Science.gov

Sample records for activities include making

  1. Making Way and Making Sense: Including Newcomers in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillet-Shore, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    In our everyday interactions as they unfold in real time, how do we do including? This article examines a specific set of interactional moments when the potential to be included (or not) recurs: when a newcomer arrives to some social scene where two or more already-present persons are actively engaged in some activity and that newcomer displays…

  2. Including the Learner in Personalized Learning. Connect: Making Learning Personal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickabaugh, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This issue is in response to Janet Twyman's brief, "Competency-Based Education: Supporting Personalized Learning" in the "Connect: Making Learning Personal" series. The discussion in Twyman's brief stopped short of being explicit regarding the aspect of personalized learning that Wisconsin's education innovation lab, the…

  3. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals.

  4. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  5. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2008-02-05

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties

  6. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  7. [Decision Making and Electrodermal Activity].

    PubMed

    Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka

    2016-08-01

    Decision making is aided by emotions. Bodily responses, such as sweating, heartbeat, and visceral sensation, are used to monitor the emotional state during decision making. Because decision making in dairy life is complicated and cognitively demanding, these bodily signals are thought to facilitate the decision making process by assigning positive or negative values for each of the behavioral options. The sweat response in a decision making task is measured by skin conductance response (SCR). SCR in decision making is divided into two categories: anticipatory SCR is observed before making decisions, and reward/punishment SCR is observed after the outcome of the decision is perceived. Brain lesion studies in human revealed that the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are important in decision making. Patients with lesinon in the amygdala exhibit neither the anticipatory nor reward/punishment SCRs, while patients with the ventromedial prefrontal lesions have deficits only in the anticipatory SCRs. Decision making tasks and SCR analysis have contributed to reveal the implicit aspects of decision making. Further research is necessary for clarifying the role of explicit process of decision making and its relationship with the implicit process.

  8. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  9. Making behavioral activation more behavioral.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Manos, Rachel C; Busch, Andrew M; Rusch, Laura C

    2008-11-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with another behavioral treatment, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy, addresses this mismatch. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy provides a process for the therapeutic provision of immediate and natural reinforcement. This article presents this integration and offers theoretical and practical therapist guidelines on its application. Although the integration is largely theoretical, empirical data are presented in its support when available. The article ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  10. Thermoelectric material including conformal oxide layers and method of making the same using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jung Young; Ahn, Dongjoon; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2016-06-07

    A thermoelectric material includes a substrate particle and a plurality of conformal oxide layers formed on the substrate particle. The plurality of conformal oxide layers has a total oxide layer thickness ranging from about 2 nm to about 20 nm. The thermoelectric material excludes oxide nanoparticles. A method of making the thermoelectric material is also disclosed herein.

  11. Make It Active and Mix It up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    The author believes that "learning is doing," especially in science. The best way she can describe what she did, and the piece of advice she wants to pass on, is "make it active and mix it up". By describing how she went about teaching this lesson, she hopes she has conveyed how doing one's research (online for a start) and…

  12. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  13. How can teaching make a difference to students' interest in science? Including Bourdieuan field analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhag, Per; Wickman, Per-Olof; Hamza, Karim Mikael

    2015-06-01

    In this article we respond to the discussion by Alexandra Schindel Dimick regarding how the taste analysis presented in our feature article can be expanded within a Bourdieuan framework. Here we acknowledge the significance of field theory to introduce wider reflexivity on the kind of taste that is constituted in the science classroom, while we at the same time emphasize the importance of differentiating between how taste is reproduced versus how it is changed through teaching. The contribution of our methodology is mainly to offer the possibility to empirically analyze changes in this taste, and how teaching can make a difference in regard to students' home backgrounds. However, our last two steps of our taste analysis include asking questions about how the taste developing in the classroom relates more widely in society. Schindel Dimick shows how these two steps can be productively expanded by a wider societal field analysis.

  14. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  15. Equivalency of Spanish language versions of the trail making test part B including or excluding "CH".

    PubMed

    Cherner, Mariana; Suarez, Paola; Posada, Carolina; Fortuny, Lidia Artiola I; Marcotte, Thomas; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Spanish speakers commonly use two versions of the alphabet, one that includes the sound "Ch" between C and D and another that goes directly to D, as in English. Versions of the Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B) have been created accordingly to accommodate this preference. The pattern and total number of circles to be connected are identical between versions. However, the equivalency of these alternate forms has not been reported. We compared the performance of 35 healthy Spanish speakers who completed the "Ch" form (CH group) to that of 96 individuals who received the standard form (D group), based on whether they mentioned "Ch" in their oral recitation of the alphabet. The groups had comparable demographic characteristics and overall neuropsychological performance. There were no significant differences in TMT-B scores between the CH and D groups, and relationships with demographic variables were comparable. The findings suggest that both versions are equivalent and can be administered to Spanish speakers based on their preference without sacrificing comparability.

