest that during dynamic and static exercise the exercise pressor reflex is capable of actively resetting carotid baroreflex control of mean arterial pressure; however, it would appear only to modulate carotid baroreflex control of heart rate.

  11. [Core muscle chains activation during core exercises determined by EMG-a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Rogan, Slavko; Riesen, Jan; Taeymans, Jan

    2014-10-15

    Good core muscles strength is essential for daily life and sports activities. However, the mechanism how core muscles may be effectively triggered by exercises is not yet precisely described in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the rate of activation as measured by electromyography of the ventral, lateral and dorsal core muscle chains during core (trunk) muscle exercises. A total of 16 studies were included. Exercises with a vertical starting position, such as the deadlift or squat activated significantly more core muscles than exercises in the horizontal initial position. PMID:25305118

  12. Exercise Do's and Don'ts: Guidelines for Fitness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sharon

    Many common exercises are contraindicated due to their potential for injury relative to benefit produced. Specific contraindicated exercises are discussed, and safer, more effective exercises are recommended. Current stretching and toning guidelines are also given which apply to all fitness activities. (Author)

  13. Factors that influence exercise activity among women post hip fracture participating in the Exercise Plus Program

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; D’Adamo, Christopher; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Hawkes, William; Shardell, Michelle; Golden, Justine; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Magaziner, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Using a social ecological model, this paper describes selected intra- and interpersonal factors that influence exercise behavior in women post hip fracture who participated in the Exercise Plus Program. Model testing of factors that influence exercise behavior at 2, 6 and 12 months post hip fracture was done. The full model hypothesized that demographic variables; cognitive, affective, physical and functional status; pain; fear of falling; social support for exercise, and exposure to the Exercise Plus Program would influence self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and stage of change both directly and indirectly influencing total time spent exercising. Two hundred and nine female hip fracture patients (age 81.0 ± 6.9), the majority of whom were Caucasian (97%), participated in this study. The three predictive models tested across the 12 month recovery trajectory suggest that somewhat different factors may influence exercise over the recovery period and the models explained 8 to 21% of the variance in time spent exercising. To optimize exercise activity post hip fracture, older adults should be helped to realistically assess their self-efficacy and outcome expectations related to exercise, health care providers and friends/peers should be encouraged to reinforce the positive benefits of exercise post hip fracture, and fear of falling should be addressed throughout the entire hip fracture recovery trajectory. PMID:18044192

  14. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    White, W B

    1991-12-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure recorders have two potential advantages over standard casual blood pressure measurements; they are able to take multiple recordings automatically throughout the day and night and also during the activities of normal daily living. At present, the general recommendations for validation of blood pressure recorders do not include assessment during motion. In order to obtain accurate information on an ambulatory blood pressure recorder's capabilities during exercise or physical activity, the blood pressure standard must use direct (intra-arterial) measurements. Data from some of the existing ambulatory blood pressure recorders suggest that many are accurate during resting measurements but lose their precision when the subjects are walking or during exercise. If ambulatory recorders are to be used in ambulant conditions with a moving arm, the device should be validated for accuracy and reliability during motion, using simultaneous direct measurements for comparison. PMID:1795196

  15. PROXIMITY TO AN EXERCISE FACILITY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Ani, Ruopeng; Zheng, Jiakun

    2014-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for premature morbidity and mortality. We studied the relationship between proximity to an exercise facility and leisure time physical activity in China. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey of 10 provinces in China during 2012 among 5,000 respondents with a completion rate of 82.1%. Respondents were asked about leisure time physical activity, defined as any exercise during the week. Respondents were also asked if they lived within 10 minutes walking distance from an exercise facility. The association between proximity to an exercise facility and physical activity were examined with multivariate regression analysis while attempting to control for sociodemographic factors and province of residence. Proximity to an exercise facility was found to be positively associated with leisure time physical activity. Individuals living within 10 minutes walking distance from an exercise facility were 6.79% (95% confidence interval: 3.67-10.01) more likely to have any leisure time physical activity than those who lived more than 10 minutes walking distance from an exercise facility. Physical exercise among females, younger adults, people with a higher education and urban residents appeared to have a greater association with distance to an exercise facility. Improving accessibility to an exercise facility might increase the likelihood of leisure time physical activity, especially among working-age urban Chinese.

  16. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  17. Active-Learning Exercises for Consumer Behavior Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents 13 active-learning activities designed for use in consumer behavior courses. The exercises involve students in brief activities, such as analysis of persuasion techniques in advertising, and follow-up discussion. Reports that students found the exercises enjoyable and worthwhile. (CFR)

  18. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine.

    PubMed

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26-67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36-64] versus 32% [95% CI 18-46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64-90] versus 54% [95% CI 40-67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88-6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81-6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance.

  19. Measurement of exercise habits and prediction of leisure-time activity in established exercise.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Karyn A; Glanz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Habit formation may be important to maintaining repetitive healthy behaviors like exercise. Existing habit questionnaires only measure part of the definition of habit (automaticity; frequency). A novel habit questionnaire was evaluated that measured contextual cueing. We designed a two-stage observational cohort study of regular exercisers. For stage 1, we conducted an in-person interview on a university campus. For stage 2, we conducted an internet-based survey. Participants were 156 adults exercising at least once per week. A novel measure, The Exercise Habit Survey (EHS) assessed contextual cueing through 13 questions on constancy of place, time, people, and exercise behaviors. A subset of the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI), measuring automaticity, was also collected along with measures of intention and self-efficacy, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), leisure-time section. The EHS was evaluated using factor analysis and test-retest reliability. Its correlation to other exercise predictors and exercise behavior was evaluated using Pearson's r and hierarchical regression. Results suggested that the EHS comprised four subscales (People, Place, Time, Exercise Constancy). Only Exercise Constancy correlated significantly with SRHI. Only the People subscale predicted IPAQ exercise metabolic equivalents. The SRHI was a strong predictor. Contextual cueing is an important aspect of habit but measurement methodologies warrant refinement and comparison by different methods. PMID:23384089

  20. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. Methods A systematic search of Web of Science, Pub-Med, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included “stress”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. A rating scale (0–9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. Results The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work–family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely

  1. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    PubMed

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. PMID:26233864

  2. Sympathetic Activation is Associated with Exercise Limitation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Helge; Folle, Jan; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Herrmann, Peter; Heusser, Karsten; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Andreas, Stefan; Raupach, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and reduced daily activity are central in COPD patients and closely related to quality of life and prognosis. Studies assessing muscle exercise have revealed an increase in sympathetic outflow as a link to muscle hypoperfusion and exercise limitation. Our primary hypothesis was that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) correlates with exercise limitation in COPD. MSNA was evaluated at rest and during dynamic or static handgrip exercise. Additionally, we assessed heart rate, blood pressure, CO2 tension, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and breathing frequency. Ergospirometry was performed to evaluate exercise capacity. We assessed MSNA of 14 COPD patients and 8 controls. In patients, MSNA was negatively correlated with peak oxygen uptake (VO2% pred) (r = -0.597; p = 0.040). During dynamic or static handgrip exercise, patients exhibited a significant increase in MSNA, which was not observed in the control group. The increase in MSNA during dynamic handgrip was highly negatively correlated with peak exercise capacity in Watts (w) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2/kg) (r = -0.853; p = 0.002 and r = -0.881; p = 0.002, respectively). Our study reveals an association between increased MSNA and limited exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Furthermore, we found an increased sympathetic response to moderate physical exercise (handgrip), which may contribute to exercise intolerance in COPD. PMID:26829234

  3. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  4. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  5. Effects of different types of exercise on muscle activity and balance control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Gim, Min-A; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the effects of isotonic, isokinetic, and isometric exercises of ankle joint muscles on lower extremity muscle activity and balance control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 males) in their 20s who were randomly assigned to three different exercise method groups of 10 people each. The isokinetic exercise group performed three sets at an angular velocity of 60°/sec, including a single rest period after every set of 10 repetitions. The isometric exercise group performed three sets consisting of three 15 repetitions of a 15-second exercise followed by a 5-second rest. [Results] Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that depending on the exercise method, the non-dominant tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius muscle, and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity for weight-bearing non-dominant sides; when the dominant side was weight-bearing, the dominant gastrocnemius and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity; and the non-dominant and dominant sides showed significant differences in balance control depending on the duration of support in the area. [Conclusion] Muscle fatigue from the three exercise methods produced a decline in muscle activity and balance control; due to the fatigue before exercise, the side that did not perform the exercises was affected. PMID:26180340

  6. [Exercises in patients with myositis--active treatment intervention?].

    PubMed

    Babić-Naglić, Durdica

    2012-01-01

    Polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are rare inflammatory myopathies characterized by muscle weakness. Regardless of pharmacological treatment in most patients remain muscle weakness and inability to perform daily activities. Until recently, the prevailing opinion was that active exercises can exacerbate the inflammatory activity in the muscles and is now known that active exercise and exercise with resistance improve strength and endurance of muscles, aerobic capacity and overall functional ability. Exercises are prescribed according to the disease activity, manual muscle test or dynamometer measurements, range of motion, cardiorespiratory capacity and clinical status of the locomotor system. Each of the components can be influenced by targeted exercises and should be a integral part of myositis therapy.

  7. Biomarkers of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Palacios, Nieves; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Aznar, Susana; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in training and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modulated by regular physical activity and sport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Concentrations can differ widely from normal reference ranges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale. Other useful biomarkers are body composition (specifically muscle mass, fat mass, weight), physical fitness (cardiovascular capacity, strength, agility, flexibility), heart rate and blood pressure. Depending on the aim, one or several biomarkers should be measured. It may differ if it is for research purpose, for the follow up of training or to prevent risks. For this review, we will get deeper into the biomarkers used to identify the degree of physical fitness, chronic stress, overtraining, cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation.

  8. Muscle sympathetic activity in resting and exercising humans with and without heart failure.

    PubMed

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S

    2015-11-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is critical for coordinating the cardiovascular response to various types of physical exercise. In a number of disease states, including human heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), this regulation can be disturbed and adversely affect outcome. The purpose of this review is to describe sympathetic activity at rest and during exercise in both healthy humans and those with HFrEF and outline factors, which influence these responses. We focus predominately on studies that report direct measurements of efferent sympathetic nerve traffic to skeletal muscle (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA) using intraneural microneurographic recordings. Differences in MSNA discharge between subjects with and without HFrEF both at rest and during exercise and the influence of exercise training on the sympathetic response to exercise will be discussed. In contrast to healthy controls, MSNA increases during mild to moderate dynamic exercise in the presence of HFrEF. This increase may contribute to the exercise intolerance characteristic of HFrEF by limiting muscle blood flow and may be attenuated by exercise training. Future investigations are needed to clarify the neural afferent mechanisms that contribute to efferent sympathetic activation at rest and during exercise in HFrEF.

  9. Muscle sympathetic activity in resting and exercising humans with and without heart failure.

    PubMed

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S

    2015-11-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is critical for coordinating the cardiovascular response to various types of physical exercise. In a number of disease states, including human heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), this regulation can be disturbed and adversely affect outcome. The purpose of this review is to describe sympathetic activity at rest and during exercise in both healthy humans and those with HFrEF and outline factors, which influence these responses. We focus predominately on studies that report direct measurements of efferent sympathetic nerve traffic to skeletal muscle (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA) using intraneural microneurographic recordings. Differences in MSNA discharge between subjects with and without HFrEF both at rest and during exercise and the influence of exercise training on the sympathetic response to exercise will be discussed. In contrast to healthy controls, MSNA increases during mild to moderate dynamic exercise in the presence of HFrEF. This increase may contribute to the exercise intolerance characteristic of HFrEF by limiting muscle blood flow and may be attenuated by exercise training. Future investigations are needed to clarify the neural afferent mechanisms that contribute to efferent sympathetic activation at rest and during exercise in HFrEF. PMID:26481289

  10. Active play exercise intervention in children with asthma: a PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Westergren, Thomas; Fegran, Liv; Nilsen, Tonje; Haraldstad, Kristin; Kittang, Ole Bjørn; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increased physical activity (PA) may be beneficial for children with asthma. Knowledge about how to intervene and encourage children with asthma to be physically active is required. In the present study, we aimed to pilot a 6-week exercise intervention designed as active play and examine attendance rate, exercise intensity and children's perceptions of participating. Methods 6 children with asthma (4 boys, 2 girls) aged 10–12 years, participated in 60 min of active play exercise twice weekly. A mixed-methods design was applied. The data analysed included attendance rate, exercise intensity assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring during exercise sessions, registration and description of the active play exercise programme, 3 semistructured focus groups, field observations of 5 exercise sessions, and preintervention and postintervention testing. Findings The average attendance rate was 90%. Intensity ≥80% of maximal HR (HRmax) was recorded for a median (IQR) time of 22 (8) out of 60 min per session. Median (IQR) HR during the sessions was 146 (9; 74% of HRmax) bpm. Children reported increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) post-test compared with baseline. Children enjoyed participating and reported no limitations by asthma or serious asthma attacks. Instead, they perceived that their asthma and fitness had improved after the programme. The instructors created an inclusive atmosphere that was characterised by easy-to-master games, fair competition, humour and mutual participation. Conclusions The exercise intervention pilot focusing on active play had a high attendance rate, relatively high exercise intensity, and satisfaction; the children perceived that their fitness and asthma had improved, and reported increased HRQoL. A randomised controlled trial of active play exercise including children with asthma should be conducted to evaluate effect on PA level, physical fitness, asthma control and HRQoL. PMID:26733570

  11. Expansion of the PREP concept to include hazardous substances response exercises

    SciTech Connect

    Lively-Diebold, B.; DeMarco, G.; Connolly, K.

    1996-12-31

    The National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) was developed by Federal and State agencies and industry to exercise Oil Pollution Act of 1990 required plans to respond to oil discharges. PREP promotes involvement in exercised by Federal, State, and local response personnel as well as industry sponsors and has resulted in an improved understanding of the roles that different parties play during a response. PREP exercises often test the ability of various groups of responders to form a Unified Command, which allows all parties who have jurisdictional or functional responsibility for an incident to develop a common set of response strategies. This paper suggests expanding the PREP concept (from its current focus mainly on oil spill exercises) to address hazardous substances response exercises as a means to promote improved cooperation during responses to incidents involving the releases of hazardous substances. This paper discusses the role/authorities of Federal as well as State and local response personnel during different types of emergencies and coordination among these parties during a response. The paper also outlines the use of a Unified Command within an Incident Command System structure and the advent of the PREP. Finally, the paper discusses the benefits to be gained from applying PREP`s unified national exercise approach to hazardous substances exercises, and suggests next steps for beginning the process.

  12. Exercise in Treating Hypertension: Tailoring Therapies for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chintanadilok, Jirayos

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,…

  13. Transformation of Traditional Vocabulary Exercises into Collaborative Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Jian-feng

    2010-01-01

    In the reading course, especially the so-called intensive reading course or integrative English reading course, there are some vocabulary exercises which intend to consolidate the active vocabulary emerging in the reading passages. Mostly, these exercises are in the form of blank-filling or rewriting sentences with the words given. The problem…

  14. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined. PMID:27487345

  15. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  16. Chronic stress and moderate physical exercise prompt widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-10-01

    Chronic stress in rodents produces depressive behaviors, whereas moderate physical exercise counteracts stress-induced depressive behaviors. Chronic stress and physical exercise appear to produce such opposing effects by changing the neural activity of specific brain regions. However, the detailed mechanisms through which the two different types of stimuli regulate brain function in opposite directions are not clearly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the neuroanatomical substrates mediating stress-induced behavioral changes and anti-depressant effects of exercise by examining stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction in the brains of mice that were exposed to repeated stress or exercise in a scheduled manner. Systematic and integrated analyses of c-Fos expression profiles indicated that various brain areas, including the prelimbic cortex, lateral septal area, and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus were commonly and strongly activated by both stress and exercise, while the lateral habenula and hippocampus were identified as being preferentially activated by stress and exercise, respectively. Exercise-dependent c-Fos expression in all regions examined in the brain occurred in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. These results suggest that chronic stress and moderate exercise produce counteractive effects on mood behaviors, along with prompting widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions. PMID:27539656

  17. Chronic stress and moderate physical exercise prompt widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-10-01

    Chronic stress in rodents produces depressive behaviors, whereas moderate physical exercise counteracts stress-induced depressive behaviors. Chronic stress and physical exercise appear to produce such opposing effects by changing the neural activity of specific brain regions. However, the detailed mechanisms through which the two different types of stimuli regulate brain function in opposite directions are not clearly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the neuroanatomical substrates mediating stress-induced behavioral changes and anti-depressant effects of exercise by examining stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction in the brains of mice that were exposed to repeated stress or exercise in a scheduled manner. Systematic and integrated analyses of c-Fos expression profiles indicated that various brain areas, including the prelimbic cortex, lateral septal area, and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus were commonly and strongly activated by both stress and exercise, while the lateral habenula and hippocampus were identified as being preferentially activated by stress and exercise, respectively. Exercise-dependent c-Fos expression in all regions examined in the brain occurred in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. These results suggest that chronic stress and moderate exercise produce counteractive effects on mood behaviors, along with prompting widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

  18. Metabolic signals and innate immune activation in obesity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling. Exercise is one of the main prescribed interventions in obesity management improving insulin sensitivity and reducing obesity- induced chronic inflammation. This review summarizes current knowledge of the cellular recognition mechanisms for FFAs, the inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by excess FFAs in obesity and the counteractive effects of both acute and chronic exercise on obesity-induced activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effects of exercise on inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity is useful to optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:25825956

  19. The Exercise and Environmental Physiology of Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.

  20. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT) has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents), and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related), and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental) designs but similar results are found across cross

  1. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  2. A model of oxygen uptake kinetics in response to exercise: including a means of calculating oxygen demand/deficit/debt.

    PubMed

    Stirling, J R; Zakynthinaki, M S; Saltin, B

    2005-09-01

    We present a new model of the underlying dynamics of the oxygen uptake VO2(v,t) kinetics for various exercise intensities. This model is in the form of a set of nonlinear coupled vector fields for the VO2(v,t) and v, the derivative of the exercise intensity with respect to time. We also present a new and novel means for calculating the oxygen demand, D(v,t), and hence also the oxygen deficit and debt, given the time series of the VO2(v,t). This enables us to give better predictions for these values especially for when exercising at or close to maximal exercise intensities. Our model also allows us to predict the oxygen uptake time series given the time series for the exercise intensity as well as to investigate the oxygen uptake response to nonlinear exercise intensities. Neither of these features is possible using the currently used three-phase model. We also present a review of both the underlying physiology and the three-phase model. This includes for the first time a complete set of the analytical solutions of the three-phase model for the oxygen deficit and debt. PMID:15998492

  3. Mobile Exercise Apps and Increased Leisure Time Exercise Activity: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of the Role of Self-Efficacy and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Zohn; Spierer, David; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah; Goldschein, Akiva; Robinson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background There are currently over 1000 exercise apps for mobile devices on the market. These apps employ a range of features, from tracking exercise activity to providing motivational messages. However, virtually nothing is known about whether exercise apps improve exercise levels and health outcomes and, if so, the mechanisms of these effects. Objective Our aim was to examine whether the use of exercise apps is associated with increased levels of exercise and improved health outcomes. We also develop a framework within which to understand how exercise apps may affect health and test multiple models of possible mechanisms of action and boundary conditions of these relationships. Within this framework, app use may increase physical activity by influencing variables such as self-efficacy and may help to overcome exercise barriers, leading to improved health outcomes such as lower body mass index (BMI). Methods In this study, 726 participants with one of three backgrounds were surveyed about their use of exercise apps and health: (1) those who never used exercise apps, (2) those who used exercise apps but discontinued use, and (3) those who are currently using exercise apps. Participants were asked about their long-term levels of exercise and about their levels of exercise during the previous week with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results Nearly three-quarters of current app users reported being more active compared to under half of non-users and past users. The IPAQ showed that current users had higher total leisure time metabolic equivalent of task (MET) expenditures (1169 METs), including walking and vigorous exercise, compared to those who stopped using their apps (612 METs) or who never used apps (577 METs). Importantly, physical activity levels in domains other than leisure time activity were similar across the groups. The results also showed that current users had lower BMI (25.16) than past users (26.8) and non-users (26.9) and

  4. Effect of supine exercise on platelet aggregation and fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Dag, B; Gleerup, G; Bak, A M; Hindberg, I; Mehlsen, J; Winther, K

    1994-03-01

    In 12 healthy young men, strenuous cycling exercise in the supine position, caused platelet aggregability to decrease and the ADP threshold to rise from 7.0 microM resting, to 9.5 exercising (P < 0.01). At the same time, fibrinolytic activity increased markedly: euglobulin clot lysis time shortened from 178 to 68 min, PAI-1 fell from 8.91 to 5.16 IU ml-1, and t-PA rose from 0.56 to 3.95 IU ml-1, all three values were significant to P < 0.01. When the erect posture was assumed after lying at ease for 1 h after exercise, it did not increase platelet activity as expected, but caused a modest increase of fibrinolytic activity. These results suggest that supine exercise will not affect the haemostatic system adversely.

  5. Preventing weight gain through exercise and physical activity in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mareike D; von Lengerke, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    This review examines the role of exercise and physical activity for preventing weight gain in older people. A structured search using MeSH-vocabulary and Title/Abstract-searches was conducted in PubMed for January 2000 to June 2011, identifying weight gain and exercise or physical activity as study topics, and aged adults as target group. In study selection, all types of exercise and physical activity and any measure of weight change in aged adults (≥65 years) or postmenopausal women were considered. N=9 primary studies were identified. All were conducted in the US, with one study additionally including samples from Canada and the UK. Three studies focused on aged adults, while six concentrated specifically on postmenopausal women. Forms of exercise or physical activity comprised self-reported exercise history in four studies and low, moderate or high intensity exercise interventions in five studies. Four studies combined exercise with a hypocaloric diet and included comparison groups receiving either diet only, health education, stretching or a delayed intervention (one study each). Exercise was associated with weight loss (1.1-6 kg) in all intervention studies, all of which studied an overweight sample, and with weight maintenance in most observational studies, all of which studied a general population or otherwise overweight-unspecific sample. In sum, exercise and physical activity can effectively prevent weight gain in older adults and postmenopausal women either in terms of weight loss or maintenance. They can preserve lean body mass and thus are important for the balance between potentially positive and negative effects of weight reduction in later life. In addition, since all intervention studies were conducted with an overweight sample, it seems that primordial prevention (in terms of preventing the development of risk factors such as excess weight in the first place) might be a neglected issue in geriatric and postmenopausal prevention.

  6. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3–only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  7. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  8. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI.

  9. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation. PMID:22300952

  10. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation.

  11. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J D; McCormick, Darren; Shawis, Teshk; Impson, Rebecca; Griffin, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Commercial activity-promoting gaming systems provide a potentially attractive means to facilitate exercise and rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii, Sony EyeToy, Dance Dance Revolution, and Xbox Kinect are examples of gaming systems that use the movement of the player to control gameplay. Activity-promoting gaming systems can be used as a tool to increase activity levels in otherwise sedentary gamers and also be an effective tool to aid rehabilitation in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of this current work is to review the growing area of activity-promoting gaming in the context of exercise, injury, and rehabilitation.

  12. Muscular Activation During Plyometric Exercises in 90° of Glenohumeral Joint Abduction

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Sueyoshi, Tetsuro; Bailie, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plyometric exercises are frequently used to increase posterior rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength and simulate demands and positional stresses in overhead athletes. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive data on posterior rotator cuff and scapular muscle activation during upper extremity plyometric exercises in 90° of glenohumeral joint abduction. Hypothesis: Levels of muscular activity in the posterior rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers will be high during plyometric shoulder exercises similar to previously reported electromyographic (EMG) levels of shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects were tested using surface EMG during the performance of 2 plyometric shoulder exercises: prone external rotation (PERP) and reverse catch external rotation (RCP) using a handheld medicine ball. Electrode application included the upper and lower trapezius (UT and LT, respectively), serratus anterior (SA), infraspinatus (IN), and the middle and posterior deltoid (MD and PD, respectively) muscles. A 10-second interval of repetitive plyometric exercise (PERP) and 3 repetitions of RCP were sampled. Peak and average normalized EMG data were generated. Results: Normalized peak and average IN activity ranged between 73% and 102% and between 28% and 52% during the plyometric exercises, respectively, with peak and average LT activity measured between 79% and 131% and between 31% and 61%. SA activity ranged between 76% and 86% for peak and between 35% and 37% for average activity. Muscular activity levels in the MD and PD ranged between 49% and 72% and between 12% and 33% for peak and average, respectively. Conclusion: Moderate to high levels of muscular activity were measured in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers during these plyometric exercises with the glenohumeral joint abducted 90°. PMID:25553216

  13. Relationships between Physical Activity and the Proximity of Exercise Facilities and Home Exercise Equipment Used by Undergraduate University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian A.; Phillips, D. Allen

    2005-01-01

    The authors used stratified random sampling procedures to investigate the relationships among physical activity (PA), the proximity of exercise facilities, and the quantity of home exercise equipment in a sample of 411 undergraduates. To examine the data they collected from the modified Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Home…

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  15. An 8-Month Randomized Controlled Exercise Trial Alters Brain Activation During Cognitive Tasks in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Krafft, Cynthia E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Weinberger, Abby L.; Schaeffer, David J.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Miller, Patricia H.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Children who are less fit reportedly have lower performance on tests of cognitive control and differences in brain function. This study examined the effect of an exercise intervention on brain function during two cognitive control tasks in overweight children. Design and Methods Participants included 43 unfit, overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) children 8- to 11-years old (91% Black), who were randomly divided into either an aerobic exercise (n = 24) or attention control group (n = 19). Each group was offered a separate instructor-led after-school program every school day for 8 months. Before and after the program, all children performed two cognitive control tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): antisaccade and flanker. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group decreased activation in several regions supporting antisaccade performance, including precentral gyrus and posterior parietal cortex, and increased activation in several regions supporting flanker performance, including anterior cingulate and superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions Exercise may differentially impact these two task conditions, or the paradigms in which cognitive control tasks were presented may be sensitive to distinct types of brain activation that show different effects of exercise. In sum, exercise appears to alter efficiency or flexible modulation of neural circuitry supporting cognitive control in overweight children. PMID:23788510

  16. Analysis of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during squat exercise with and without a variety of tools in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Kyung; Park, So-Mi; Yun, Sae-Bom; Lee, Ae-Ran; Lee, Yun-Seob; Yong, Min-Sik

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of squat exercises with and without a variety of tools including a gym ball, wedge, and elastic band on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscles. [Subjects and Methods] A total of twenty healthy subjects with no history of neurological, musculoskeletal injury, or pain in the lower extremities were recruited. All subjects performed four types of exercise (conventional squat exercise, squat exercise with a gym ball, squat exercise with a wedge, squat exercise with an elastic band). [Results] There were no significant differences between exercises in comparison of the vastus lateralis muscle activity. In the squat exercise with a wedge, significantly higher activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was found compared with in the squat exercise with an elastic band. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that the conventional squat exercise can be one of the useful interventions for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27134414

  17. Analysis of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during squat exercise with and without a variety of tools in normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-kyung; Park, So-mi; Yun, Sae-bom; Lee, Ae-ran; Lee, Yun-seob; Yong, Min-sik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of squat exercises with and without a variety of tools including a gym ball, wedge, and elastic band on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique muscles. [Subjects and Methods] A total of twenty healthy subjects with no history of neurological, musculoskeletal injury, or pain in the lower extremities were recruited. All subjects performed four types of exercise (conventional squat exercise, squat exercise with a gym ball, squat exercise with a wedge, squat exercise with an elastic band). [Results] There were no significant differences between exercises in comparison of the vastus lateralis muscle activity. In the squat exercise with a wedge, significantly higher activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was found compared with in the squat exercise with an elastic band. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that the conventional squat exercise can be one of the useful interventions for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27134414

  18. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  19. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  20. Enhanced muscle activity during lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Seong

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pelvic stabilization affects multifidus (MF) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscle activities during dynamic extension exercise. Nine males (age, 25.1±6.3 yr; height, 176.6±2.4 cm; body mass, 74.9±6.7 kg) performed an isometric lumbar extension strength test and dynamic exercise in an upright seated position with or without pelvic stabilization. The electromyography and muscle strength of the MF and IL muscles were measured when the subjects performed the isometric lumbar extension strength test at the trunk angle 110°, 146°, and 182°. In addition, the trunk extensor muscle activities were measured using 50% muscle strength of maximum isometric strength during a dynamic trunk extension exercise. The MF and IL muscle activities were significantly higher at 110°, 146°, and 182° with pelvic stabilization than that without pelvic stabilization during the isometric lumbar extension strength test (P<0.05) and the dynamic exercise (P<0.05). These results suggest that the lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization may be more effective for MF and IL muscle activity compared to that without pelvic stabilization.

  1. Enhanced muscle activity during lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pelvic stabilization affects multifidus (MF) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscle activities during dynamic extension exercise. Nine males (age, 25.1±6.3 yr; height, 176.6±2.4 cm; body mass, 74.9±6.7 kg) performed an isometric lumbar extension strength test and dynamic exercise in an upright seated position with or without pelvic stabilization. The electromyography and muscle strength of the MF and IL muscles were measured when the subjects performed the isometric lumbar extension strength test at the trunk angle 110°, 146°, and 182°. In addition, the trunk extensor muscle activities were measured using 50% muscle strength of maximum isometric strength during a dynamic trunk extension exercise. The MF and IL muscle activities were significantly higher at 110°, 146°, and 182° with pelvic stabilization than that without pelvic stabilization during the isometric lumbar extension strength test (P<0.05) and the dynamic exercise (P<0.05). These results suggest that the lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization may be more effective for MF and IL muscle activity compared to that without pelvic stabilization. PMID:26730390

  2. Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Mellisa

    2005-01-01

    For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

  3. Regional differences in muscle activation during hamstrings exercise.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Contreras, Bret; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Wilson, Jacob M; Kolber, Morey J; Peterson, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that regional activation within a muscle may lead to greater site-specific muscular adaptations in the activated portion of the muscle. Because the hamstrings are a biarticular muscle, it can be theorized that single-joint exercises where movement originates at the hip vs. the knee will result in differential activation of the muscle complex. The purpose of the present study was to assess electromyographic activity in the proximal and distal aspects of the medial and lateral hamstrings during performance of the stiff-legged deadlift (SLDL), a hip-dominant exercise, and the lying leg curl (LLC), a knee-dominant exercise. Ten young, resistance-trained men were recruited from a university population to participate in the study. Employing a within-subject design, participants performed the SLDL and LLC to muscular failure using a load equating to their 8 repetition maximum for each exercise. The order of performance of exercises was counterbalanced between participants so that approximately half of the subjects performed SLDL first and the other half performed LLC first. Surface electromyography was used to record mean normalized muscle activity of the upper lateral hamstrings, lower lateral hamstrings, upper medial hamstrings, and lower medial hamstrings. Results showed that the LLC elicited significantly greater normalized mean activation of the lower lateral and lower medial hamstrings compared with the SLDL (p ≤ 0.05). These findings support the notion that the hamstrings can be regionally targeted through exercise selection. Further investigations are required to determine whether differences in activation lead to greater muscular adaptations in the muscle complex. PMID:24978835

  4. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  5. Effects of performing an abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during curl-up exercise on an unstable surface

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise on an unstable surface by measuring electromyography (EMG) activity. [Subjects] Fourteen young healthy adults (nine male, five female) voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] Each subject was asked to perform a curl-up exercise on two supporting surfaces (stable and unstable surfaces) combined with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface. The muscle activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface EMG during performance of the curl-up exercise. [Results] The EMG activity of the RA and EO was significantly higher on an unstable surface than on a stable surface during the curl-up exercise. The EMG activities of the TrA and IO were greater in combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface than during the curl-up exercise on both a stable and unstable surface. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the local trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise is more strongly affected by combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise than by performance on an unstable supporting surface. PMID:25729202

  6. Forced-exercise delays neuropathic pain in experimental diabetes: effects on voltage-activated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Shankarappa, Sahadev A; Piedras-Rentería, Erika S; Stubbs, Evan B

    2011-07-01

    Physical exercise produces a variety of psychophysical effects, including altered pain perception. Elevated levels of centrally produced endorphins or endocannabinoids are implicated as mediators of exercise-induced analgesia. The effect of exercise on the development and persistence of disease-associated acute/chronic pain remains unclear. In this study, we quantified the physiological consequence of forced-exercise on the development of diabetes-associated neuropathic pain. Euglycemic control or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic adult male rats were subdivided into sedentary or forced-exercised (2-10 weeks, treadmill) subgroups and assessed for changes in tactile responsiveness. Two weeks following STZ-treatment, sedentary rats developed a marked and sustained hypersensitivity to von Frey tactile stimulation. By comparison, STZ-treated diabetic rats undergoing forced-exercise exhibited a 4-week delay in the onset of tactile hypersensitivity that was independent of glucose control. Exercise-facilitated analgesia in diabetic rats was reversed, in a dose-dependent manner, by naloxone. Small-diameter (< 30 μm) DRG neurons harvested from STZ-treated tactile hypersensitive diabetic rats exhibited an enhanced (2.5-fold) rightward (depolarizing) shift in peak high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca(2+) current density with a concomitant appearance of a low-voltage activated (LVA) Ca(2+) current component. LVA Ca(2+) currents present in DRG neurons from hypersensitive diabetic rats exhibited a marked depolarizing shift in steady-state inactivation. Forced-exercise attenuated diabetes-associated changes in HVA Ca(2+) current density while preventing the depolarizing shift in steady-state inactivation of LVA Ca(2+) currents. Forced-exercise markedly delays the onset of diabetes-associated neuropathic pain, in part, by attenuating associated changes in HVA and LVA Ca(2+) channel function within small-diameter DRG neurons possibly by altering opioidergic tone. PMID:21554321

  7. Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Among Appalachian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Rian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most children in the United States receive far less physical activity (PA) than is optimal. In rural, under resourced areas of Appalachian Kentucky, physical inactivity rates are significantly higher than national levels. We sought to understand children’s perceptions of PA, with the goal of developing culturally appropriate programming to increase PA. Methods During 11 focus groups, we explored perspectives on PA among 63 Appalachian children, ages 8–17. Sessions were tape recorded, transcribed, content analyzed, and subjected to verification procedures. Results Several perspectives on PA emerged among these rural Appalachian youth, including the clear distinction between PA (viewed as positive) and exercise (viewed as negative) and an emphasis on time and resource factors as barriers to adequate PA. Additional PA determinants expressed in the focus groups are similar to those of other populations. We include children’s recommendations for appealing PA programs. Conclusions Appalachian and other rural residents contend with the loss of rural health advantages (due to declines in farming/other occupational and avocational transitions). At the same time, Appalachian residents have not benefitted from urban PA facilitators (sidewalks, recreational facilities, clubs and organized leisure activities). Addressing low PA levels requires extensive community input and creative programming. PMID:22397810

  8. Thomas Kuhn's 'Structure of Scientific Revolutions' applied to exercise science paradigm shifts: example including the Central Governor Model.

    PubMed

    Pires, Flávio de Oliveira; de Oliveira Pires, Flávio

    2013-07-01

    According to Thomas Kuhn, the scientific progress of any discipline could be distinguished by a pre-paradigm phase, a normal science phase and a revolution phase. The science advances when a scientific revolution takes place after silent period of normal science and the scientific community moves ahead to a paradigm shift. I suggest there has been a recent change of course in the direction of the exercise science. According to the 'current paradigm', exercise would be probably limited by alterations in either central command or peripheral skeletal muscles, and fatigue would be developed in a task-dependent manner. Instead, the central governor model (GCM) has proposed that all forms of exercise are centrally-regulated, the central nervous system would calculate the metabolic cost required to complete a task in order to avoid catastrophic body failure. Some have criticized the CGM and supported the traditional interpretation, but recently the scientific community appears to have begun an intellectual trajectory to accept this theory. First, the increased number of citations of articles that have supported the CGM could indicate that the community has changed the focus. Second, relevant journals have devoted special editions to promote the debate on subjects challenged by the CGM. Finally, scientists from different fields have recognized mechanisms included in the CGM to understand the exercise limits. Given the importance of the scientific community in demarcating a Kuhnian paradigm shift, I suggest that these three aspects could indicate an increased acceptance of a centrally-regulated effort model, to understand the limits of exercise.

  9. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  10. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Stephenie A; Stocks, Jodie M; Evans, David G; Simonson, Shawn R; Greenleaf, John E

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  11. Taking Exercise: Cultural Diversity and Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca; Knez, Kelly; Nelson, Alison

    2009-01-01

    "Taking exercise", whether it be recreational walking, participating in club sport, or joining in a physical education (PE) lesson, is a culturally loaded behaviour. We all see, do and talk about physical activity differently, yet, there has been relatively little research or theorising around difference in race, ethnicity, cultural diversity and…

  12. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  13. Propagation of Action Potentials: An Active Participation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsten, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Describes an active participation exercise that demonstrates the propagation of action potentials (the ability to transmit information through the neural network, dependent upon chemical interactions in the brain). Students assume the structure and function of the network by lining up around the room and communicating through hand signals and…

  14. Ballistic abdominal exercises: muscle activation patterns during three activities along the stability/mobility continuum.

    PubMed

    McGill, Stuart M; Karpowicz, Amy; Fenwick, Chad M J

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the muscle activity and spine motion during several tasks requiring rapid abdominal contraction. Eight healthy men from a university population were instrumented to obtain surface electromyography of selected trunk and hip muscles, together with video analysis to calculate joint moments and electromagnetic lumbar spine position sensor to track spine posture. Exercises included a punch, throw, and a ballistic torso-stiffening maneuver. This study found that no muscle turned on significantly before any other muscle during both the 1-in. punch and ballistic torso-stiffening maneuver. Conversely, there was a significant order or muscle onset during the baseball throw. Muscles reached peak activation significantly before any other muscle during the baseball throw and 1-in. punch, but there were no significant differences for the torso-stiffening maneuver. The exercises quantified in this study demonstrated how muscle contraction dynamics change to meet differing demands for stiffening, for force/moment production, and for rapid movements. Specifically, it seems that there is an order of contraction when movement is the goal but not when just spine stability is required. Thus, a different intensity of abdominal bracing is required to achieve the different objectives of sports tasks and exercises.