  16. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  17. National Survey of Children's Hospitals on Legacy-Making Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Mary S.; Friedman, Debra L.; Gordon, Jessie E.; Gilmer, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Many hospitals offer legacy-building activities for children with serious illnesses or their family members, yet legacy-making has received little empirical attention. This descriptive cross-sectional study examined healthcare provider perceptions of legacy-making activities (e.g., memory books) currently offered by hospitals to pediatric patients and their families. Methods Healthcare providers in seventy-seven (100%) teaching children's hospitals across the United States completed an electronic survey. Results Nearly all providers surveyed reported offering legacy-making activities to ill children and their families, with patients and families usually completing the activity together. Most activities were offered before a patient died and when cure is no longer being sought. Perceived outcomes included benefit to bereaved families and a tangible memento of their deceased child. Conclusion Legacy-making may enhance life and decrease suffering for dying children and their families. Healthcare professionals can facilitate opportunities for children and their families to build legacies. Additional research is needed to examine activities across different age groups and conditions, the best time to offer such activities, and associations with positive and negative outcomes for ill children, their family members, and the bereaved. PMID:22577785

  18. Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, S. J.; Braile, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    The nature and propagation of seismic waves are fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the exploration of Earth's interior structure and properties, plate tectonics, earthquakes, and seismic hazards. Investigating seismic waves is also an engaging approach to learning basic principles of the physics of waves and wave propagation. Several effective educational activities and demonstrations are available for teaching about seismic waves, including the stretching of a spring to demonstrate elasticity; slinky wave propagation activities for compressional, shear, Rayleigh and Love waves; the human wave activity to demonstrate P- and S- waves in solids and liquids; waves in water in a simple wave tank; seismic wave computer animations; simple shake table demonstrations of model building responses to seismic waves to illustrate earthquake damage to structures; processing and analysis of seismograms using free and easy to use software; and seismic wave simulation software for viewing wave propagation in a spherical Earth. The use of multiple methods for teaching about seismic waves is useful because it provides reinforcement of the fundamental concepts, is adaptable to variable classroom situations and diverse learning styles, and allows one or more methods to be used for authentic assessment. The methods described here have been used effectively with a broad range of audiences, including K-12 students and teachers, undergraduate students in introductory geosciences courses, and geosciences majors.

  19. Making thin polymeric materials, including fabrics, microbicidal and also water-repellent.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Murthy, Shashi K; Olsen, Bradley D; Gleason, Karen K; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2003-10-01

    A procedure is developed and validated for making a non-functionalized polyolefin fabric/film highly bactericidal and fungicidal which involves a free-radical grafting of maleic anhydride, followed by an attachment of polyethylenimine (PEI) and its subsequent N-alkylation. Separately, cotton fabric coated with a micron layer of a hydrophobic polymer using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition is rendered markedly hydrophobic; if this coating is preceded by immobilization of N-alkyl-PEI, the fabric becomes both water-repellent and bactericidal.

  20. Making Chemistry Activities Meaningful to Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the use of bio-medically significant materials to teach a self-pacing chemistry laboratory course to nursing majors. Indicates that the student can learn from the course to determine values of body fluid constituents, about their variations among healthy populations, and about difficulties inherent in making such measurements. (CC)

  1. Catalyst support of mixed cerium zirconium titanium oxide, including use and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Willigan, Rhonda R [Manchester, CT; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry [Glastonbury, CT; Tulyani, Sonia [Manchester, CT; Radhakrishnan, Rakesh [Vernon, CT; Opalka, Susanne Marie [Glastonbury, CT; Emerson, Sean C [Broad Brook, CT

    2011-01-18

    A durable catalyst support/catalyst is capable of extended water gas shift operation under conditions of high temperature, pressure, and sulfur levels. The support is a homogeneous, nanocrystalline, mixed metal oxide of at least three metals, the first being cerium, the second being Zr, and/or Hf, and the third importantly being Ti, the three metals comprising at least 80% of the metal constituents of the mixed metal oxide and the Ti being present in a range of 5% to 45% by metals-only atomic percent of the mixed metal oxide. The mixed metal oxide has an average crystallite size less than 6 nm and forms a skeletal structure with pores whose diameters are in the range of 4-9 nm and normally greater than the average crystallite size. The surface area of the skeletal structure per volume of the material of the structure is greater than about 240 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. The method of making and use are also described.

  2. Instructions included? Make safety training part of medical device procurement process.

    PubMed

    Keller, James P

    2010-04-01

    Before hospitals embrace new technologies, it's important that medical personnel agree on how best to use them. Likewise, hospitals must provide the support to operate these sophisticated devices safely. With this in mind, it's wise for hospitals to include medical device training in the procurement process. Moreover, purchasing professionals can play a key role in helping to increase the amount of user training for medical devices and systems. What steps should you take to help ensure that new medical devices are implemented safely? Here are some tips.

  3. Making Sense of Multiple Physical Activity Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; LeMasurier, Guy; Franks, B. Don

    2002-01-01

    This digest provides basic information designed to help people determine which of the many physical activity guidelines are most appropriate for use in specific situations. After an introduction, the digest focuses on: "Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Physical Activity Guidelines" (group credibility and purpose, benefits to…

  4. Optical filter including a sub-wavelength periodic structure and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Kaushik, Sumanth; Stallard, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    An optical filter includes a dielectric layer formed within a resonant optical cavity, with the dielectric layer having formed therein a sub-wavelength periodic structure to define, at least in part, a wavelength for transmission of light through the resonant optical cavity. The sub-wavelength periodic structure can be formed either by removing material from the dielectric layer (e.g. by etching through an electron-beam defined mask), or by altering the composition of the layer (e.g. by ion implantation). Different portions of the dielectric layer can be patterned to form one or more optical interference filter elements having different light transmission wavelengths so that the optical filter can filter incident light according to wavelength and/or polarization. For some embodiments, the optical filter can include a detector element in optical alignment with each optical interference filter element to quantify or measure the filtered light for analysis thereof. The optical filter has applications to spectrometry, colorimetry, and chemical sensing.

  5. Making Activated Carbon for Storing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Serio, Michael A.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid disks of microporous activated carbon, produced by a method that enables optimization of pore structure, have been investigated as means of storing gas (especially hydrogen for use as a fuel) at relatively low pressure through adsorption on pore surfaces. For hydrogen and other gases of practical interest, a narrow distribution of pore sizes <2 nm is preferable. The present method is a variant of a previously patented method of cyclic chemisorption and desorption in which a piece of carbon is alternately (1) heated to the lower of two elevated temperatures in air or other oxidizing gas, causing the formation of stable carbon/oxygen surface complexes; then (2) heated to the higher of the two elevated temperatures in flowing helium or other inert gas, causing the desorption of the surface complexes in the form of carbon monoxide. In the present method, pore structure is optimized partly by heating to a temperature of 1,100 C during carbonization. Another aspect of the method exploits the finding that for each gas-storage pressure, gas-storage capacity can be maximized by burning off a specific proportion (typically between 10 and 20 weight percent) of the carbon during the cyclic chemisorption/desorption process.

  6. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  7. Decision-Making concerning Ethical Issues of Science and Technology: A Series of Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Constance M.; Schlenker, Richard M.

    Procedures are outlined for aiding students in clarifying values and making decisions. Activities are included which were selected to sensitize students to some current situations that involve making technological, scientific, or bioethical decisions. The five activities are concerned with the following problematic situations: (1) government…

  8. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  9. Decision Making Activities for the Grade 9 English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Barbara; And Others

    In order to incorporate the elements of personal decision making directly into a ninth grade English curriculum, the decision making lessons presented in this paper were written for literature commonly taught in junior high schools. The paper suggests activities for the following works: "Romeo and Juliet,""Flowers for Algernon,""The Martian…

  10. Psychological Peculiarities of Judge Professional Activity and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uspanov, Zholdybai T.; Turabayeva, Dana S.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the psychological peculiarities of judge professional activity and decision-making, judge's mental set and requirements to ethical and moral requirements and quality. Moreover, this work offers original job analysis and competency model of judge professional activity. The authors have studied the problems concerning the…

  11. Prefrontal Brain Activity Predicts Temporally Extended Decision-Making Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Green, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    Although functional neuroimaging studies of human decision-making processes are increasingly common, most of the research in this area has relied on passive tasks that generate little individual variability. Relatively little attention has been paid to the ability of brain activity to predict overt behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance…