  15. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  16. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  17. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12–16 Hz), and beta (16–25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children. PMID:27656629

  18. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12–16 Hz), and beta (16–25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  19. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children. PMID:27656629

  20. Examining the role of activity, exercise, and pharmacology in mild COPD.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Denis E; Gebke, Kevin B

    2014-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, although it is a preventable and treatable disease, it often remains undiagnosed in patients with mild disease. It is now evident that pathologic changes and physiologic impairment start early in disease progression, and even patients with mild airflow limitation have impairment in the form of exertional dyspnea, general fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Primary care physicians are optimally positioned to recognize these progressive activity restrictions in their patients, usually involving little more than a detailed patient history and a simple symptom questionnaire. Once a patient with persistent activity-related dyspnea has been diagnosed with COPD, bronchodilators can effectively address expiratory airflow limitation and lung hyperinflation that underlie symptoms. These pharmacologic interventions work in conjunction with nonpharmacologic interventions, including smoking cessation, exercise training, and pulmonary rehabilitation. Although the benefits of exercise intervention are well established in patients with more severe COPD, a small amount of new data is emerging that supports the benefits of both pharmacologic treatment and exercise training for improving exercise endurance in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD. This review examines the growing body of data that suggests that early identification-most likely by primary care physicians-and appropriate intervention can favorably impact the symptoms, exercise tolerance, health status, quality of life, hospitalizations, and economic costs of COPD. PMID:25295658

  1. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  2. Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution

  3. Plasma vasopressin, renin activity, and aldosterone responses to maximal exercise in active college females.

    PubMed

    Maresh, C M; Wang, B C; Goetz, K L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of maximal treadmill exercise on plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP); renin activity (PRA); and aldosterone (ALDO) was studied in nine female college basketball players before and after a 5-month basketball season. Pre-season plasma AVP increased (p less than 0.05) from a pre-exercise concentration of 3.8 +/- 0.5 to 15.8 +/- 4.8 pg X ml-1 following exercise. Post-season, the pre-exercise plasma AVP level averaged 1.5 +/- 0.5 pg X ml-1 and increased to 16.7 +/- 5.9 pg X ml-1 after the exercise test. PRA increased (p less than 0.05) from a pre-exercise value of 1.6 +/- 0.6 to 6.8 +/- 1.7 ngAI X ml-1 X hr-1 5 min after the end of exercise during the pre-season test. In the post-season, the pre-exercise PRA was comparable (2.4 +/- 0.6 ngAI X ml- X hr-1), as was the elevation found after maximal exercise (8.3 +/- 1.9 ngAI X ml- X hr-1). Pre-season plasma ALDO increased (p less than 0.05) from 102.9 +/- 30.8 pg X ml-1 in the pre-exercise period to 453.8 +/- 54.8 pg X ml-1 after the exercise test. In the post-season the values were 108.9 +/- 19.4 and 365.9 +/- 64.4 pg X ml-1, respectively. Thus, maximal exercise in females produced significant increases in plasma AVP, renin activity, and ALDO that are comparable to those reported previously for male subjects. Moreover, this response is remarkably reproducible as demonstrated by the results of the two tests performed 5 months apart.

  4. 76 FR 59664 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement For Divert Activities and Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commomwealth of The Northern Mariana Islands AGENCY: Headquarters Pacific... Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The proposed divert activities and exercises would involve airfield improvements designed to provide additional...

  5. The Volcanic Ash Strategic Initiative Team (VAST) - operational testing activities and exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Arnold, Delia; Eckhardt, Sabine; Kristiansen, Nina; Maurer, Christian; Prata, Fred; Stohl, Andreas; Zehner, Claus

    2013-04-01

    The project VAST performs its activities within an ESA (European Space Agency) initiative to enhance the use of Earth Observation (EO) data in volcanic ash monitoring and forecasting. The VAST project aims at further exploring the suitability of EO data for such activities and to improve volcanic ash atmospheric transport forecasting services through exercises and demonstration activities in operational environments. Previous to the in-house deployment of the demonstration service, several exercises on operations and communication exchange are needed and first results are presented here. These exercises include technical in-house settings and conceptual planning of the operations with procedure development, volcanic eruptions drills that trigger the acquiring of data and dispersion/forecasting calculations with preliminary estimates of source terms and finally, an international exercise that provides a test case volcanic event to evaluate response times and the usefulness of the different products obtained. Products also include ensemble dispersion forecasts, on one hand multi-input ensembles utilizing the ECMWF EPS system, and on the other hand multi-model ensembles based on different dispersion models driven with different input data. As part of the work, socio-economic aspects need to be taken into account as well. This includes also the identification of best practices on how results can be presented to the stakeholders, including national authorities and policy makers, and the general public.

  6. Older women's personal goals and exercise activity: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Saajanaho, Milla; Viljanen, Anne; Read, Sanna; Rantakokko, Merja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jylhä, Marja; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66-79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people's health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.

  7. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  8. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  9. Acute Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Stress Triggers an Inflammatory Response in the Myocardium via NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation with Mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Miao, Weiguo; Ma, Jingfen; Xv, Zhen; Bo, Hai; Li, Jianyu; Zhang, Yong; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that acute strenuous exercise can induce a range of adverse reactions including oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. However, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the inflammatory response in the myocardium during acute heavy exercise. This study evaluated the mitochondrial function, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins to investigate the regulation and mechanism of mitochondrial stress regarding the inflammatory response of the rat myocardium during acute heavy exercise. The results indicated that the mitochondrial function of the myocardium was adaptively regulated to meet the challenge of stress during acute exercise. The exercise-induced mitochondrial stress also enhanced ROS generation and triggered an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins including Beclin1, LC3, and Bnip3 were all significantly upregulated during acute exercise, which suggests that mitophagy was stimulated in response to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the myocardium. Taken together, our data suggest that, during acute exercise, mitochondrial stress triggers the rat myocardial inflammatory response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activates mitophagy to minimize myocardial injury.

  10. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes.

  11. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. PMID:23906116

  12. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations for People with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Balemans, Astrid C.J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for typically developing youth and adults published by the World Health Organization and American College of Sports Medicine are available. However, detailed recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific PA and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily PA prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  13. Change in trunk muscle activities with prone bridge exercise in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients.

  14. Change in trunk muscle activities with prone bridge exercise in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients. PMID:26957771

  15. Change in trunk muscle activities with prone bridge exercise in patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong-soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients. PMID:26957771

  16. Muscle activity and spine load during pulling exercises: influence of stable and labile contact surfaces and technique coaching.

    PubMed

    McGill, Stuart M; Cannon, Jordan; Andersen, Jordan T

    2014-10-01

    This study examined pulling exercises performed on stable surfaces and unstable suspension straps. Specific questions included: which exercises challenged particular muscles, what was the magnitude of resulting spine load, and did technique coaching influence results. Fourteen males performed pulling tasks while muscle activity, external force, and 3D body segment motion were recorded. These data were processed and input to a sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model that used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, in this way the model was sensitive to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Muscle forces and linked segment joint loads were used to calculate spine loads. There were gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics to every task. It appears that suspension straps alter muscle activity less in pulling exercises, compared to studies reporting on pushing exercises. The chin-up and pull-up exercises created the highest spine load as they required the highest muscle activation, despite the body "hanging" under tractioning gravitational load. Coaching shoulder centration through retraction increased spine loading but undoubtedly adds proximal stiffness. An exercise atlas of spine compression was constructed to help with the decision making process of exercise choice for an individual. PMID:25066518

  17. Resistance Exercise in Already-Active Diabetic Individuals (READI): study rationale, design and methods for a randomized controlled trial of resistance and aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Jane E; Kenny, Glen P; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Goldfield, Gary S; Donovan, Lois; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Wells, George A; Phillips, Penny; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    The Resistance Exercise in Already Active Diabetic Individuals (READI) trial aimed to examine whether adding a 6-month resistance training program would improve glycemic control (as reflected in reduced HbA₁c) in individuals with type 1 diabetes who were already engaged in aerobic exercise compared to aerobic training alone. After a 5-week run-in period including optimization of diabetes care and low-intensity exercise, 131 physically active adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to two groups for 22weeks: resistance training three times weekly, or waiting-list control. Both groups maintained the same volume, duration and intensity of aerobic exercise throughout the study as they did at baseline. HbA₁c, body composition, frequency of hypoglycemia, lipids, blood pressure, apolipoproteins B and A-1 (ApoB and ApoA1), the ApoB-ApoA1 ratio, urinary albumin excretion, serum C-reactive protein, free fatty acids, total daily insulin dose, health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness were recorded at baseline, 3 (for some variables), and 6 months. To our knowledge, READI is the only trial to date assessing the incremental health-related impact of adding resistance training for individuals with type 1 diabetes who are already aerobically active. Few exercise trials have been completed in this population, and even fewer have assessed resistance exercise. With recent improvements in the quality of diabetes care, the READI study will provide conclusive evidence to support or refute a major clinically relevant effect of exercise type in the recommendations for physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25559915

  18. Resistance Exercise in Already-Active Diabetic Individuals (READI): study rationale, design and methods for a randomized controlled trial of resistance and aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Jane E; Kenny, Glen P; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Goldfield, Gary S; Donovan, Lois; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Wells, George A; Phillips, Penny; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    The Resistance Exercise in Already Active Diabetic Individuals (READI) trial aimed to examine whether adding a 6-month resistance training program would improve glycemic control (as reflected in reduced HbA₁c) in individuals with type 1 diabetes who were already engaged in aerobic exercise compared to aerobic training alone. After a 5-week run-in period including optimization of diabetes care and low-intensity exercise, 131 physically active adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to two groups for 22weeks: resistance training three times weekly, or waiting-list control. Both groups maintained the same volume, duration and intensity of aerobic exercise throughout the study as they did at baseline. HbA₁c, body composition, frequency of hypoglycemia, lipids, blood pressure, apolipoproteins B and A-1 (ApoB and ApoA1), the ApoB-ApoA1 ratio, urinary albumin excretion, serum C-reactive protein, free fatty acids, total daily insulin dose, health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness were recorded at baseline, 3 (for some variables), and 6 months. To our knowledge, READI is the only trial to date assessing the incremental health-related impact of adding resistance training for individuals with type 1 diabetes who are already aerobically active. Few exercise trials have been completed in this population, and even fewer have assessed resistance exercise. With recent improvements in the quality of diabetes care, the READI study will provide conclusive evidence to support or refute a major clinically relevant effect of exercise type in the recommendations for physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  19. Changes in the activities of the trunk muscles in different kinds of bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Soo; Cho, Yong Ho; Park, Ji Won

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different types of bridging exercises on the activities of the trunk muscles. [Methods] Twenty-four students participated in this experiment. The activities of the internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO), rectus abdominis (RA), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were measured in four different bridging exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in the IO, EO, RA, and ES among the four kinds of bridging exercise. The activities of IO, EO and RA were the highest in prone bridging (exercise 4), followed by unilateral bridging (exercise 3), and supine bridging on balance pads (exercise 2). In conventional bridging (exercise 1), the activities of IO, EO, and RA were the lowest. The activity of ES was the highest in exercise 3 followed by exercises 2 and 1. The activity of ES was the lowest than in exercise 1. [Conclusions] Bridging exercise in the prone position may be a more effective method of enhancing trunk muscle activities exercises in other positions. PMID:24409031

  20. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  1. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise. PMID:24259778

  2. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  3. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  4. A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

  5. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  6. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE. PMID:27239681

  7. Activation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle is dependent on exercise intensity and AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Schwalm, Céline; Jamart, Cécile; Benoit, Nicolas; Naslain, Damien; Prémont, Christophe; Prévet, Jérémy; Van Thienen, Ruud; Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-08-01

    In humans, nutrient deprivation and extreme endurance exercise both activate autophagy. We hypothesized that cumulating fasting and cycling exercise would potentiate activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle. Well-trained athletes were divided into control (n = 8), low-intensity (LI, n = 8), and high-intensity (HI, n = 7) exercise groups and submitted to fed and fasting sessions. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before, at the end, and 1 h after a 2 h LI or HI bout of exercise. Phosphorylation of ULK1(Ser317) was higher after exercise (P < 0.001). In both the fed and the fasted states, LC3bII protein level and LC3bII/I were decreased after LI and HI (P < 0.05), while p62/SQSTM1 was decreased only 1 h after HI (P < 0.05), indicating an increased autophagic flux after HI. The autophagic transcriptional program was also activated, as evidenced by the increased level of LC3b, p62/SQSTM1, GabarapL1, and Cathepsin L mRNAs observed after HI but not after LI. The increased autophagic flux after HI exercise could be due to increased AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) activity, as both AMPKα(Thr172) and ACC(Ser79) had a higher phosphorylation state after HI (P < 0.001). In summary, the most effective strategy to activate autophagy in human skeletal muscle seems to rely on exercise intensity more than diet. PMID:25957282

  8. Effects of pelvic stabilization on lumbar muscle activity during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Jun G; Yaggie, James A; Levy, Susan S; Mooney, Vert; Udermann, Brian E; Mayer, John M

    2005-11-01

    Many commonly utilized low-back exercise devices offer mechanisms to stabilize the pelvis and to isolate the lumbar spine, but the value of these mechanisms remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pelvic stabilization on the activity of the lumbar and hip extensor muscles during dynamic back extension exercise. Fifteen volunteers in good general health performed dynamic extension exercise in a seated upright position on a lumbar extension machine with and without pelvic stabilization. During exercise, surface electromyographic activity of the lumbar multifidus and biceps femoris was recorded. The activity of the multifidus was 51% greater during the stabilized condition, whereas there was no difference in the activity of the biceps femoris between conditions. This study demonstrates that pelvic stabilization enhances lumbar muscle recruitment during dynamic exercise on machines. Exercise specialists can use these data when designing exercise programs to develop low back strength.

  9. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life. PMID:25617423

  10. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life.

  11. Do changes in energy intake and non-exercise physical activity affect exercise-induced weight loss? Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059

  12. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  13. Effects of exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--a narrative review for FYSS (Swedish Physical Activity Exercise Prescription Book).

    PubMed

    Emtner, M; Wadell, K

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this review were to determine the level of evidence for exercise training in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and provide evidence-based recommendations on exercise training. This review was performed in PubMed and Cochrane Library. Included studies investigated patients with COPD who had been randomised to exercise training or no training. Six systematic reviews were included. The methodological quality was scored using a grading system (GRADE). The analysis showed that aerobic and resistance training in patients in a stable state of COPD results in improved health-related quality of life and decreased dyspnoea, anxiety and depression (moderately strong scientific evidence, grade +++), and increased physical capacity and decreased dyspnoea in daily activities (limited scientific evidence, grade ++). In patients with an acute exacerbation, aerobic and resistance training, performed directly after the exacerbation, results in improved health-related quality of life (moderately strong scientific evidence, grade +++), improved exercise capacity and decreased mortality and hospitalisation (limited scientific evidence, grade ++). Thus, patients with COPD should be recommended to take part in exercise training. PMID:26823440

  14. Exercise referral: the public health panacea for physical activity promotion? A critical perspective of exercise referral schemes; their development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dugdill, Lindsey; Graham, Rebecca C; McNair, Fiona

    This review critically explores the development, impact and evaluation of exercise referral schemes (ERS) in the UK. A rapid expansion in the use of such ERSs has been recorded throughout leisure and primary care settings, but the evidence underpinning their implementation has been sparse and predominantly limited to randomized control trial (RCT) research design. Consequently, understanding of exercise referral as a 'real world' intervention has been limited. Considering the increasing importance being placed on evidence-based practice and clinical effectiveness, it is no longer sufficient for service providers of exercise referral to ignore the need to evaluate schemes. The guidelines on evaluation provided by the National Quality Assurance Framework for Exercise Referral are limited, hence practitioners are often unsure of the best measures to use when assessing effectiveness. Predominantly, exercise professionals focus on the collection of physiological data but tend to ignore relevant psychological and environmental parameters. Also, few UK studies have followed participants up in the long term, to see if physical activity behaviour is sustained over time. Here, evidence from two on-going, large-scale (n = 1600/annum) evaluation studies of exercise referral schemes, based in urban localities in the northwest of England, are described. A participatory action research framework for evaluation was utilized and incorporated multi-method research approaches for the assessment of both ERS participants and health professionals involved in intervention delivery. This framework is an appropriate methodology for the evaluation and development of complex interventions, and here incorporates case study, focus groups, interviews and survey questionnaires. Included was a 12-month tracking study of a cohort of exercise referral participants (n = 342), which measured leisure-time physical activity levels (Godin leisure time score), at baseline (entry to exercise referral) and

  15. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  16. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  17. Effects of isometric hip movements on electromyographic activities of the trunk muscles during plank exercises.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. PMID:27630435

  18. Effects of isometric hip movements on electromyographic activities of the trunk muscles during plank exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. PMID:27630435

  19. Effects of isometric hip movements on electromyographic activities of the trunk muscles during plank exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises.

  20. Sustained postexercise vasodilatation and histamine receptor activation following small muscle-mass exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Halliwill, John R

    2013-01-01

    A sustained postexercise vasodilatation, which is histamine receptor mediated, has been observed following single bouts of whole-body exercise, but the mechanisms that regulate activation of histamine receptors following exercise are undefined. Exploration of vasodilatation after small muscle-mass dynamic or resistance exercise could provide novel insight into the pathways responsible for histamine receptor activation. We hypothesized that there would be a vasodilatation of the previously exercised limb following small muscle-mass dynamic and resistance exercise, which would be mediated by histamine receptors. We studied men and women before and after single-leg dynamic (n = 9) or resistance knee-extension exercise (n = 12) on control and blockade days (combined oral H(1) and H(2) receptor antagonism with fexofenadine and ranitidine). We measured arterial blood pressure (automated brachial oscillometry) and femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound). Dynamic exercise elevated leg vascular conductance in the active leg by 27.2 ± 8.4% at 60 min postexercise (P < 0.05 versus pre-exercise), but did not alter conductance in the rested leg (change, 4.6 ± 3.5%; P = 0.8 versus pre-exercise). The rise in conductance was abolished on the blockade day (change, 3.7 ± 5.1%; P = 0.8 versus pre-exercise, P = 0.2 versus control). Resistance exercise did not produce a sustained vasodilatation (change, -4.3 ± 4.7% at 60 min postexercise; P = 0.7 versus pre-exercise). These data indicate that histamine receptors are activated following dynamic, but not resistance, exercise. Furthermore, these data suggest that local factors associated with aerobic exercise, and not systemic factors or factors associated with high muscle force, are responsible for activation of histamine receptors in the previously exercised muscle.

  1. Cardiovascular Reflexes Activity and Their Interaction during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac output and arterial blood pressure increase during dynamic exercise notwithstanding the exercise-induced vasodilation due to functional sympatholysis. These cardiovascular adjustments are regulated in part by neural reflexes which operate to guarantee adequate oxygen supply and by-products washout of the exercising muscles. Moreover, they maintain adequate perfusion of the vital organs and prevent excessive increments in blood pressure. In this review, we briefly summarize neural reflexes operating during dynamic exercise with particular emphasis on their interaction. PMID:26557662

  2. The safety of a resistive home exercise program in patients with recent onset active polymyositis or dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, H; Stenström, C H; Jenner, G; Lundberg, I

    2000-01-01

    The objective was to investigate whether a 12-week resistive home exercise program in addition to conventional medical treatment could be safely performed regarding muscle inflammation, muscle function, and quality of life in patients with active polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM). Eleven patients diagnosed with active PM or DM were included. Muscle biopsies and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the thighs were performed. Quality of life, function, and subjective global disease impact (SGDI) were assessed and creatine phosphokinase levels (CPK) were analysed. The patients exercised with the exercise program for 15 minutes and took a 15-minute walk five days a week for 12 weeks. After the exercise period there was no sign of increased muscle inflammation. The group showed significantly improved function and quality of life compared to the start of study. It seems that this exercise program safely can be employed in patients with active PM or DM, and we suggest that physical exercise should be included in the rehabilitation of these patients.

  3. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms. PMID:25330347

  4. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.

  5. The impact of automatically activated motivation on exercise-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Banting, Lauren K; Dimmock, James A; Grove, J Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of motivational primes on participants (N = 171) during a cycling task. Relative to participants primed with a controlled motivational orientation, it was hypothesized that participants primed for autonomous motivation would report greater feelings of enjoyment, effort, and choice in relation to the cycling activity and report greater exercise intentions. Members of the autonomous prime group were expected to exercise for longer, at a greater percentage of their heart rate maximum, and report lower levels of perceived exertion than those in the controlled prime condition. It was found that, relative to participants in the controlled prime group, those who received the autonomous prime enjoyed the exercise more, exercised at a greater percentage of heart rate maximum, and reported a lower rating of perceived exertion. Furthermore, participants experiencing the controlled prime exercised for less time and had lower intentions to exercise than did other participants. Results highlight the importance of automatic processes in activating motivation for exercise. PMID:21808080

  6. Moderate intensity of regular exercise improves cardiac SR Ca2+ uptake activity in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Laosiripisan, Jitanan; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2009-10-01

    The impact of regular exercise in protecting cardiac deteriorating results of female sex hormone deprivation was evaluated by measuring changes in intracellular Ca2+ removal activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in ovariectomized rats following 9-wk treadmill running exercise at moderate intensity. Despite induction of cardiac hypertrophy in exercised groups of both sham-operated and ovariectomized rats, exercise training had no effect on SR Ca2+ uptake and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) in hormone intact rat heart. However, exercise training normalized the suppressed maximum SR Ca2+ uptake and SERCA activity in ovariectomized rat heart. While exercise training normalized the leftward shift in pCa (-log[Ca2+])-SR Ca2+ uptake relation in ovariectomized rats, no effect was detected in exercised sham-operated rats. Similar phenomena were also observed on SERCA and on phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation levels; exercise training in ovariectomized rats enhanced SERCA expression to reach the level as that in sham-operated rats, in which there were no differences in SERCA and phospho-PLB levels between sedentary and exercised groups. In addition, the reduction in phospho-Thr(17) PLB in myocardium of ovariectomized rats was abolished by exercise training. These results showed that regular exercise maintains the molecular activation of cardiac SR Ca2+ uptake under normal physiological conditions and is able to induce a protective impact on cardiac SR Ca2+ uptake in ovarian sex hormone-deprived status.

  7. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  8. Current perspectives on physical activity and exercise for youth with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pivovarov, Jacklyn A; Taplin, Craig E; Riddell, Michael C

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) for youth with diabetes improves cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone health, insulin sensitivity, and psychosocial well-being. However many youth with diabetes or pre-diabetes fail to meet minimum PA guidelines and a large percentage of youth with diabetes are overweight or obese. Active youth with type 1 diabetes tend to have lower HbA1c levels and reduced insulin needs, whereas activity in adolescents at-risk for type 2 diabetes improves various measures of metabolism and body composition. Insulin and nutrient adjustments for exercise in type 1 diabetes is complex because of varied responses to exercise type and because of the different times of day that exercise is performed. This review highlights the benefits of exercise and the established barriers to exercise participation in the pediatric diabetes population. A new exercise management algorithm for insulin and carbohydrate intake strategies for active youth with type 1 diabetes is presented.

  9. Nerve growth factor-like activity detected in equine peripheral blood after running exercise.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Koyama, H; Oikawa, M; Yoshihara, T; Kaneko, M

    1991-08-01

    Addition of sera, collected from Thoroughbred horses after sprint exercise, induced significant neurite outgrowth from chick embryo dorsal root ganglia after a 24-hour culture. The nerve growth factor (NGF)-like activity was detected in sera collected immediately, or 1 hour or more, after the exercise. These findings suggest a possible role of serum NGF-like activity under stress conditions (running exercise) of horses.

  10. Effects of current physical activity on affective response to exercise: physical and social-cognitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Affective responses during exercise are often important determinants of exercise initiation and maintenance. Current physical activity may be one individual difference that is associated with the degree to which individuals have positive (or negative) affective experiences during exercise. The objective of this study was to explore physical and cognitive explanations of the relationship between current activity status (more versus less active) and affective response during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Participants reported their current level of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy and affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. More active individuals experienced higher levels of positive affect and tranquillity and lower levels of negative affect and fatigue during exercise. Multivariate models for each affective state indicated separate processes through which physical activity may be associated with changes in affect during exercise. These models indicate that affect experienced during physical activity is related to the current activity level and these relationships can be partially explained by the physical and cognitive factors explored in this study. Recommendations for future research to elucidate whether positive affective response to physical activity improves as a function of becoming more active over time are discussed.

  11. Sympathetic Activity Assessed During Exercise Recovery in Young Obese Females

    PubMed Central

    Franco, R. Lee; Privett, Stacey H.; Bowen, Mary K.; Acevedo, Edmund O.; Arrowood, James A.; Wickham, Edmond P.; Evans, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate differences in sympathetic activity, as assessed by an exercise recovery index (ERI; heart rate/VO2 plateau), between black and white obese female adolescents. An additional aim was to determine the association of ERI with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cardiovascular fitness per fat-free mass (VO2FFM), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and percent body fat (%FAT) in both black and white obese adolescents. Study design Sixty-one females volunteered to participate in this study. HOMA-IR, SBP and %FAT were assessed during resting conditions in black (n=49, 13.7±1.6 yrs, 38.1±6.1 kg/m2) and white (n=12, 13.3±2.2 yrs, 34.3±4.9 kg/m2) obese adolescents. An ERI was calculated during a 5-minute passive recovery period immediately following a graded treadmill exercise test to exhaustion. Results The ERI was significantly greater in black compared with white obese adolescent females (29.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.1 ± 3.1 bpm·mLO2−1 ·min−1, P = 0.004). Using multiple linear regression modeling, there was a significant independent association between ERI and VO2FFM (r = −0.310, P = 0.027) and %FAT (r = 0.326, P = 0.020) in black obese adolescents after controlling for HOMA-IR and SBP. Conclusions These results suggest that black obese adolescent females have greater sympathetic activity, as assessed by an ERI, than white obese adolescent females. These findings support the need for weight management efforts aimed at both reducing %FAT and improving fitness in obese adolescents, specifically black females. Trial registration Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00562293 PMID:26003997

  12. Impact of sympathetic nervous system activity on post-exercise flow-mediated dilatation in humans.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ceri L; Lewis, Nia C S; Carter, Howard H; Thijssen, Dick H J; Ainslie, Philip N; Green, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Transient reduction in vascular function following systemic large muscle group exercise has previously been reported in humans. The mechanisms responsible are currently unknown. We hypothesised that sympathetic nervous system activation, induced by cycle ergometer exercise, would contribute to post-exercise reductions in flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Ten healthy male subjects (28 ± 5 years) undertook two 30 min sessions of cycle exercise at 75% HR(max). Prior to exercise, individuals ingested either a placebo or an α1-adrenoreceptor blocker (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg(-1)). Central haemodynamics, brachial artery shear rate (SR) and blood flow profiles were assessed throughout each exercise bout and in response to brachial artery FMD, measured prior to, immediately after and 60 min after exercise. Cycle exercise increased both mean and antegrade SR (P < 0.001) with retrograde SR also elevated under both conditions (P < 0.001). Pre-exercise FMD was similar on both occasions, and was significantly reduced (27%) immediately following exercise in the placebo condition (t-test, P = 0.03). In contrast, FMD increased (37%) immediately following exercise in the prazosin condition (t-test, P = 0.004, interaction effect P = 0.01). Post-exercise FMD remained different between conditions after correction for baseline diameters preceding cuff deflation and also post-deflation SR. No differences in FMD or other variables were evident 60 min following recovery. Our results indicate that sympathetic vasoconstriction competes with endothelium-dependent dilator activity to determine post-exercise arterial function. These findings have implications for understanding the chronic impacts of interventions, such as exercise training, which affect both sympathetic activity and arterial shear stress.

  13. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  14. Physical activity, smoking, and exercise-induced fatigue.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Crow, R S; Jacobs, D R; Mittelmark, M B; Leon, A S

    1984-06-01

    This study determined whether persons with coronary risk factors have increased fatigue during or after exercise. Ratings of perceived exertion were first shown to be a valid measure of fatigue; i.e., ratings of perceived exertion correlated with heart rate both during and after exercise and at each of three exercise tests (all within-subjects r greater than 0.88). Physical inactivity and smoking were associated with increased fatigue. Inactive men and smokers had higher levels of fatigue during both exercise and recovery conditions and at each of three exercise test. The increased fatigue of men who were inactive and smoked was not entirely due to their lower level of fitness. The risk factors of age, Type A behavior pattern, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein, and obesity were not associated with increased fatigue. The increased fatigue experienced by inactive persons and smokers may account for their decreased compliance to exercise programs.

  15. Changes in Short-Term Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise of University Personal Wellness Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Mick G.; Shaddox, Lea Ann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes toward physical activity and exercise of university students enrolled in Personal Wellness classes. 1,625 undergraduate students completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise and Physical Activity (ATEPA) inventory on the first and last day of the class. Paired-samples t test results comparing the mean pretest ATEPA…

  16. Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Chambers, E S; Bridge, M W; Jones, D A

    2009-04-15

    Exercise studies have suggested that the presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth activates regions of the brain that can enhance exercise performance but direct evidence of such a mechanism is limited. The first aim of the present study was to observe how rinsing the mouth with solutions containing glucose and maltodextrin, disguised with artificial sweetener, would affect exercise performance. The second aim was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the brain regions activated by these substances. In Study 1A, eight endurance-trained cyclists (VO2max 60.8 +/- 4.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a cycle time trial (total work = 914 +/- 29 kJ) significantly faster when rinsing their mouths with a 6.4% glucose solution compared with a placebo containing saccharin (60.4 +/- 3.7 and 61.6 +/- 3.8 min, respectively, P = 0.007). The corresponding fMRI study (Study 1B) revealed that oral exposure to glucose activated reward-related brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex and striatum, which were unresponsive to saccharin. In Study 2A, eight endurance-trained cyclists (VO2max 57.8 +/- 3.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) tested the effect of rinsing with a 6.4% maltodextrin solution on exercise performance, showing it to significantly reduce the time to complete the cycle time trial (total work = 837 +/- 68 kJ) compared to an artificially sweetened placebo (62.6 +/- 4.7 and 64.6 +/- 4.9 min, respectively, P = 0.012). The second neuroimaging study (Study 2B) compared the cortical response to oral maltodextrin and glucose, revealing a similar pattern of brain activation in response to the two carbohydrate solutions, including areas of the insula/frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. The results suggest that the improvement in exercise performance that is observed when carbohydrate is present in the mouth may be due to the activation of brain regions believed to be involved in reward and motor control. The findings also suggest that

  17. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364

  18. Exercise performance and peripheral vascular insufficiency improve with AMPK activation in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; White, Kathy; Li, Wei; Claypool, Mark D.; Lang, Wayne; Alcantara, Raniel; Singh, Baljit K.; Friera, Annabelle M.; McLaughlin, John; Hansen, Derek; McCaughey, Kelly; Nguyen, Henry; Smith, Ira J.; Godinez, Guillermo; Shaw, Simon J.; Goff, Dane; Singh, Rajinder; Markovtsov, Vadim; Sun, Tian-Qiang; Jenkins, Yonchu; Uy, Gerald; Li, Yingwu; Pan, Alison; Gururaja, Tarikere; Lau, David; Park, Gary; Hitoshi, Yasumichi; Payan, Donald G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent claudication is a form of exercise intolerance characterized by muscle pain during walking in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Endothelial cell and muscle dysfunction are thought to be important contributors to the etiology of this disease, but a lack of preclinical models that incorporate these elements and measure exercise performance as a primary end point has slowed progress in finding new treatment options for these patients. We sought to develop an animal model of peripheral vascular insufficiency in which microvascular dysfunction and exercise intolerance were defining features. We further set out to determine if pharmacological activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) might counteract any of these functional deficits. Mice aged on a high-fat diet demonstrate many functional and molecular characteristics of PAD, including the sequential development of peripheral vascular insufficiency, increased muscle fatigability, and progressive exercise intolerance. These changes occur gradually and are associated with alterations in nitric oxide bioavailability. Treatment of animals with an AMPK activator, R118, increased voluntary wheel running activity, decreased muscle fatigability, and prevented the progressive decrease in treadmill exercise capacity. These functional performance benefits were accompanied by improved mitochondrial function, the normalization of perfusion in exercising muscle, increased nitric oxide bioavailability, and decreased circulating levels of the endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine. These data suggest that aged, obese mice represent a novel model for studying exercise intolerance associated with peripheral vascular insufficiency, and pharmacological activation of AMPK may be a suitable treatment for intermittent claudication associated with PAD. PMID:24561866

  19. Exercise Pills: At the Starting Line.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunchang; Laher, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, limited physical exercise, and prolonged inactivity undoubtedly increase chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. It is widely acknowledged that exercise induces a number of physiological adaptations that have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these chronic metabolic diseases. Unfortunately, exercise compliance is extremely low and often not possible. The development of exercise science and molecular techniques has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways responsive to exercise. Knowledge of these molecular targets has led to the development of chemical interventions that can mimic the beneficial effects of exercise without requiring actual muscle activity. This review focuses on the concept of 'exercise pills' and how they mimic the effects produced by physical exercise including oxidative fiber-type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, increased fat oxidation, angiogenesis, and improvement of exercise capacity. We also review candidate exercise pills, and contrast the beneficial effects and molecular mechanisms between physical exercise and exercise pills.

  20. Effects of cognitive training with and without aerobic exercise on cognitively demanding everyday activities.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Mark A; Binder, Ellen F; Bugg, Julie M; Waldum, Emily R; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Kudelka, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive-training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults' performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were 3 laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults' performance on prospective-memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with 6 months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable with previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive-training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  1. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  2. Antiradical activity of gallic acid included in lipid interphases.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, C L; Frías, M A; Cutro, A C; Nazareno, M A; Disalvo, E A

    2014-10-01

    Polyphenols are well known as antioxidant agents and by their effects on the hydration layers of lipid interphases. Among them, gallic acid and its derivatives are able to decrease the dipole potential and to act in water as a strong antioxidant. In this work we have studied both effects on lipid interphases in monolayers and bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. The results show that gallic acid (GA) increases the negative surface charges of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and decreases the dipole potential of the lipid interphase. As a result, positively charged radical species such as ABTS(+) are able to penetrate the membrane forming an association with GA. These results allow discussing the antiradical activity (ARA) of GA at the membrane phase which may be taking place in water spaces between the lipids.

  3. Contamination by an Active Control Condition in a Randomized Exercise Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Contamination is commonly overlooked in randomized trials. The present study examined contamination (minutes of aerobic activity outside of exercise sessions) within an active control condition in a 6-month randomized exercise trial for older adults. We hypothesized that outside aerobic activity would be greater in the control condition compared to the intervention conditions. Participants (mean age = 65.06 years, 66.2% female) were randomly assigned to: Dance (n = 50), Walking, (n = 108), or Strength/Stretching/Stability (SSS; n = 48). Dance and Walking represented the experimental conditions and SSS the control condition. Participants attended exercise sessions three times weekly for 24 weeks. Participants recorded their physical activity outside of class on a weekly home log. Group assignment and covariates (age, gender, body mass index, exercise session intensity and enjoyment, and program adherence) were examined as predictors of weekly aerobic activity outside of exercise sessions. Participants who returned zero home logs were removed from the dataset (final N = 195). Out-of-class aerobic activity was lowest in the Walking group. Significant effects of gender, group, enjoyment, and intensity on out-of-class weekly aerobic activity were observed, all p<0.003. Higher perceived enjoyment of exercise sessions was associated with more out-of-class aerobic activity, while higher perceived intensity was associated with less out-of-class aerobic activity. A group x intensity interaction, p = 0.002, indicated that group differences in out-of-class aerobic activity were evident only among those with lower intensity perceptions. Walkers may have perceived exercise sessions as sufficient weekly exercise, while the Dance and SSS groups may have perceived the sessions as necessary, but insufficient. The lower aerobic intensity Dancers attributed to exercise sessions and non-aerobic nature of SSS may partially explain contamination observed in this study. Further

  4. COMPARISON OF EXERCISE PARTICIPATION RATES FOR CHILDREN IN THE LITERATURE WITH THOSE IN EPA'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE (CHAD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHAD contains over 22,000 person-days of human activity pattern survey data. Part of the database includes exercise participation rates for children 0-17 years old, as well as for adults. Analyses of this database indicates that approximately 34% of the 0-17 age group (herea...

  5. Breakpoints in ventilation, cerebral and muscle oxygenation, and muscle activity during an incremental cycling exercise

    PubMed Central

    Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Girard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the breakpoints of cerebral and muscle oxygenation and muscle electrical activity during a ramp exercise in reference to the first and second ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-five cyclists completed a maximal ramp test on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 25 W/min. Expired gazes (breath-by-breath), prefrontal cortex and vastus lateralis (VL) oxygenation [Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] together with electromyographic (EMG) Root Mean Square (RMS) activity for the VL, rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were continuously assessed. There was a non-linear increase in both cerebral deoxyhemoglobin (at 56 ± 13% of the exercise) and oxyhemoglobin (56 ± 8% of exercise) concomitantly to the first ventilatory threshold (57 ± 6% of exercise, p > 0.86, Cohen's d < 0.1). Cerebral deoxyhemoglobin further increased (87 ± 10% of exercise) while oxyhemoglobin reached a plateau/decreased (86 ± 8% of exercise) after the second ventilatory threshold (81 ± 6% of exercise, p < 0.05, d > 0.8). We identified one threshold only for muscle parameters with a non-linear decrease in muscle oxyhemoglobin (78 ± 9% of exercise), attenuation in muscle deoxyhemoglobin (80 ± 8% of exercise), and increase in EMG activity of VL (89 ± 5% of exercise), RF (82 ± 14% of exercise), and BF (85 ± 9% of exercise). The thresholds in BF and VL EMG activity occurred after the second ventilatory threshold (p < 0.05, d > 0.6). Our results suggest that the metabolic and ventilatory events characterizing this latter cardiopulmonary threshold may affect both cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels, and in turn, muscle recruitment responses. PMID:24782786

  6. Passive and active exercises are similarly effective in elderly nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Nicole L.; Rogers, Michael E.; Islam, Mohammod Monirul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive motion exercise and active motion exercise on functional fitness in elderly nursing home residents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three (female 22 and male 1) nursing home residents (84.8±4.3 yr) volunteered for this study. They were divided into a passive motion exercise group (n=12) and an active motion exercise group (n=11) and performed 30-min sessions of training twice a week for 12 weeks. Functional fitness (Arm Curl, Chair Stand, Up & Go, Sit & Reach, Back Scratch, functional Reach, and 12-min Walk tests) was evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] No significant baseline difference was noted between the groups in measured variables. Following the 12 week intervention, no significant interaction (group × time) was noted in functional fitness variables between the groups, except for the functional reach scores (active motion exercise 40%, passive motion exercise 9%). Significant improvement over time was noted in passive motion exercise group in Arm Curl (19%), Chair Stand (15%), Up & Go (6%), and 12-min Walk (12%) scores; and in the active motion exercise group in Arm Curl (14%), Chair Stand (19%), Up & Go (11%), functional Reach (40%) and 12-min Walk (13%) scores. The adherence rates in the passive and active motion exercise groups were 95.8% and 93.1% respectively. [Conclusion] Passive motion exercise and active motion exercise were found to be similarly effective for improving the functional fitness of elderly nursing home residents. PMID:26504320

  7. Perceptions of older Latino adults regarding physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Melillo, K D; Williamson, E; Houde, S C; Futrell, M; Read, C Y; Campasano, M

    2001-09-01

    Healthy People 2000 has identified the importance of physical activity for healthy aging, but little is known about what motivates older individuals, older Latino adults, in particular, to be physically active. The purpose of this research was to examine the perceptions of older Latino adults toward physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise. This study used a qualitative focus group design. The sample of Latino adults age 60 and older resided in Northeast Massachusetts and was recruited from community settings which serve older Latino adults. Three focus groups, consisting of four to eight individuals in each group, were conducted and audiotaped. Data analysis used a combination of open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Focus group participants viewed physical fitness as being able to do anything; the mind and body working together; and feeling "light," being healthy. Support was viewed as a motivator of physical activity and exercise and included community resources, group support, cultural unity, and health provider assistance Barriers of fear and a feeling of inappropriateness were identified by focus group participants. Although the study was exploratory and the sample size small, it provides useful cultural knowledge and information for community health and gerontological nurses. Knowledge about older Latino adults' perceptions of motivators and barriers to physical activity and exercise is a necessary first step for nurses to prescribe activities that will help improve functional independence and quality of life. Nurses can serve as links for older Latino adults in accessing community resources. Sociocultural factors that influence Latino adult perceptions must be assessed if health promotion program planning is to be tailored to meet individual and group needs.

  8. [Update on Current Care Guideline: Physical activity and exercise training for adults in sickness and in health].

    PubMed

    Rauramaa, Rainer; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Arokoski, Jari; Hohtari, Hannele; Ketola, Eeva; Kettunen, Jyrki; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kujala, Urho; Laukkanen, Jari; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Savela, Salla; Savonen, Kai; Tikkanen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the guideline is to promote physical activity in the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of diseases. Physical activity plays a key role in the management of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. In this guideline, the following diseases are discussed: endocrinological, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases, as well as depression and cancer. In addition, physical activity during pregnancy and in senior citizens is reviewed. Exercise counseling should be included as part of disease management and lifestyle guidance. PMID:27089621

  9. Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise – Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) – a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with acute leukemia experience a substantial symptom burden and are at risk of developing infections throughout the course of repeated cycles of intensive chemotherapy. Physical activity in recent years has been a strategy for rehabilitation in cancer patients to remedy disease and treatment related symptoms and side effects. To date, there are no clinical practice exercise guidelines for patients with acute leukemia undergoing induction and consolidation chemotherapy. A randomized controlled trial is needed to determine if patients with acute leukemia can benefit by a structured and supervised counseling and exercise program. Methods/design This paper presents the study protocol: Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise – Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) trial, a two center, randomized controlled trial of 70 patients with acute leukemia (35 patients/study arm) following induction chemotherapy in the outpatient setting. Eligible patients will be randomized to usual care or to the 12 week exercise and counseling program. The intervention includes 3 hours + 30 minutes per week of supervised and structured aerobic training (moderate to high intensity 70 - 80%) on an ergometer cycle, strength exercises using hand weights and relaxation exercise. Individual health counseling sessions include a self directed home walk program with a step counter. The primary endpoint is functional performance/exercise capacity (6 minute walk distance). The secondary endpoints are submaximal VO2 max test, sit to stand and bicep curl test, physical activity levels, patient reported outcomes (quality of life, anxiety and depression, symptom prevalence, intensity and interference). Evaluation of clinical outcomes will be explored including incidence of infection, hospitalization days, body mass index, time to recurrence and survival. Qualitative exploration of patients’ health behavior and experiences. Discussion PACE-AL will provide evidence of the effect of

  10. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  11. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain.

  12. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  13. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise. PMID:26840532

  14. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.

  15. Effects of exercise and conditioning on clotting and fibrinolytic activity in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Earl W.; Bernier, Lani L.; Banta, Guy R.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Schoomaker, Eric B.

    1987-01-01

    Blood clotting and fibrinolytic activity in three groups of nonsmoking, nonobese, healthy men ranging from 19 to 59 years are studied. The groups consisted of (1) marathoners (men running more than 50 miles/week); (2) joggers (men running 5-15 miles/week; and (3) sedentary subjects (men who did not exercise routinely). It is observed that the rate of blood clotting is accelerated by exercise; marathoners had greater increases in fibrinolytic activity than the other two groups; and fibrin degradation products increased with exercise. The data reveal that the changes in clotting assays with exercise do not correlate with changes in whole blood lactate, blood pyruvate, or rectal temperatures. It is noted that the level of acceleration for fibrinolytic activity is directly related to the maximum aerobic capacity and work load of the individual, and that conditioning enhances the fibrinolytic response to exercise.

  16. Physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Kristin

    2012-09-01

    Arthritis in childhood can be associated with low levels of physical activity and poor physical fitness. Children with arthritis may have decreased aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscle weakness, low bone mass, and low bone strength. Suboptimal physical activity and exercise capacity may contribute to further deconditioning and disability, placing children with arthritis at risk for poor health outcomes. Recent studies suggest that exercise therapy is safe and does not worsen arthritis. Exercise therapy may improve function, quality of life, and physical fitness. However, little is known about the exercise prescription that is most effective to improve clinical outcomes in children with arthritis. This article reviews the current literature on physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  17. Dissociation of Increases in PGC-1α and Its Regulators from Exercise Intensity and Muscle Activation Following Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Paul B.; Simpson, Craig A.; Little, Jonathan P.; Graham, Ryan B.; Gurd, Brendon J.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle activation as well as changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) following high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) were examined in young healthy men (n  = 8; age, 21.9±2.2 yrs; VO2peak, 53.1±6.4 ml/min/kg; peak work rate, 317±23.5 watts). On each of 3 visits HIIE was performed on a cycle ergometer at a target intensity of 73, 100, or 133% of peak work rate. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and three hours after each exercise condition. Total work was not different between conditions (∼730 kJ) while average power output (73%, 237±21; 100%, 323±26; 133%, 384±35 watts) and EMG derived muscle activation (73%, 1262±605; 100%, 2089±737; 133%, 3029±1206 total integrated EMG per interval) increased in an intensity dependent fashion. PGC-1α mRNA was elevated after all three conditions (p<0.05), with a greater increase observed following the 100% condition (∼9 fold, p<0.05) compared to both the 73 and 133% conditions (∼4 fold). When expressed relative to muscle activation, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA for the 133% condition was less than that for the 73 and 100% conditions (p<0.05). SIRT1 mRNA was also elevated after all three conditions (∼1.4 fold, p<0.05), with no difference between conditions. These findings suggest that intensity-dependent increases in PGC-1α mRNA following submaximal exercise are largely due to increases in muscle recruitment. As well, the blunted response of PGC-1α mRNA expression following supramaximal exercise may indicate that signalling mediated activation of PGC-1α may also be blunted. We also indentify that increases in PDK4, SIRT1, and RIP140 mRNA following acute exercise are dissociated from exercise intensity and muscle activation, while increases in EGR1 are augmented with supramaximal HIIE (p<0.05). PMID:23951207

  18. The effect of high intensity interval exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol and leukocyte activation--monitored for 48 h post exercise.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Brendan Morris; Pugh, Jamie; Pruneta-Deloche, Valerie; Moulin, Philippe; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Stuart Robert

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial phenomenon are thought to contribute to atherogenesis alongside activation of the immune system. A single bout of high intensity interval exercise attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), although the longevity and mechanisms underlying this observation are unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether this attenuation in postprandial TG remained 2 days after high intensity interval exercise, to monitor markers of leukocyte activation and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Eight young men each completed two three day trials. On day 1: subjects rested (Control) or performed 5 x 30 s maximal sprints (high intensity interval exercise). On day 2 and 3 subjects consumed high fat meals for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TG, glucose and TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-bound LPL-dependent TRL-TG hydrolysis (LTTH). Flow cytometry was used to evaluate granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b and CD36 expression. On day 2 after high intensity interval exercise TG area under the curve was lower (P<0.05) (7.46 ± 1.53 mmol/l/7h) compared to the control trial (9.47 ± 3 .04 mmol/l/7h) with no differences during day 3 of the trial. LTTH activity was higher (P<0.05) after high intensity interval exercise, at 2 hours of day 2, compared to control. Granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b expression increased with time over day 2 and 3 of the study (P<0.0001). Lymphocyte and monocyte CD36 expression decreased with time over day 2 and 3 (P<0.05). There were no differences between trials in CD11b and CD36 expression on any leukocytes. A single session of high intensity interval exercise attenuated postprandial TG on day 2 of the study, with this effect abolished by day 3.The reduction in postprandial TG was associated with an increase in LTTH. High intensity interval exercise had no effect on postprandial responses of CD11b or CD36.

  19. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  20. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  1. Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

  2. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  3. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  4. Effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid and abdominal muscle activity during curl-up exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject’s hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise. PMID:26957735

  5. Exercise Prevents Amyloid-β-Induced Hippocampal Network Disruption by Inhibiting GSK3β Activation.

    PubMed

    Isla, Arturo G; Vázquez-Cuevas, Francisco Gabriel; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2016-03-16

    Exercise is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to prevent alterations both in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in transgenic models of AD. This neuroprotection has been associated with changes in hippocampal structure and function, as well as with the reduction of amyloid-β (Aβ) production and accumulation. However, whether exercise produces lasting changes in hippocampal population activity and renders it resistant to Aβ-induced network dysfunction is still unknown. Thus, we tested whether voluntary exercise changes hippocampal population activity and prevents its alteration in the presence of Aβ, which has been associated to glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activation. We found that the hippocampal population activity recorded in slices obtained from mice that exercised voluntarily (with free access to a running wheel for 21 days) exhibits higher power and faster frequency composition than slices obtained from sedentary animals. Moreover, the hippocampal network of mice that exercised becomes insensitive to Aβ-induced inhibition of spontaneous population activity. This protective effect correlates with the inability of Aβ to activate GSK3β, is mimicked by GSK3β inhibition with SB126763 (in slices obtained from sedentary mice), and is abolished by the inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 (in slices obtained from mice that exercised). We conclude that voluntary exercise produces a lasting protective state in the hippocampus, maintained in hippocampal slices by a PI3K-dependent mechanism that precludes its functional disruption in the presence of Aβ by avoiding GSK3β activation.

  6. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  7. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  8. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity.

  9. Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during stabilization exercises using a gym ball.

    PubMed

    Mori, A

    2004-01-01

    Trunk stabilization is very important for the injured lower back. The use of a gym ball, the surface of which is labile, is becoming more popular for strengthening the trunk muscles and challenging the motor control system in trunk stabilization exercises. However, little is known about the activity of the trunk muscles during such exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trunk muscles during seven stabilization exercises using a gym ball. Eleven healthy men (19.9 +/- 1.8 years old) without low back pain volunteered to participate in the study. Bipolar surface electrodes were attached to the right side of the upper and lower rectus abdominis, the obliquus externus abdominis and the upper and lower back extensor muscles. EMG signals were recorded during seven types of stabilization exercises using a gym ball and normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (% MVC). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on % MVC from each task for each of the five trunk muscle sites (p < 0.05). Push-up exercise, supporting with both hands on the gym ball and toes on the floor in prone position, resulted in the highest activity of all abdominal muscles, and an exercise of the lifting the gym ball up, holding it actively between both legs with both knees flexed in supine position resulted in the lowest. Lifting up of the pelvis in a bridged position exercise, supporting the head with the gym ball and with the feet on the floor in supine position, resulted in higher muscle activity of the back extensor muscles than another exercise. It is very important for physical therapists to make clear the purpose of the trunk stabilization exercises, because different kinds of exercises with the gym ball demand various levels of muscular activity and use of various parts of the trunk muscles.

  10. Lifetime exercise activity and breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, C L; Ross, R K; Paganini-Hill, A; Bernstein, L

    1999-08-01

    Lifetime exercise activity has been linked to breast cancer risk among young women. However, no study has specifically evaluated whether lifetime exercise activity is related to the breast cancer risk of post-menopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of post-menopausal white women (1123 newly diagnosed cases and 904 healthy controls) aged 55-64 who lived in Los Angeles County, California, USA to evaluate this relationship. Although neither exercise activity from menarche to age 40 years, nor exercise after age 40 separately predicted breast cancer risk, risk was lower among women who had exercised each week for at least 17.6 MET-hours (metabolic equivalent of energy expenditure multiplied by hours of activity) since menarche than among inactive women (odds ratio (OR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.83). Exercise activity was not protective for women who gained considerable (> 17%) weight during adulthood. However, among women with more stable weight, breast cancer risk was substantially reduced for those who consistently exercised at high levels throughout their lifetime (OR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.24-0.75), those who exercised more than 4 h per week for at least 12 years (OR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.40-0.88), and those who exercised vigorously (24.5 MET-hours per week) during the most recent 10 years (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.32-0.85). Strenuous exercise appears to reduce breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women who do not gain sizable amounts of weight during adulthood.

  11. The effects of isometric exercise types on pain and muscle activity in patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Park, Hun-Kyung; Park, Jung-Sub; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise types on low back pain (LBP) patients. Isometric exercise types were mat exercise and I-Zer exercise. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: LBP control group, LBP mat exercise group, and LBP I-Zer exercise group in 23-25 aged men. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the muscle activity in LBP patients. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and mean frequency (MNF) were checked by EMG power spectrum analysis on longissimus thoracic (LT), iliocostalis lumborum (IL), mulitifidus (M), and rectus abdominis (RA). LBP mat exercise program and LBP I-Zer exercise program were conducted 5 sets once time, 3 times per week during 6 weeks. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used to check the pain degree and muscle activity. The present results showed that muscle activity in the LBP I-Zer exercise group was increased compared to the LBP mat exercise group and LBP control group (P<0.05). LBP I-Zer exercise group and LBP mat exercise group showed increased mean frequency in LT, IL, M, and RA muscles than the LBP control group. Therefore, LBP patients performed isometric exercise may have positive effect to reduce pain degree and to increase muscle activity. Especially, LBP I-Zer exercise type showed more effectiveness in reducing pain degree and enhancing muscle activity.

  12. The effects of isometric exercise types on pain and muscle activity in patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Park, Hun-Kyung; Park, Jung-Sub; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise types on low back pain (LBP) patients. Isometric exercise types were mat exercise and I-Zer exercise. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: LBP control group, LBP mat exercise group, and LBP I-Zer exercise group in 23–25 aged men. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the muscle activity in LBP patients. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and mean frequency (MNF) were checked by EMG power spectrum analysis on longissimus thoracic (LT), iliocostalis lumborum (IL), mulitifidus (M), and rectus abdominis (RA). LBP mat exercise program and LBP I-Zer exercise program were conducted 5 sets once time, 3 times per week during 6 weeks. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used to check the pain degree and muscle activity. The present results showed that muscle activity in the LBP I-Zer exercise group was increased compared to the LBP mat exercise group and LBP control group (P<0.05). LBP I-Zer exercise group and LBP mat exercise group showed increased mean frequency in LT, IL, M, and RA muscles than the LBP control group. Therefore, LBP patients performed isometric exercise may have positive effect to reduce pain degree and to increase muscle activity. Especially, LBP I-Zer exercise type showed more effectiveness in reducing pain degree and enhancing muscle activity. PMID:26331136

  13. Effects of type of physical exercise and leisure activities on the depression scores of obese Brazilian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Stella, S G; Vilar, A P; Lacroix, C; Fisberg, M; Santos, R F; Mello, M T; Tufik, S

    2005-11-01

    Several studies have indicated that depressive states may lead to hypokinesia with diminished metabolic rate and energy use. Hypokinesia associated with certain eating behaviors may lead to an unfavorable energy balance that can contribute to the emergence and prevalence of obesity among children and adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possibility of reducing depression inventory scores in female adolescents with third-degree obesity while testing the effectiveness of different exercise programs in reducing anxiety and depression scores. The sample consisted of 40 female subjects (mean age 16 +/- 1.56 years) divided into 4 groups (aerobic training, anaerobic training, leisure activities, and control). Subjects had a body mass index of 95% or more in relation to the 50th percentile. The aerobic program consisted of three ergometric bicycle sessions per week over a 3-month period (12 weeks) and the activities were prescribed after determining the anaerobic ventilatory threshold (VO2 threshold). Anaerobic training was based on the Wingate anaerobic power test. The leisure program consisted of a varied range of activities (games, exercises, etc.). A nutritionist interviewed the members of these two groups and the control group every week in order to adapt them to the nutritional guidelines proposed for the study. The study showed that all three programs (aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and leisure activities) were effective in reducing body mass. However, we found a significant reduction when analyzing the depression scores only for aerobic exercise (18.9 +/- 9.33 to 10.6 +/- 9.56 or 43.9%) but no significant alterations for anaerobic exercise (11.36 +/- 5.23 to 9.63 +/- 4.78 or 15.22%) and leisure (17.28 +/- 7.55 to 15.07 +/- 7.54 or 12.78%), thus indicating that in principle this type of activity could be included to improve emotional well-being of obese adolescent girls.

  14. Roles of sedentary aging and lifelong physical activity in exchange of glutathione across exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Cabo, Helena; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen; Viña, Jose; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules with regulatory functions, and in young and adult organisms, the formation of ROS is increased during skeletal muscle contractions. However, ROS can be deleterious to cells when not sufficiently counterbalanced by the antioxidant system. Aging is associated with accumulation of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Given the pro-oxidant effect of skeletal muscle contractions, this effect of age could be a result of excessive ROS formation. We evaluated the effect of acute exercise on changes in blood redox state across the leg of young (23 ± 1 years) and older (66 ± 2 years) sedentary humans by measuring the whole blood concentration of the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms of the antioxidant glutathione. To assess the role of physical activity, lifelong physically active older subjects (62 ± 2 years) were included. Exercise increased the venous concentration of GSSG in an intensity-dependent manner in young sedentary subjects, suggesting an exercise-induced increase in ROS formation. In contrast, venous GSSG levels remained unaltered during exercise in the older sedentary and active groups despite a higher skeletal muscle expression of the superoxide-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase. Arterial concentration of GSH and expression of antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle of older active subjects were increased. The potential impairment in exercise-induced ROS formation may be an important mechanism underlying skeletal muscle and vascular dysfunction with sedentary aging. Lifelong physical activity upregulates antioxidant systems, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lack of exercise-induced increase in GSSG.

  15. Effect of prolonged physical exercise on muscular phospholipase A2 activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Federspil, G; Baggio, B; De Palo, C; De Carlo, E; Borsatti, A; Vettor, R

    1987-06-01

    Prolonged muscular exercise stimulates glucose uptake by the working muscles themselves. The mechanism of this phenomenon is at present unclear. It has been proposed that the kallikrein-kinin-prostaglandin system plays a role in the physiological regulation of muscular glucose metabolism during exercise. Since bradykinin can stimulate phospholipase A2, a key enzymatic step in prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2 activity was assayed in rats at rest and in rats compelled to swim for 60 minutes. The physiological significance of an increase in muscular phospholipase A2 activity is not clear. Since bradykinin can stimulate both muscular glucose uptake and phospholipase A2 activity, it is possible that the increased activity of this enzyme is involved in the exercise-induced increase of muscular glucose uptake. Phospholipase A2 activity was strongly increased in the exercising rat muscles. A small but significant increase in phospholipase A2 activity was observed in the heart, whereas no variation in activity was demonstrated in either the kidney or the liver of exercising rats. These findings strongly indicate that prolonged exercise increases muscular phospholipase A2 activity only in the muscle and heart. This phenomenon appears to be strongly related to muscular contraction, since other stress situations such as cold exposure did not modify phospholipase A2 activity. Our data are in agreement with the hypothesis of a possible involvement of prostaglandins in the priming action of insulin on glucose uptake during muscular work.

  16. Neuromuscular activity during bench press exercise performed with and without the preexhaustion method.

    PubMed

    Brennecke, Allan; Guimarães, Thiago M; Leone, Ricardo; Cadarci, Mauro; Mochizuki, Luiz; Simão, Roberto; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio C

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercise order on the tonic and phasic characteristics of upper-body muscle activity during bench press exercise in trained subjects. The preexhaustion method involves working a muscle or a muscle group combining a single-joint exercise immediately followed by a multi-joint exercise (e.g., flying exercise followed by bench press exercise). Twelve subjects performed 1 set of bench press exercises with and without the preexhaustion method following 2 protocols (P1-flying before bench press; P2-bench press). Both exercises were performed at a load of 10 repetition maximum (10RM). Electromyography (EMG) sampled at 1 kHz was recorded from the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (DA), and triceps brachii (TB). Kinematic data (60 Hz) were synchronized to define upward and downward phases of exercise. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were seen in tonic control of PM and DA muscles between P1 and P2. However, TB tonic aspect of neurophysiologic behavior of motor units was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during P1. Moreover, phasic control of PM, DA, and TB muscles were not affected (p > 0.05). The kinematic pattern of movement changed as a result of muscular weakness in P1. Angular velocity of the right shoulder performed during the upward phase of the bench press exercise was significantly slower (p < 0.05) during P1. Our results suggest that the strategies set by the central nervous system to provide the performance required by the exercise are held constant throughout the exercise, but the tonic aspects of the central drive are increased so as to adapt to the progressive occurrence of the neuromuscular fatigue. Changes in tonic control as a result of the muscular weakness and fatigue can cause changes in movement techniques. These changes may be related to limited ability to control mechanical loads and mechanical energy transmission to joints and passive structures.

  17. A self-assessment tool to measure older adults' perceptions regarding physical fitness and exercise activity.

    PubMed

    Devereaux Melillo, K; Williamson, E; Futrell, M; Chamberlain, C

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to qualitatively generate and psychometrically assess an instrument which assesses the self-perceived physical fitness and exercise activity levels of community-dwelling older adults and examines perceived factors which enhance or impede their exercise activity level. This research was carried out in two stages: qualitative and quantitative. Items for the instrument were generated through qualitative interviews with 23 community-dwelling older adults, 9 males and 14 females, with an age range of 63 to 82 years. From this qualitative study, 50 items were generated, representing nine categories of elements which enhance or impede physical activity. The 50 items were incorporated into a 4-point, forced-choice, Likert format instrument which was pilot tested for clarity and ease of administration with a convenience sample of community-dwelling older adults. Following the pilot testing, 41 items were retained. The 41-item instrument, entitled Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale, was categorized into the following subscales: Physical Fitness, Barriers, Motivators, and Exercise Frequency. Initial testing of the Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale seems to indicate adequate validity and reliability. Correlation coefficients for the total instrument, as well as the subscales, were significantly positive for both stability and internal consistency. Results with respect to predictive validity were mixed. The Physical Fitness and Motivators subscales were significant predictors of Exercise Frequency. Although the correlation between the Barriers subscale and Exercise Frequency was negative, it was non-significant.

  18. Hip Muscle Activity During 3 Side-Lying Hip-Strengthening Exercises in Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Joseph M.; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.; Cobb, Stephen C.; Huddleston, Wendy E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity overuse injuries are associated with gluteus medius (GMed) weakness. Understanding the activation of muscles about the hip during strengthening exercises is important for rehabilitation. Objective: To compare the electromyographic activity produced by the gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fascia latae (TFL), anterior hip flexors (AHF), and gluteus maximus (GMax) during 3 hip-strengthening exercises: hip abduction (ABD), hip abduction with external rotation (ABD-ER), and clamshell (CLAM) exercises. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty healthy runners (9 men, 11 women; age = 25.45 ± 5.80 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.07 m, mass = 64.43 ± 7.75 kg) participated. Intervention(s): A weight equal to 5% body mass was affixed to the ankle for the ABD and ABD-ER exercises, and an equivalent load was affixed for the CLAM exercise. A pressure biofeedback unit was placed beneath the trunk to provide positional feedback. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyography (root mean square normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction) was recorded over the GMed, TFL, AHF, and GMax. Results: Three 1-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated differences for muscle activity among the ABD (F3,57 = 25.903, P<.001), ABD-ER (F3,57 = 10.458, P<.001), and CLAM (F3,57 = 4.640, P=.006) exercises. For the ABD exercise, the GMed (70.1 ± 29.9%), TFL (54.3 ± 19.1%), and AHF (28.2 ± 21.5%) differed in muscle activity. The GMax (25.3 ± 24.6%) was less active than the GMed and TFL but was not different from the AHF. For the ABD-ER exercise, the TFL (70.9 ± 17.2%) was more active than the AHF (54.3 ± 24.8%), GMed (53.03 ± 28.4%), and GMax (31.7 ± 24.1 %). For the CLAM exercise, the AHF (54.2 ± 25.2%) was more active than the TFL (34.4 ± 20.1%) and GMed (32.6 ± 16.9%) but was not different from the GMax (34.2 ± 24.8%). Conclusions: The ABD exercise is preferred if targeted activation of the

  19. Lack of Skeletal Muscle IL-6 Affects Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla Lindgren; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella; Knudsen, Jakob G.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was overall higher (P<0.05) in IL-6 MKO than control mice during the 120 min of treadmill exercise, while RER decreased during exercise independent of genotype. AMPK and ACC phosphorylation also increased with exercise independent of genotype. PDHa activity was in control mice higher (P<0.05) at 10 and 60 min of exercise than at rest but remained unchanged in IL-6 MKO mice. In addition, PDHa activity was higher (P<0.05) in IL-6 MKO than control mice at rest and 60 min of exercise. Neither PDH phosphorylation nor acetylation could explain the genotype differences in PDHa activity. Together, this provides evidence that skeletal muscle IL-6 contributes to the regulation of PDH at rest and during prolonged exercise and suggests that muscle IL-6 normally dampens carbohydrate utilization during prolonged exercise via effects on PDH. PMID:27327080

  20. Effect of antioxidants on histamine receptor activation and sustained post-exercise vasodilatation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Steven A.; Ely, Matthew R.; Sieck, Dylan C.; Luttrell, Meredith J.; Buck, Tahisha M.; Kono, Jordan M.; Branscum, Adam J.; Halliwill, John R.

    2015-01-01

    An acute bout of aerobic exercise elicits a sustained post-exercise vasodilatation that is mediated by histamine H1 and H2 receptor activation. However, the upstream signaling pathway that leads to post-exercise histamine receptor activation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the potent antioxidant ascorbate would inhibit this histaminergic vasodilatation following exercise. Subjects performed 1 hr unilateral dynamic knee extension at 60% of peak power in three conditions: 1) control; 2) intravenous ascorbate infusion; and, 3) ascorbate infusion plus oral H1/H2 histamine receptor blockade. Femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured before exercise and for 2 hr post-exercise. Femoral vascular conductance was calculated as flow/pressure. Post-exercise vascular conductance was greater for control condition (3.4 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1) compared with ascorbate (2.7 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1, P < 0.05) and ascorbate plus H1/H2 blockade (2.8 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1, P < 0.05), which did not differ from one another (P = 0.9). Because ascorbate may catalyze the degradation of histamine in vivo, we conducted a follow-up study where subjects performed exercise in two conditions: 1) control and 2) intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion. Post-exercise vascular conductance was similar for control (4.0 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1) and N-acetylcysteine conditions (4.0 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1; P = 0.8). Thus, the results in study 1 were due to the degradation of histamine in skeletal muscle by ascorbate, since the histaminergic vasodilatation was unaffected by N-acetylcysteine. Taken together, exercise-induced oxidative stress does not appear to contribute to sustained post-exercise vasodilatation. PMID:25664905

  1. Muscle ultrastructural changes from exhaustive exercise performed after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.

  2. Enhancing exercise tolerance and physical activity in COPD with combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions: PHYSACTO randomised, placebo-controlled study design

    PubMed Central

    Troosters, Thierry; Bourbeau, Jean; Maltais, François; Leidy, Nancy; Erzen, Damijan; De Sousa, Dorothy; Korducki, Lawrence; Hamilton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with exercise limitation and physical inactivity, which are believed to have significant long-term negative health consequences for patients. While a number of COPD treatments and exercise training programmes increase exercise capacity, there is limited evidence for their effects on physical activity levels, with no clear association between exercise capacity and physical activity in clinical trials. Physical activity depends on a number of behaviour, environmental and physiological factors. We describe the design of the PHYSACTO trial, which is investigating the effects of bronchodilators, either alone or with exercise training, in combination with a standardised behaviour-change self-management programme, on exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD. It is hypothesised that bronchodilators in conjunction with a behaviour-change self-management programme will improve physical activity and that this effect will be amplified by the addition of exercise training. Methods and analysis Patients are being recruited from 34 sites in Australia, New Zealand, the USA, Canada and Europe. Patients receiving a multicomponent intervention designed to support behaviour change related to physical activity are randomised to four treatment arms: placebo, tiotropium, tiotropium+olodaterol, and tiotropium+olodaterol+exercise training. The primary outcome is improvement in exercise capacity after 8 weeks, measured by endurance time during a shuttle walk test. The secondary outcome is improvement in physical activity, including objective accelerometer assessment and patient-reported functioning using the Functional Performance Inventory—Short Form and the novel hybrid PROactive instrument. Additionally, the influence of moderating variables (ie, factors influencing a patient's choice to be physically active) on increases in physical activity is also explored. Ethics and dissemination The

  3. Scapular Muscle-Activation Ratios in Patients With Shoulder Injuries During Functional Shoulder Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Chad R.; Bliven, Kellie C. Huxel; Valier, Alison R. Snyder

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alterations in scapular muscle activation, which are common with glenohumeral (GH) injuries, affect stability and function. Rehabilitation aims to reestablish activation between muscles for stability by progressing to whole-body movements. Objective: To determine scapular muscle-activation ratios and individual muscle activity (upper trapezius [UT], middle trapezius [MT], lower trapezius [LT], serratus anterior [SA]) differences between participants with GH injuries and healthy control participants during functional rehabilitation exercises. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-nine participants who had GH injuries (n = 20; age = 23.6 ± 3.2 years, height = 170.7 ± 11.5 cm, mass = 74.7 ± 13.1 kg) or were healthy (n = 19; age = 24.4 ± 3.3 years, height = 173.6 ± 8.6 cm, mass = 74.7 ± 14.8 kg) were tested. Intervention(s): Clinical examination confirmed each participant's classification as GH injury or healthy control. Participants performed 4 exercises (bow and arrow, external rotation with scapular squeeze, lawnmower, robbery) over 3 seconds with no load while muscle activity was recorded. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used surface electromyography to measure UT, MT, LT, and SA muscle activity. Scapular muscle-activation ratios (UT:MT, UT:LT, and UT:SA) were calculated (normalized mean electromyography of the UT divided by normalized mean electromyography of the MT, LT, and SA). Exercise × group analyses of variance with repeated measures were conducted. Results: No group differences for activation ratios or individual muscle activation amplitude were found (P > .05). Similar UT:MT and UT:LT activation ratios during bow-and-arrow and robbery exercises were seen (P > .05); both had greater activation than external-rotation-with-scapular-squeeze and lawnmower exercises (P < .05). The bow-and-arrow exercise elicited the highest activation from the UT, MT, and LT muscles; SA activation was greatest

  4. Improved Infrared-Sensing Running Wheel Systems with an Effective Exercise Activity Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat’s real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments. PMID:25875841

  5. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  6. Exercise reduces activation of microglia isolated from hippocampus and brain of aged mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that includes basal increases in proinflammatory cytokines and expression of inflammatory markers on microglia. Exercise can reduce neuroinflammation following infection in aged animals, but whether exercise modulates basal changes in microglia activation is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated changes in basal microglia activation in cells isolated from the hippocampus and remaining brain following running-wheel access. Methods Adult (4 months) and aged (22 months) male and female BALB/c mice were housed with or without running wheels for 10 weeks. Microglia were isolated from the hippocampus or remaining brain. Flow cytometry was used to determine microglia (CD11b+ and CD45low) that co-labeled with CD86, CD206, and MHC II. Results Aged mice showed a greater proportion of CD86 and MHC II positive microglia. In aged females, access to a running wheel decreased proportion of CD86+ and MHC II+ microglia in the hippocampus whereas aged males in the running group showed a decrease in the proportion of CD86+ microglia in the brain and an increase in the proportion of MHC II+ microglia in hippocampus and brain. Conclusion Overall, these data indicate that running-wheel access modulates microglia activation, but these effects vary by age, sex, and brain region. PMID:24044641

  7. Exercise Therapy for Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Superior Efficacy of Activity Monitors over Pedometers

    PubMed Central

    Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of activity monitor (which displays exercise intensity and number of steps) versus that of pedometer in exercise therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were divided into the activity monitor group (n = 92) and pedometer group (n = 95). The primary goal was improvement in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The exercise target was set at 8,000 steps/day and 20 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise (≥3.5 metabolic equivalents). The activity monitor is equipped with a triple-axis accelerometer sensor capable of measuring medium-intensity walking duration, number of steps, walking distance, calorie consumption, and total calorie consumption. The pedometer counts the number of steps. Blood samples for laboratory tests were obtained during the visits. The first examination was conducted at the start of the study and repeated at 2 and 6 months. A significant difference in the decrease in HbA1c level was observed between the two groups at 2 months. The results suggest that the use of activity level monitor that displays information on exercise intensity, in addition to the number of steps, is useful in exercise therapy as it enhances the concept of exercise therapy and promotes lowering of HbA1c in diabetic patients. PMID:27761471

  8. Role of the AMP-activated protein kinase in regulating fatty acid metabolism during exercise.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Gregory R

    2009-06-01

    During moderate-intensity exercise, fatty acids are the predominant substrate for working skeletal muscle. The release of fatty acids from adipose tissue stores, combined with the ability of skeletal muscle to actively fine tune the gradient between fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism, depending on substrate availability and energetic demands, requires a coordinated system of metabolic control. Over the past decade, since the discovery that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased in accordance with exercise intensity, there has been significant interest in the proposed role of this ancient stress-sensing kinase as a critical integrative switch controlling metabolic responses during exercise. In this review, studies examining the role of AMPK as a regulator of fatty acid metabolism in both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle during exercise will be discussed. Exercise induces activation of AMPK in adipocytes and regulates triglyceride hydrolysis and esterfication through phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl-transferase, respectively. In skeletal muscle, exercise-induced activation of AMPK is associated with increases in fatty acid uptake, phosphorylation of HSL, and increased fatty acid oxidation, which is thought to occur via the acetyl-CoA carboxylase-malony-CoA-CPT-1 signalling axis. Despite the importance of AMPK in regulating fatty acid metabolism under resting conditions, recent evidence from transgenic models of AMPK deficiency suggest that alternative signalling pathways may also be important for the control of fatty acid metabolism during exercise.

  9. Shoulder muscular activity during isometric three-point kneeling exercise on stable and unstable surfaces.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; de Andrade, Rodrigo; Tucci, Helga Tatiana; Martins, Jaqueline; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if performing isometric 3-point kneeling exercises on a Swiss ball influenced the isometric force output and EMG activities of the shoulder muscles when compared with performing the same exercises on a stable base of support. Twenty healthy adults performed the isometric 3-point kneeling exercises with the hand placed either on a stable surface or on a Swiss ball. Surface EMG was recorded from the posterior deltoid, pectoralis major, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles using surface differential electrodes. All EMG data were reported as percentages of the average root mean square (RMS) values obtained in maximum voluntary contractions for each muscle studied. The highest load value was obtained during exercise on a stable surface. A significant increase was observed in the activation of glenohumeral muscles during exercises on a Swiss ball. However, there were no differences in EMG activities of the scapulothoracic muscles. These results suggest that exercises performed on unstable surfaces may provide muscular activity levels similar to those performed on stable surfaces, without the need to apply greater external loads to the musculoskeletal system. Therefore, exercises on unstable surfaces may be useful during the process of tissue regeneration.

  10. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Differentiated and Undifferentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Cycle and Treadmill Exercise in Recreationally Active and Trained Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolgar, Melinda R.; Baker, Carol E.; Goss, Fredric. L.; Nagle, Elizabeth; Robertson, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1) and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT) on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest, as well as oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate were recorded each minute. Individual regression analyses were used to identify RPE-Overall,-Legs, and -Chest at 40, 60, 80% VO2max/peak. Separate two factor (site (3) x intensity (3)) ANOVAs with repeated measures on site and intensity were computed for each training status. Furthermore, RPE responses were also examined with a one factor (site (3)) within subject ANOVA with repeated measure on site at the ventilatory breakpoint. For both the recreationally active and trained groups no significant differences were observed for RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest during treadmill exercise. However, for cycling exercise results indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater at all exercise intensities than RPE-Overall and RPE-Chest for trained subjects while for recreationally active subjects RPE-Legs was only significantly higher at the highest exercise intensity. Responses at the ventilatory breakpoint during cycle exercise indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater than RPE-Chest and RPE-Overall for trained subjects but not for recreationally active subjects. Signal dominance was not observed at an intensity equivalent to the ventilatory breakpoint during treadmill exercise in either of the groups. In recreationally active and trained females signal dominance was demonstrated only during cycling exercise, but not during treadmill exercise. Signal integration could not be demonstrated during cycling and

  11. Enjoyment of exercise moderates the impact of a school-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396

  12. Optimal design of active and semi-active suspensions including time delays and preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hac', A.; Youn, I.