  12. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  13. Show and Tell: An Appreciation of "Making" Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozolanka, Karne

    This paper describes the incorporation of a "making" activity as part of a course for education majors at Queen's Faculty of Education of the University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada). The course was an introductory one in which students explored the methods and merits of outdoor and experiential education. Each student was given a…

  14. Environmental Education Activities to Enhance Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yambert, Paul A.; And Others

    This document contains a set of 10 activities that teachers may use with students (ages 10 to adult) to enhance environmental knowledge and environmentally responsible behavior. Sample worksheets are included when applicable. The activities focus on: renewable and nonrenewable resources; recycling; population growth; wildlife; recycling in a…

  15. Cathode including a non fluorinated linear chain polymer as the binder, method of making the cathode, and lithium electrochemical cell containing the cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plichta, Edward J.; Salomon, Mark

    1986-08-01

    A cathode suitable for use in a lithium electrochemical cell is made from a mixture of active cathode material, carbon, and non fluorinated linear chain polymer by a method including the following steps: (1) dissolving the non fluorinated linear polymer in a non polar solvent at a temperature near the melting point of the polymer; (2) adding the active cathode material and carbon and evaporating the solvent; and (3) grinding the dried mixture into a fine powder and making it into a cathode by pressing the powdered mixture onto both sides of an expanded metal screen and then cutting to the desired dimensions. The cathode can be combined with lithium as the anode and a solution of 0.8 mol/cu dm LiAlCl4 in a mixed organic solvent of 24 mass percent 4-butyrolactone in 1, 2 dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte to provide a mechanically stable, relatively inexpensive lithium electrochemical cell having good cell performance.

  16. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her...) Other market promotion activities. Credit-Back shall be granted for market promotion other than...

  17. Conducting polymer transistors making use of activated carbon gate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Kumar, Prajwal; Zhang, Shiming; Yi, Zhihui; Crescenzo, Gregory De; Santato, Clara; Soavi, Francesca; Cicoira, Fabio

    2015-01-14

    The characteristics of the gate electrode have significant effects on the behavior of organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), which are intensively investigated for applications in the booming field of organic bioelectronics. In this work, high specific surface area activated carbon (AC) was used as gate electrode material in OECTs based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). We found that the high specific capacitance of the AC gate electrodes leads to high drain-source current modulation in OECTs, while their intrinsic quasi-reference characteristics make unnecessary the presence of an additional reference electrode to monitor the OECT channel potential.

  18. Activity-based analyses lead to better decision making.

    PubMed

    Player, S

    1998-08-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM) are cost-management tools that are relatively new to the healthcare industry. ABC is used for strategic decision making. It assesses the costs associated with specific activities and resources and links those costs to specific internal and external customers of the healthcare enterprise (e.g., patients, service lines, and physician groups) to determine the costs associated with each customer. This cost information then can be adjusted to account for anticipated changes and to predict future costs. ABM, on the other hand, supports operations by focusing on the causes of costs and how costs can be reduced. It assesses cost drivers that directly affect the cost of a product or service, and uses performance measures to evaluate the financial or nonfinancial benefit an activity provides. By identifying each cost driver and assessing the value the element adds to the healthcare enterprise, ABM provides a basis for selecting areas that can be changed to reduce costs.

  19. Risk algorithms that include pathology adjustment for HER2 amplification need to make further downward adjustments in likelihood scores.

    PubMed

    Evans, D G; Woodward, E R; Howell, S J; Verhoef, S; Howell, A; Lalloo, F

    2017-04-01

    To assess the need for adjustment in the likelihood of germline BRCA1/2 mutations in women with HER2+ breast cancers. We analysed primary mutation screens on women with breast cancer with unequivocal HER2 overexpression and assessed the likelihood of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations by age, oestrogen receptor status and Manchester score. Of 1111 primary BRCA screens with confirmed HER2 status only 4/161 (2.5%) of women with HER2 amplification had a BRCA1 mutation identified and 5/161 (3.1%) a BRCA2 mutation. The pathology adjusted Manchester score between 10 and 19% and 20%+ thresholds resulted in a detection rate of only 6.5 and 15% respectively. BOADICEA examples appeared to make even less downward adjustment. There is a very low detection rate of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in women with HER2 amplified breast cancers. The Manchester score and BOADICEA do not make sufficient downward adjustment for HER2 amplification. For unaffected women, assessment of breast cancer risk and BRCA1/2 probability should take into account the pathology of the most relevant close relative. Unaffected women undergoing mutation testing for BRCA1/2 should be advised that there is limited reassurance from a negative test result if their close relative had a HER2+ breast cancer.