    1993-10-01

    Several control laws for active and semi-active suspension based on a linear half car model are derived and investigated. The strategies proposed take full advantage of the fact that the road input to the rear wheels is a delayed version of that to the front wheels, which in turn can be obtained either from the measurements of the front wheels and body motions or by direct preview of road irregularities if preview sensors are available. The suspension systems are optimized with respect to ride comfort, road holding and suspension rattle space as expressed by the mean-square-values of body acceleration (including effects of heave and pitch), tire deflections and front and rear suspension travels. The optimal control laws that minimize the given performance index and include passivity constraints in the semi-active case are derived using calculus of variation. The optimal semi-active suspension becomes piecewise linear, varying between passive and fully active systems and combinations of them. The performances of active and semi-active systems with and without preview were evaluated by numerical simulation in the time and frequency domains. The results show that incorporation of time delay between the front and rear axles in controller design improves the dynamic behavior of the rear axle and control of body pitch motion, while additional preview improves front wheel dynamics and body heave.

  13. Cilnidipine but not amlodipine suppresses sympathetic activation elicited by isometric exercise in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Koike, Yumi; Kawabe, Tetsuya; Nishihara, Kanami; Iwane, Naomi; Hano, Takuzo

    2015-01-01

    Pupillometry was used to evaluate the effects of the calcium channel blockers cilnidipine (CL) and amlodipine (AM) on changes in autonomic nervous activity induced by isometric exercise in patients with hypertension. After handgrip exercise, the velocity of miosis increased in both the CL and AM groups. However, the velocity of mydriasis increased in only the AM group. Velocity slopes of miosis and mydriasis were smaller in the CL group than in the AM group. The low-to-high frequency ratio obtained from pulse wave analysis increased in only the AM group. Sympathetic activation elicited by isometric exercise was suppressed more effectively by CL than by AM. PMID:25977982

  14. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  15. Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Idoate, Fernando; Millor, Nora; Gómez, Marisol; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-04-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of multicomponent training on muscle power output, muscle mass, and muscle tissue attenuation; the risk of falls; and functional outcomes in frail nonagenarians. Twenty-four elderly (91.9 ± 4.1 years old) were randomized into intervention or control group. The intervention group performed a twice-weekly, 12-week multicomponent exercise program composed of muscle power training (8-10 repetitions, 40-60 % of the one-repetition maximum) combined with balance and gait retraining. Strength and power tests were performed on the upper and lower limbs. Gait velocity was assessed using the 5-m habitual gait and the time-up-and-go (TUG) tests with and without dual-task performance. Balance was assessed using the FICSIT-4 tests. The ability to rise from a chair test was assessed, and data on the incidence and risk of falls were assessed using questionnaires. Functional status was assessed before measurements with the Barthel Index. Midthigh lower extremity muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration were assessed using computed tomography. The intervention group showed significantly improved TUG with single and dual tasks, rise from a chair and balance performance (P < 0.01), and a reduced incidence of falls. In addition, the intervention group showed enhanced muscle power and strength (P < 0.01). Moreover, there were significant increases in the total and high-density muscle cross-sectional area in the intervention group. The control group significantly reduced strength and functional outcomes. Routine multicomponent exercise intervention should be prescribed to nonagenarians because overall physical outcomes are improved in this population.

  16. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO.

  17. Exercise Decreases Risk of Future Active Disease in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Patricia D.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Martin, Christopher F.; Chen, Wenli; Sandler, Robert S.; Long, Millie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exercise impacts quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), little is known about its role in disease activity. Among IBD patients in remission, we aimed to evaluate the association between exercise and subsequent active disease. Methods We performed a prospective study using the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) Partners Internet-based cohort of individuals with self-reported IBD. We identified participants in remission, defined as short Crohn's disease activity index (sCDAI) <150 or simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI) ≤2. The primary exposure was exercise status, measured using the validated Godin leisure time activity index. The primary study outcome, assessed after six months, was active disease defined using the above disease activity index thresholds. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to describe the independent association between exercise and risk of active disease. Results We identified 1308 patients with Crohn's Disease (CD) and 549 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) in remission, of whom 227(17.4%) with CD and 135 (24.6%) with UC/IC developed active disease after 6 months. Higher exercise level was associated with decreased risk of active disease for CD (adjusted RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.94) and UC/IC (adjusted RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.54-1.13). Conclusions In patients with CD in remission, those with higher exercise levels were significantly less likely to develop active disease at six months. In patients with UC/IC in remission, patients with higher exercise levels were less likely to develop active disease at six months, however this was not statistically significant. PMID:25723616

  18. Platelet activation during exercise induced asthma: effect of prophylaxis with cromoglycate and salbutamol.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C E; Belfield, P W; Davis, S; Cooke, N J; Spencer, A; Davies, J A

    1986-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin were measured before and after exercise in nine asthmatic patients and 12 non-asthmatic volunteers. Exercise was preceded by administration in random order of either placebo, salbutamol 200 micrograms, or sodium cromoglycate 2 mg from a pressurised inhaler. In control subjects there were minimal changes in PEF and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin. In the asthmatic patients the typical changes in PEF were seen on exercise; plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin rose significantly in parallel, the rise preceding the fall in PEF. The changes in peak flow and platelet activation induced by exercise were attenuated by prior administration of salbutamol or cromoglycate. These results indicate that exercise induced asthma is associated with a rise in platelet release products similar to that observed in antigen induced asthma. PMID:2943049

  19. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1α upregulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Feng, Xiaoli; Ma, Shuangtao; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Tianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Nilius, Bernd; Huang, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Zhu, Zhiming

    2012-03-01

    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents, but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown. The capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle, the role of which remains unclear. Here we report the function of TRPV1 in cultured C2C12 myocytes and the effect of TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin on energy metabolism and exercise endurance of skeletal muscles in mice. In vitro, capsaicin increased cytosolic free calcium and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression in C2C12 myotubes through activating TRPV1. In vivo, PGC-1α in skeletal muscle was upregulated by capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation or genetic overexpression of TRPV1 in mice. TRPV1 activation increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration, promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxidative fibers, enhanced exercise endurance and prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. Importantly, these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1α in skeletal muscles. The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance.

  20. Sex differences in brain cholinergic activity in MSG-obese rats submitted to exercise.

    PubMed

    Sagae, Sara Cristina; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Raineki, Charlis; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei; Marques da Silva, Ana Carla

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is an epidemic disease most commonly caused by a combination of increased energy intake and lack of physical activity. The cholinergic system has been shown to be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, physical exercise promotes a reduction of fat pads and body mass by increasing energy expenditure, but also influences the cholinergic system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction between physical exercise (swimming) and central cholinergic activity in rats treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG, a model for obesity) during infancy. Our results show that MSG treatment is able to induce obesity in male and female rats. Specifically, MSG-treated rats presented a reduced body mass and nasoanal length, and increased perigonadal and retroperitoneal fat pads in relation to the body mass. Physical exercise was able to reduce body mass in both male and female rats, but did not change the fat pads in MSG-treated rats. Increased food intake was only seen in MSG-treated females submitted to exercise. Cholinergic activity was increased in the cortex of MSG-treated females and physical exercise was able to reduce this activity. Thalamic cholinergic activity was higher in sedentary MSG-treated females and exercised MSG-treated males. Hypothalamic cholinergic activity was higher in male and female MSG-treated rats, and was not reduced by exercise in the 2 sexes. Taken together, these results show that MSG treatment and physical exercise have different effects in the cholinergic activity of males and females. PMID:22039988

  1. Annelid Aminotransferase Activity--An Exercise in Basic Biochemical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, A. R.; Alcock, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A practical exercise is described that allows students to investigate a specific problem using a variety of biochemical techniques. The need for a thorough understanding of the theoretical principles underlying these processes is emphasized. A program of private study and assessment is suggested to enable the progress of students to be followed.…

  2. Gender and Diversity in the Workplace: Learning Activities and Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.

    Many colleges and universities and many work organizations have developed courses and programs on gender and diversity in the workplace. This book provides a complete and comprehensive set of instructional materials on these topics. The exercises have been designed for use with graduate and undergraduate students and members of business and…

  3. [Promoting exercise and sports activities among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Rivière, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The fight against sedentariness and encouraging older people to exercise is a major public health objective. The aim is to preserve the health of the elderly, to avoid the excessive cost of care and to prevent the loss of autonomy. PMID:27449303

  4. Phat Exercise: How Young Adults Enjoy and Sustain Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimiecik, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Sport psychologists know that many people who do a behavior voluntarily over a long period of time have discovered for themselves an inner feeling that motivates them to perform the behavior, such as exercise, for its own sake. This form of motivation has been labeled "intrinsic" by some researchers. The concept of intrinsic motivation, when…

  5. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players' balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students.

  6. Reproductive profile of physically active men after exhaustive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, D; Da Silva, M E; Poblador, M S; Lancho, J L

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study on non-professional (recreational) athletes was two-fold: 1) to determine if endurance exercise (EE) routinely used by professional athletes would produce reproductive changes in the general population, and 2) to assess reversion. Short-term exhaustive endurance exercise (EEE) can produce alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis with subsequent fertility changes. Sixteen healthy adult male volunteers were divided into experimental (8) and control (8) groups for the exercise period. A cycloergometer provided EEE for a period of 2 weeks. The experimental group exercised four times a week; controls were without EEE. The hormonal and seminological profiles of all subjects were evaluated. Two weeks of EEE produced hormonal and seminological values in the experimental group that were statistically different from their own pre-treatment values (FSH: 3.33 +/- 1.7; LH: 3.73 +/- 1.36; sperm concentration/ml: 42.50 +/- 29.46; type a velocity: 25.23 +/- 10.9; type d velocity: 46.18 +/- 15.81; % of normal forms: 10.42 +/- 1.97) as well as from the pre- and post-treatment control group values. The measured parameters almost returned to pre-treatment levels in the experimental group 2 - 3 days after EEE ended. From this study we concluded that when subjected to EEE, individuals drawn from a recreational exercising life style experienced changes similar to those observed in studies done with athletes, and short-term EEE induced a reversible alteration to the HPG axis.

  7. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  8. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  9. Cardioprotective effects of exercise training on myofilament calcium activation in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2004-05-01

    The risks associated with hormone replacement therapy, especially cardiac diseases in postmenopausal women, have prompted extensive studies for other preventive or therapeutic alternatives. We investigated the cardioprotective effects of exercise training on the changes in cardiac myofilament Ca2+ activation in 10-wk-old ovariectomized rats. The exercise groups were subjected to a 9-wk running program on a motor-driven treadmill 1 wk after surgery. The relationship between pCa (-log molar free Ca2+ concentration) and myofibrillar MgATPase activity of exercise-sham myofibrils or exercise-ovariectomized myofibrils was the same and could not be distinguished from that of sedentary-sham control hearts. In contrast, a significant suppression in maximum MgATPase activity and a leftward shift of pCa50 (half-maximally activating pCa) in the pCa-ATPase activity relationship were detected in sedentary-ovariectomized rats. Exercise training also prevented the shift in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms toward beta-MHC in ovariectomized hearts. The upregulation of beta1-adrenergic receptors in the left ventricular membranes of ovariectomized rat hearts, as measured by receptor binding and immunoblot analyses, was no longer observed in exercise-ovariectomized hearts. Immunoblot analyses of heat shock protein (HSP) 72, an inducible form of HSP70, demonstrated a significant downregulation in ovariectomized hearts. Exercise training in ovariectomized rats completely reversed the expression of HSP72 to the same level as sham controls. Our results clearly indicate the cardioprotective effects of exercise training on changes in cardiac myofilament Ca2+ activation in ovariectomized rats. Alterations in expression of beta1-adrenergic receptors and HSP72 may, in part, play a mechanistic role in the cardioprotective effects.

  10. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI.

  11. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. PMID:26916699

  12. [Diabetes, sport and exercise].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Hermann

    2011-05-01

    Physical activity is an essential element in the therapy of type 2 Diabetes mellitus. For physicians and therapists, it is of vital importance to motivate each patient to include exercise into routine daily life. Individual therapy plans are, thus, required.

  13. Effects of exercise on resting-state default mode and salience network activity in overweight/obese adults

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Kristina L.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Melanson, Edward L.; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common use of exercise as a weight loss strategy, little is known about its neuronal effects, and how these may be related to cognitive changes that impact food intake. The current study assessed the effects of a 6-month exercise intervention on intrinsic activity in the default mode network (DMN), a functionally connected network of brain regions including posterior cingulate cortex, cuneus/precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, medial temporal lobe, and inferior parietal cortices, and salience network, which includes the anterior cingulate cortex and insula. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in 12 overweight/obese individuals. The intervention was associated with a reduction in DMN activity in the precuneus (p=0.003, FWE-corrected), which was associated with greater fat mass loss (p=0.013) as well as reduced perceived hunger (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, p=0.024) and hunger ratings in response to a meal (p=0.013). No changes were observed in the salience network in response to the exercise intervention. The association between DMN change and both fat mass loss and reduction of hunger ratings suggests that DMN function may be involved in the regulation of food intake behaviors. Given previous reports of DMN overactivity in overweight/obese individuals, the present findings may indicate an exercise-related “normalization” of network function. PMID:24022176

  14. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  15. The effects of treadmill exercise on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercise (15, 30 and 60 min) on the mean frequency and amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Material and methods In this study, 32 rats were assigned to 15, 30, and 60 min running exercise groups and the control group, each consisting of 8 rats. According to the specified protocol, the rats were submitted to running exercises at the same hour of each day for 90 days. After the exercise program, the rats were administered (500 IU/2.5 µl) of penicillin into the left cortex by the microinjection method. An electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording was performed for 3 h using a data acquisition system. The frequency and the amplitude of the recordings were analyzed. Results Short-duration treadmill exercise (15 min) caused a decrease in the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity at 70 min after penicillin injection (p < 0.001). The mean frequency of epileptiform activity decreased at 90 min after penicillin injection in the 30 and 60 min treadmill exercise groups (p < 0.01). The mean amplitude of epileptiform activity was not changed in any of the exercise groups compared to the control (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercises decreased the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. These findings may contribute to improving the quality of life in epileptic patients. PMID:27695482

  16. The effects of treadmill exercise on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercise (15, 30 and 60 min) on the mean frequency and amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Material and methods In this study, 32 rats were assigned to 15, 30, and 60 min running exercise groups and the control group, each consisting of 8 rats. According to the specified protocol, the rats were submitted to running exercises at the same hour of each day for 90 days. After the exercise program, the rats were administered (500 IU/2.5 µl) of penicillin into the left cortex by the microinjection method. An electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording was performed for 3 h using a data acquisition system. The frequency and the amplitude of the recordings were analyzed. Results Short-duration treadmill exercise (15 min) caused a decrease in the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity at 70 min after penicillin injection (p < 0.001). The mean frequency of epileptiform activity decreased at 90 min after penicillin injection in the 30 and 60 min treadmill exercise groups (p < 0.01). The mean amplitude of epileptiform activity was not changed in any of the exercise groups compared to the control (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercises decreased the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. These findings may contribute to improving the quality of life in epileptic patients.

  17. Variability of corticosteroid responses during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Ismail, A H; Bottoms, G D

    1975-04-01

    Two groups of middle-aged male subjects (both N=11), one active (mean age 44.6 years) and one sedentary (mean age 43.7 years), undertook a graded exercise stress test on a bicycle ergometer in the post-absorptive state. Blood serum corticosteroid levels were measured at the following stages of metabolism; at rest, under conditions of submaximal and "maximal' exercise and during recovery. The active group showed no significant change in mean serum corticosteroid levels from resting values, during exercise and recovery. However the sedentary group displayed a significant increase in mean serum corticosteroid levels from a resting value of 5.81 plus or minus 0.41 mub-g/100 ml. (mean plus or minus S.E.) to 7.83 plus or minus 0.71 mug/100 ml. during "maximal' exercise (p smaller than 0.05), which was maintained throughout recovery 7.82 plus or minus 0.70 ug/100 ml (p smaller than 0.05). Futhermore the active group demonstrated significantly lower mean serum corticosteroid levels compared with the sedentary group under conditions of submaximal (p smaller than 0.05) and "maximal' (p smaller than 0.01) exercise and during recovery (p smaller than 0.01). It was concluded that the variability in the response patterns of serum corticosteroids during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males, reflected the physiological differences observed between the two groups of subjects.

  18. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  19. Does low serum carnosinase activity favor high-intensity exercise capacity?

    PubMed

    Baguet, Audrey; Everaert, Inge; Yard, Benito; Peters, Verena; Zschocke, Johannes; Zutinic, Ana; De Heer, Emile; Podgórski, Tomasz; Domaszewska, Katarzyna; Derave, Wim

    2014-03-01

    Given the ergogenic properties of β-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) in skeletal muscle, it can be hypothesized that elevated levels of circulating carnosine could equally be advantageous for high-intensity exercises. Serum carnosinase (CN1), the enzyme hydrolyzing the dipeptide, is highly active in the human circulation. Consequently, dietary intake of carnosine usually results in rapid degradation upon absorption, yet this is less pronounced in subjects with low CN1 activity. Therefore, acute carnosine supplementation before high-intensity exercise could be ergogenic in these subjects. In a cross-sectional study, we determined plasma CN1 activity and content in 235 subjects, including 154 untrained controls and 45 explosive and 36 middle- to long-distance elite athletes. In a subsequent double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 12 men performed a cycling capacity test at 110% maximal power output (CCT 110%) following acute carnosine (20 mg/kg body wt) or placebo supplementation. Blood samples were collected to measure CN1 content, carnosine, and acid-base balance. Both male and female explosive athletes had significantly lower CN1 activity (14% and 21% lower, respectively) and content (30% and 33% lower, respectively) than controls. Acute carnosine supplementation resulted only in three subjects in carnosinemia. The CCT 110% performance was not improved after carnosine supplementation, even when accounting for low/high CN1 content. No differences were found in acid-base balance, except for elevated resting bicarbonate following carnosine supplementation and in low CN1 subjects. In conclusion, explosive athletes have lower serum CN1 activity and content compared with untrained controls, possibly resulting from genetic selection. Acute carnosine supplementation does not improve high-intensity performance.

  20. Exercise activates compensatory thermoregulatory reaction in rats: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeonjoo; LaPradd, Michelle; Kline, Hannah; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Behrouzvaziri, Abolhassan; Rusyniak, Daniel E; Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zaretsky, Dmitry V

    2015-12-15

    The importance of exercise is increasingly emphasized for maintaining health. However, exercise itself can pose threats to health such as the development of exertional heat shock in warm environments. Therefore, it is important to understand how the thermoregulation system adjusts during exercise and how alterations of this can contribute to heat stroke. To explore this we measured the core body temperature of rats (Tc) running for 15 min on a treadmill at various speeds in two ambient temperatures (Ta = 25°C and 32°C). We assimilated the experimental data into a mathematical model that describes temperature changes in two compartments of the body, representing the muscles and the core. In our model the core body generates heat to maintain normal body temperature, and dissipates it into the environment. The muscles produce additional heat during exercise. According to the estimation of model parameters, at Ta = 25°C, the heat generation in the core was progressively reduced with the increase of the treadmill speed to compensate for a progressive increase in heat production by the muscles. This compensation was ineffective at Ta = 32°C, which resulted in an increased rate of heat accumulation with increasing speed, as opposed to the Ta = 25°C case. Interestingly, placing an animal on a treadmill increased heat production in the muscles even when the treadmill speed was zero. Quantitatively, this "ready-to-run" phenomenon accounted for over half of the heat generation in the muscles observed at maximal treadmill speed. We speculate that this anticipatory response utilizes stress-related circuitry.

  1. Chronic Exercise-Induced Leg Pain in Active People.

    PubMed

    Schon, L C; Baxter, D E; Clanton, T O; Sammarco, G J

    1992-01-01

    In brief "Shin splints" is a catchall term for any kind persistent exercise-related lower leg pain with no obvious cause. Such pain can originate from a number of conditions, such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, vascular pathology, nerve entrapment, and others. A methodical work-up designed to detect problems in all anatomic structures from bone to skin will narrow the possibilities and lay the basis for appropriate treatment.

  2. The comparison of abdominal muscle activation on unstable surface according to the different trunk stability exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-seok; Kim, Da-yeon; Kim, Tae-ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of abdominal muscle activities and the activation ratio related to trunk stabilization to compare the effects between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and lumbar stabilization exercises on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain, who were equally and randomly assigned to either the abdominal drawing-in maneuver group and the lumbar stabilization exercise group. Abdominal muscle activation and ratio was measured using a wireless TeleMyo DTS during right leg raise exercises while sitting on a Swiss ball. [Results] Differences in rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, and internal oblique abdominis muscle activation were observed before and after treatment. Significant differences were observed between the groups in the muscle activation of the external oblique abdominis and internal oblique abdominis, and the muscle activation ratio of external oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis and internal oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis. [Conclusion] Consequently trunk stability exercise enhances internal oblique abdominis activity and increases trunk stabilization. In addition, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver facilitates the deep muscle more than LSE in abdominal muscle. Therefore, abdominal drawing-in maneuver is more effective than lumbar stabilization exercises in facilitating trunk stabilization. PMID:27134401

  3. Changes in markers of brain serotonin activity in response to chronic exercise in senior men.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with noticeable impairments in brain serotonin transmission, which might contribute to increased vulnerability to developing depression in later life. Animal and human studies have shown that aerobic exercise can stimulate brain serotonin activity and trigger parallel elevations in tryptophan (TRP, the serotonin precursor) availability in blood plasma. However, the influence of chronic exercise on serotonergic activity in older adults is not yet known. Sixteen men aged 64 ± 3 years exercised for 1 h (67%-70% peak oxygen consumption) at baseline and following 16 weeks of aerobic training. The main outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), TRP, prolactin, lactate, and free fatty acids (FFA). Changes in plasma free-TRP/BCAA and prolactin served as surrogates for TRP availability and serotonin activity, respectively. Chronic exercise decreased body mass (P < 0.05) whilst it increased ventilatory threshold 2 (P < 0.01). Although training did not affect plasma TRP availability to the brain at rest, both pre- and post-training exercise challenges markedly increased TRP availability (P < 0.001). The free-TRP/BCAA values reached a ceiling during exercise that was lower following training (P < 0.05), whereas similar patterns were found for prolactin, lactate, and FFA. These data show that aerobic exercise elicits consistent transient elevations in plasma TRP availability to the brain in older men; the elevations were independent from physical training, although less pronounced following training. The data support the contention that repeated elevations in brain serotonin activity might be involved in the antidepressant effect of exercise training in older adults.

  4. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  5. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  6. Chin tuck against resistance (CTAR): new method for enhancing suprahyoid muscle activity using a Shaker-type exercise.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Wai Lam; Khoo, Jason Kai Peng; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    For patients with dysphagia resulting from upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction, strengthening the suprahyoid muscles through therapeutic exercise has proved effective in restoring oral feeding. The aim of this study was to compare the maximum and mean surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of the suprahyoid muscles during the Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) exercise and the Shaker exercise for both isokinetic and isometric tasks. During the CTAR exercises, the participant is seated while tucking the chin to compress an inflatable rubber ball, whereas during the Shaker exercise, the participant is lay supine while lifting the head to look at the feet. Forty healthy participants (20 males, 20 females) aged 21-39 years completed all four tasks in counterbalanced order, with measures of resting activation taken prior to each exercise. Although subjective feedback suggested that the sitting position for CTAR is less strenuous than the supine position for Shaker, the results of separate analyses showed significantly greater maximum sEMG values during the CTAR isokinetic and isometric exercises than during the equivalent Shaker exercises, and significantly greater mean sEMG values were observed for the CTAR isometric exercise than for the Shaker isometric exercise. Clinical trials are now needed, but the CTAR exercises appear effective in exercising the suprahyoid muscles, and they could achieve therapeutic effects comparable to those of Shaker exercises, with the potential for greater compliance by patients.

  7. Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo; Moraes, Helena; Machado, Sérgio; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography has been used to establish the relationship among cortical activity, exercise and mood, such as asymmetry, absolute and relative power. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the influence of cortical activity on mood state induced by exercise. The Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed in this study. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SciELO. Search was conducted in all databases using the following terms: EEG asymmetry, sLORETA, exercise, with affect, mood and emotions. Based on the defined criteria, a total of 727 articles were found in the search conducted in the literature (666 in Pubmed, 54 in ISI Web of Science, 2 in SciELO and 5 in other data sources). Total of 11 studies were selected which properly met the criteria for this review. Nine out of 11 studies used the frontal asymmetry, four used absolute and relative power and one used sLORETA. With regard to changes in cortical activity and mood induced by exercise, six studies attributed this result to different intensities, one to duration, one to type of exercise and one to fitness level. In general, EEG measures showed contradictory evidence of its ability to predict or modulate psychological mood states through exercise intervention.

  8. The Activity of Surface Electromyographic Signal of Selected Muscles during Classic Rehabilitation Exercise.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jinzhuang; Sun, Jinli; Gao, Junmin; Wang, Hongrui; Yang, Xincai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Prone bridge, unilateral bridge, supine bridge, and bird-dog are classic rehabilitation exercises, which have been advocated as effective ways to improve core stability among healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of seven selected muscles during rehabilitation exercises through the signal of surface electromyographic. Approaches. We measured the surface electromyographic signals of four lower limb muscles, two abdominal muscles, and one back muscle during rehabilitation exercises of 30 healthy students and then analyzed its activity level using the median frequency method. Results. Different levels of muscle activity during the four rehabilitation exercises were observed. The prone bridge and unilateral bridge caused the greatest muscle fatigue; however, the supine bridge generated the lowest muscle activity. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between left and right body side muscles in the median frequency slope during the four rehabilitation exercises of seven muscles. Conclusions. The prone bridge can affect the low back and lower limb muscles of most people. The unilateral bridge was found to stimulate muscles much more active than the supine bridge. The bird-dog does not cause much fatigue to muscles but can make most selected muscles active. PMID:27195151

  9. Changes in voluntary activation assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation during prolonged cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Jubeau, Marc; Rupp, Thomas; Perrey, Stephane; Temesi, John; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2014-01-01

    Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS), corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP). Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES) and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13 ± 9%, P<0.01) and was further decreased (25 ± 11%, P<0.001) at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (∼ 8%, P<0.05 and ∼ 14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively) were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body) but also on exercise intensity and/or duration. PMID:24586559

  10. Incorporation of exercise, using an underwater treadmill, and active client education into a weight management program for obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Anne; Laclair, Jim; Elliott, Denise A; German, Alexander J

    2011-05-01

    Physical activity improves outcome of weight loss in obese humans, but limited information exists for dogs. Eight obese dogs (body condition score 5/5), of various breeds and genders, undertook a 3-month weight-loss program which included exercise using lead walks and underwater treadmill exercise. The median number of treadmill exercise sessions per dog was 13 (range: 5 to 17). Median distance walked per session was 0.97 km (range: 0.05 to 2.7 km) (0.6 miles; range: 0.03 to 1.70 miles) and this increased sequentially over the course of the study (P < 0.001). Mean [± standard deviation (s)] percentage of starting weight loss over the 3 mo was 18.9 ± 5.44%, equivalent to a rate of weight loss of 1.5 ± 0.43% per week. Thoracic and abdominal girth also declined significantly during the program (P < 0.0001 for both). This study demonstrates the potential benefit of including an organized exercise regimen, utilizing an underwater treadmill, in conventional canine weight management programs.

  11. Effects of a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on muscle activation and performance during subsequent lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jeremy G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A

    2014-05-01

    A single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise may negatively affect a subsequent lower-body resistance exercise workout. However, less is known regarding the effects of a lower-body aerobic workout on muscle activation and performance during a subsequent upper-body resistance exercise workout. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation and performance during lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts after a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine. Fourteen men (mean age = 24.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 180.8 ± 6.9 cm, body mass = 91.9 ± 16.4 kg) completed 4 trials in random order. Two trials consisted of 30 minutes on the elliptical machine, using the lower body only, at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate before either a back squat or bench press workout, consisting of 3 sets to failure performed at 75% 1 repetition maximum. The other 2 trials consisted of only the back squat or bench press resistance workouts. To quantify muscle activation, bipolar surface electromyography electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis or pectoralis major. Acute lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine significantly reduced the number of repetitions completed for the back squat but not the bench press exercise. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the elliptical and no elliptical conditions. However, for both exercises and conditions, muscle activation increased significantly between the first and final repetitions for the first 2 sets but not for the third set. These results suggest that to optimize the quality of a lower-body resistance-training workout, the workout should not be preceded by lower-body aerobic exercise.

  12. Posterior muscle chain activity during various extension exercises: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Back extension exercises are often used in the rehabilitation of low back pain. However, at present it is not clear how the posterior muscles are recruited during different types of extension exercises. Therefore, the present study will evaluate the myoelectric activity of thoracic, lumbar and hip extensor muscles during different extension exercises in healthy persons. Based on these physiological observations we will make recommendations regarding the use of extensions exercises in clinical practice. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects performed four standardized extension exercises (dynamic trunk extension, dynamic-static trunk extension, dynamic leg extension, dynamic-static leg extension) in randomized order at an intensity of 60% of 1-RM (one repetition maximum). Surface EMG signals of Latissimus dorsi (LD), Longissimus thoracis pars thoracic (LTT) and lumborum (LTL), Iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracic (ILT) and lumborum (ILL), lumbar Multifidus (LM) and Gluteus Maximus (GM) were measured during the various exercises. Subsequently, EMG root mean square values were calculated and compared between trunk and leg extension exercises, as well as between a dynamic and dynamic-static performance using mixed model analysis. During the dynamic exercises a 2 second concentric contraction was followed by a 2 second eccentric contraction, whereas in the dynamic-static performance, a 5 second isometric interval was added in between the concentric and eccentric contraction phase. Results In general, the muscles of the posterior chain were recruited on a higher level during trunk extension (mean ± SD, 56.6 ± 30.8%MVC) compared to leg extension (47.4 ± 30.3%MVC) (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences were found in mean muscle activity between dynamic and dynamic-static performances (p = 0.053). The thoracic muscles (LTT and ILT) were recruited more during trunk extension (64.9 ± 27.1%MVC) than during leg extension (54.2 ± 22.1%MVC) (p = 0.045) without

  13. Cross-activation and detraining effects of tongue exercise in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Schaser, Allison J; Ciucci, Michelle R; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-01-15

    Voice and swallowing deficits can occur with aging. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow may be used to treat swallowing disorders, but may also benefit vocal function due to cross-system activation effects. It is unknown how exercise-based neuroplasticity contributes to behavior and maintenance following treatment. Eighty rats were used to examine behavioral parameters and changes in neurotrophins after tongue exercise paired with a swallow. Tongue forces and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded before and after training/detraining in young and old rats. Tissue was analyzed for neurotrophin content. Results showed tongue exercise paired with a swallow was associated with increased tongue forces at all ages. Gains diminished after detraining in old rats. Age-related changes in vocalizations, neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found. Minimal cross-system activation effects were observed. Neuroplastic benefits were demonstrated with exercise in old rats through behavioral improvements and up-regulation of BDNF in the hypoglossal nucleus. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow should be developed, studied, and optimized in human clinical research to treat swallowing and voice disorders in elderly people.

  14. Adolescents’ attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness predict physical activity 5 and 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Sirard, John R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescent attitudes towards sports, exercise and fitness predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) 5 and 10 years later. Method A diverse group of 1902 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens), reported weekly MVPA and attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness in EAT-I (1998-99), EAT-II (2003-04), and EAT-III (2008-09). Results Mean MVPA was 6.4, 4.8, and 4.0 hrs/wk at baseline, 5-yr, and 10-yr follow-up, respectively. Attitudes toward sports, exercise, and fitness together predicted MVPA at 5- and 10-years. Among the predictors of 5- and 10-year MVPA, attitude’s effect size, though modest, was comparable to the effect sizes for sports participation and BMI. Adolescents with more-favorable attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness engaged in approximately 30-40% more weekly MVPA at follow-up (1.7 hr/wk at 5 years and 1.2 hr/wk at 10 years) than those with less-favorable attitudes. Conclusion Adolescents’ exercise-related attitudes predict subsequent MVPA independent of baseline behavior suggesting that youth MVPA promotion efforts may provide long-term benefits by helping youth develop favorable exercise attitudes. PMID:21130803

  15. Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

  16. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05). Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG. Conclusion The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706

  17. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028

  18. Rapid decrease in active tension generated by C2C12 myotubes after termination of artificial exercise.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hideaki; Hirano, Minoru; Shimizu, Kazunori; Nagamori, Eiji

    2010-12-01

    We found that the active tension of C2C12 myotubes that had been subjected to artificial exercise for ~10 days decreased rapidly after termination of the artificial exercise. When differentiated C2C12 myotubes were subjected to continuous 1 Hz artificial exercise for ~10 days, the active tension increased to ~4× compared to that before application of the artificial exercise, as reported previously. On termination of artificial exercise, the active tension decreased rapidly, the level reaching that before application of the artificial exercise within 8 h. Concomitant with the decrease in the active tension, an increase in the amount of ubiquitinated proteins was observed. Real time RT-PCR revealed that the expression of several genes associated with atrophy, namely Smc6, Vegfa, Jarid2, Kitl, Cds2, Inmt, Fasn, Neurl, Topors, and Cul2, were also changed after termination of artificial exercise. These results indicate that termination of artificial exercise induced atrophy-like responses of C2C12 myotubes. Here we found that during the decrease in active tension, the sarcomere structure, especially the thin filament structure, decayed rapidly after termination of artificial exercise. On reapplication of the artificial exercise, the active tension was restored rapidly, within 8 h, concomitant with reformation of the sarcomere structure. These results indicate that disassembly of the sarcomere structure may be one of the reasons for the active tension decrease during disuse muscle atrophy.

  19. Determinants of exercise and aerobic fitness in outpatients with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, G B; Kasal, S; Smith, K V; Hassanein, R; DeViney, S

    1994-01-01

    Factors that influenced exercise behaviors and aerobic fitness were identified in 100 outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Data included perceived health status, benefits of and barriers to exercise, and impact of arthritis on health; demographic and biologic characteristics; and past exercise behavior. Exercise measures included range-of-motion and strengthening exercises, 7-day activity recall, and the exercise subscale of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. An aerobic fitness level was obtained on each subject by bicycle ergometer testing. The theoretical model predicted 20% of the variance in composite exercise scores but none of the variance in aerobic fitness levels. Perceived benefits of exercise was a significant predictor of exercise participation. Subjects with less formal education, longer duration of arthritis, and higher impact of arthritis scores perceived fewer benefits of exercise, while subjects who reported exercising in their youth perceived more benefits of exercise.

  20. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  1. Effects of unilateral and bilateral lower-body heavy resistance exercise on muscle activity and testosterone responses.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Nindl, Bradley C; Smith, Jeffrey A; Headley, Samuel A

    2012-04-01

    Unilateral and bilateral lower-body heavy resistance exercises (HREs) are used for strength training. Little research has examined whether muscle activation and testosterone (TES) responses differ between these exercises. Our purpose was to compare the effects of unilateral and bilateral lower-body HRE on muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) and TES concentrations. Ten resistance-trained, college-aged male athletes (football, track and field) completed 5 testing sessions in which bilateral (back squat [BS]) and unilateral (pitcher squat [PS]) exercises were performed using a counterbalanced design. Sessions 1 and 2 determined estimated maximum strength (10 repetition maximum [10RM]) in the BS and PS. During testing session 3, muscle activation (sEMG) was measured in the right vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae (ES) during both BS and PS (stance leg) exercises. In sessions 4 and 5, total TES concentrations (nanomoles per liter) were measured via blood draws at baseline (preexercise), 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes postexercise after 4 sets of 10 repetitions at the 10RM. Separate repeated-measures analyses of variance examined differences in sEMG and TES between BS and PS (p < 0.05). The sEMG amplitudes were similar (p = 0.80) for BS (0.22 ± 0.06 mV) and PS (0.20 ± 0.07 mV). The TES responses were also similar (p = 0.15) between BS (21.8 ± 6.9 nmol·L(-1)) and PS (26.2 ± 10.1 nmol·L(-1)). The similar lower limb and back sEMG and TES responses may indicate that the neuromuscular and hormonal demands were comparable for both the BS and PS exercises despite the absolute work being less in the PS. The PS exercise may be an effective method for including unilateral exercise into lower-body resistance training when designing training programs for ground-based activities.

  2. A shirt containing multistage phase change material and active cooling components was associated with increased exercise capacity in a hot, humid environment.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Henning, Andrea L; Venable, Adam S; Williams, Randall R; Best Sampson, Jill N

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in clothing design include the incorporation of phase change materials (PCM) and other active cooling components (ACC) to provide better body heat dissipation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing a shirt containing multistage PCM/ACC on exercise capacity at low (5.0), moderate-high (7.5) and extreme (9.0) levels of the physiological strain index (PSI). Fourteen individuals tested two shirts (control vs. cooling) during 45-min of interval running in a hot, humid (35 ± 1 °C; 55 ± 6% RH) environment. The cooling shirt resulted in an 8% improvement in exercise capacity at a PSI of 7.5 (p < 0.05). The observed increase in exercise capacity would likely translate to a significant improvement in exercise performance. More research is needed to determine a best practice approach for the use of cooling clothing as a counter to exercise-induced heat exposure. Practitioner Summary: In this report, we demonstrate that when forced to exercise in a hot, humid environment, an individual's exercise capacity may increase by as much as 8% when wearing a shirt composed of multistage phase change material and active cooling components.

  3. Electromyographic activity of trunk and hip muscles during stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Vleeming, Andry; Bouche, Katie G.; Mahieu, Nele N.; Vanderstraeten, Guy G.; Danneels, Lieven A.

    2006-01-01

    Stabilization exercises are intended to optimize function of the muscles that are believed to govern trunk stability. Debate exists whether certain muscles are more important than others in optimally performing these exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to perform three frequently prescribed stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling. The electromyographic activity of different trunk and hip muscles was evaluated. Average amplitudes obtained during the exercises were normalized to the amplitude in maximal voluntary contraction (% MVIC). During all three exercises, the highest relative muscle activity levels (> 20% MVIC) were consistently found in the ipsilateral lumbar multifidus and gluteus maximus. During both the single leg extension (exercise 1) and the leg and arm extension exercise (exercise 2) the contralateral internal oblique and ipsilateral external oblique reached high levels (> 20%MVIC). During exercise 2 there were also high relative activity levels of the ipsilateral lumbar part and the contralateral thoracic part of the iliocostalis lumborum and the contralateral lumbar multifidus. During the leg and arm extension exercise with contralateral hip flexion (exercise 3) there were high relative muscle activity levels of all back muscles, except for the latissimus dorsi muscle. The lowest relative muscle activity levels (< 10% MVIC) were found in the rectus abdominis and the ipsilateral internal oblique during all exercises, and in the contralateral gluteus maximus during exercises 1 and 2. The results of this study show that in exercises in four-point kneeling performed by healthy subjects, hip and trunk muscles seem to work together in a harmonious way. This shows that when relative activity of muscles is measured, both “global and local” muscles function together in order to stabilize the spine. PMID:16896840

  4. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, −0.99; 95% CI, −1.61 to −0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, −0.58; 95% CI, −1.10 to −0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, −0.31; 95% CI, −0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, −0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with

  5. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  6. Force irradiation effects during upper limb diagonal exercises on contralateral muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Rosa; Lopes, Alfredo Alexandre; Sousa, Andreia S P; Pereira, Soraia; Castro, Marcelo P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the force irradiation effects of upper limb isometric diagonal exercises on shoulder muscle activities. Interactions among diagonal directions, contraction intensities (moderate and maximum) and sex were assessed. Thirty healthy subjects (11 males) performed isometric unilateral diagonal exercises based on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique in an isokinetic dynamometer with their dominant upper limbs. The second diagonal for flexion and for extension were assessed while the participants performed their maximum isometric torque (MIT) and at 25% of their MIT. During the exercise the muscle activity of the medial deltoid, pectoralis major and upper trapezius in the non-dominant (non-exercised) upper limbs of the participants was recorded by surface electromyography. The highest muscle activity occurred in the upper trapezius during the diagonal for flexion (27% of maximum isometric voluntary contractions). Upper trapezius and pectoralis major were more active during the diagonal for flexion than diagonal for extension (p < 0.001), while similar values between both diagonals were observed for the medial deltoid (p > 0.05). In conclusion, we observed that force irradiation during upper limb diagonal exercises is affected by diagonal direction, contraction intensity and sex when performed by healthy participants.

  7. Exercise Is Medicine Initiative: Physical Activity as a Vital Sign and Prescription in Adult Rehabilitation Practice.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Rachel E

    2016-09-01

    To support rehabilitation health care professionals' efforts to increase physical activity levels among their outpatient rehabilitation and postdischarge patients, we review the Exercise is Medicine (EIM) initiative. The EIM initiative was launched in 2007 jointly by the American College of Sports Medicine and American Medical Association. Three principles underlie the EIM initiative. First, physical activity should be monitored as a vital sign; second, physical activity is an effective medical modality and should be prescribed; and third, success of their vision requires top down and bottom up efforts by 3 key stakeholder groups: health care providers, exercise professionals, and the community. The target weekly physical activity level is 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization. Persons falling below the weekly target physical activity level should be prescribed physical activity and/or referred to an exercise professional for implementation support. Selection of an exercise professional for referral is based on the patient's risk stratification and need to participate in clinically supervised physical activity. PMID:27470321

  8. An Active Learning Exercise for Product Design from an Operations Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…

  9. The Influence of an Unstable Surface on Trunk and Lower Extremity Muscle Activities during Variable Bridging Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-hyun; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an unstable surface on trunk and lower extremity muscle activities during various types of bridging exercises. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female adults voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] All subjects were asked to perform 3 different bridging exercises (bridging exercise, single leg lift bridging exercise, single leg cross bridging exercise) with and without an unstable surface. The trunk and lower extremity muscle activities were measured by using surface electromyography during bridging exercise. [Results] During the bridging exercise (BE), single leg lift bridging exercise (LBE), and single leg cross bridging exercise (CBE), the muscle activities of the external oblique muscle (EO), erector spinae (ES), and biceps femoris (BF) were significantly higher on an unstable surface than on a stable surface. The muscle activities of the EO on both sides, contralateral BF, and ipsilateral ES were significantly higher during LBE than during BE and CBE. [Conclusion] Use of an unstable surface increases muscle activity of the trunk and lower extremities, and single leg lift bridging exercise increases the muscle activity of the EO on both sides, ipsilateral ES, and contralateral BF. PMID:24764625

  10. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective: To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results: Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions: Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited. PMID:25689561

  11. Glucose metabolism in perfused skeletal muscle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in starvation, diabetes and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Hagg, S A; Taylor, S I; Ruberman, N B

    1976-01-01

    1. The interconversion of pyruvate dehydrogenase between its inactive phosphorylated and active dephosphorylated forms was studied in skeletal muscle. 2. Exercise, induced by electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (5/s), increased the measured activity of (active) pyruvate dehydrogenase threefold in intact anaesthetized rated within 2 min. No further increase was seen after 15 min of stimulation. 3. In the perfused rat hindquarter, (active) pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was decreased by 50% in muscle of starved and diabetic rats. Exercise produced a twofold increase in its activity in all groups; however, the relative differences between fed, starved and diabetic groups persisted. 4. Perfusion of muslce with acetoacetate (2 mM) decreased (active) pyruvate dehydrogenase activity by 50% at rest but not during exercise. 5. Whole-tissue concentrations of pyruvate and citrate, inhibitors of (active) pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and (inactive) pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase respectively, were not altered by excerise. A decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio was observed, but did not appear to be sufficient to account for the increase in (active) pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. 6. The results suggest that interconversion of the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms of pyruvate dehydrogenase plays a major role in the regulation of pyruvate oxidation by eomparison of enzyme activity with measurements of lactate oxidation in the perfused hindquarter [see the preceding paper, Berger et al. (1976)] suggest that pyruvate oxidation is also modulated by the concentrations of substrates, cofactors and inhibitors of (active) pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:825112

  12. Do Male And Female Cyclists' Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2015-12-01

    Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists' cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men's brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise. PMID:26866769

  13. Do Male And Female Cyclists' Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2015-12-01

    Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists' cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men's brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.

  14. The effects of surface condition on abdominal muscle activity during single-legged hold exercise.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung-min; Oh, Jae-seop; Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-02-01

    To treat low-back pain, various spinal stability exercises are commonly used to improve trunk muscle function and strength. Because human movement for normal daily activity occurs in multi-dimensions, the importance of exercise in multi-dimensions or on unstable surfaces has been emphasized. Recently, a motorized rotating platform (MRP) for facilitating multi-dimensions dynamic movement was introduced for clinical use. However, the abdominal muscle activity with this device has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal muscle activity (rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles) during an active single-leg-hold (SLH) exercise on a floor (stable surface), foam roll, and motorized rotating platform (MRP). Thirteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Using electromyography, the abdominal muscle activity was measured while the subjects performed SLH exercises on floor (stable surface), foam roll, and MRP. There were significant differences in the abdominal muscle activities among conditions (P<.05), except for left EO (P>.05) (Fig. 2). After the Bonferroni correction, however, no significant differences among conditions remained, except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor and foam roll conditions (padj<0.017). The findings suggest that performing the SLH exercises on a foam roll and MRP is more effective increased activities of both side of RA and IO, and Rt. EO compared to floor condition. However, there were no significant differences in abdominal muscles activity in the multiple comparison between conditions (mean difference were smaller than the standard deviation in the abdominal muscle activities) (padj>0.017), except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor (stable surface) and foam roll (padj<0.017) (effect size: 0.79/0.62 (non-supporting/supporting leg) for foam-roll versus floor).

  15. A water-based training program that includes perturbation exercises improves speed of voluntary stepping in older adults: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Elbar, Ori; Tzedek, Irit; Vered, Elisha; Shvarth, Gali; Friger, Michael; Melzer, Itshak

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a water exercise training program that includes perturbation exercises (WEP) to improve the speed of voluntary stepping reaction in older adults. Speed of voluntary stepping considered as an important skill to prevent a fall when balance is lost. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a crossover design thirty-six independent old adults (64-88 years old) were divided into two groups. Group A received WEP for the first 12 weeks, followed by no intervention for the second 12 weeks. Group B did not receive intervention for the first 12 weeks and received WEP for the second 12 weeks. Voluntary Step Execution Test and postural stability in upright standing (eyes open and closed conditions) were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A significant interaction effect between group and time was found for the step execution, due to improvement in initiation phase and swing phase durations in the WEP group. Also significant improvement in postural stability parameters in eyes open and closed conditions is noted. The present results indicate that the primary benefit of WEP that include perturbations to induce stepping, was a reduction in voluntary stepping times. The WEP generalized to a better control of balance in up-right standing. PMID:22951028

  16. A water-based training program that includes perturbation exercises improves speed of voluntary stepping in older adults: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Elbar, Ori; Tzedek, Irit; Vered, Elisha; Shvarth, Gali; Friger, Michael; Melzer, Itshak

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a water exercise training program that includes perturbation exercises (WEP) to improve the speed of voluntary stepping reaction in older adults. Speed of voluntary stepping considered as an important skill to prevent a fall when balance is lost. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a crossover design thirty-six independent old adults (64-88 years old) were divided into two groups. Group A received WEP for the first 12 weeks, followed by no intervention for the second 12 weeks. Group B did not receive intervention for the first 12 weeks and received WEP for the second 12 weeks. Voluntary Step Execution Test and postural stability in upright standing (eyes open and closed conditions) were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A significant interaction effect between group and time was found for the step execution, due to improvement in initiation phase and swing phase durations in the WEP group. Also significant improvement in postural stability parameters in eyes open and closed conditions is noted. The present results indicate that the primary benefit of WEP that include perturbations to induce stepping, was a reduction in voluntary stepping times. The WEP generalized to a better control of balance in up-right standing.

  17. Earliest Recollections and Birth Order: Two Adlerian Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Les

    1992-01-01

    Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…

  18. Non-exercise estimation of VO2max using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as well as submaximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO2max estimation equation derived from the IPAQ-Short Form (IPAQ-S). College-aged males and females (n = 80) completed the IPAQ-S and performed a maximal exercise test. The estimation equation was created with multivariate regression in a gender-balanced subsample of participants, equally representing five levels of fitness (n = 50) and validated in the remaining participants (n = 30). The resulting equation explained 43% of the variance in measured VO2max (SEE = 5.45 ml·kg-1·min-1). Estimated VO2max for 87% of individuals fell within acceptable limits of error observed with submaximal exercise testing (20% error). The IPAQ-S can be used to successfully estimate VO2max as well as submaximal exercise tests. Development of other population-specific estimation equations is warranted. PMID:21927551

  19. Oxygen uptake, muscle activity and ground reaction force during water aerobic exercises.

    PubMed

    Alberton, C L; Pinto, S S; Cadore, E L; Tartaruga, M P; Kanitz, A C; Antunes, A H; Finatto, P; Kruel, L F M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the oxygen uptake (VO2), the muscle activity of lower limbs, and the vertical ground reaction force (V-GRF) of women performing water aerobic exercises at different intensities. 12 young women performed the experimental protocol, which consisted of 3 water exercises (stationary running [SR], frontal kick [FK] and cross country skiing [CCS]) at 3 intensities (first and second ventilatory thresholds and maximum effort). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used. Regarding VO2, different responses between intensities (p<0.001) were found, and values between exercises were similar. For electromyographic activity (EMG), differences between intensities for all muscles (p<0.001) were found. Greater EMG signals were observed in the FK compared to SR for rectus femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). Regarding V-GRF, there was an increase in the V-GRF at greater intensities compared to the first ventilatory threshold (p=0.001). In addition, lower values were found during CCS compared to the SR and FK exercises (p<0.001). Thus, greater cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses were observed with increasing intensity. Exercises such as CCS could be used to attenuate the V-GRF; if the purpose is to reduce the muscular activity of lower limbs at a specific intensity, SR could be recommended.

  20. Enhancing active surveillance of prostate cancer: the potential of exercise medicine.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Gardiner, Robert A; Taylor, Renea; Risbridger, Gail P; Frydenberg, Mark; Hill, Michelle; Chambers, Suzanne K; Stricker, Phillip; Shannon, Tom; Hayne, Dickon; Zopf, Eva; Newton, Robert U

    2016-05-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a strategy for the management of patients with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, in which men undergo regular monitoring of serum PSA levels and tumour characteristics, using multiparametric MRI and repeat biopsy sampling, to identify signs of disease progression. This strategy reduces overtreatment of clinically insignificant disease while also preserving opportunities for curative therapy in patients whose disease progresses. Preliminary studies of lifestyle interventions involving basic exercise advice have indicated that exercise reduces the numbers of patients undergoing active treatment, as well as modulating the biological processes involved in tumour progression. Therefore, preliminary evidence suggests that lifestyle and/or exercise interventions might have therapeutic potential in this growing population of men with prostate cancer. However, several important issues remain unclear: the exact value of different types of lifestyle and exercise medicine interventions during AS; the biological mechanisms of exercise in delaying disease progression; and the influence of the anxieties and distress created by having a diagnosis of cancer without then receiving active treatment. Future studies are required to confirm and expand these findings and determine the relative contributions of each lifestyle component to specific end points and patient outcomes during AS. PMID:26954333

  1. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  2. Beta-adrenergic blockade restores glucose's antiketogenic activity after exercise in carbohydrate-depleted athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J H; Irving, G; Koeslag, J H; Lochner, J D; Sandell, R C; Wilkinson, C

    1987-01-01

    1. The development of post-exercise ketosis is not abolished by the ingestion of glucose immediately after exercise, despite inducing high insulin/glucagon ratios in the peripheral (and therefore by implication in the portal) blood. 2. To investigate the possibility of autonomic control of the liver influencing its sensitivity to the major counter-regulatory hormones, we administered 50 g glucose, either on its own, or together with 0.5 mg prazosine, 40 mg propranolol, or 15 mg propantheline, to forty-seven 48 h carbohydrate-starved athletes who had just run 25 km. 3. The blood 3-hydroxybutyrate concentration rose from 0.30 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- S.E. of mean) to 0.52 +/- 0.08 mmol/l with exercise, and then to 1.32 +/- 0.40 mmol/l at 6 h after exercise in subjects who had ingested only glucose after exercise. 4. The effects of prazosine and propantheline on the blood ketone body concentration at 2 h after exercise was not statistically significant. Propranolol, on the other hand, significantly lowered the blood 3-hydroxybutyrate concentration (compared with controls) to 0.09 +/- 0.03 mmol/l at 3 h (P less than 0.01), and 0.35 +/- 0.08 mmol/l at 6 h (P less than 0.01) after exercise. 5. The plasma insulin, glucagon, glucose and free fatty acid concentrations were unaffected by propranolol, indicating that the antiketogenesis was the result of a direct effect on ketone body metabolism. 6. Since beta-adrenergic blockade has not previously been shown to have antiketogenic activity, except in somatostatin-induced hyperketonaemia, it is concluded that its effectiveness in post-exercise ketosis can probably be ascribed to a functional hepatic insulin and glucagon deficiency. PMID:3316599

  3. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  4. Decree No. 922 on land use and exercise of agricultural activities, 19 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The Bulgarian Decree 922, May 19, 1989, regulates land use and the exercise of agricultural activities. It stipulates in general that agricultural activities and land use will be based on the principles of company organization, ensuring the unity and indivisibility of socialist property and the variety of forms of land use and management, using collective farms and companies. Citizens may engage in agricultural activities without having a registered company; users of farmland must protect the environment; observe veterinary, plant protection, and sanitary hygiene regulations; and protect and improve soil fertility. Farms and other companies will carry out their activities under equal conditions, may sell their commodities may set up an association for the protection of their economic and social interests, and may establish agricultural stock exchanges and other cooperatives in accordance with stipulated procedures. Individual farms include an individual farmer or several farmers. Farmers may rent or purchase agricultural equipment without restriction as to model, capacity, or other features. Limitations apply on the number of workers employed on a nonseasonal basis. Farmers may form associations for specified purposes. Taxation is based on the general income tax law. Piece rate is a form of organization and payment of labor in agriculture; written agreements are required regarding wages, quality, quantity, deadlines, and supplies furnished. Lease contracts must be in writing, be registered by the municipal people's council at the location of the project, and contain specified information.

  5. Different Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Responses to Acute Exercise Between Physically Active and Sedentary Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nofuji, Yu; Suwa, Masataka; Sasaki, Haruka; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Nishichi, Reiko; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2012-01-01

    Although circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level is affected by both acute and chronic physical activity, the interaction of acute and chronic physical activity was still unclear. In this study, we compared the serum and plasma BDNF responses to maximal and submaximal acute exercises between physically active and sedentary subjects. Eight active and 8 sedentary female subjects participated in the present study. Both groups performed 3 exercise tests with different intensities, i.e. 100% (maximal), 60% (moderate) and 40% (low) of their peak oxygen uptake. In each exercise test, blood samples were taken at the baseline and immediately, 30 and 60 min after the test. The serum BDNF concentration was found to significantly increase immediately after maximal and moderate exercise tests in both groups. In maximal exercise test, the pattern of change in the serum BDNF concentration was different between the groups. While the serum BDNF level for the sedentary group returned to the baseline level during the recovery phase, the BDNF levels for the active group decreased below the baseline level after the maximal exercise test. No group differences were observed in the pattern of plasma BDNF change for all exercise tests. These findings suggest that regular exercise facilitates the utilization of circulating BDNF during and/or after acute exercise with maximal intensity. Key points In maximal exercise test, the pattern of change in the serum BDNF concentration was different between the groups. While the serum BDNF level for the sedentary group returned to the baseline level during the recovery phase, the BDNF levels for the active group decreased below the baseline level after the maximal exercise test. No group differences were observed in the pattern of serum BDNF change for moderate or low exercise tests. No group differences were observed in the pattern of plasma BDNF change for all exercise tests. PMID:24137066

  6. The benefits of exercise for patients with haemophilia and recommendations for safe and effective physical activity.

    PubMed

    Negrier, C; Seuser, A; Forsyth, A; Lobet, S; Llinas, A; Rosas, M; Heijnen, L

    2013-07-01

    Most health care professionals involved in the management of people with haemophilia (PWH) believe that exercise is beneficial and its practice is widely encouraged. This article aims to demonstrate that appropriate exercise (adapted to the special needs of the individual PWH) may be beneficial for all PWH through improved physical, psychosocial and medical status. Based on evidence gathered from the literature, many PWH, particularly those using long-term prophylaxis or exhibiting a mild/moderate bleeding phenotype, are as active as their healthy peers. PWH experience the same benefits of exercise as the general population, being physically healthier than if sedentary and enjoying a higher quality of life (QoL) through social inclusion and higher self-esteem. PWH can also gain physically from increased muscle strength, joint health, balance and flexibility achieved through physiotherapy, physical activity, exercise and sport. Conversely, very little data exist on activity levels of PWH in countries with limited resources. However, regarding specific exercise recommendations in PWH, there is a lack of randomized clinical trials, and consequently formal, evidence-based guidelines have not been produced. Based on published evidence from this review of the literature, together with the clinical experience of the authors, a series of recommendations for the safe participation of PWH in regular physical activities, exercises and sport are now proposed. In summary, we believe that appropriately modified programmes can potentially allow all PWH to experience the physical and psychosocial benefits of being physically active which may ultimately lead to an improved QoL. PMID:23534844

  7. Post-Exercise Muscle Glycogen Repletion in the Extreme: Effect of Food Absence and Active Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Paul A.; Fairchild, Timothy J.; Ferreira, Luis D.; Bräu, Lambert

    2004-01-01

    Glycogen plays a major role in supporting the energy demands of skeletal muscles during high intensity exercise. Despite its importance, the amount of glycogen stored in skeletal muscles is so small that a large fraction of it can be depleted in response to a single bout of high intensity exercise. For this reason, it is generally recommended to ingest food after exercise to replenish rapidly muscle glycogen stores, otherwise one’s ability to engage in high intensity activity might be compromised. But what if food is not available? It is now well established that, even in the absence of food intake, skeletal muscles have the capacity to replenish some of their glycogen at the expense of endogenous carbon sources such as lactate. This is facilitated, in part, by the transient dephosphorylation-mediated activation of glycogen synthase and inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase. There is also evidence that muscle glycogen synthesis occurs even under conditions conducive to an increased oxidation of lactate post-exercise, such as during active recovery from high intensity exercise. Indeed, although during active recovery glycogen resynthesis is impaired in skeletal muscle as a whole because of increased lactate oxidation, muscle glycogen stores are replenished in Type IIa and IIb fibers while being broken down in Type I fibers of active muscles. This unique ability of Type II fibers to replenish their glycogen stores during exercise should not come as a surprise given the advantages in maintaining adequate muscle glycogen stores in those fibers that play a major role in fight or flight responses. Key Points Even in the absence of food intake, skeletal muscles have the capacity to replenish some of their glycogen at the expense of endogenous carbon sources such as lactate. During active recovery from exercise, skeletal muscles rich in type II fibers replenish part of their glycogen stores even in the absence of food intake. Post-exercise muscle glycogen synthesis in the

  8. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system.

  9. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system. PMID:26556068

  10. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo

    2012-07-01

    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  11. Long-term ascorbic acid administration causes anticonvulsant activity during moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Soslu, Recep; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise on brain health are undeniable. Long-term exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in brain. Therefore, athletes often consume antioxidant supplements to remedy exercise-related damage and fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of ascorbic acid in the effects of different intensities of swimming exercise on the brain susceptibility to experimental epilepsy in rats. Ascorbic acid was administered intraperitoneally (ip) during three different swimming exercise programme for 90 days (15 min, 30 min, 90 min/day). The anticonvulsant activity regarding the frequency of epileptiform activity appeared in the 80 min after 500 units intracortical penicillin injection in 30 min and 90 min/day exercise groups. The administration of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, ip) did not alter the anticonvulsant properties seen in the in short-duration (15 min/day) swimming exercise group. The amplitude of epileptiform activity also became significant in the 110 and 120 min after penicillin injection in the moderate (30 min/day) and long duration (60 min/day) groups, respectively. The results of the present study provide electrophysiologic evidence that long-term administration of ascorbic acid causes anticonvulsant activities in the moderate and long-duration swimming exercise. Antioxidant supplementation such as ascorbic acid might be suggested for moderate and long-duration swimming exercise in epilepsy. PMID:26232995

  12. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Itshak; Elbar, Ori; Tsedek, Irit; Oddsson, Lars IE

    2008-01-01

    Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136). Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88) with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training). Voluntary step reaction times

  13. Exercise and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chipkin, S R; Klugh, S A; Chasan-Taber, L

    2001-08-01

    As rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity continue to increase, physical activity continues to be a fundamental form of therapy. Exercise influences several aspects of diabetes, including blood glucose concentrations, insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors. Blood glucose concentrations reflect the balance between skeletal muscle uptake and ambient concentrations of both insulin and counterinsulin hormones. Difficulties in predicting the relative impact of these factors can result in either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Despite the variable impact of exercise on blood glucose, exercise consistently improves insulin action and several cardiovascular risk factors. Beyond the acute impact of physical activity, long-term exercise behaviors have been repeatedly associated with decreased rates of type 2 diabetes. While exercise produces many benefits, it is not without risks for patients with diabetes mellitus. In addition to hyperglycemia, from increased hepatic glucose production, insufficient insulin levels can foster ketogenesis from excess concentrations of fatty acids. At the opposite end of the glucose spectrum, hypoglycemia can result from excess glucose uptake due to either increased insulin concentrations, enhanced insulin action or impaired carbohydrate absorption. To decrease the risk for hypoglycemia, insulin doses should be reduced prior to exercise, although some insulin is typically still needed. Although precise risks of exercise on existing diabetic complications have not been well studied, it seems prudent to consider the potential to worsen nephropathy or retinopathy, or to precipitate musculoskeletal injuries. There is more substantive evidence that autonomic neuropathy may predispose patients to arrhythmias. Of clear concern, increased physical activity can precipitate a cardiac event in those with underlying CAD. Recognizing these risks can prompt actions to minimize their impact. Positive actions that are part of exercise programs for

  14. High-intensity functional exercise program and protein-enriched energy supplement for older persons dependent in activities of daily living: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, Erik; Lindelöf, Nina; Littbrand, Håkan; Yifter-Lindgren, Elinor; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Håglin, Lena; Gustafson, Yngve; Nyberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this randomised controlled trial were to determine if a high-intensity functional exercise program improves balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength in older persons dependent in activities of daily living and if an intake of protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercises increases the effects of the training. One hundred and ninety-one older persons dependent in activities of daily living, living in residential care facilities, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ? 10 participated. They were randomised to a high-intensity functional exercise program or a control activity, which included 29 sessions over 3 months, as well as to protein-enriched energy supplement or placebo. Berg Balance Scale, self-paced and maximum gait speed, and one-repetition maximum in lower-limb strength were followed-up at three and six months and analysed by 2 x 2 factorial ANCOVA, using the intention-to-treat principle. At three months, the exercise group had improved significantly in self-paced gait speed compared with the control group (mean difference 0.04 m/s, p = 0.02). At six months, there were significant improvements favouring the exercise group for Berg Balance Scale (1.9 points, p = 0.05), self-paced gait speed (0.05 m/s, p = 0.009), and lower-limb strength (10.8 kg, p = 0.03). No interaction effects were seen between the exercise and nutrition interventions. In conclusion, a high-intensity functional exercise program has positive long-term effects in balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength for older persons dependent in activities of daily living. An intake of protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercises does not appear to increase the effects of the training. PMID:16764547

  15. HIP MUSCLE ACTIVATION AND KNEE FRONTAL PLANE MOTION DURING WEIGHT BEARING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Lubahn, Amanda J.; Tyson, Tiffany L.; Merkitch, Kenneth W.; Reutemann, Paul; Chestnut, John Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Hip abduction strengthening exercises may be critical in the prevention and rehabilitation of both overuse and traumatic injuries where knee frontal plane alignment is considered to be important. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the muscular activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius during the double-leg squat (DLS), single-leg squat (SLS), or front step-up (FSU), and the same exercises when an added load was used to pull the knee medially. Methods: Eighteen healthy females (ages 18-26) performed six exercises: DLS, DLS with load, FSU, FSU with load, SLS, and SLS with load. Integrated and peak surface electromyography of gluteus maximus and gluteus medius of the dominant leg were recorded and normalized. Motion analysis was used to measure knee abduction angle during each exercise. Results: SLS had the highest integrated and peak activation for both muscles, regardless of load. Adding load, only increased DLS integrated gluteus maximus activation (p=0.019). Load did not increase integrated gluteus medius or peak gluteus maximus activation. Adding load decreased SLS peak gluteus medius activation (p=0.003). Adding load increased peak knee abduction angle during DLS (p=0.013), FSU (p=0.000), and SLS (p=0.011). Conclusions: Overall, the SLS was most effective exercise for activating the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. Applied knee load does not appear to increase muscle activation during SLS and FSU. DLS with an applied load may be more beneficial in activating the gluteus maximus. Overall, the use of applied loads appears to promote poorer musculoskeletal alignment in terms of peak knee valgus angle. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:21713231

  16. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity.

  17. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K

    2016-07-01

    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( < 0.0001) in response to prolonged exercise but was not affected by dietary treatment. Serum lipid hydroperoxides were affected by treatment ( = 0.052) and were higher ( = 0.012) in horses receiving CON than SEL immediately following exercise. Muscle expression of was unchanged at 6 h but increased ( = 0.005) 2.8-fold 24 h after exercise, whereas muscle TrxR activity remained unchanged. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in plasma (P < 0.0001) and decreased in RBC lysate ( = 0.010) after prolonged exercise. A Se treatment × time interaction was observed for RBC GPx activity (P = 0.048). Muscle and expression and GPx activity did not change during the 24-h period after exercise. Level of dietary Se had no overall effect on expression of , , , , , , or in muscle following

  18. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  19. Active-Arm Passive-Leg Exercise Improves Cardiovascular Function in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Currie, Katharine D; Gee, Cameron; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Borisoff, Jaimie

    2015-11-01

    In a 43-yr-old male subject with a chronic T3 AIS A spinal cord injury, the acute cardiorespiratory responses to active upper-extremity exercise alone and combined active-arm passive-leg exercise (AAPLE) were investigated, along with the cardiorespiratory, cardiac, vascular, and body composition responses to a 6-wk AAPLE interval training intervention. AAPLE elicited superior acute maximal cardiorespiratory responses compared with upper-extremity exercise alone. In response to a 6-wk interval training regimen, AAPLE caused a 25% increase in peak oxygen uptake, a 10% increase in resting stroke volume, and a 4-fold increase in brachial artery blood flow. Conversely, there were no changes in femoral arterial function, body composition, or bone mineral density in response to training. As a potential clinical intervention, AAPLE may be advantageous over other forms of currently available exercise, owing to the minimal setup time and cost involved and the nonreliance on specialized equipment that is required for other exercise modalities.

  20. Postural- and respiratory-related activities of abdominal muscles during post-exercise hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    David, Pascal; Terrien, Jérémy; Petitjean, Michel

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses on the role of superficial abdominal muscles revealed by electromyographic recordings during the maintenance of a bipedal stance perturbed by post-exercise hyperventilation. Twelve healthy subjects performed six 30-s postural tests: one pre-exercise test while breathing quietly, then one test every minute for the 5 min immediately following a maximum-intensity, incremental cycling exercise test. Displacement of the centre of pressure in the sagittal plane was monitored over time. Myoelectric activities of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles were recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). Metabolic parameters were measured with a portable telemetric device. The change in ventilatory drive induced by exercise was accompanied by a significant increase in both postural sway parameters and EMG activities. For OE and OI, the increased EMG activities were prominent during expiration, whereas OI was silent during inspiration. OE and RA were activated during both expiration and inspiration. It is concluded that the compensation of respiratory disturbances of the erect posture appears to be less effective when minute ventilation increases. The patterns of muscle activity suggest that abdominal muscles are controlled differentially and that their functional coordination is dependent on the respiratory demand.

  1. CD94 expression and natural killer cell activity after acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C; Pyne, D B; Horn, P L

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the effects of acute exercise on natural killer (NK) cell numbers, their expression of CD94 and cytotoxic capacity in triathletes over a 10-week training period. Nine highly trained male triathletes (age 25.9+/-4.1 yrs, VO2max 5.14+/-0.33 L.min(-1)) attended the laboratory on weeks 0, 2, 5 and 10 for incremental submaximal and maximal cycle ergometry. Peripheral blood was analysed for white blood cell counts, lymphocyte phenotype and cytolytic activity (51Cr release from K562 cells). Maximum oxygen consumption increased from week 2 (5.14+/-0.33 L.min(-1)) to week 10 (5.28+/-0.32 L.min(-1)). Resting NK cell numbers and their expression of CD94 were not altered over the 10-week study period. Natural killer cells expressing CD94+ were not differentially recruited into the circulation and cytolytic activity of exercise-recruited NKs did not differ from those present at rest. There was longitudinal stability (over the 10 weeks of the study) in CD94 expression on NK cells, exercise recruitment of CD94+ NK cells and cytolytic capacity of NK cells. The distribution and functional activity of NK cells are not markedly influenced by 10 weeks of training in competitive triathletes. Natural killer cytotoxic activity after exercise reflects numbers of NK cells and not a changed activation state of these cells per se.

  2. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  3. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  4. Acute effects of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Komatsu, Kazutoshi; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    We examined the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen older adults visited our laboratory twice: once for exercise and once for the control condition. On each visit, subjects performed working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity exercise with a cycling ergo-meter. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition. Moreover, NIRS analysis showed that physical exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity, especially in the left hemisphere, during the working memory task. These findings suggest that the moderate intensity exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity associated with working memory performance in older adults.

  5. A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambuk, Boris U.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered. PMID:24154584

  7. Why even active people get fatter--the asymmetric effects ofincreasing and decreasing exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Public health policies for preventing obesityneed guidelines for active individuals who are at risk due to exerciserecidivism. Methods: Changes in adiposity were compared to the runningdistances at baseline and follow-up in men and women whose reportedexercise increased (N=4,632 and 1,953, respectively) or decreased (17,280and 5,970, respectively) during 7.7 years of follow-up. Results: PerDelta km/wk, decreases in running distance caused over four-fold greaterweight gain between 0-8 km/wk (slope+-SE, males: -0.068+ -0.005 kg/m2,females: -0.080+-0.01 kg/m2) than between 32-48 km/wk (-0.017+-0.002 and-0.010+-0.005 kg/m2, respectively). In contrast, increases in runningdistance produced the smallest weight losses between 0-8 km/wk andstatistically significant weight loss only above 16 km/wk in males and 32km/wk in females. Above 32 km/wk (30 kcal/kg) in men and 16 km/wk (15kcal/kg) in women, weight loss from increasing exercise was equal to orgreater than weight gained with decreasing exercise, otherwise weightgain exceeded weight loss. Substantial weight gain occurred in runnerswho quit running, which would be mostly retained with resumed activity.Conclusion: Public health recommendations should warn against the risksof irreversible weight gain with exercise cessation. Weight gained due toreductions in exercise below 30 kcal/kg in men and 15 kcal/kg in womenmay not be reversed by resuming prior activity. Current IOM guidelines(i.e., maintain total energy expenditure at 160 percent of basal) agreewith the men s exercise threshold for symmetric weight change withchanging exercise levels.

  8. Assessment of voluntary exercise behavior and active video gaming among adolescent and young adult patients during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosipal, Nicole C; Mingle, Lindsay; Smith, Janet; Morris, G Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study sought to examine the exercise behavior and preferences among adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Eighteen patients aged 19 to 25 years were recruited to engage in unsupervised exercise activities lasting at least 60 minutes/week during hospitalization for HSCT. Enrolled patients had access to standard exercise activities (walking, resistance training, and basketball) and active video gaming equipment. Physical function (6-Minute Walk Test and Timed-Up-and-Go test) and quality of life (Behavioral, Affective, and Somatic Experiences Scale) were assessed at different time points during admission. Participants exercised an average of 76% of the days during admission and spent an average of 36.5 minutes per day exercising. The Nintendo Wii was the preferred active video gaming equipment, but standard exercises accounted for 73% of all exercise time. Neither functional capacity nor quality of life improved. Results suggest that AYAs voluntarily exercise during HSCT admission, prefer to use standard exercise activities, and may require supervision in order to derive maximum benefits from their efforts. These results provide guidance for developing rehabilitation interventions for AYA HSCT recipients.

  9. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  10. 76 FR 78673 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Exercise Information System (EXIS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... 6, 2011 (76 FR 792). The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden for the TSA Exercise Information System (EXIS). EXIS is a web portal designed to serve... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

  11. An Evaluation of Classroom Activities and Exercises in ELT Classroom for General Purposes Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It is through effective implementation of activities and exercises which students can be motivated and consequently lead to language learning. However, as an insider, the experience of teaching English for General Purposes (EGP) course indicates that it has some problems which need to be modified. In order to evaluate the EGP course,…

  12. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  13. Tibial translation and muscle activation during rehabilitation exercises 5 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, S; Oberg, B; Kvist, J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different rehabilitation exercises with respect to dynamic anterior tibial translation and muscle activation 5 weeks after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Another aim was to compare the ACL-reconstructed knee with the ACL-injured and the uninjured knees for differences in anterior tibial translation and muscle activation during the exercises. Sagittal tibial translation and muscle activation were measured during the Lachman test (static translation) and during seven rehabilitation exercises (dynamic translation) in 19 patients. Results obtained 5 weeks after ACL reconstruction were compared with those obtained before the ACL reconstruction (ACL-deficient and uninjured knee). After ACL reconstruction the seated knee extension produced more anterior tibial translation than the straight leg raise and standing on one leg. The ACL reconstruction reduced the static and the dynamic tibial translation and the tibial translations measured in ACL-reconstructed knees were similar to those measured in uninjured knees. After ACL reconstruction, the patients used a joint stiffening strategy that used more hamstring activation and reduced the dynamic tibial translation. Although all exercises tested are suitable for rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction, to protect the graft from excessive strain, the straight leg raise and squat on one leg are preferable for quadriceps training in the early phase of rehabilitation.

  14. Physical Activity of Depressed Patients and Their Motivation to Exercise: Nordic Walking in Family Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…

  15. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  16. Role of adenosine in the sympathetic activation produced by isometric exercise in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, F; Biaggioni, I

    1994-01-01

    Isometric exercise increases sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. This exercise pressor reflex is partly mediated by metabolic products activating muscle afferents (metaboreceptors). Whereas adenosine is a known inhibitory neuromodulator, there is increasing evidence that it activates afferent nerves. We, therefore, examined the hypothesis that adenosine stimulates muscle afferents and participates in the exercise pressor reflex in healthy volunteers. Intraarterial administration of adenosine into the forearm, during venous occlusion to prevent systemic effects, mimicked the response to exercise, increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, lower limb microneurography) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) at all doses studied (2, 3, and 4 mg). Heart rate increased only with the highest dose. Intrabrachial adenosine (4 mg) increased MSNA by 96 +/- 25% (n = 6, P < 0.01) and MABP by 12 +/- 3 mmHg (P < 0.01). Adenosine produced forearm discomfort, but equivalent painful stimuli (forearm ischemia and cold exposure) increased MSNA significantly less than adenosine. Furthermore, adenosine receptor antagonism with intrabrachial theophylline (1 microgram/ml forearm per min) blocked the increase in MSNA (92 +/- 15% vs. 28 +/- 6%, n = 7, P < 0.01) and MABP (38 +/- 6 vs. 27 +/- 4 mmHg, P = 0.01) produced by isometric handgrip (30% of maximal voluntary contraction) in the infused arm, but not the contralateral arm. Theophylline did not prevent the increase in heart rate produced by handgrip, a response mediated more by central command than muscle afferent activation. We propose that endogenous adenosine contributes to the activation of muscle afferents involved in the exercise pressor reflex in humans. PMID:8163667

  17. Influence of Exercise Order on Electromyographic Activity During Upper Body Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Soncin, Rafael; Pennone, Juliana; Guimarães, Thiago M.; Mezêncio, Bruno; Amadio, Alberto C.; Serrão, Júlio C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise order on electromyographic activity in different muscle groups among youth men with experience in strength training. Three sets of 8 RM were performed of each exercise in two sequences order: (a) sequence A: bench press, chest fly, shoulder press, shoulder abduction, close grip bench press and lying triceps extension; (b) sequence B: the opposite order. The electromyographic activity was analyzed in the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and long head triceps brachii, normalized for maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The muscles activity of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and long head triceps brachii showed significant interaction between sequence and exercise. The sternocostal head of the pectoralis major showed considerably higher activity in sequence A (100.13 ± 13.56%) than sequence B (81.47 ± 13.09%) for the chest fly. The anterior deltoid showed significantly higher electromyographic activity in sequence B (86.81 ± 40.43%) than sequence A (66.15 ± 22.02%) for the chest fly, whereas for the lying triceps extension, the electromyographic activity was significantly higher in sequence A (53.89 ± 27.09%) than sequence B (34.32 ± 23.70%). For the long head triceps brachii, only the shoulder press showed differences between sequences (A = 52.43 ± 14.64 vs. B = 38.53 ± 16.26). The present study showed that the exercise order could modify the training results even though there was no alteration in volume and intensity of the exercise. These changes may result in different training adaptations. PMID:25713681

  18. Myocellular enzyme leakage, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M

    1996-01-01

    To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle

  19. Healthy brain aging: role of exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Yves; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that physical activity has a protective effect on brain functioning in older people. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown that regular physical activity prevents dementia, but recent RCTs suggests an improvement of cognitive functioning in persons involved in aerobic programs, and evidence is accumulating from basic research. Future prevention of Alzheimer disease may depend on lifestyle habits such as physical activity.