  20. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  1. Nuclear actin activates human transcription factor genes including the OCT4 gene.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shota; Yamamoto, Koji; Tokunaga, Makio; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    RNA microarray analyses revealed that nuclear actin activated many human transcription factor genes including OCT4, which is required for gene reprogramming. Oct4 is known to be activated by nuclear actin in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings imply that this process of OCT4 activation is conserved in vertebrates and among cell types and could be used for gene reprogramming of human cells.

  2. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  3. Active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Stewart, Donald C [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Annalee Y [Pasco, WA; Zilka, Jennifer L [Pasco, WA; Schmitt, Stephen C [Dublin, OH; Werner, Timothy M [Columbus, OH

    2002-12-10

    The present invention is an active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making, both relying on having (a) at least one inner thin sheet; (b) at least one outer thin sheet; (c) defining at least one first sub-assembly for performing at least one first unit operation by stacking a first of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with a first of the at least one outer thin sheet into a first stack and placing an end block on the at least one inner thin sheet, the at least one first sub-assembly having at least a first inlet and a first outlet; and (d) defining at least one second sub-assembly for performing at least one second unit operation either as a second flow path within the first stack or by stacking a second of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with second of the at least one outer thin sheet as a second stack, the at least one second sub-assembly having at least a second inlet and a second outlet.

  4. Active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Stewart, Donald C [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Annalee Y [Pasco, WA; Zilka, Jennifer L [Pasco, WA; Schmitt, Stephen C [Dublin, OH; Werner, Timothy M [Columbus, OH

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making, both relying on having (a) at least one inner thin sheet; (b) at least one outer thin sheet; (c) defining at least one first sub-assembly for performing at least one first unit operation by stacking a first of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with a first of the at least one outer thin sheet into a first stack and placing an end block on the at least one inner thin sheet, the at least one first sub-assembly having at least a first inlet and a first outlet; and (d) defining at least one second sub-assembly for performing at least one second unit operation either as a second flow path within the first stack or by stacking a second of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with second of the at least one outer thin sheet as a second stack, the at least one second sub-assembly having at least a second inlet and a second outlet.

  5. Active learning and decision making: an introduction to the collection.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Lopes, Manuel; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    The importance of exploratory behaviors by which agents actively sample information has been long appreciated in a wide range of disciplines ranging from machine and robot learning to neuroscience and psychology.  Given the complexity of these behaviors, progress in understanding them will require a confluence of ideas from these multiple fields.  This collection of articles in F1000Research aims to provide a home for a broad range of studies addressing this topic, including full length research articles, brief communications, single figure studies, and review/opinion articles, and studies using computational, behavioral or neural approaches.  Here, we provide an introduction to the collection which we hope will grow and become a valuable resource for the researchers exploring this topic.

  6. Active sampling and decision making in Drosophila chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J.; Louis, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    The ability to respond to chemical stimuli is fundamental to the survival of motile organisms, but the strategies underlying odour tracking remain poorly understood. Here we show that chemotaxis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae is an active sampling process analogous to sniffing in vertebrates. Combining computer-vision algorithms with reconstructed olfactory environments, we establish that larvae orient in odour gradients through a sequential organization of stereotypical behaviours, including runs, stops, lateral head casts and directed turns. Negative gradients, integrated during runs, control the timing of turns. Positive gradients detected through high-amplitude head casts determine the direction of individual turns. By genetically manipulating the peripheral olfactory circuit, we examine how orientation adapts to losses and gains of function in olfactory input. Our findings suggest that larval chemotaxis represents an intermediate navigation strategy between the biased random walks of Escherichia Coli and the stereo-olfaction observed in rats and humans. PMID:21863008

  7. Processes for making dense, spherical active materials for lithium-ion cells

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2011-11-22

    Processes are provided for making dense, spherical mixed-metal carbonate or phosphate precursors that are particularly well suited for the production of active materials for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion secondary batteries. Exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal carbonates or metal phosphates from a combined aqueous solution using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or a mixture that includes sodium hydrogen carbonate. Other exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal phosphates using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, or a mixture of any two or more thereof. Further provided are compositions of and methods of making dense, spherical metal oxides and metal phosphates using the dense, spherical metal precursors. Still further provided are electrodes and batteries using the same.

  8. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  9. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  10. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  11. Modifying Physical Activities to Include Individuals with Disabilities: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Effectively including individuals with disabilities in a physical activity setting can often be a challenge due to constraints related to equipment, class size, curriculum, and the various ability levels of individuals with and without disabilities. However, there are ways the instructor can control the environment and tasks to meet the needs of…

  12. Decision-Making Styles of Active-Duty Police Officers: A Multiple-Case Occupational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Patrick Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the decision-making styles of active-duty police officers or what the consequences of not understanding those decision-making styles may be. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics and decision-making profiles of active-duty police officers, as well as any relationships that may exist among these variables,…

  13. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-02-01

    In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw control is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.

  14. Mimetics of caloric restriction include agonists of lipid-activated nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Corton, J Christopher; Apte, Udayan; Anderson, Steven P; Limaye, Pallavi; Yoon, Lawrence; Latendresse, John; Dunn, Corrie; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Voss, Kenneth A; Swanson, Cynthia; Kimbrough, Carie; Wong, Jean S; Gill, Sarjeet S; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Stulnig, Thomas M; Steffensen, Knut R; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mehendale, Harihara M

    2004-10-29

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized countries is associated with increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and certain types of cancer. In animal models, caloric restriction (CR) suppresses these diseases as well as chemical-induced tissue damage. These beneficial effects of CR overlap with those altered by agonists of nuclear receptors (NR) under control of the fasting-responsive transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha). In a screen for compounds that mimic CR effects in the liver, we found statistically significant overlaps between the CR transcript profile in wild-type mice and the profiles altered by agonists of lipid-activated NR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), liver X receptor, and their obligate heterodimer partner, retinoid X receptor. The overlapping genes included those involved in CVD (lipid metabolism and inflammation) and cancer (cell fate). Based on this overlap, we hypothesized that some effects of CR are mediated by PPARalpha. As determined by transcript profiling, 19% of all gene expression changes in wild-type mice were dependent on PPARalpha, including Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14, involved in fatty acid omega-oxidation, acute phase response genes, and epidermal growth factor receptor but not increases in PGC-1alpha. CR protected the livers of wild-type mice from damage induced by thioacetamide, a liver toxicant and hepatocarcinogen. CR protection was lost in PPARalpha-null mice due to inadequate tissue repair. These results demonstrate that PPARalpha mediates some of the effects of CR and indicate that a pharmacological approach to mimicking many of the beneficial effects of CR may be possible.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of soy has been demonstrated to reduce circulating cholesterol levels, most notably reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The component or components that might be responsible for this effect is still a matter of debate or controversy among many researchers. Candidate agents include an activity of soy protein itself, bioactive peptides produced during the digestive process, or the soy isoflavones. Although soy intake may provide other health benefits including preventative or remediative effects on cancer, osteoporosis and symptoms of menopause, this review will focus on isoflavones as agents affecting lipid metabolism. Isoflavones were first discovered as a bioactive agent disrupting estrogen action in female sheep, thereby earning the often-used term 'phytoestrogens'. Subsequent work confirmed the ability of isoflavones to bind to estrogen receptors. Along with the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy intake, research that is more recent has pointed to a beneficial antidiabetic effect of soy intake, perhaps mediated by soy isoflavones. The two common categories of antidiabetic drugs acting on nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are the fibrates and glitazones. We and others have recently asked the research question 'do the soy isoflavones have activities as either "phytofibrates" or "phytoglitazones"?' Such an activity should be able to be confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. In both the in vivo and in vitro cases, this action has indeed been confirmed. Further work suggests a possible action of isoflavones similar to the nonestrogenic ligands that bind the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Recently, these receptors have been demonstrated to contribute to lipolytic processes. Finally, evaluation of receptor activation studies suggests that thyroid receptor activation may provide additional clues explaining the metabolic action of isoflavones. The recent

  16. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School: Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet on asthma for physical education teachers and other school personnel offers guidelines for the maximum inclusion of students with asthma in regular physical education activities. It stresses that today's treatments can successfully control asthma so that students can participate fully in physical activities most of the time. First…

  17. Can stellar activity make a planet seem misaligned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshagh, M.; Dreizler, S.; Santos, N. C.; Figueira, P.; Reiners, A.