  20. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  1. Exercise-Induced Release of Pharmacologically Active Substances and Their Relevance for Therapy of Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) features constant parenchymal injury and repair together with an increasing hepatic impairment, finally leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis and a heightened risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Closely related to the rise in obesity, the worldwide prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of CLD, has reached an epidemic dimension and is estimated to afflict up to 46% of the general population, including more than one out of three U.S. citizens. Up to now there is no effective drug treatment available, which is why recommendations encompass both exercise programs and changes in dietary habits. Exercise is well-known for unleashing potent anti-inflammatory effects, which can principally counteract liver inflammation and chronic low-grade inflammation. This review article summarizes the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, illustrates the application in animal models as well as in humans, and highlights the therapeutic value when possible. Based on the available results there is no doubt that exercise can even be beneficial in an advanced stage of liver disease and it is the goal of this review article to provide evidence for the therapeutic impact on fibrosis, cirrhosis, and HCC and to assess whether exercise might be of value as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of CLD. In principle, all exercise programs carried out in these high-risk patients should be guided and observed by qualified healthcare professionals to guarantee the patients’ safety. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to additionally determine the optimal amount and intensity of exercise to maximize its value, which is why further studies are essential. PMID:27625607

  2. Exercise-Induced Release of Pharmacologically Active Substances and Their Relevance for Therapy of Hepatic Injury.

    PubMed

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) features constant parenchymal injury and repair together with an increasing hepatic impairment, finally leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis and a heightened risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Closely related to the rise in obesity, the worldwide prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of CLD, has reached an epidemic dimension and is estimated to afflict up to 46% of the general population, including more than one out of three U.S. citizens. Up to now there is no effective drug treatment available, which is why recommendations encompass both exercise programs and changes in dietary habits. Exercise is well-known for unleashing potent anti-inflammatory effects, which can principally counteract liver inflammation and chronic low-grade inflammation. This review article summarizes the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, illustrates the application in animal models as well as in humans, and highlights the therapeutic value when possible. Based on the available results there is no doubt that exercise can even be beneficial in an advanced stage of liver disease and it is the goal of this review article to provide evidence for the therapeutic impact on fibrosis, cirrhosis, and HCC and to assess whether exercise might be of value as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of CLD. In principle, all exercise programs carried out in these high-risk patients should be guided and observed by qualified healthcare professionals to guarantee the patients' safety. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to additionally determine the optimal amount and intensity of exercise to maximize its value, which is why further studies are essential. PMID:27625607

  3. Exercise-Induced Release of Pharmacologically Active Substances and Their Relevance for Therapy of Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) features constant parenchymal injury and repair together with an increasing hepatic impairment, finally leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis and a heightened risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Closely related to the rise in obesity, the worldwide prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of CLD, has reached an epidemic dimension and is estimated to afflict up to 46% of the general population, including more than one out of three U.S. citizens. Up to now there is no effective drug treatment available, which is why recommendations encompass both exercise programs and changes in dietary habits. Exercise is well-known for unleashing potent anti-inflammatory effects, which can principally counteract liver inflammation and chronic low-grade inflammation. This review article summarizes the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, illustrates the application in animal models as well as in humans, and highlights the therapeutic value when possible. Based on the available results there is no doubt that exercise can even be beneficial in an advanced stage of liver disease and it is the goal of this review article to provide evidence for the therapeutic impact on fibrosis, cirrhosis, and HCC and to assess whether exercise might be of value as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of CLD. In principle, all exercise programs carried out in these high-risk patients should be guided and observed by qualified healthcare professionals to guarantee the patients’ safety. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to additionally determine the optimal amount and intensity of exercise to maximize its value, which is why further studies are essential.

  4. Mindfulness-of-breathing exercise modulates EEG alpha activity during cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Bing-Canar, Hanaan; Pizzuto, Jacquelyne; Compton, Rebecca J

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated whether engaging in a mindful breathing exercise would affect EEG oscillatory activity associated with self-monitoring processes, based on the notion that mindfulness enhances attentional awareness. Participants were assigned to either an audio exercise in mindful breathing or an audio control condition, and then completed a Stroop task while EEG was recorded. The primary EEG measure of interest was error-related alpha suppression (ERAS), an index of self-monitoring in which alpha power is reduced, suggesting mental engagement, following errors compared to correct responses. Participants in the mindful-breathing condition showed increased alpha power during the listening exercise and enhanced ERAS during the subsequent Stroop task. These results indicate enhanced error-monitoring among those in the mindful-breathing group. PMID:27245493

  5. Healthier lifestyles series: 1. Exercise for children.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Statistics indicate that 39% of boys and 58% of girls aged 7-18 do not achieve the recommended levels of exercise, eg spending at least one hour each day in a physical activity of at least moderate intensity. This paper summarises the physical and psychological health benefits of exercise for children and young people and emphasises that the promotion of exercise and healthy food choices should go hand in hand. Practical tips for young people on exercise and nutrition are included.

  6. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  7. Managed Activity Graded Exercise iN Teenagers and pre-Adolescents (MAGENTA) feasibility randomised controlled trial: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, Amberly; Beasant, Lucy; Hollingworth, William; Metcalfe, Chris; Gaunt, Daisy; Mills, Nicola; Jago, Russell; Crawley, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a relatively common and disabling condition, yet there is a limited evidence base for treatment. There is good evidence that graded exercise therapy is moderately effective in adults with CFS/ME, but there is little evidence for the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, acceptability or best method of delivery for paediatric CFS/ME. This study aims to investigate the acceptability and feasibility of carrying out a multicentre randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of graded exercise therapy compared with activity management for children/teenagers who are mildly or moderately affected with CFS/ME. Methods and analysis 100 paediatric patients (8–17 years) with CFS/ME will be recruited from 3 specialist UK National Health Service (NHS) CFS/ME services (Bath, Cambridge and Newcastle). Patients will be randomised (1:1) to receive either graded exercise therapy or activity management. Feasibility analysis will include the number of young people eligible, approached and consented to the trial; attrition rate and treatment adherence; questionnaire and accelerometer completion rates. Integrated qualitative methods will ascertain perceptions of feasibility and acceptability of recruitment, randomisation and the interventions. All adverse events will be monitored to assess the safety of the trial. Ethics and dissemination The trial has received ethical approval from the National Research Ethics Service (South West—Frenchay 15/SW/0124). Trial registration number ISRCTN23962803; Pre-results. PMID:27377634

  8. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for <7.5, 7.5 to <16.5, and ≥16.5 metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  9. The Active Classroom: Supporting Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder through Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulrine, Christopher F.; Prater, Mary Anne; Jenkins, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    Teachers face many challenges in their daily effort to meet the needs of and ensure success for a diverse group of students, including students who are inattentive and have trouble staying focused and on task. All students, especially those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), need exercise; it assists them with concentration and…

  10. Impact of Treadmill Exercise on Efficacy Expectations, Physical Activity, and Stroke Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Shaughnessy, Marianne; Michael, Kathleen; Resnick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors are at high risk for cardiovascular mortality which can be in part mitigated by increasing physical activity. Self–efficacy for exercise is known to play a role in adoption of exercise behaviors. This study examines self-reported psychological outcomes in a group of 64 stroke survivors randomized to either a 6-month treadmill training program or a stretching program. Results indicated that regardless of group, all study participants experienced increased self efficacy (F=2.95, p=0.09) and outcome expectations for exercise (F= 13.23, p<0.001), and improvements in activities of daily living as reported on the Stroke Impact Scale (F=10.97, p=0 .002). No statistically significant between-group differences were noted, possibly due to the fact that specific interventions designed to enhance efficacy beliefs were not part of the study. Theoretically based interventions should be tested to clarify the role of motivation and potential influence on exercise and physical activity in the post-stroke population. PMID:22210302

  11. Neutron activation studies and the effect of exercise on osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is described to measure calcium content by in vivo neutron activation analysis of the trunk and upper thighs. In postmenopausal women, estrogen and calcium or fluoride reversed osteoporosis.

  12. The epidemiology of walking for exercise: implications for promoting activity among sedentary groups.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, P Z; Brackbill, R M; Heath, G W

    1995-01-01

    The relative contribution of walking to overall leisure-time physical activity participation rates was studied among respondents from the 45 states that participated in the 1990 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n = 81,557). The percentages of low income, unemployed, and obese persons who engaged in leisure-time physical activity (range = 51.1% to 57.7%) were substantially lower than the percentage among the total adult population (70.3%). In contrast, the prevalence of walking for exercise among these sedentary groups (range = 32.5% to 35.9%) was similar to that among the total population (35.6%). Walking appears to be an acceptable, accessible exercise activity, especially among population subgroups with a low prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:7733433

  13. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  14. Changes in Activation of Abdominal Muscles at Selected Angles During Trunk Exercise by Using Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Dong; Bae, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Jong-Gil; Han, Nami; Eom, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of activation of the abdominal muscles depending on exercise angles and whether the activation of rectus abdominis differs according to the location, during curl up and leg raise exercises, by measuring the thickness ratio of abdominal muscles using ultrasonography. Methods We examined 30 normal adults without musculoskeletal problems. Muscle thickness was measured in the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), obliquus externus (EO), obliquus internus (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA), at pre-determined angles (30°, 60°, 90°) and additionally at the resting angle (0°). Muscle thickness ratio was calculated by dividing the resting (0°) thickness for each angle, and was used as reflection of muscle activity. Results The muscle thickness ratio was significantly different depending on the angles in URA and LRA. For curl up-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°>90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-and for leg raise-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-exercises, but not in the lateral abdominal muscles (EO, IO, and TrA). Also, there was no significant difference in the muscle thickness ratio of URA and LRA during both exercises. In the aspect of muscle activity, there was significant difference in the activation of RA muscle by selected angles, but not according to location during both exercises. Conclusion According to this study, exercise angle is thought to be an important contributing factor for strengthening of RA muscle; however, both the exercises are thought to have no property of strengthening RA muscle selectively based on the location. PMID:26798609

  15. The AMPK activator R419 improves exercise capacity and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Marcinko, Katarina; Bujak, Adam L.; Lally, James S.V.; Ford, Rebecca J.; Wong, Tammy H.; Smith, Brennan K.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Jenkins, Yonchu; Li, Wei; Kinsella, Todd M.; Hitoshi, Yasumichi; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important for regulating glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial content and exercise capacity. R419 is a mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor that has recently been shown to acutely activate AMPK in myotubes. Our main objective was to examine whether R419 treatment improves insulin sensitivity and exercise capacity in obese insulin resistant mice and whether skeletal muscle AMPK was important for mediating potential effects. Methods Glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, and electron transport chain content/activity were examined in wildtype (WT) and AMPK β1β2 muscle-specific null (AMPK-MKO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without R419 supplementation. Results There was no change in weight gain, adiposity, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity between HFD-fed WT and AMPK-MKO mice. In both HFD-fed WT and AMPK-MKO mice, R419 enhanced insulin tolerance, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, skeletal muscle 2-deoxyglucose uptake, Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) content independently of alterations in body mass. In WT, but not AMPK-MKO mice, R419 improved treadmill running capacity. Treatment with R419 increased muscle electron transport chain content and activity in WT mice; effects which were blunted in AMPK-MKO mice. Conclusions Treatment of obese mice with R419 improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through a mechanism that is independent of skeletal muscle AMPK. R419 also increases exercise capacity and improves mitochondrial function in obese WT mice; effects that are diminished in the absence of skeletal muscle AMPK. These findings suggest that R419 may be a promising therapy for improving whole-body glucose homeostasis and exercise capacity. PMID:26413470

  16. Angiogenic response to passive movement and active exercise in individuals with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hoier, B; Walker, M; Passos, M; Walker, P J; Green, A; Bangsbo, J; Askew, C D; Hellsten, Y

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerosis and is associated with microcirculatory impairments in skeletal muscle. The present study evaluated the angiogenic response to exercise and passive movement in skeletal muscle of PAD patients compared with healthy control subjects. Twenty-one PAD patients and 17 aged control subjects were randomly assigned to either a passive movement or an active exercise study. Interstitial fluid microdialysate and tissue samples were obtained from the thigh skeletal muscle. Muscle dialysate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were modestly increased in response to either passive movement or active exercise in both subject groups. The basal muscle dialysate level of the angiostatic factor thrombospondin-1 protein was markedly higher (P < 0.05) in PAD patients compared with the control subjects, whereas soluble VEGF receptor-1 dialysate levels were similar in the two groups. The basal VEGF protein content in the muscle tissue samples was ∼27% lower (P < 0.05) in the PAD patients compared with the control subjects. Analysis of mRNA expression for a range of angiogenic and angiostatic factors revealed a modest change with active exercise and passive movement in both groups, except for an increase (P < 0.05) in the ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 mRNA in the PAD group with both interventions. PAD patients and aged individuals showed a similar limited angiogenic response to active exercise and passive movement. The limited increase in muscle extracellular VEGF combined with an elevated basal level of thrombospondin-1 in muscle extracellular fluid of PAD patients may restrict capillary growth in these patients.

  17. Effect of muscle metaboreflex activation on spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Hartwich, Doreen; Dear, William E; Waterfall, Jessica L; Fisher, James P

    2011-12-15

    We sought to determine whether the activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) is a potential mechanism for the decrease in spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) during exercise in humans. In protocol 1, 15 male subjects (22 ± 1 years) performed steady-state leg cycling at low (26 ± 4 W) and moderate workloads (105 ± 7 W), under free-flow conditions and with partial flow restriction (bilateral thigh cuff inflation at 100 mmHg) to evoke muscle metaboreflex activation during exercise. In protocol 2, rhythmic handgrip exercise at 35% maximum voluntary contraction was performed with progressive upper arm cuff inflation (0, 80, 100 and 120 mmHg) to elicit graded metaboreflex activation. Both protocols were followed by post-exercise ischaemia (PEI) to isolate the muscle metaboreflex. Leg cycling-induced increases in HR and mean BP were augmented by partial flow restriction (P < 0.05 vs. free flow), while HR and mean BP both remained elevated during PEI (P < 0.05 vs. rest). Leg cycling evoked an intensity-dependent decrease in cBRS (16 ± 2, 7 ± 1 and 2 ± 0.2 ms mmHg(-1) at rest, low and moderate workloads, respectively; P < 0.05), which was further reduced with partial flow restriction (by -2.6 ± 0.8 and -0.4 ± 0.1 ms mmHg(-1) at low and moderate workloads). cBRS remained suppressed during PEI following leg cycling with partial flow restriction (4 ± 1 ms mmHg(-1); P < 0.05 vs. rest). cBRS was unchanged during handgrip under free-flow conditions, handgrip with partial flow restriction and PEI following handgrip (P > 0.05 vs. rest). These data indicate that the activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) decreases cardiac baroreflex responsiveness during leg cycling exercise in humans.

  18. Exercise and Activity: Key Elements in the Management of OI

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection reduced risk for some cancers maximum bone density optimal physical function to support independence in daily ... adults with OI include maintaining independence, preserving bone density, and supporting cardiovascular function. To achieve these goals, ...

  19. Effect of isotonic and isokinetic exercise on muscle activity and balance of the ankle joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to examine how the balance of lower limbs and the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), the medial gastrocnemius (GCM), and the peroneus longus (PL) are influenced by isotonic and isokinetic exercise of the ankle joint. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were healthy adults (n=20), and they were divided into two groups (isotonic=10, isokinetic=10). [Methods] Isotonic group performed 3 sets of 10 contractions at 50% of MVIC and Isokinetic group performed 3 sets of 60°/sec. Muscle activity was measured by EMG and balance was measured by one-leg standing test. [Results] For muscle activity, a main effect of group was found in the non-dominant TA, and the dominant TA, GCM and PL. For balance, a main effect of time was found in both groups for the sway area measured support was provided by the non-dominant side. [Conclusion] In terms of muscle activity, the two groups showed a significant difference, and the isokinetic group showed higher muscle activities. In terms of balance, there was a significant difference between the pre-test and the post-test. The results of this study may help in the selection of exercises for physical therapy, because they show that muscle activity and balance vary according to the type of exercise. PMID:25729181

  20. Relationships Among Goal Contents, Exercise Motivations, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness in University Physical Education Courses.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Benjamin A; Bergman, Shawn M

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined the relationships among exercise goal contents, behavioral regulation, physical activity, and aerobic fitness within the context of eight-week university physical education courses. Participants were undergraduate students (M age = 20.2 year, SD = 2.3) enrolled in activity courses (N = 461) during the 2010 Fall semester. At pretest, participants completed a demographic survey, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire and the Goal Contents in Exercise Questionnaire. At eight-week posttest, participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adults and the PACER aerobic fitness test. Relative intrinsic goal content was found to predict physical activity indirectly and aerobic fitness via behavioral regulation. Specific goal contents related to health management and skill development were found to predict physical activity and aerobic fitness via a fully mediated path through identified and intrinsic regulation. Results supported the efficacy of goal contents and self-determination theory in describing physical activity behavior and fitness. Examining specific types of goal contents and behavioral regulations revealed relationships that were masked by the utilization of omnibus scoring protocols.

  1. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  2. Combined pharmacological activation of AMPK and PPARδ potentiates the effects of exercise in trained mice.

    PubMed

    Manio, Mark Christian C; Inoue, Kazuo; Fujitani, Mina; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-03-01

    The combined activation of the cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) has been demonstrated to improve endurance and muscle function by mimicking the effects of exercise training. However, their combined pharmacological activation with exercise training has not been explored. Balb/c mice were trained on a treadmill and administered both the AMPK activator AICAR and the PPARδ agonist GW0742 for 4 weeks. AICAR treatment potentiated endurance, but the combination of AICAR and GW0742 further potentiated endurance and increased all running parameters significantly relative to exercised and nonexercised groups (138-179% and 355% increase in running time, respectively). Despite the lack of change in basal whole-body metabolism, a significant shift to fat as the main energy source with a decline in carbohydrate utilization was observed upon indirect calorimetry analysis at the period near exhaustion. Increased energy substrates before exercise, and elevated muscle nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and elevated muscle glycogen at exhaustion were observed together with increased PDK4 mRNA expression. Citrate synthase activity was elevated in AICAR-treated groups, while PGC-1α protein level tended to be increased in GW0742-treated groups. At exhaustion, Pgc1a was robustly upregulated together with Pdk4, Cd36, and Lpl in the muscle. A robust upregulation of Pgc1a and a downregulation in Chrebp were observed in the liver. Our data show that combined pharmacological activation of AMPK and PPARδ potentiates endurance in trained mice by transcriptional changes in muscle and liver, increased available energy substrates, delayed hypoglycemia through glycogen sparing accompanied by increased NEFA availability, and improved substrate shift from carbohydrate to fat. PMID:26997622

  3. Caffeine does not alter RPE or pain perception during intense exercise in active women.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Roupoli, Lindsay R; Valdivieso, Britten R

    2012-10-01

    Attenuated perceptions of exertion and leg pain are typically reported during exercise with caffeine ingestion, yet these responses are relatively unexplored in women. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain perception during a simulated time trial. Ten active women (age=22.1±1.9yr) completed an 8.2km "all out" time trial on each of 3days separated by at least 48h. Initially, a practice trial was completed, and participants refrained from products containing caffeine and lower-body exercise for 24h prior to subsequent trials. During exercise, heart rate (HR), RPE, and leg pain were recorded. Using a double-blind, randomized crossover design, participants ingested anhydrous caffeine and glucose (each 6mg/kg bw+each 6mg/kg bw glucose) or placebo (each 6mg/kg bw of glucose) 1h pre-exercise. Despite not altering (P>0.05) RPE, HR, or leg pain, caffeine improved (P<0.05) cycling performance (17.7±1.0min versus 18.2±1.1min) and power output (121.6±17.5W versus 114.9±17.9W) versus placebo. Caffeine's ergogenic effects may be independent of changes in RPE or leg pain in active women performing a simulated time trial.

  4. Carotid baroreflex regulation of sympathetic nerve activity during dynamic exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, P. J.; Ogoh, S.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Wasmund, W.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Smith, M. L.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    We sought to determine whether carotid baroreflex (CBR) control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was altered during dynamic exercise. In five men and three women, 23.8 +/- 0.7 (SE) yr of age, CBR function was evaluated at rest and during 20 min of arm cycling at 50% peak O(2) uptake using 5-s periods of neck pressure and neck suction. From rest to steady-state arm cycling, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly increased from 90.0 +/- 2.7 to 118.7 +/- 3.6 mmHg and MSNA burst frequency (microneurography at the peroneal nerve) was elevated by 51 +/- 14% (P < 0.01). However, despite the marked increases in MAP and MSNA during exercise, CBR-Delta%MSNA responses elicited by the application of various levels of neck pressure and neck suction ranging from +45 to -80 Torr were not significantly different from those at rest. Furthermore, estimated baroreflex sensitivity for the control of MSNA at rest was the same as during exercise (P = 0.74) across the range of neck chamber pressures. Thus CBR control of sympathetic nerve activity appears to be preserved during moderate-intensity dynamic exercise.

  5. Influence of forearm muscle metaboreceptor activation on sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ichinose, Masashi; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Koga, Shunsaku; Kenny, Glen P; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether the sustained activation of metaboreceptor in forearm during cycling exercise can modulate sweating and cutaneous vasodilation. On separate days, 12 young participants performed a 1.5-min isometric handgrip exercise at 40% maximal voluntary contraction followed by 1) 9-min forearm ischemia (Occlusion, to activate metaboreceptor) or 2) no ischemia (Control) in thermoneutral conditions (27°C, 50%) with mean skin temperature clamped at 34°C. Thirty seconds after the handgrip exercise, participants cycled for 13.5 min at 40% V̇o2 max For Occlusion, forearm ischemia was maintained for 9 min followed by no ischemia thereafter. Local sweat rate (SR, ventilated capsule) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) on the contralateral nonischemic arm as well as esophageal and skin temperatures were measured continuously. The period of ischemia in the early stages of exercise increased SR (+0.03 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), P < 0.05) but not CVC (P > 0.05) above Control levels. No differences were measured in the esophageal temperature at which onset of sweating (Control 37.19 ± 0.09 vs. Occlusion 37.07 ± 0.09°C) or CVC (Control 37.21 ± 0.08 vs. Occlusion 37.08 ± 0.10°C) as well as slopes for these responses (all P > 0.05). However, a greater elevation in SR occurred thereafter such that SR was significantly elevated at the end of the ischemic period relative to Control (0.37 ± 0.05 vs. 0.23 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), respectively, P < 0.05) despite no differences in esophageal temperature. We conclude that the activation of forearm muscle metaboreceptor can modulate sweating, but not CVC, during cycling exercise without affecting the core temperature-SR relationship. PMID:27053652

  6. The effect of trunk stabilization exercises with a swiss ball on core muscle activation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Gil; Yong, Min Sik; Na, Sang Su

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk stabilization exercise on the muscle EMG activations related to core stability. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen elderly people in a geriatric hospital performed trunk stabilization exercises with a Swiss ball for 20 minutes five times per week for 8 weeks. Trunk muscle activations were measured using electromyography before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle activations of the rectus abdominis, erector spinae, lateral low-back (quadratus lumborum and external oblique), and gluteus medius muscles increased significantly. [Conclusion] The trunk stabilization exercise with a Swiss ball significantly increased the muscle activities of the elderly.

  7. The effects of closed kinetic chain exercises and open kinetic chain exercises using elastic bands on electromyographic activity in degenerative gonarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Igsoo; Hwangbo, Gak; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of closed kinetic chain exercises (CKCEs) and open kinetic chain exercises (OKCEs) with elastic bands on the electromyographic activity of patients with degenerative gonarthritis. [Subjects] The study subjects were 30 degenerative gonarthritis patients who were divided into a CKCE group (CKCEG, n=10), an OKCE group (OKCEG, n=10), and a control group (CG, n=10). [Methods] The CKCEG and the OKCEG performed exercises with elastic bands, and the CG took part in a quadriceps strengthening exercise. All three groups performed the exercises three times per week for four weeks. The electromyographic activities of the subjects' vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were measured and compared. [Results] Within-group comparisons revealed that the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, VL, ST, and BF muscles increased significantly in the CKCEG. The OKCEG displayed significant increases in the electromyographic activity of the VM, RF, ST, and BF muscles, and the CG showed significant increases in the electromyographic activities of the RF, VL, ST, and BF muscles. In between-group comparisons after the intervention, the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, and VL muscles of the CKCEG were significantly higher than those of the CG. The electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, and ST muscles of the OKCEG were significantly higher than those of the CG. [Conclusion] We consider CKCEs with elastic bands are an effective intervention for increasing the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, VL, ST, and BF muscles of degenerative gonarthritis patients, and OKCEs with elastic bands are an effective intervention for increasing the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, ST, and BF muscles of degenerative gonarthritis patients. PMID:25276041

  8. Promoting Optimal Physical Exercise for Life: An Exercise and Self-Management Program to Encourage Participation in Physical Activity after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation—A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Avril; Knorr, Svetlana; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L.; Middleton, Laura; Biasin, Louis; Brunton, Karen; Howe, Jo-Anne; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke do not achieve adequate levels of physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. We developed a group exercise and self-management program (PROPEL), delivered during stroke rehabilitation, to promote uptake of physical activity after discharge. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger study to evaluate the effect of this program on participation in self-directed physical activity. Participants with subacute stroke were recruited at discharge from one of three rehabilitation hospitals; one hospital offered the PROPEL program whereas the other two did not (comparison group; COMP). A high proportion (11/16) of eligible PROPEL program participants consented to the study. Fifteen COMP participants were also recruited. Compliance with wearing an accelerometer for 6 weeks continuously and completing physical activity questionnaires was high (>80%), whereas only 34% of daily heart rate data were available. Individuals who completed the PROPEL program seemed to have higher outcome expectations for exercise, fewer barriers to physical activity, and higher participation in physical activity than COMP participants (Hedge's g ≥ 0.5). The PROPEL program delivered during stroke rehabilitation shows promise for reducing barriers to exercise and increasing participation in physical activity after discharge. This study supports feasibility of a larger randomized trial to evaluate this program. PMID:27313948

  9. Promoting Optimal Physical Exercise for Life: An Exercise and Self-Management Program to Encourage Participation in Physical Activity after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation-A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Avril; Knorr, Svetlana; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L; Middleton, Laura; Biasin, Louis; Brunton, Karen; Howe, Jo-Anne; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke do not achieve adequate levels of physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. We developed a group exercise and self-management program (PROPEL), delivered during stroke rehabilitation, to promote uptake of physical activity after discharge. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger study to evaluate the effect of this program on participation in self-directed physical activity. Participants with subacute stroke were recruited at discharge from one of three rehabilitation hospitals; one hospital offered the PROPEL program whereas the other two did not (comparison group; COMP). A high proportion (11/16) of eligible PROPEL program participants consented to the study. Fifteen COMP participants were also recruited. Compliance with wearing an accelerometer for 6 weeks continuously and completing physical activity questionnaires was high (>80%), whereas only 34% of daily heart rate data were available. Individuals who completed the PROPEL program seemed to have higher outcome expectations for exercise, fewer barriers to physical activity, and higher participation in physical activity than COMP participants (Hedge's g ≥ 0.5). The PROPEL program delivered during stroke rehabilitation shows promise for reducing barriers to exercise and increasing participation in physical activity after discharge. This study supports feasibility of a larger randomized trial to evaluate this program.

  10. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePlus

    Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...

  11. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  12. A Pilot Study: Dietary Energy Density is Similar between Active Women with and without Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Taryn M.; Howe, Stephanie; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Hoffman, Charlotte P. Guebels; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Low energy availability (EA) (e.g., insufficient energy intake (EI) to match energy needs, including exercise energy expenditure) has been identified as a primary contributor to exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) in active women. For health reasons, active women may self-select diets lower in energy density (ED, kcal/g), which can inadvertently contribute to inadequate EI. Using data from two studies, we compared the ED of active women with ExMD (n = 9; 24 ± 6 years) to eumenorrheic (EU) active controls (EU: n = 18, 27 ± 6 years). ED was calculated from 6 to 7 days weighted food records using two methods: with/without beverages. ANOVA and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum were used to test group differences. ED was not different between groups, but there was a trend toward a lower median ED (10%) (p = 0.049 unadjusted; p = 0.098 adjusted) in the ExMD-group (Method 1—all beverages: ExMD = 1.01 kcal/g (range = 0.52–1.41), EU = 1.22 kcal/g (range = 0.72–1.72); Method 2—without beverages: ExMD = 1.51 kcal/g (range = 1.26–2.06), EU = 1.69 kcal/g (range = 1.42–2.54)). This lower ED represents a 9% decrease (~219 kcal/day) in EI (ExMD = 2237 ± 378 kcal/day; EU = 2456 ± 470 kcal/day; p > 0.05). EI and macro/micronutrient intakes were similar for groups. In the ExMD-group, low ED could contribute to lower EI and EA. Future research should examine the interaction of ED and exercise on appetite, EI, and EA in active women, especially those with ExMD. PMID:27104560

  13. Effects of integrating hip movements into bridge exercises on electromyographic activities of selected trunk muscles in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-ju; Oh, Duck-won; Kim, Suhn-yeop

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the electromyographic (EMG) effects in selected trunk muscles after incorporating hip movement into bridging exercise. Twenty-six healthy adults (13 men and 13 women) volunteered for this experiment. EMG data (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were recorded from the rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus internus (OI), erector spinae (ES), and multifidus (MF) muscles of the dominant side while the subjects performed 3 types of bridging exercise, including bridging alone (Bridging 1), bridging with unilateral hip movements (Bridging 2), and bridging with bilateral hip movements (Bridging 3) in a sling suspension system. The RA and OI showed greater EMG activity during Bridging 2 and 3 compared to Bridging 1, with the greatest OI activity during Bridging 3 (p < 0.05), and the activity of the MF appeared to be greater during Bridging 3 than during Bridging 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the OI/RA and MF/ES ratios were significantly higher for Bridging 2 (OI/RA = 1.89 ± 1.41; MF/ES = 1.03 ± 0.19) and Bridging 3 (OI/RA = 2.34 ± 1.86; MF/ES = 1.03 ± 0.15) than Bridging 1 (IO/RA = 1.35 ± 0.92; MF/ES = 0.98 ± 0.16). The OI/RA ratio was significantly higher for Bridging 3 than for Bridging 2. Based on these results, adding hip abduction and adduction, particularly bilateral movements, could be a useful method to enhance OI and MF EMG activity and their activities relative to global muscles during bridging exercise. PMID:24290206

  14. A Pilot Study: Dietary Energy Density is Similar between Active Women with and without Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hand, Taryn M; Howe, Stephanie; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Hoffman, Charlotte P Guebels; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Low energy availability (EA) (e.g., insufficient energy intake (EI) to match energy needs, including exercise energy expenditure) has been identified as a primary contributor to exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) in active women. For health reasons, active women may self-select diets lower in energy density (ED, kcal/g), which can inadvertently contribute to inadequate EI. Using data from two studies, we compared the ED of active women with ExMD (n = 9; 24 ± 6 years) to eumenorrheic (EU) active controls (EU: n = 18, 27 ± 6 years). ED was calculated from 6 to 7 days weighted food records using two methods: with/without beverages. ANOVA and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum were used to test group differences. ED was not different between groups, but there was a trend toward a lower median ED (10%) (p = 0.049 unadjusted; p = 0.098 adjusted) in the ExMD-group (Method 1-all beverages: ExMD = 1.01 kcal/g (range = 0.52-1.41), EU = 1.22 kcal/g (range = 0.72-1.72); Method 2-without beverages: ExMD = 1.51 kcal/g (range = 1.26-2.06), EU = 1.69 kcal/g (range = 1.42-2.54)). This lower ED represents a 9% decrease (~219 kcal/day) in EI (ExMD = 2237 ± 378 kcal/day; EU = 2456 ± 470 kcal/day; p > 0.05). EI and macro/micronutrient intakes were similar for groups. In the ExMD-group, low ED could contribute to lower EI and EA. Future research should examine the interaction of ED and exercise on appetite, EI, and EA in active women, especially those with ExMD. PMID:27104560

  15. Evaluation of Muscle Activities in Human Forearms under Exercises by Diffuse Optical Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Yukari; Gao, Feng; Miyakawa, Michio; Kiryu, Toru; Kizuka, Tomohiro; Endo, Yasuomi; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio

    During the forearm exercise, it is generally understood that the inner muscles work for the task, and the outer muscles work to fix the joints for the efficient work of the inner muscles. For evaluation of the exercise, quantitative measurement of inner muscle activities is necessary. Electromyograph (EMG) and oxygen monitoring using continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) have been used for the evaluation because both of them are the modalities of safe, portable and noninvasive measurements of muscle activities. However, these modalities can show the qualitative changes in the muscle activities in the vicinity of the skin surface. Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography (TR-DOT) can quantitatively provide tomographic images of the changes in the oxygenation state of the whole muscles. In vivo experiments of TR-DOT were performed for human forearms under handgrip exercises, and DOT images of the changes in the oxygenation state of the forearms were reconstructed using the algorithm based on the modified generalized pulsed spectrum technique. The DOT images are compared with the MR-images, and it is shown that the activities of the inner muscles of the forearms were active during the handgrip excises.

  16. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI. PMID:26596899

  17. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI.

  18. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Hervé; Horton, Kenneth; Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen J; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572 PMID:19545359

  19. Using Bench Press Load to Predict Upper Body Exercise Loads in Physically Active Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Del P.; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A.; Smith, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key points The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations. 6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. PMID:24149723

  20. The Impact of Social Structure on Mate Selection: An Empirical Evaluation of an Active-Learning Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, John F.

    2002-01-01

    States that individualistic orientation of most U.S. college students presents a persistent problem for teaching sociology. Provides an empirical evaluation using an active-learning exercise. Focuses on whether mate selection increases student understanding of social structure's impact on marital choice. Indicates that the exercise participants…

  1. Effects of Home Exercise on Physical Function and Activity in Home Care Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Hideyuki; Tsushima, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of guidance in home exercise on physical function and the amount of activity in home care patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). [Subjects and Methods] A 2-month home exercise intervention consisting of self-administered exercise by patients (self-exercise) and home visit exercise therapy guided by a physical therapist (home visit exercise) was conducted in 10 home care patients with PD to compare changes in physical function, activities of daily living, and postural status between before and after the intervention. [Results] A decreased number of chief complaints and alleviation of fear of falling were observed after the intervention. In terms of physical function, a significant increase in flexibility and muscle strength were observed, although no significant changes were found in activities of daily living, gait, and balance. Although there was no significant change in the total amount of daily physical activity, the analysis of daily posture changes revealed a significant reduction in the percentage of time spent lying down and a significant increase in the percentage of time spent sitting after the intervention. [Conclusion] Guidance in home exercise in home care patients with PD can be effective in making self-exercise a habit, improving range of motion and muscle strength, and reducing the time spent in a supine position. PMID:25435681

  2. A Novel Active-Learning Protein Purification Exercise for Large-Enrollment Introductory Biochemistry Courses Using the CHROM Web Applet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrette-Ng, Isabelle H.; Usher, Ken C.

    2013-01-01

    The CHROM Web applet has been used to create a new active-learning exercise in which students design a purification scheme for a recombinant protein using ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). To successfully complete the exercise, students are challenged to apply elementary concepts from acid-base chemistry as well as protein and amino acid…

  3. A Comparison of Attitudes and Exercise Habits of Alumni from Colleges with Varying Degrees of Physical Education Activity Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.; Brynteson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Study compared the exercise attitudes and habits of alumni from four colleges with varying physical education activity (PEA) requirements. Survey results indicated the type of PEA programs offered influenced alumni attitudes toward fitness and exercise behaviors. Students from colleges with higher PEA requirements had more positive exercise…

  4. Activating the Meaning of a Word Facilitates the Integration of Orthography: Evidence from Spelling Exercises in Beginning Spellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilte, Maartje; Reitsma, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of activating the connection between meaning and phonology in spelling exercises in second-grade spellers (n=41; 8 years and 3 months). In computer-based exercises in a within-subject design, semantic and neutral descriptions were contrasted and provided either before the process of spelling or in feedback.…

  5. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training. PMID:27706260

  6. Sympathetic activation in exercise is not dependent on muscle acidosis. Direct evidence from studies in metabolic myopathies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vissing, J.; Vissing, S. F.; MacLean, D. A.; Saltin, B.; Quistorff, B.; Haller, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Muscle acidosis has been implicated as a major determinant of reflex sympathetic activation during exercise. To test this hypothesis we studied sympathetic exercise responses in metabolic myopathies in which muscle acidosis is impaired or augmented during exercise. As an index of reflex sympathetic activation to muscle, microneurographic measurements of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were obtained from the peroneal nerve. MSNA was measured during static handgrip exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction force to exhaustion in patients in whom exercise-induced muscle acidosis is absent (seven myophosphorylase deficient patients; MD [McArdle's disease], and one patient with muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency [PFKD]), augmented (one patient with mitochondrial myopathy [MM]), or normal (five healthy controls). Muscle pH was monitored by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy during handgrip exercise in the five control subjects, four MD patients, and the MM and PFKD patients. With handgrip to exhaustion, the increase in MSNA over baseline (bursts per minute [bpm] and total activity [%]) was not impaired in patients with MD (17+/-2 bpm, 124+/-42%) or PFKD (65 bpm, 307%), and was not enhanced in the MM patient (24 bpm, 131%) compared with controls (17+/-4 bpm, 115+/-17%). Post-handgrip ischemia studied in one McArdle patient, caused sustained elevation of MSNA above basal suggesting a chemoreflex activation of MSNA. Handgrip exercise elicited an enhanced drop in muscle pH of 0.51 U in the MM patient compared with the decrease in controls of 0.13+/-0.02 U. In contrast, muscle pH increased with exercise in MD by 0.12+/-0.05 U and in PFKD by 0.01 U. In conclusion, patients with glycogenolytic, glycolytic, and oxidative phosphorylation defects show normal muscle sympathetic nerve responses to static exercise. These findings indicate that muscle acidosis is not a prerequisite for sympathetic activation in exercise.