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have shown that the occultation of stellar active regions by the transiting planet can generate anomalies in the high-precision transit light curves, and these anomalies may lead to an inaccurate estimate of the planetary parameters (e.g., the planet radius). Since the physics and geometry behind the transit light curve and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect (spectroscopic transit) are the same, the Rossiter-McLaughlin observations are expected to be affected by the occultation of stellar active regions in a similar way. In this paper we perform a fundamental test on the spin-orbit angles as derived by Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements, and we examine the impact of the occultation of stellar active regions by the transiting planet on the spin-orbit angle estimations. Our results show that the inaccurate estimation on the spin-orbit angle due to stellar activity can be quite significant (up to ~30 deg), particularly for the edge-on, aligned, and small transiting planets. Therefore, our results suggest that the aligned transiting planets are the ones that can be easily misinterpreted as misaligned owing to the stellar activity. In other words, the biases introduced by ignoring stellar activity are unlikely to be the culprit for the highly misaligned systems.

  18. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  19. Improving Decision-Making Activities for Meningitis and Malaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Trzaska, Sylwia; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Kalashnikova, Olga; del Corral, John; Cousin, Remi; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Bell, Michael; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2013-01-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular meningitis and malaria. In this paper, we present the new and improved products that have been developed for: (i) estimating dust aerosol for forecasting risks of meningitis and (ii) for monitoring temperature and rainfall and integrating them into a vectorial capacity model for forecasting risks of malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map Room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  20. Improving Decision-Making Activities for Meningitis and Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccato, P.; Trzaska, S.; Perez, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; del Corral, J.; Cousin, R.; Blumenthal, M. B.; Connor, S.; Thomson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use, and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular Meningitis and Malaria. In this paper we present the new and improved products that have been developed for monitoring dust, temperature, rainfall and vectorial capacity model for monitoring and forecasting risks of Meningitis and Malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  1. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Weaver, Charles E.; Chilcoat, Bill R.; Derbyshire, Frank; Jagtoyen, Marit

    2000-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  2. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Weaver, Charles E.; Chilcoat, Bill R.; Derbyshire, Frank; Jagtoyen, Marit

    2001-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  3. Iron active electrode and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Seidel, Joseph; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-10-26

    An iron active electrode and method of preparing same in which iron sulfate is calcined in an oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature in the range of from about 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce an iron oxide with a trace amount of sulfate. The calcined material is loaded into an electrically conductive support and then heated in a reducing atmosphere at an elevated temperature to produce activated iron having a trace amount of sulfide which is formed into an electrode plate.

  4. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  5. Creating Chicago History: Making Outreach Craft Activities Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to having a traveling outreach activity for a museum, a craft can seem like the perfect solution. It can seemingly be all things at once--educational, quick and fun. But, if poorly constructed, crafts can also have serious fallbacks. Using the Chicago History Museum and the Millennium Park Family Fun Festival as a case study, this…

  6. Kids Can Make a Difference! Environmental Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashefsky, H. Steven

    This book of more than 160 environmental science activities is designed to help students understand environmental issues, ask questions, and find solutions to the problems. Introductory sections address: (1) the nature of major global problems and a history of environmental concern; (2) basic environmental science terminology and scientific study…

  7. Mid-USA, Making Informed Decisions: Using Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scovel, Donald A.; Nelson, Phillip J.

    This document presents a series of learning activities focusing on the role of state government in American society. It is intended for senior or junior high school students. Six objectives are: to identify information sources about state government; to increase knowledge about its organization, processes, services, and costs; to compare these…

  8. Making Sense of Total VET Activity: An Initial Market Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    Following the successful first national publication of total vocational education and training (VET) activity and presentation of various informative data products, NCVER has continued to undertake further analysis of the submitted data. This paper is the first in a suite of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) authored…

  9. Activities vs. Outcomes: The Difference Makes All the Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Janice; Munger, Linda; Hord, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    This article is a follow-up to "Focus first on outcomes" (Bradley, Munger, & Hord, 2015), published in the August 2015 issue of "JSD" ["Journal of Staff Development"]. That article set the stage by creating awareness of the need and purpose for thinking first about outcomes, not activities, when starting a change…

  10. Does Active Learning through an Antisense Jigsaw Make Sense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetharaman, Mahadevan; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2003-12-01

    Three journal articles on nucleic acid antisense modification strategies were assigned to 12 students as part of an active learning "jigsaw" exercise for a graduate-level chemistry course on nucleic acids. Each student was required to read one of the three articles. This assignment was preceded by an hour-long lecture on the basic concepts in antisense antigene technology. On the day of the jigsaw, the students with the same article (three groups of four students) discussed their article briefly, and then formed four new groups where no one had read the same article. Each student spent about five minutes teaching his or her article to the other group members, using specific questions provided to guide the discussion. This exercise laid the foundation for bringing the discussion to the entire class, where most of the students actively participated. To test the students' comprehension of the reading materials, a problem set was designed that required not only an understanding of the three articles, but also application of the concepts learned. The effectiveness of this active learning strategy and its applicability to other topics are discussed in this article.