  7. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  8. Dialysis exercise team: the way to sustain exercise programs in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Capitanini, Alessandro; Lange, Sara; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Salotti, Emilio; Tavolaro, Alba; Baronti, Maria E; Giannese, Domenico; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2014-01-01

    Patients affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) show quite lower physical activity and exercise capacity when compared to healthy individuals. In addition, a sedentary lifestyle is favoured by lack of a specific counseling on exercise implementation in the nephrology care setting. Increasing physical activity level should represent a goal for every dialysis patient care management. Three crucial elements of clinical care may contribute to sustain a hemodialysis exercise program: a) involvement of exercise professionals, b) real commitment of nephrologists and dialysis professionals, c) individual patient adaptation of the exercise program. Dialysis staff have a crucial role to encourage and assist patients during intra-dialysis exercise, but other professionals should be included in the ideal "exercise team" for dialysis patients. Evaluation of general condition, comorbidities (especially cardiovascular), nutritional status and physical exercise capacity are mandatory to propose an exercise program, in either extra-dialysis or intra-dialysis setting. To this aim, nephrologist should lead a team of specialists and professionals including cardiologist, physiotherapist, exercise physiologist, renal dietician and nurse. In this scenario, dialysis nurses play a pivotal role since they guarantee a constant and direct approach. Unfortunately dialysis staff may often lack of information and formation about exercise management while they take care patients during the dialysis session. Building an effective exercise team, promoting the culture of exercise and increasing physical activity levels lead to a more complete and modern clinical care management of ESRD patients.

  9. The phosphodiesterases type 5 inhibitor tadalafil reduces the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in men during cycle ergometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Sgrò, Paolo; Baldari, Carlo; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Crescioli, Clara; Bianchini, Serena; Romanelli, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-04-15

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may influence human physiology, health, and performance by also modulating endocrine pathways. We evaluated the effects of a 2-day tadalafil administration on adenohypophyseal and adrenal hormone adaptation to exercise in humans. Fourteen healthy males were included in a double-blind crossover trial. Each volunteer randomly received two tablets of placebo or tadalafil (20 mg/day with a 36-h interval) before a maximal exercise was performed. After a 2-wk washout, the volunteers were crossed over. Blood samples were collected at -30 and -15 min and immediately before exercise, immediately after, and during recovery (+15, +30, +60, and +90 min) for adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), β-endorphin, growth hormone (GH), prolactin, cortisol (C), corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) assays. C-to-CBG (free cortisol index, FCI) and DHEAS-to-C ratios were calculated. Exercise intensity, perceived exertion rate, O₂ consumption, and CO₂ and blood lactate concentration were evaluated. ACTH, GH, C, corticosterone, and CBG absolute concentrations and/or areas under the curve (AUC) increased after exercise after both placebo and tadalafil. Exercise increased DHEAS only after placebo. Compared with placebo, tadalafil administration reduced the ACTH, C, corticosterone, and FCI responses to exercise and was associated with higher β-endorphin AUC and DHEAS-to-C ratio during recovery, without influencing cardiorespiratory and performance parameters. Tadalafil reduced the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during exercise by probably influencing the brain's nitric oxide- and cGMP-mediated pathways. Further studies are necessary to confirm our results and to identify the involved mechanisms, possible health risks, and potential clinical uses.

  10. Humanized animal exercise model for clinical implication.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Exercise and physical activity function as a patho-physiological process that can prevent, manage, and regulate numerous chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome and age-related sarcopenia. Because of research ethics and technical difficulties in humans, exercise models using animals are requisite for the future development of exercise mimetics to treat such abnormalities. Moreover, the beneficial or adverse outcomes of a new regime or exercise intervention in the treatment of a specific condition should be tested prior to implementation in a clinical setting. In rodents, treadmill running (or swimming) and ladder climbing are widely used as aerobic and anaerobic exercise models, respectively. However, exercise models are not limited to these types. Indeed, there are no golden standard exercise modes or protocols for managing or improving health status since the types (aerobic vs. anaerobic), time (morning vs. evening), and duration (continuous vs. acute bouts) of exercise are the critical determinants for achieving expected beneficial effects. To provide insight into the understanding of exercise and exercise physiology, we have summarized current animal exercise models largely based on aerobic and anaerobic criteria. Additionally, specialized exercise models that have been developed for testing the effect of exercise on specific physiological conditions are presented. Finally, we provide suggestions and/or considerations for developing a new regime for an exercise model.

  11. Exercise and weight control.

    PubMed

    Stefanick, M L

    1993-01-01

    Several important questions need to be answered to increase the likelihood that exercise will be accepted by the millions in the population who are obese. What is the minimum exercise "dose" (intensity, duration, frequency) and what is the optimal mode to bring about substantial fat weight loss, with minimal loss of lean mass? What is the best nutritional plan to optimize fat utilization during exercise, without impairing performance or loss of lean mass? Which diet and exercise programs maximally increase utilization of centrally deposited fat and how can hyperplastic obesity best be treated? Also of interest is the potential role of resistance exercise for weight loss, and the predictors of weight loss success. For instance, do individuals with gynoid obesity really differ from individuals with android obesity in their utilization and loss of body fat during exercise? The potential advantages of exercise include: stimulation of fat as opposed to carbohydrate oxidation; increased energy use during the exercise itself and in the postexercise period; protection of lean body mass; possible reversal of the diet-induced suppression of BMR; and other health benefits. Among other parameters, the effectiveness of exercise on weight loss may be influenced by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise bouts and the duration of the training program, the nature of the excess fat stores, i.e., whether the person has obesity characterized by hyperplastic or hypertrophic adipose tissue or central (with large-intra-abdominal depot) or peripheral obesity, the composition and caloric content of the diet, and behavioral aspects that affect adherence to the program. With respect to this latter concern, even if a person has been very successful at weight loss in a metabolic ward or intensive program, he/she must eventually return to the outside world and figure out for himself/herself how to eat real food and/or maintain an activity level that promotes weight maintenance

  12. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  13. Health Professionals' Perspectives on Exercise Referral and Physical Activity Promotion in Primary Care: Findings from a Process Evaluation of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Nafees U.; Moore, Graham F.; Murphy, Simon; Wilkinson, Clare; Williams, Nefyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Referring clinicians' experiences of exercise referral schemes (ERS) can provide valuable insights into their uptake. However, most qualitative studies focus on patient views only. This paper explores health professionals' perceptions of their role in promoting physical activity and experiences of a National Exercise…

  14. Aerobic exercise capacity remains normal despite impaired endothelial function in the micro- and macrocirculation of physically active IDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Veves, A; Saouaf, R; Donaghue, V M; Mullooly, C A; Kistler, J A; Giurini, J M; Horton, E S; Fielding, R A

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if diabetes in the absence of neuropathy affects the exercising capacity of IDDM patients, and whether regular, intense training has a beneficial effect on endothelial function. Five groups of subjects were studied: 23 healthy control subjects who exercised regularly (age 33 +/- 6 years), 23 nonneuropathic type 1 diabetic patients who exercised regularly (age 33 +/- 6 years, IDDM duration 11 +/- 8 years), 7 neuropathic type 1 diabetic patients who exercised regularly (age 36 +/- 7 years, IDDM duration 22 +/- 8 years), 18 healthy subjects who did not exercise regularly (age 34 +/- 7 years), and 5 nonneuropathic type 1 diabetic patients who did not exercise regularly (age 31 +/- 4 years, IDDM duration 20 +/- 3 years). All groups were matched for age, sex, and body weight. No differences existed in the energy expenditure per week in physical activity among the three exercising groups or between the two nonexercising groups. The maximal oxygen uptake was similar between control and diabetic nonneuropathic exercisers, and among diabetic neuropathic exercisers, control nonexercisers, and diabetic nonexercisers; however, a significant difference existed between the first two and the last three groups (P < 0.0001). A stepwise increase was found in the resting heart rate among the groups, ranging from the lowest in control exercisers to the highest in diabetic nonexercisers, but the maximal heart rate was lower only in diabetic neuropathic exercisers compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Assessments of endothelial function in both macro- and microcirculation were performed in 12 control exercisers, 10 diabetic nonneuropathic exercisers, 5 diabetic neuropathic exercisers, 17 control nonexercisers, and 4 diabetic nonexercisers. When all diabetic patients were considered as one group and all control subjects as another, the microcirculation endothelial function in the diabetic group was reduced compared with the control subjects

  15. Perceived Barriers, Facilitators and Benefits for Regular Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Rouse, Peter C; Hale, Elizabeth D; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Duda, Joan L; Kitas, George D

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which not only affects the joints but can also impact on general well-being and risk for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity and exercise in patients with RA have numerous health benefits. Nevertheless, the majority of patients with RA are physically inactive. This indicates that people with RA might experience additional or more severe barriers to physical activity or exercise than the general population. This narrative review provides an overview of perceived barriers, benefits and facilitators of physical activity and exercise in RA. Databases were searched for articles published until September 2014 using the terms 'rheumatoid arthritis', 'physical activity', 'exercise', 'barriers', 'facilitators', 'benefits', 'motivation', 'motivators' and 'enablers'. Similarities were found between disease-specific barriers and benefits of physical activity and exercise, e.g. pain and fatigue are frequently mentioned as barriers, but reductions in pain and fatigue are perceived benefits of physical activity and exercise. Even though exercise does not influence the existence of barriers, physically active patients appear to be more capable of overcoming them. Therefore, exercise programmes should enhance self-efficacy for exercise in order to achieve long-term physical activity and exercise behaviour. Encouragement from health professionals and friends/family are facilitators for physical activity and exercise. There is a need for interventions that support RA patients in overcoming barriers to physical activity and exercise and help sustain this important health behaviour. PMID:26219268

  16. Perceived Barriers, Facilitators and Benefits for Regular Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Rouse, Peter C; Hale, Elizabeth D; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Duda, Joan L; Kitas, George D

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which not only affects the joints but can also impact on general well-being and risk for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity and exercise in patients with RA have numerous health benefits. Nevertheless, the majority of patients with RA are physically inactive. This indicates that people with RA might experience additional or more severe barriers to physical activity or exercise than the general population. This narrative review provides an overview of perceived barriers, benefits and facilitators of physical activity and exercise in RA. Databases were searched for articles published until September 2014 using the terms 'rheumatoid arthritis', 'physical activity', 'exercise', 'barriers', 'facilitators', 'benefits', 'motivation', 'motivators' and 'enablers'. Similarities were found between disease-specific barriers and benefits of physical activity and exercise, e.g. pain and fatigue are frequently mentioned as barriers, but reductions in pain and fatigue are perceived benefits of physical activity and exercise. Even though exercise does not influence the existence of barriers, physically active patients appear to be more capable of overcoming them. Therefore, exercise programmes should enhance self-efficacy for exercise in order to achieve long-term physical activity and exercise behaviour. Encouragement from health professionals and friends/family are facilitators for physical activity and exercise. There is a need for interventions that support RA patients in overcoming barriers to physical activity and exercise and help sustain this important health behaviour.

  17. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  18. Muscle pain perception and sympathetic nerve activity to exercise during opioid modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, D. B.; O'Connor, P. J.; Ray, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of the endogenous opioid system on forearm muscle pain and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during dynamic fatiguing exercise. Twelve college-age men (24 +/- 4 yr) performed graded (1-min stages; 30 contractions/min) handgrip to fatigue 1 h after the ingestion of either 60 mg codeine, 50 mg naltrexone, or placebo. Pain (0-10 scale) and exertion (0-10 and 6-20 scales) intensities were measured during the last 15 s of each minute of exercise and every 15 s during recovery. MSNA was measured continuously from the peroneal nerve in the left leg. Pain threshold occurred earlier [1.8 +/- 1, 2. 2 +/- 1, 2.2 +/- 1 J: codeine, naltrexone, and placebo, respectively] and was associated with a lower rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (2.7 +/- 2, 3.6 +/- 2, 3.8 +/- 2: codeine, naltrexone, and placebo, respectively) in the codeine condition compared with either the naltrexone or placebo conditions. There were no main effects (i.e., drugs) or interaction (i.e., drugs x time) for either forearm muscle pain or RPE during exercise [pain: F (2, 22) = 0.69, P = 0.51]. There was no effect of drug on MSNA, heart rate, or blood pressure during baseline, exercise, or recovery. Peak exercise MSNA responses were 21 +/- 1, 21 +/- 2.0, and 21 +/- 2.0 bursts/30 s for codeine, naltrexone, and placebo conditions, respectively. Peak mean arterial pressure responses were 135 +/- 4, 131 +/- 3, and 132 +/- 4 mmHg for codeine, naltrexone, and placebo conditions, respectively. It is concluded that neither 60 mg codeine nor 50 mg naltrexone has an effect on forearm muscle pain, exertion, or MSNA during high- intensity handgrip to fatigue.

  19. Adenovirus 36 attenuates weight loss from exercise but improves glycemic control by increasing mitochondrial activity in the liver.

    PubMed

    Na, Ha-Na; Hong, Young-Mi; Ye, Michael B; Park, Sooho; Kim, In-Beom; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 36 (Ad36) as an obesity agent induces adiposity by increasing glucose uptake and promoting chronic inflammation in fat tissues; in contrast, exercise reduces total body fat and inflammation. Our objective was to determine the association between Ad36 and the effects of exercise on inflammation and glycemic control. In the human trials (n = 54), Korean children (aged 12-14 years) exercised for 60 min on three occasions each week for 2 months. We compared the body mass index (BMI) Z-scores before and after exercise. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Ad36 and Ad2 as a control, and these mice exercised for 12 weeks postinfection. After the exercise period, we determined the serum parameters and assessed the presence of inflammation and the mitochondrial function in the organs. Ad36-seropositive children who were subjected to a supervised exercise regimen had high BMI Z-scores whereas Ad36-seronegative children had lower scores. Similarly, Ad36-infected mice were resistant to weight loss and exhibited chronic inflammation of their adipose tissues despite frequent exercise. However, Ad36 combined with exercise reduced the levels of serum glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, total cholesterol, and insulin in virus-infected mice. Interestingly, virus infection increased the mitochondrial function in the liver, as demonstrated by the numbers of mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and transcription of key mitochondrial genes. Therefore Ad36 counteracts the weight-loss effect of exercise and maintains the chronic inflammatory state, but glycemic control is improved by exercise synergistically because of increased mitochondrial activity in the liver.

  20. An exercise-based randomized controlled trial on brain, cognition, physical health and mental health in overweight/obese children (ActiveBrains project): Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Mora-González, José; Migueles, Jairo H; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Gómez-Vida, José; Escolano-Margarit, María Victoria; Maldonado, José; Enriquez, Gala María; Pastor-Villaescusa, Belén; de Teresa, Carlos; Navarrete, Socorro; Lozano, Rosa María; de Dios Beas-Jiménez, Juan; Estévez-López, Fernando; Mena-Molina, Alejandra; Heras, María José; Chillón, Palma; Campoy, Cristina; Muñoz-Hernández, Victoria; Martínez-Ávila, Wendy Daniela; Merchan, María Elisa; Perales, José C; Gil, Ángel; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Aguilera, Concepción M; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Catena, Andrés; Ortega, Francisco B

    2016-03-01

    The new and recent advances in neuroelectric and neuroimaging technologies provide a new era for further exploring and understanding how brain and cognition function can be stimulated by environmental factors, such as exercise, and particularly to study whether physical exercise influences brain development in early ages. The present study, namely the ActiveBrains project, aims to examine the effects of a physical exercise programme on brain and cognition, as well as on selected physical and mental health outcomes in overweight/obese children. A total of 100 participants aged 8 to 11 years are randomized into an exercise group (N=50) or a control group (N=50). The intervention lasts 20-weeks, with 3-5 sessions per week of 90 min each, and is mainly focused on high-intensity aerobic exercise yet also includes muscle-strengthening exercises. The extent to what the intervention effect remains 8-months after the exercise programme finishes is also studied in a subsample. Brain structure and function and cognitive performance are assessed using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalographic recordings. Secondary outcomes include physical health outcomes (e.g. physical fitness, body fatness, bone mass and lipid-metabolic factors) and mental health outcomes (e.g. chronic stress indicators and overall behavioural and personality measurements such as anxiety or depression). This project will substantially contribute to the existing knowledge and will have an impact on societies, since early stimulation of brain development might have long lasting consequences on cognitive performance, academic achievement and in the prevention of behavioural problems and the promotion of psychological adjustment and mental health. Clinical trials. Gov identifier: NCT02295072.

  1. Platelet function and fibrinolytic activity during rest and exercise in borderline hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Gleerup, G; Vind, J; Winther, K

    1995-04-01

    In this study we examined whether the reduced fibrinolysis and increased platelet activity that are known to occur in hypertension are already present in borderline hypertension. Twelve patients with 'borderline' hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 90-95 mmHg) were found to have substantially reduced fibrinolytic activity, both at rest and during exercise, compared with 12 normotensive controls. Euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) was significantly higher in hypertensive subjects (218 min vs. 145 min; P < 0.05), and this difference persisted during exercise. Resting tissue plasminogen activator activity (t-PA) did not differ in the two groups, but the brisk increase in t-PA in controls during exercise (0.64 rising to 1.44 IU mL-1; P < 0.01) did not occur to the same extent in the borderline hypertensive subjects. Levels of the fast-acting t-PA inhibitor, normally referred to as PAI-1, were considerably higher in hypertensives (9.22 vs. 4.41 IU mL-1; P < 0.02), and this difference persisted in the upright posture, indicating a decrease in fibrinolytic activity. Platelet aggregability induced by ADP in vitro was not significantly higher in the hypertensive subjects, but indices of platelet activity in vivo (B-TG and PF-4 levels) revealed enhanced platelet function in the hypertensives. These results indicate that the indicators of altered haemostatic function known to occur in hypertension, namely diminished fibrinolytic activity and increased platelet function, are already detectable during the very earliest stage of the disease.

  2. Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Shawn D; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Kraemer, William J

    2012-11-20

    Cortical activity is thought to reflect the biomechanical properties of movement (e.g., force or velocity of movement), but fatigue and movement familiarity are important factors that require additional consideration in electrophysiological research. The purpose of this within-group quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) investigation was to examine changes in cortical activity amplitude and location during four resistance exercise movement protocols emphasizing rate (PWR), magnitude (FOR), or volume (VOL) of force production, while accounting for movement familiarity and fatigue. EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets. Biomechanical, biochemical, and exertional data were collected to contextualize electrophysiological data. The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity. Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall. Our findings suggest that cortical activity is strongly related to aspects of fatigue during a high intensity resistance exercise movement.

  3. Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Shawn D.; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A.; Maresh, Carl M.; Volek, Jeff S.; Denegar, Craig R.; Kraemer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical activity is thought to reflect the biomechanical properties of movement (e.g., force or velocity of movement), but fatigue and movement familiarity are important factors that require additional consideration in electrophysiological research. The purpose of this within-group quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) investigation was to examine changes in cortical activity amplitude and location during four resistance exercise movement protocols emphasizing rate (PWR), magnitude (FOR), or volume (VOL) of force production, while accounting for movement familiarity and fatigue. EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets. Biomechanical, biochemical, and exertional data were collected to contextualize electrophysiological data. The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity. Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall. Our findings suggest that cortical activity is strongly related to aspects of fatigue during a high intensity resistance exercise movement. PMID:24961265

  4. Changes in muscle lipoprotein lipase activity during exercise in dogs fed on a mixed fat-rich meal.

    PubMed

    Budohoski, L; Kozłowski, S; Terjung, R L; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H; Nazar, K; Falecka-Wieczorek, I

    1982-08-01

    Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity LPLA was compared in dogs performing prolonged treadmill exercise after 20-22 h fasting or 4 h following mixed fat-rich meal ingestion. In the fasting state muscle LPLA increased progressively during 2 h exercise. In fed dogs the resting value of the muscle LPLA was considerably lower than that in the fasting state, and no increase in the enzyme activity occurred during physical effort. The inhibition of the muscle LPLA by the meal ingestion can be attributed to the persisting effects of increased plasma insulin and/or FFA concentrations, found at the beginning of exercise. PMID:6750553

  5. Low-intensity and moderate exercise training improves autonomic nervous system activity imbalanced by postnatal early overfeeding in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postnatal early overfeeding and physical inactivity are serious risk factors for obesity. Physical activity enhances energy expenditure and consumes fat stocks, thereby decreasing body weight (bw). This study aimed to examine whether low-intensity and moderate exercise training in different post-weaning stages of life is capable of modulating the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and inhibiting perinatal overfeeding-induced obesity in rats. Methods The obesity-promoting regimen was begun two days after birth when the litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (small litter, SL) or to 9 pups (normal litter, NL). The rats were organized into exercised groups as follows: from weaning until 90-day-old, from weaning until 50-day-old, or from 60- until 90-days-old. All experimental procedures were performed just one day after the exercise training protocol. Results The SL-no-exercised (SL-N-EXE) group exhibited excess weight and increased fat accumulation. We also observed fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in these rats. In addition, the SL-N-EXE group exhibited an increase in the vagus nerve firing rate, whereas the firing of the greater splanchnic nerve was not altered. Independent of the timing of exercise and the age of the rats, exercise training was able to significantly blocks obesity onset in the SL rats; even SL animals whose exercise training was stopped at the end of puberty, exhibited resistance to obesity progression. Fasting glycemia was maintained normal in all SL rats that underwent the exercise training, independent of the period. These results demonstrate that moderate exercise, regardless of the time of onset, is capable on improve the vagus nerves imbalanced tonus and blocks the onset of early overfeeding-induced obesity. Conclusions Low-intensity and moderate exercise training can promote the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, reduces the large fat pad stores associated to improvement of the ANS activity in adult rats that were

  6. Exercise and Inherited Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise.

  7. Exercise and Inherited Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise. PMID:26927864

  8. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    PubMed

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  9. Exercise in Pregnancy: Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Artal, Raul

    2016-09-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that in all phases of life, including pregnancy, physical activity promotes health benefits and precludes comorbidities, the scientific evidence is indisputable. Several organizations around the world have updated in recent years the guidelines and recommendations for exercise in pregnancy. The December 2015, updated guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists emphasize that physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risk. Although recommending exercise in pregnancy, the anatomic/physiological changes, absolute and relative contraindications should be considered. Women who exercised regularly before pregnancy, in the absence of contraindications, can continue and engage in moderate to strenuous activities, although information on strenuous activities in pregnancy is still limited. This review summarizes the most recent published and recommended guidelines. PMID:27398880

  10. Exercise preconditioning of the myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kavazis, Andreas N

    2009-01-01

    Diseases of the heart (e.g. myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury) remain the major cause of death in the industrialized world. Therefore, developing a pragmatic countermeasure to reduce myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury is vital. In this regard, a plethora of evidence indicates that regular exercise can protect the heart during an ischaemia reperfusion insult (i.e. cardioprotection). This review summarizes studies indicating that both short-term (i.e. 1-5 days) and long-term (i.e. weeks to months) endurance exercise provides cardioprotection. Data are presented showing that exercise duration and exercise intensity are both important factors in achieving a cardioprotective phenotype. Importantly, it appears that the exercise duration of a single exercise session should last for 60 minutes and should be performed at about 75% maximum oxygen consumption in order to achieve exercise-induced cardioprotection. Furthermore, data are presented showing that exercise-induced cardioprotection against myocardial stunning can persist for at least 9 days after the cessation of exercise training, but is lost 18 days after exercise. This review also summarizes the exercise-induced adaptations that occur to the myocardium. In particular, extrinsic changes observed in human and animal models include neural, hormonal, humoral, vascular and reduced body fat. Other anatomical and biochemical/molecular changes that have been studied as putative mechanisms in exercise-induced cardioprotection include alterations in anatomic coronary arteries, induction of myocardial heat shock proteins, increased myocardial cyclooxygenase-2 activity, elevated endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, nitric oxide production, improved function of sarcolemmal and/or mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels and increased myocardial antioxidant capacity. However, the most compelling evidence for exercise-induced cardioprotection is the fact that exercise training

  11. Physical activity, physical fitness and the effect of exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.

  12. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Theodore; Schutz, Heidi; Chappell, Mark A.; Keeney, Brooke K.; Meek, Thomas H.; Copes, Lynn E.; Acosta, Wendy; Drenowatz, Clemens; Maciel, Robert C.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Kotz, Catherine M.; Eisenmann, Joey C.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals expend energy in many ways, including basic cellular maintenance and repair, digestion, thermoregulation, locomotion, growth and reproduction. These processes can vary tremendously among species and individuals, potentially leading to large variation in daily energy expenditure (DEE). Locomotor energy costs can be substantial for large-bodied species and those with high-activity lifestyles. For humans in industrialized societies, locomotion necessary for daily activities is often relatively low, so it has been presumed that activity energy expenditure and DEE are lower than in our ancestors. Whether this is true and has contributed to a rise in obesity is controversial. In humans, much attention has centered on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), the latter sometimes defined so broadly as to include all energy expended due to activity, exclusive of volitional exercise. Given that most people in Western societies engage in little voluntary exercise, increasing NEAT may be an effective way to maintain DEE and combat overweight and obesity. One way to promote NEAT is to decrease the amount of time spent on sedentary behaviours (e.g. watching television). The effects of voluntary exercise on other components of physical activity are highly variable in humans, partly as a function of age, and have rarely been studied in rodents. However, most rodent studies indicate that food consumption increases in the presence of wheels; therefore, other aspects of physical activity are not reduced enough to compensate for the energetic cost of wheel running. Most rodent studies also show negative effects of wheel access on body fat, especially in males. Sedentary behaviours per se have not been studied in rodents in relation to obesity. Several lines of evidence demonstrate the important role of dopamine, in addition to other neural signaling networks (e.g. the endocannabinoid system), in the control of voluntary exercise. A

  13. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions. PMID:24799137

  14. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions.

  15. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  16. Muscle atrophy in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: roles of inflammatory pathways, physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Perry, Ben D; Caldow, Marissa K; Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Sbaraglia, Melissa; Jerums, George; Garnham, Andrew; Wong, Chiew; Levinger, Pazit; Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Hare, David L; Price, S Russ; Levinger, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Muscle atrophy is caused by an imbalance in contractile protein synthesis and degradation which can be triggered by various conditions including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Reduced muscle quality in patients with T2DM adversely affects muscle function, the capacity to perform activities of daily living, quality of life and ultimately may increase the risk of premature mortality. Systemic inflammation initiated by obesity and prolonged overnutrition not only contributes to insulin resistance typical of T2DM, but also promotes muscle atrophy via decreased muscle protein synthesis and increased ubiquitin-proteasome, lysosomal-proteasome and caspase 3- mediated protein degradation. Emerging evidence suggests that the inflammation-sensitive Nuclear Factor κ B (NF-κB) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways may contribute to muscle atrophy in T2DM. In contrast, exercise appears to be an effective tool in promoting muscle hypertrophy, in part due to its effect on systemic and local (skeletal muscle) inflammation. The current review discusses the role inflammation plays in muscle atrophy in T2DM and the role of exercise training in minimising the effect of inflammatory markers on skeletal muscle. We also report original data from a cohort of obese patients with T2DM compared to age-matched controls and demonstrate that patients with T2DM have 60% higher skeletal muscle expression of the atrophy transcription factor FoxO1. This review concludes that inflammatory pathways in muscle, in particular, NF-κB, potentially contribute to T2DM-mediated muscle atrophy. Further in-vivo and longitudinal human research is required to better understand the role of inflammation in T2DM-mediated atrophy and the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training under these conditions. PMID:26859514

  17. Muscle atrophy in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: roles of inflammatory pathways, physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Perry, Ben D; Caldow, Marissa K; Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Sbaraglia, Melissa; Jerums, George; Garnham, Andrew; Wong, Chiew; Levinger, Pazit; Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Hare, David L; Price, S Russ; Levinger, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Muscle atrophy is caused by an imbalance in contractile protein synthesis and degradation which can be triggered by various conditions including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Reduced muscle quality in patients with T2DM adversely affects muscle function, the capacity to perform activities of daily living, quality of life and ultimately may increase the risk of premature mortality. Systemic inflammation initiated by obesity and prolonged overnutrition not only contributes to insulin resistance typical of T2DM, but also promotes muscle atrophy via decreased muscle protein synthesis and increased ubiquitin-proteasome, lysosomal-proteasome and caspase 3- mediated protein degradation. Emerging evidence suggests that the inflammation-sensitive Nuclear Factor κ B (NF-κB) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways may contribute to muscle atrophy in T2DM. In contrast, exercise appears to be an effective tool in promoting muscle hypertrophy, in part due to its effect on systemic and local (skeletal muscle) inflammation. The current review discusses the role inflammation plays in muscle atrophy in T2DM and the role of exercise training in minimising the effect of inflammatory markers on skeletal muscle. We also report original data from a cohort of obese patients with T2DM compared to age-matched controls and demonstrate that patients with T2DM have 60% higher skeletal muscle expression of the atrophy transcription factor FoxO1. This review concludes that inflammatory pathways in muscle, in particular, NF-κB, potentially contribute to T2DM-mediated muscle atrophy. Further in-vivo and longitudinal human research is required to better understand the role of inflammation in T2DM-mediated atrophy and the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training under these conditions.

  18. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  19. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in the Homeland Security Acquisition Regulation, DHS FORM 0700-01, DHS FORM 0700-02, DHS FORM 0700-03...: The Department of Homeland Security, Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition Policy...

  20. Exercise Activates p53 and Negatively Regulates IGF-1 Pathway in Epidermis within a Skin Cancer Model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; King, Brenee; Ewert, Emily; Su, Xiaoyu; Mardiyati, Nur; Zhao, Zhihui; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has been previously reported to lower cancer risk through reducing circulating IGF-1 and IGF-1-dependent signaling in a mouse skin cancer model. This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which exercise may down-regulate the IGF-1 pathway via p53 and p53-related regulators in the skin epidermis. Female SENCAR mice were pair-fed an AIN-93 diet with or without 10-week treadmill exercise at 20 m/min, 60 min/day and 5 days/week. Animals were topically treated with TPA 2 hours before sacrifice and the target proteins in the epidermis were analyzed by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Under TPA or vehicle treatment, MDM2 expression was significantly reduced in exercised mice when compared with sedentary control. Meanwhile, p53 was significantly elevated. In addition, p53-transcriptioned proteins, i.e., p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN, increased in response to exercise. There was a synergy effect between exercise and TPA on the decreased MDM2 and increased p53, but not p53-transcripted proteins. Taken together, exercise appeared to activate p53, resulting in enhanced expression of p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN that might induce a negative regulation of IGF-1 pathway and thus contribute to the observed cancer prevention by exercise in this skin cancer model. PMID:27509024

  1. Increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate, respiration, and skin blood flow during passive viewing of exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachael; Kemp, Ursula; Macefield, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exercise have been widely studied, as have the autonomic effects of imagined and observed exercise. However, the effects of observed exercise in the first person have not been documented, nor have direct recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) been obtained during observed or imagined exercise. The aim of the current study was to measure blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, skin blood flow, sweat release, and MSNA (via microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve), during observation of exercise from the first person point of view. It was hypothesized that the moving stimuli would produce robust compensatory increases in the above-mentioned parameters as effectively as those generated by mental imagery and-to a lesser extent-actual exercise. Nine subjects watched a first-person running video, allowing them to view the action from the perspective of the runner rather than viewing someone else perform the exercise. On average, statistically significant increases from baseline during the running phase were seen in heart rate, respiratory rate, skin blood flow, and burst amplitude of MSNA. These results suggest that observation of exercise in the first person is a strong enough stimulus to evoke "physiologically appropriate" autonomic responses that have a purely psychogenic origin.

  2. Exercise Activates p53 and Negatively Regulates IGF-1 Pathway in Epidermis within a Skin Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Miao; King, Brenee; Ewert, Emily; Su, Xiaoyu; Mardiyati, Nur; Zhao, Zhihui; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has been previously reported to lower cancer risk through reducing circulating IGF-1 and IGF-1-dependent signaling in a mouse skin cancer model. This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which exercise may down-regulate the IGF-1 pathway via p53 and p53-related regulators in the skin epidermis. Female SENCAR mice were pair-fed an AIN-93 diet with or without 10-week treadmill exercise at 20 m/min, 60 min/day and 5 days/week. Animals were topically treated with TPA 2 hours before sacrifice and the target proteins in the epidermis were analyzed by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Under TPA or vehicle treatment, MDM2 expression was significantly reduced in exercised mice when compared with sedentary control. Meanwhile, p53 was significantly elevated. In addition, p53-transcriptioned proteins, i.e., p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN, increased in response to exercise. There was a synergy effect between exercise and TPA on the decreased MDM2 and increased p53, but not p53-transcripted proteins. Taken together, exercise appeared to activate p53, resulting in enhanced expression of p21, IGFBP-3, and PTEN that might induce a negative regulation of IGF-1 pathway and thus contribute to the observed cancer prevention by exercise in this skin cancer model. PMID:27509024

  3. Effects of Physical Activity on Children’s Executive Function: Contributions of Experimental Research on Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Executive function refers to the cognitive processes necessary for goal-directed cognition and behavior, which develop across childhood and adolescence. Recent experimental research indicates that both acute and chronic aerobic exercise promote children’s executive function. Furthermore, there is tentative evidence that not all forms of aerobic exercise benefit executive function equally: Cognitively-engaging exercise appears to have a stronger effect than non-engaging exercise on children’s executive function. This review discusses this evidence as well as the mechanisms that may underlie the association between exercise and executive function. Research from a variety of disciplines is covered, including developmental psychology, kinesiology, cognitive neuroscience, and biopsychology. Finally, these experimental findings are placed within the larger context of known links between action and cognition in infancy and early childhood, and the clinical and practical implications of this research are discussed. PMID:21818169

  4. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study's participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject's comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients' pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters. PMID:26696736

  5. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study’s participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject’s comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients’ pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters. PMID:26696736

  6. Shoulder Electromyography Measurements During Activities of Daily Living and Routine Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    Gurney, A Burke; Mermier, Christine; LaPlante, Michael; Majumdar, Aditi; O'Neill, Kathleen; Shewman, Todd; Gurney, James G

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background The activity of the rotator cuff muscles has not previously been measured with indwelling electromyography (EMG) comparing ambulation and other movements. Knowledge of the relative contribution of these muscles during various tasks may help to guide rehabilitation progression. Objective To measure activity of the rotator cuff muscles and other shoulder muscles during normal ambulation, shirt and sling donning and doffing, and rehabilitation tasks commonly performed after rotator cuff surgery. Methods In 28 volunteers (15 men, 13 women; mean age, 32.2 years), indwelling EMG activity was measured in the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles during various tasks; and surface EMG activity was measured in the middle deltoid, biceps, and upper trapezius muscles. Results Using median EMG activity, in general, donning and doffing a shirt or sling recruited the rotator cuff muscles more than the other 7 tasks tested. Self-ranging motion using pulleys, especially in the scapular plane, was also consistently associated with greater recruitment of the shoulder muscles. Pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel recruited the shoulder muscles to a lesser extent. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that rehabilitation tasks such as pendulum exercises, passive range of motion by a physical therapist, and self-ranging motion with a dowel show low EMG activity, whereas pulleys in the sagittal plane and scapular plane show greater activity. Scapular plane activity was consistently higher than sagittal plane activity. Of all the tasks assessed, ambulation without a sling and donning and doffing a sling and a shirt consistently showed the highest activity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):375-383. Epub 6 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6090. PMID:27049599

  7. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. Many teens who play sports have higher self-esteem than their less active pals, and exercise can ... may have a distorted body image and low self-esteem. They may see themselves as overweight or out ...

  8. Exercise and pregnancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Bell, R; O'Neill, M

    1994-06-01

    The effects of pregnancy on the maternal cardiorespiratory system include increases in oxygen consumption, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and plasma volume. The increase in oxygen reserve seen in early pregnancy is reduced later, suggesting that maternal exercise may present a greater physiologic stress in the third trimester. Evidence suggests that weight-bearing exercise produces a greater decrease in oxygen reserve than nonweight-bearing exercise. Furthermore, to maintain a heart rate below 140 beats per minute during pregnancy, the intensity of weight-bearing exercise must be reduced. Nonweight-bearing, water-based exercise results in smaller fetal heart rate changes and a lower maternal heart rate than the same exercise performed on land. Exercising in the supine position in late pregnancy has raised concerns because cardiac output in the supine position is lower than in the lateral position at rest, presumably because the gravid uterus partially obstructs the inferior vena cava. Sustained exercise produces a training effect on the mother, although reported associations between this effect and the experience of labor are not consistent. Short-term changes in fetal heart rate provide circumstantial evidence that physical activity can influence the fetus. Acute effects of exercise that can potentially affect the fetus include hyperthermia, changes in uteroplacental flow, reduced levels of maternal glucose, and increased uterine contractions. Moderate to high levels of sustained maternal exercise have been associated with reduced birthweight. Much research remains to be done on the effects of specific exercise regimens during pregnancy, the effects on previously sedentary women, and the long-term health consequences to the offspring of women who perform vigorous exercise during pregnancy.

  9. Exercise can induce temporary mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction linked to impaired respiratory chain complex activity.

    PubMed

    Schoepe, Maria; Schrepper, Andrea; Schwarzer, Michael; Osterholt, Moritz; Doenst, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Exercise is considered to elicit a physiological response of the heart. Previous studies investigated the influence of repetitive exercise only at the end of the training period. We assessed the impact of 2 exercise protocols, differing in their treadmill inclination, on cardiac and mitochondrial function at different times during the training period. Within 10 weeks, animals trained with 16% incline developed hypertrophy (left ventricular posterior wall thickness: 1.6 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.1 mm; P < .05) with normal function (ejection fraction: 75.2% ± 2.5% vs 75.6% ± 2.1%). However, at 6 weeks, there was temporary impairment of contractile function (ejection fraction: 74.5% ± 1.67% vs 65.8% ± 2.3%; P < .05) associated with decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity (state 3 respiration: 326 ± 71 vs 161 ± 22 natoms/[min mg protein]; P < .05) and a gene expression shift from the adult (α) to the fetal (β) myosin heavy chain isoform. Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α expression was normal, nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs)-1 and -2 were significantly reduced (NRF-1: 1.00 ± 0.16 vs 0.55 ± 0.09; NRF-2: 1.00 ± 0.11 vs 0.63 ± 0.07; P < .05) after 6 weeks. These findings were associated with a reduction of electron transport chain complexes I and IV activity (complex I: 1016 ± 67 vs 758 ± 71 nmol/[min mg protein]; complex IV: 18768 ± 1394 vs 14692 ± 960 nmol/[min mg protein]; P < .05). Messenger RNA expression of selected nuclear encoded subunits of the electron transport chain was unchanged at all investigated time points. In contrast, animals trained with 10% incline showed less hypertrophy and normal function in echocardiography, normal maximal respiratory capacity, and unchanged complex activities at all 3 time points. Repetitive exercise may cause contractile and mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by impaired respiratory chain complex activities. This activity reduction is temporary and intensity related.

  10. Growing older with health and vitality: a nexus of physical activity, exercise and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Witard, Oliver C; McGlory, Chris; Hamilton, D Lee; Phillips, Stuart M

    2016-06-01

    The preservation of skeletal muscle mass and strength with advancing age are, we propose, critical aspects of ageing with health and vitality. Physical inactivity and poor nutrition are known to accelerate the gradual age-related decline in muscle mass and strength-sarcopenia-however, both are subject to modification. The main purpose of this review is to present the latest, evidence-based recommendations for physical activity and exercise, as well as diet for older adults that would help in preserving muscle mass and strength. We take the position that future physical activity/exercise guidelines need to make specific reference to resistance exercise and highlight the benefits of higher-intensity aerobic exercise training, alongside advocating older adults perform aerobic-based physical activity and household tasks (e.g., carrying groceries). In terms of dietary recommendations, greater emphasis should be placed on optimal rather than minimum protein intakes for older adults. Indeed, guidelines that endorse a daily protein intake of 1.2-1.5 g/kg BM/day, which are levels 50-90 % greater than the current protein Recommendation Dietary Allowance (0.8 g/kg BM/day), are likely to help preserve muscle mass and strength and are safe for healthy older adults. Being cognisant of factors (e.g., reduced appetite) that may preclude older adults from increasing their total daily protein intake, we echo the viewpoint of other active researchers in advocating that protein recommendations for older adults be based on a per meal approach in order to maximize muscle protein synthesis (MPS). On this basis, assuming three meals are consumed daily, a protein dose of 0.4-0.5 g/kg BM should be contained in each meal. We are beginning to understand ways in which to increase the utilization of ingested protein for the stimulation of MPS, namely by increasing the proportion of leucine contained in a given dose of protein, co-ingesting other nutrients (e.g., carbohydrate and fat or

  11. Exercise and the stress system.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, George; Pavlatou, Maria; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Chrousos, George P

    2005-01-01

    Exercise represents a physical stress that challenges homeostasis. In response to this stressor, autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are known to react and to participate in the maintenance of homeostasis. This includes elevation of cortisol and cathecholamines in plasma. However, sustained physical conditioning in highly trained athletes is associated with a decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to exercise. On the other hand, highly trained athletes exhibit a chronic mild hypercortisolism at baseline that may be an adaptive change to chronic exercise. In addition the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 is also activated. Moreover, exercise stimulates the secretion of GH and prolactin, and may influence the type of immunity by stimulating TH2 response profile. Besides, the stress of exercise inhibits the gonadal function, through the production of glucocorticoids and cathecholamines, as well as through activation of the CRH neurons. Nowadays, apart from the beneficial effects of exercise, there is increasing incidence of exercise-related short- and long- term consequences, especially concerning the female athlete that many authors describe as the so-called "exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction". These consequences include amenorrhea, infertility, eating disorders, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease and euthyroid "sick" syndrome. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the above disorders are discussed in this review.

  12. Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling.

    PubMed

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D Lee; Ekblom, Björn; van Hall, Gerrit; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2015-03-15

    Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypothesis was tested in eight trained male subjects who in randomized order performed either resistance exercise only (R) or interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER). Biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after endurance exercise and repeatedly after resistance exercise were assessed for glycogen content, kinase activity, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate was measured at rest and during 3 h of recovery using the stable isotope technique. In ER, AMPK activity was elevated immediately after both endurance and resistance exercise (∼90%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in R. Thr(389) phosphorylation of S6K1 was increased severalfold immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) in both trials and increased further throughout recovery. After 90 and 180 min recovery, S6K1 activity was elevated (∼55 and ∼110%, respectively, P < 0.05) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylation was reduced (∼55%, P < 0.05) with no difference between trials. In contrast, markers for protein catabolism were differently influenced by the two modes of exercise; ER induced a significant increase in gene and protein expression of MuRF1 (P < 0.05), which was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTOR complex 1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown.

  13. Exercise physiology in COPD.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, R; Berton, E; Huertas, A; Laveneziana, P; Palange, P

    2003-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to exercise limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ability to increase ventilation during exercise is reduced; the more advanced the disease, the more impaired the exercise tolerance is. However, factors other than ventilatory limitation play an important role in reducing the exercise capacity in COPD. Data implicating peripheral muscle atrophy and muscle weakness as cofactors have been reported in individuals with advanced disease. At this stage daily activities are curtailed to avoid exertional respiratory discomfort. Recent studies have demonstrated that the muscle aerobic capacity of stable hypoxemic COPD patients is impaired; oxygen uptake (V'O2) kinetics and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have shown that these patients rely heavily on non-aerobic energy sources even during moderate, sustained workloads. Finally, early occurrence of metabolic acidosis has been demonstrated in patients with mild to severe COPD during exercise. Inadequate tissue oxygenation appears to result from a defect in peripheral oxygen utilization rather than from a reduction in O2 bulk flow. Peripheral factors may include: a) impaired diffusive conductance for O2 between red cells and mitochondria; b) heterogeneous distribution of O2 bulk flow within the exercising muscle fibers; c) inertia of the oxidative processes at the cellular level; d) changes in distribution of muscle fibers, e) reduction in muscle aerobic enzymes; and f) poor nutritional status. Since muscle dysfunction has an important role in the development of exercise intolerance, physical rehabilitation is more and more used as part of the treatment of COPD. The aim of this review is to briefly discuss current views on the mechanisms responsible for the reduced ability to exercise and the rationale for exercise rehabilitation in COPD patients. PMID:14635502

  14. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT

  15. Exercise as Medicine: Key Concepts in Discussing Physical Activity with Patients who have Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Marni J; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-12-01

    People with type 2 diabetes stand to benefit substantially from being physically active. Practice guidelines consistently recommend that people with diabetes obtain at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise per week. Although the message of 150 minutes per week is important, there are several other key messages regarding physical activity that may not be communicated as often or as clearly. This article gives an overview of the importance of resistance training, the dose-response relationship between physical activity and health outcomes, and the emerging evidence concerning the role of sedentary behavior in people with type 2 diabetes. This article provides valuable content for healthcare providers that will help to inform their discussions about physical activity with patients who have type 2 diabetes.

  16. The influence of exercise on prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive performance during a simulated space flight to Mars (MARS500).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan; Abeln, Vera; Popova, Julia; Fomina, Elena; Jacubowski, Amrei; Meeusen, Romain; Strüder, Heiko K

    2013-01-01

    With respect to the plans of national and internationals space agencies to send people to Mars or Moon, long-term isolation studies are performed to learn about the psycho-physiological and psycho-social limitations of such missions. From June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011 six participants lived under totally isolated and confined conditions in the MARS500 habitat located in Moscow. Despite the possibility to mimic the condition of space travel, this study allowed for experimental conditions under very reliable and traceable conditions. As exercise is widely discussed to have a positive impact on neuro-cognitive performance, this study aimed to test the effect of different exercise protocol (endurance/strength orientated) on brain cortical activity and cognitive performance. Brain cortical activity was recorded using a 16 channel EEG before and after exercise across the 520 days of confinement. Cognitive performance was assessed using three commercially available brain games. Following the theory of transient hypofrontality, results show a significant decrease of frontal brain cortical activity after exercise (p<.05) which was most expressed after endurance orientated protocols. Cognitive performance was improved following running sessions on an active treadmill (p<.05). Results let us assume that not exercise per se acts as a neuro-enhancer. It is more likely that a general defocusing caused by an immersion into exercise is necessary to improve cognitive performance.

  17. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  18. Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non–biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal. PMID:22383618

  19. Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

  20. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study.

  1. Nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise training favor the occurrence of lesions and activate the inflammatory response in the ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Gomes, F C; Chuffa, L G A; Scarano, W R; Pinheiro, P F F; Fávaro, W J; Domeniconi, R F

    2016-05-01

    Age is a key factor in the development of prostatic lesions. An increase in reactive oxygen species levels occurs during aging. Furthermore, the indiscriminate use of anabolic androgenic steroids and physical exercise alter the availability of hormones and may promote the appearance of lesions. This study examined whether the use of nandrolone decanoate (ND), associated or not with resistance exercise training, affects the pathways related to the inflammatory response in the ventral prostate of adult and aged rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into eight experimental groups: sedentary with ND, sedentary without ND, exercise with ND, and exercise without ND. The animals performed resistance exercise training and received ND two times/week (5 mg/kg, i.m.) for 8 weeks. Adult rats were killed immediately following treatment completion, and aged rats remained untreated until reaching 300 days of age. The adult animals that received ND and performed resistance exercise training showed a higher occurrence of lesions with TLR4 activation. Marked IL-6 expression occurred in the group that performed resistance exercise training. The group exposed to ND showed overexpression of TLR2, TLR4, NOX1, Nrf2, TNF-α, and P38MAPK. The animals that received ND and performed training showed increase levels of NFκB, IRF3, IL-6, TNF-α, and NOX1. TLR2 and TLR4 showed no upregulation in the aged animals. The groups exercise + ND showed lesions in the adult stage and after aging, followed by molecular alterations. We concluded that nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise training can promote the onset of prostatic tumors in the adult stage, and during aging, activating pathways involved in the inflammatory response. PMID:27011054

  2. Classifying Exercise Activities According to Motivation, Self-Objectification, and Disordered Eating: How Can We Target Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupski, Allison

    2009-01-01

    SurvObjectification theorists suggest that one way for women to combat self-objectification is through participation in sport and exercise activities that encourage body competence. This two-part study investigates the impact of (a) motivation for physical activity and (b) type of physical activity on the outcomes of self-objectification, body…

  3. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs. Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, hiking, running, aerobic dance, biking, rowing, swimming, and cross-country ... Brisk walking can burn as many calories as running, but it is less likely to cause injuries ...

  4. Effects of open and closed kinetic chains of sling exercise therapy on the muscle activity of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lee, Chia-Lun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The muscle strength of the quadriceps muscle is critical in patellofemoral pain syndrome. The quadriceps muscle supplies the power for dynamic patellar movement, and the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) enable the patella to stabilize during tracking. We followed the theories about open and closed kinetic chain exercises to design two exercises, sling open chain knee extension (SOCKE) exercise and sling closed chain knee extension (SCCKE) exercise. The purpose of our study was to research the changes in quadriceps muscle activity during both exercises. [Methods] Electromyographic analysis was used to explore the different effects of the two exercises. The MVC% was calculated for the VMO and VL during exercise for analysis. [Results] We found that the mean MVC% values of the VMO and VL during the SOCKE exercise were higher than those during the SCCKE exercise. The ratio of the VMO to VL was 1.0 ± 0.19 during the SOCKE exercise and 1.11 ± 0.15 during the SCCKE exercise. [Conclusions] The SOCKE exercise is targeted at quadriceps muscle training and has a recruitment effect on the VMO. The beneficial effect of the SOCKE exercise is better than that of the SCCKE exercise. PMID:25276016

  5. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  6. Hibernating squirrel muscle activates the endurance exercise pathway despite prolonged immobilization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ran; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Mejias, Rebeca; MacDonald, Elizabeth M; Leinwand, Leslie A; Merriman, Dana K; Fink, Rainer H A; Cohn, Ronald D

    2013-09-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a very common clinical challenge in many disuse conditions. Maintenance of muscle mass is crucial to combat debilitating functional consequences evoked from these clinical conditions. In contrast, hibernation represents a physiological state in which there is natural protection against disuse atrophy despite prolonged periods of immobilization and lack of nutrient intake. Even though peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) is a central mediator in muscle remodeling pathways, its role in the preservation of skeletal muscle mass during hibernation remains unclear. Since PGC-1α regulates muscle fiber type formation and mitochondrial biogenesis, we analyzed muscles of 13-lined ground squirrels. We find that animals in torpor exhibit a shift to slow-twitch Type I muscle fibers. This switch is accompanied by activation of the PGC-1α-mediated endurance exercise pathway. In addition, we observe increased antioxidant capacity without evidence of oxidative stress, a marked decline in apoptotic susceptibility, and enhanced mitochondrial abundance and metabolism. These results show that activation of the endurance exercise pathway can be achieved in vivo despite prolonged periods of immobilization, and therefore might be an important mechanism for skeletal muscle preservation during hibernation. This PGC-1α regulated pathway may be a potential therapeutic target promoting skeletal muscle homeostasis and oxidative balance to prevent muscle loss in a variety of inherited and acquired neuromuscular disease conditions.

  7. An exercise protocol that simulates the activity patterns of elite junior squash.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, M; James, N; Kilduff, L P; Dietzig, R E; Dietzig, B

    2006-12-01

    Squash is a popular racket sport that requires intermittent activity with frequent bursts of near maximal-intensity exercise. Consequently, effective physiological and thermoregulatory responses are important contributors to performance during squash match-play. Controlled field-based simulation protocols have been introduced in a growing number of sports, which allow sports scientists to investigate changes in physiology and the efficacy of various interventions in sport-specific contexts. This study aimed to develop an exercise protocol that simulates the physiological requirements of elite squash match-play. Eight elite junior squash players (age 16.2+/-0.8 years, height 1.76+/-0.06 m, body mass 61.3+/-5.9 kg; mean+/-s) completed the following in a randomized order: (1) a squash match against a player of similar standard and (2) a squash-specific incremental exercise protocol (multistage squash test [MST]) followed by the squash simulation protocol (SSP). The multistage squash test was continued for 18.0+/-1.0 min and elicited near maximal post-MST heart rates, blood lactate concentrations and ratings of perceived exertion (198+/-9 beats.min-1, 5.7+/-1.7 mmol.l-1 and 18+/-1, respectively). The SSP was 12.2 min in length compared with mean game length during competitive matches of 10.0+/-1.6 min (P=0.27). Peak heart rates were similar during the SSP and match-play (192+/-11 and 189+/-6 beats.min-1, respectively; P=0.44). Mean exercising heart rates were similar during the SSP (180+/-8 beats.min-1) and match-play (179+/-13 beats.min-1; P=0.73). Peak blood lactate concentrations during the SSP and match-play were 3.5+/-1.5 and 2.4+/-1.2 mmol.l-1 (P=0.07), respectively. Peak ratings of perceived exertion during the SSP and match-play were similar (17+/-2 and 17+/-2, respectively; P=0.64). It was concluded that the SSP closely replicated the demands of squash match-play in elite junior squash players. Furthermore, the SSP provides coaches and scientific support staff

  8. Effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy adult males participated. [Methods] In the bridge exercise, the height of the sling was set low or high during hip joint abduction and adduction. Electromyography was used to compare the differences between the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae muscles. [Results] The muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae were significantly higher in the high sling position. Furthermore, the activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae were significantly higher during hip joint adduction than abduction regardless of sling height. [Conclusion] A high sling height is the most effective intervention for increasing the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae muscles during hip joint adduction in a bridge exercise. PMID:26180366

  9. Impact of the S.W.E.A.T.™ Water-Exercise Method on Activities of Daily Living for Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Mary E.; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.; Colado, Juan C.; Borreani, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Older women may have chronic or age-related conditions that increase the risk of falls or that limit their ability to remain active. It is unclear if a water-based exercise program provides a safe and effective alternative to land-based exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a water-based exercise program method on land-based functional activities of daily living (ADL) for women 60 years and older. This study used a quasi- experimental, nonequivalent control group design. Sixty-six women (60-89 yr of age) self- selected to a water exercise (WEX) group (n = 48) or control (C) group (n = 18). The training consisted of a 16-week (45 min·day-1, 3 d·wk-1) supervised WEX program that included 10 min of warm-up and warm down/stretching and 35 min training using the S.W.E.A.T.™ method in shallow water 1.0-1.2 m, with water temperature approximately 28-29°C. Participants were required to attendat least 94% of the sessions. Assessments for participants included ADL functional field tests. In comparison to the C group, WEX participantsimproved (p < 0.05) flexibility (8%), sit- to-stand (31%), walking speed (16%) and stride length (10%), agility (20%), stair climb (22%), arm curl (39%), and static (42-48%) balance, but not dynamic balance. Results indicate that the S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water exercise program provides a well-rounded, safe, and effective exercise program where older women can improve functional ADL and static balance. Key Points Older women with a variety of health conditions participated in 16 weeks of exercise (92% adherence) with no injuries. The S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water-based program was found to significantly improve several aspects of physical function, including postural balance. This shallow water program provided a well-rounded, safe and effective activity for women to improve functional ADL on land. PMID:24421730

  10. Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: evidence for a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults' exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation. PMID:21558579

  11. [Physical activity can influence the course of early arthritis. Both strength training and aerobic exercise provide pain relief and functional improvement].

    PubMed

    Roos, Ewa

    2002-11-01

    There is no causal treatment for osteoarthritis. Instead treatment is aimed at decreasing pain and improving function. The base of osteoarthritis treatment is education and exercise. Exercise, both aerobic exercise and muscular strength training, have positive effects on pain and function. The minimum recommendations of exercise are equivalent to the recommendations of physical activity to obtain or maintain a good general health. Acupuncture is a safe and effective treatment for osteoarthritis pain. However, function is not automatically improved when pain is relieved.

  12. Improvements to executive function during exercise training predict maintenance of physical activity over the following year

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exercise training benefits cognitive, neural, and physical health markers in older adults. It is likely that these positive effects will diminish if participants return to sedentary lifestyles following training cessation. Theory posits that that the neurocognitive processes underlying self-regulation, namely executive function (EF), are important to maintaining positive health behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether better EF performance in older women would predict greater adherence to routine physical activity (PA) over 1 year following a 12-month resistance exercise training randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 125 community-dwelling women aged 65–75 years old. Our primary outcome measure was self-reported PA, as measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), assessed on a monthly basis from month 13 to month 25. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop Test at baseline (month 0) and post-training (month 12). Latent growth curve analyses showed that, on average, PA decreased during the follow-up period but at a decelerating rate. Women who made greater improvements to EF during the training period showed better adherence to PA during the 1-year follow-up period (β = −0.36, p < 0.05); this association was unmitigated by the addition of covariates (β = −0.44, p < 0.05). As expected, EF did not predict changes in PA during the training period (p > 0.10). Overall, these findings suggest that improving EF plays an important role in whether older women maintain higher levels of PA following exercise training and that this association is only apparent after training when environmental support for PA is low. PMID:24904387

  13. Sex alters impact of repeated bouts of sprint exercise on neuromuscular activity in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Billaut, François; Smith, Kurt

    2009-08-01

    This study characterized the effect of sex on neuromuscular activity during repeated bouts of sprint exercise. Thirty-three healthy male and female athletes performed twenty 5-s cycle sprints separated by 25 s of rest. Mechanical work and integrated electromyograhs (iEMG) of 4 muscles of the dominant lower limb were calculated in every sprint. The iEMG signals from individual muscles were summed to represent overall electrical activity of these muscles (sum-iEMG). Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of mechanical work and sum-iEMG for every sprint. Arterial oxygen saturation was estimated (SpO2) with pulse oximetry throughout the protocol. The sprint-induced work decrement (18.9% vs. 29.6%; p < 0.05) and sum-iEMG reduction (11.4% vs. 19.4%; p < 0.05) were less for the women than for the men. However, the sprints decreased NME (10.1%; p < 0.05) and SpO2 (3.4%; p < 0.05) without showing sex dimorphism. Changes in SpO2 and sum-iEMG were strongly correlated in both sexes (men, R2 = 0.87; women, R2 = 0.91; all p < 0.05), although the slope of this relationship differed (6.3 +/- 2.9 vs. 3.8 +/- 1.6, respectively; p < 0.05). It is suggested that the sex difference in fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint exercise is not likely to be explained by a difference in muscle contractility impairment in men and women, but may be due to a sex difference in muscle recruitment strategy. We speculate that women would be less sensitive to arterial O2 desaturation than men, which may trigger lower neuromuscular adjustments to exhaustive exercise.

  14. Swimming exercise ameliorates depression-like behavior in chronically stressed rats: relevant to proinflammatory cytokines and IDO activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weina; Sheng, Hui; Xu, Yongjun; Liu, Yu; Lu, Jianqiang; Ni, Xin

    2013-04-01

    Chronic stress is involved in development of depression and causes immune alterations. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) plays a pivotal role in mediating the depression-like behaviors in response to immune activation. Physical exercise has been shown to reduce the stress impairment and ameliorate depressive symptoms. The objectives of present study were to confirm that chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induces depression-like behavior and inflammatory responses within the brain, and then investigate whether swimming exercise alleviates the depression-like behaviors induced by CUMS through proinflammatory cytokine-induced alteration of IDO in brain. It has been found that CUMS exposure induced depression-like behavior, increased serum corticosterone (CORT) level, decreased 5-HT level, increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels and elevated IDO activity in prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the level of 5-HT was inversely correlated with IDO level. Regular swimming exercise ameliorated depressive symptoms induced by CUMS. The exercise reduced serum CORT level, increased 5-HT level as well as decreased levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IDO in prefrontal cortex in CUMS rats. These findings suggested that CUMS activate HPA axis and induce immune activation, which may stimulate IDO activity, leading to the reduction of 5-HT level in brain, thereby resulting in depression. Swimming exercise may inhibit activation of inflammation/IDO pathways induced by CUMS, thereby ameliorating depression.

  15. Changes in the activity of trunk and hip extensor muscles during bridge exercises with variations in unilateral knee joint angle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juseung; Park, Minchul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared abdominal and hip extensor muscle activity during a bridge exercise with various knee joint angles. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy male subjects performed a bridge exercise in which the knee joint angle was altered. While subjects performed the bridge exercise, external oblique, internal oblique, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus muscle activity was measured using electromyography. [Results] The bilateral external and internal oblique muscle activity was significantly higher at 0° knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The bilateral gluteus maximus muscle activity was significantly different at 0° of knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The ipsilateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly increased at 90° and 60° of knee flexion compared to 120°, and significantly decreased at 0° knee flexion compared with 120°, 90°, and 60°. The contralateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly higher at 60° of knee flexion than at 120°, and significantly higher at 0° of knee flexion than at 120°, 90°, and 60°. [Conclusion] Bridge exercises performed with knee flexion less than 90° may be used to train the ipsilateral semitendinosus. Furthermore, bridge exercise performed with one leg may be used to train abdominal and hip extensor muscles. PMID:27799688

  16. A Pilot Study of the Head Extension Swallowing Exercise: New Method for Strengthening Swallowing-Related Muscle Activity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong-Chi

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the effect of a new head extension swallowing exercise (HESE) on submental muscle activity and tongue strength in healthy volunteers. Fifteen young adults (10 females and 5 males) were instructed to extend their head backwards as much as possible, and while watching the ceiling, swallowed their saliva every 10 s for a duration of 20 min. Twenty-four treatments were performed over 8 weeks. The outcome variables evaluated at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks of training, and 12-week follow-up included mean and peak submental muscle activation amplitudes during normal and effortful swallowing measured via surface electromyography, and anterior and posterior isometric tongue pressures were measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Results indicated that the muscle activation amplitudes during effortful swallowing increased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). However, the increases in amplitudes during normal swallowing were minor (nonsignificant) after 8 weeks compared to baseline. The isometric pressures of the tongue tip and the posterior part of the oral tongue were significantly higher at 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). Thus, the 8-week HESE protocol significantly improved suprahyoid muscle activity during effortful swallowing as well as the isometric tongue pressures. The HESE appears effective in exercising and strengthening the suprahyoid muscles and tongue muscles in healthy participants. Although encouraging, these results need to be replicated in clinical trials for testing the therapeutic effects of the HESE in older adults and patients with dysphagia who present with decreased hyolaryngeal elevation.

  17. Impact of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training on markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Earnest, Conrad P

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise training (ET) enhance overall cardiorespiratory fitness (ie, fitness), thus producing many benefits in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial evidence also indicates that acute and chronic inflammation is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and major cardiovascular events. The most commonly utilized marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). In this review, we discuss the importance of inflammation, especially CRP, as a cardiovascular risk marker by reviewing an abundant cross-sectional and clinical intervention literature providing evidence that physical activity, enhanced fitness, and ET are inversely associated with CRP and that being overweight or obese is directly related with inflammation/CRP. Although we discuss the controversy regarding whether or not ET reduces CRP independent of weight loss, clearly physical activity, improved fitness, and ET are associated with reductions in inflammation and overall cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention.

  18. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise. PMID:25569828

  19. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  20. An In-School-Based Program of Combined Fine Motor Exercise and Educational Activities for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Szturm, Tony; Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Marotta, Jonathan; Srikesavan, Cynthia Swarnalatha

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces a game-based rehabilitation platform designed to integrate training of fine motor skills and cognitive functions. A novel computer interface device was developed that can effectively replace a standard computer mouse when doing exercises to rehabilitate hand function. This smart device converts signals from miniature motion sensors to signals equivalent to that of a computer mouse. In this way, nearly any object or utensil can be changed to function exactly as a computer mouse, simply by attaching the motion sensor. Multiple objects with varied sizes, shapes, weights, and functional demands for precision can be used for exercise and to practice a variety of gross or fine motor skills, and, importantly, while playing fun computer games. The platform was designed to work with modern and common computer games, which have a broad range of movement speeds and accuracy levels, cognitive activities (puzzles, choices, distractors), and educational content. The platform includes a designed assessment game with advanced data logging for electronic monitoring. Data analysis methods have been developed to quantify performance metrics that provide insights into the quality, efficiency, and skill of a child and thus mean to conduct trend analyses that indicate how the child is performing over time. PMID:26192639

  1. The Submaximal Clinical Exercise Tolerance Test (SXTT) to Establish Safe Exercise Prescription Parameters for Patients with Chronic Disease and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Gappmaier, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe how to perform a Submaximal Clinical Exercise Tolerance Test (SXTT) as part of an exercise evaluation in the physical therapy clinic to determine an appropriate exercise prescription and to establish safety of exercise for physical therapy clients. Summary of Key Points Physical activity is crucial for general health maintenance. An exercise evaluation includes a comprehensive patient history, physical examination, exercise testing, and exercise prescription. The SXTT provides important clinical data that form the foundation for an effective and safe exercise prescription. Observations obtained during the exercise evaluation will identify at-risk patients who should undergo further medical evaluation before starting an exercise program. Two case examples of SXTTs administered to individuals with multiple sclerosis are presented to demonstrate the application of these principles. Statement of Recommendations Due to their unique qualifications, physical therapists shall assume responsibility to design and monitor safe and effective physical activity programs for all clients and especially for individuals with chronic disease and disability. To ensure safety and efficacy of prescribed exercise interventions, physical therapists need to perform an appropriate exercise evaluation including exercise testing before starting their clients on an exercise program. PMID:22833706

  2. The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3) behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4) behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619930 PMID:23374879

  3. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  4. Resistance exercise training increase activation of AKT-eNOS and Ref-1 expression by FOXO-1 activation in aorta of F344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Li, Wei; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Sang Ki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effects of resistance exercise on the Akt-eNOS, the activation of antioxidant protein and FOXO1 in the aorta of F344 rats. Methods Male 7 week-old F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a climbing group (n = 6) and a sedentary group (n = 6). H&E staining and western blotting were used to analyze the rat aortas and target proteins. Results Resistance exercise training did not significantly affect aortic structure. Phosphorylation of AKT and eNOS and expression of MnSOD and Ref-1 were significantly increased while FOXO1 phosphorylation was significantly decreased in the resistance exercise group compared with the sedentary group. Conclusion We demonstrate that resistance exercise activates the Akt-eNOS and Ref-1 protein without changes to aortic thickness via FOXO-1 activation in the aorta of F344 rats. PMID:26526775

  5. Enzymatically active 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are widely distributed among Metazoa, including protostome lineage.

    PubMed

    Päri, Mailis; Kuusksalu, Anne; Lopp, Annika; Kjaer, Karina Hansen; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2014-02-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) belong to the nucleotidyl transferase family together with poly(A) polymerases, CCA-adding enzymes and the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Mammalian OASs have been thoroughly characterized as components of the interferon-induced antiviral system. The OAS activity and the respective genes were also discovered in marine sponges where the interferon system is absent. In this study the recombinant OASs from several multicellular animals and their closest unicellular relative, a choanoflagellate, were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their enzymatic activities were examined. We demonstrated 2-5A synthesizing activities of OASs from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, a representative of the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum (Porifera), from an invertebrate of the protostome lineage, the mollusk Mytilus californianus (Mollusca), and from a vertebrate species, a cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea (Chordata). However, the expressed proteins from an amphibian, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (Chordata), and from a protozoan, the marine choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (Choanozoa), did not show 2-5A synthesizing activity. Differently from other studied OASs, OAS from the marine sponge T. ignis was able to catalyze the formation of oligomers having both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. Our data suggest that OASs from sponges and evolutionarily higher animals have similar activation mechanisms which still include different affinities and possibly different structural requirements for the activating RNAs. Considering their 2'- and 3'-specificities, sponge OASs could represent a link between evolutionarily earlier nucleotidyl transferases and 2'-specific OASs from higher animals.

  6. Enzymatically active 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are widely distributed among Metazoa, including protostome lineage.

    PubMed

    Päri, Mailis; Kuusksalu, Anne; Lopp, Annika; Kjaer, Karina Hansen; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2014-02-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) belong to the nucleotidyl transferase family together with poly(A) polymerases, CCA-adding enzymes and the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Mammalian OASs have been thoroughly characterized as components of the interferon-induced antiviral system. The OAS activity and the respective genes were also discovered in marine sponges where the interferon system is absent. In this study the recombinant OASs from several multicellular animals and their closest unicellular relative, a choanoflagellate, were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their enzymatic activities were examined. We demonstrated 2-5A synthesizing activities of OASs from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, a representative of the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum (Porifera), from an invertebrate of the protostome lineage, the mollusk Mytilus californianus (Mollusca), and from a vertebrate species, a cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea (Chordata). However, the expressed proteins from an amphibian, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (Chordata), and from a protozoan, the marine choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (Choanozoa), did not show 2-5A synthesizing activity. Differently from other studied OASs, OAS from the marine sponge T. ignis was able to catalyze the formation of oligomers having both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. Our data suggest that OASs from sponges and evolutionarily higher animals have similar activation mechanisms which still include different affinities and possibly different structural requirements for the activating RNAs. Considering their 2'- and 3'-specificities, sponge OASs could represent a link between evolutionarily earlier nucleotidyl transferases and 2'-specific OASs from higher animals. PMID:24184688

  7. Acute Resistance Exercise Induces Antinociception by Activation of the Endocannabinoid System in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago; da Silva, José Felippe Pinho; Aguiar, Daniele; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance exercise (RE) is also known as strength training, and it is performed to increase the strength and mass of muscles, bone strength and metabolism. RE has been increasingly prescribed for pain relief. However, the endogenous mechanisms underlying this antinociceptive effect are still largely unexplored. Thus, we investigated the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in RE-induced antinociception. Methods Male Wistar rats were submitted to acute RE in a weight-lifting model. The nociceptive threshold was measured by a mechanical nociceptive test (paw pressure) before and after exercise. To investigate the involvement of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids in RE-induced antinociception, cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists, endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor were injected before RE. After RE, CB1 cannabinoid receptors were quantified in rat brain tissue by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In addition, endocannabinoid plasma levels were measured by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results RE-induced antinociception was prevented by preinjection with CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists. By contrast, preadministration of metabolizing enzyme inhibitors and the anandamide reuptake inhibitor prolonged and enhanced this effect. RE also produced an increase in the expression and activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in rat brain tissue and in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal regions and an increase of endocannabinoid plasma levels. Conclusion The present study suggests that a single session of RE activates the endocannabinoid system to induce antinociception. PMID:24977916

  8. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Men, Wei-Wei; Chang, Yu-Kai; Fan, Ming-Xia; Ji, Liu; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  9. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Constantinidou, H A; Barchet, W R; Upper, C D

    1982-11-01

    Vertical wind shear and concentration gradients of viable, airborne bacteria were used to calculate the upward flux of viable cells above bare soil and canopies of several crops. Concentrations at soil or canopy height varied from 46 colony-forming units per m over young corn and wet soil to 663 colony-forming units per m over dry soil and 6,500 colony-forming units per m over a closed wheat canopy. In simultaneous samples, concentrations of viable bacteria in the air 10 m inside an alfalfa field were fourfold higher than those over a field with dry, bare soil immediately upwind. The upward flux of viable bacteria over alfalfa was three- to fourfold greater than over dry soil. Concentrations of ice nucleation-active bacteria were higher over plants than over soil. Thus, plant canopies may constitute a major source of bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria, in the air.

  10. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r<-0.5 and p<0.04). Significant positive relationship was observed between skin temperature and low frequency components of neuromuscular activation from vastus lateralis (r>0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test.

  11. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian.

  12. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian. PMID:20621275

  13. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  14. (.)VO(2) and EMG activity kinetics during moderate and severe constant work rate exercise in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Cleuziou, Christophe; Perrey, Stephane; Borrani, Fabio; Lecoq, Anne Marie; Courteix, Daniel; Germain, Philippe; Obert, Philippe

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare O(2) uptake ((.)VO(2)) and muscle electromyography activity kinetics during moderate and severe exercise to test the hypothesis of progressive recruitment of fast-twitch fibers in the explanation of the VO(2) slow component. After an incremental test to exhaustion, 7 trained cyclists (mean +/- SD, 61.4 +/- 4.2 ml x min(-1) x kg(- 1)) performed several square-wave transitions for 6 min at moderate and severe intensities on a bicycle ergometer. The (.)VO(2) response and the electrical activity (i.e., median power frequency, MDF) of the quadriceps vastus lateralis and vastus medialis of both lower limbs were measured continuously during exercise. After 2 to 3 min of exercise onset, MDF values increased similarly during moderate and severe exercise for almost all muscles whereas a (.)VO(2) slow component occurred during severe exercise. There was no relationship between the increase of MDF values and the magnitude of the (.)VO(2) slow component during the severe exercise. These results suggest that the origin of the slow component may not be due to the progressive recruitment of fast-twitch fibers.

  15. Exercise maintains euglycemia in association with decreased activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in the liver of ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Király, Michael A; Campbell, Jon; Park, Edward; Bates, Holly E; Yue, Jessica T Y; Rao, Venket; Matthews, Stephen G; Bikopoulos, George; Rozakis-Adcock, Maria; Giacca, Adria; Vranic, Mladen; Riddell, Michael C

    2010-03-01

    Stress-activated systems and oxidative stress are involved in insulin resistance, which, along with beta-cell failure, contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise improves insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, and these adaptations may, in part, be related to reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated circulating and tissue-specific markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and insulin-signaling pathways in a rodent model of T2DM, the Zucker diabetic fatty rat, with and without voluntary exercise. At 5 wk of age, Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n = 8-9/group) were divided into basal (B), voluntary exercise (E), and sedentary control (S) groups. B rats were euthanized at 6 wk of age, and S and E rats were euthanized 10 wk later. E rats ran approximately 5 km/day, which improved insulin sensitivity and maintained fed and fasted glucose levels and glucose tolerance. Ten weeks of exercise also decreased whole body markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in plasma and liver, including lowered circulating IL-6, haptoglobin, and malondialdehyde levels, hepatic protein oxidation, and phosphorylated JNK, the latter indicating decreased JNK activity. Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase levels and Ser(307)-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 were also reduced in E compared with S rats. In summary, we show that, in a rodent model of T2DM, voluntary exercise decreases circulating markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and lowers hepatic JNK activation and Ser(307)-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1. These changes in oxidative stress markers and inflammation are associated with decreased hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and reduced expression of the main gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. PMID:19996384

  16. Stability and activity of alcohol dehydrogenases in W/O-microemulsions: enantioselective reduction including cofactor regeneration.

    PubMed

    Orlich, B; Berger, H; Lade, M; Schomäcker, R

    2000-12-20

    Microemulsions provide an interesting alternative to classical methods for the conversion of less water-soluble substrates by alcohol dehydrogenase, but until now stability and activity were too low for economically useful processes. The activity and stability of the enzymes are dependent on the microemulsion composition, mostly the water and the surfactant concentration. Therefore, it is necessary to know the exact phase behavior of a given microemulsion reaction system and the corresponding enzyme behavior therein. Because of their economic and ecologic suitability polyethoxylated fatty alcohols were investigated concerning their phase behavior and their compatibility with enzymes in ternary mixtures. The phase behavior of Marlipal O13-60 (C13EO6 in industrial quality)/cyclohexane/water and its effect on the activity and stability of alcohol dehydrogenase from Yeast (YADH) and horse liver (HLADH) and the carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR) is presented in this study. Beside the macroscopic phase behavior of the reaction system, the viscosity of the system indicates structural changes of aggregates in the microemulsion. The changes of the enzyme activities with the composition are discussed on the basis of transitions from reverse micelles to swollen reverse micelles and finally, the transition to the phase separation. The formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii was used for the NADH-regeneration during reduction reactions. While the formate dehydrogenase did not show any kinetic effect on the microemulsion composition, the other enzymes show significant changes of activity and stability varying the water or surfactant concentration of the microemulsion. Under certain conditions, stability could be maintained with HLADH for several weeks. Successful experiments with semi-batch processes including cofactor regeneration and product separation were performed.

  17. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.61 to -0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, -0.58; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, -0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with exercises and TNF inhibitors for

  18. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is unlikely to occur. Also, ET also has an important role in weight regain after initial weight loss. Overall, aerobic ET programs consistent with public health recommendations may promote up to modest weight loss (~2 kg), however the weight loss on an individual level is highly heterogeneous. Clinicians should educate their patients on reasonable expectations of weight loss based on their physical activity program and emphasize that numerous health benefits occur from PA programs in the absence of weight loss.

  19. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is