  11. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  12. Plan now to make your retirement active, productive.

    PubMed

    Schlepp, S

    1989-12-01

    In his book Planning to the Years Ahead, Lester I. Tenney, PhD, professor emeritus at Arizona State University, Tempe, links Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs to retirement planning. According to Maslow, economic and security needs can be achieved through a family environment (eg, food clothing, shelter), and social acceptance, self-worth, and self-satisfaction can be achieved from social interaction, work, or leisure activities. After the basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter have been achieved, people are able to move to the next level of achieving safety and security. The level of dependency that people have on satisfying these needs through work will determine how well they are at adapting to retirement. The more people depend on work alone, the harder will be the adjustment; people who are less dependent on work will find retirement easier to accept.

  13. Making activity-based funding work for mental health.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health from 1 July 2013 has significant risks and benefits. It is critical that the process of implementation is consistent with Australia's cherished goal of establishing a genuine and effective model of community-based mental health care. The infrastructure to support the application of ABF to mental health is currently weak and requires considerable development. States and territories are struggling to meet existing demand for largely hospital-based acute mental health care. There is a risk that valuable ABF-driven Commonwealth growth funds may be used to prop up these systems rather than drive the emergence of new models of community-based care. Some of these new models exist now and this article provides a short description. The aim is to help the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority better understand the landscape of mental health into which it now seeks to deploy ABF.

  14. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  15. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.623 How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  16. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans including syndecan-3 modulate BMP activity during limb cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie C; Li, Yingcui; Seghatoleslami, M Reza; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in multiple aspects of limb development including regulation of cartilage differentiation. Several BMPs bind strongly to heparin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix have recently been implicated as modulators of BMP signaling in some developing systems. Here we have explored the role of HSPGs in regulating BMP activity during limb chondrogenesis by evaluating the effects of exogenous heparan sulfate (HS), heparitinase treatment, and overexpression of the HSPG syndecan-3 on the ability of BMP2 to modulate the chondrogenic differentiation of limb mesenchymal cells in micromass culture. Exogenous HS dramatically enhances the ability of BMP2 to stimulate chondrogenesis and cartilage specific gene expression, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to stimulate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, HS stimulates BMP2-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8, transcriptional mediators of BMP2 signaling, indicating that HS enhances the interaction of BMP2 with its receptors. Pretreatment of micromass cultures with heparitinase to degrade endogenous HSPGs also enhances the chondrogenic activity of BMP2, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together these results indicate that exogenous HS or heparitinase enhance the chondrogenic activity of BMP2 by interfering with its interaction with endogenous HSPGs that would normally restrict its interaction with its receptors. Consistent with the possibility that HSPGs are negative modulators of BMP signaling during chondrogenesis, we have found that overexpression of syndecan-3, which is one of the major HSPGs normally expressed during chondrogenesis, greatly impairs the ability of BMP2 to promote cartilage differentiation. Furthermore, retroviral overexpression of syndecan-3 inhibits BMP2-mediated Smad phosphorylation in the regions of the cultures in which chondrogenesis is

  17. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  18. Modelling of an activated primary settling tank including the fermentation process and VFA elutriation.

    PubMed

    Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2002-10-01

    A complete model of a primary settler including both sedimentation and biological processes is presented. It is a one-dimensional model based on the solids flux concept and the conservation of mass that uses the Takács model for the settling velocity, which is corrected by a compression function in the lower layers. The biological model is based on the ASM2 and enlarged with the fermentation model proposed by this research group. The settler was split in ten layers and the flux terms in the mass balance for each layer is obtained by means of the settling model. A pilot plant has been operated to study the primary sludge fermentation and volatile fatty acids (VFA) elutriation in a primary settler tank. The model has been tested with pilot plant experimental data with very good results. It has been able to simulate the VFA production in the settler and their elutriation with the influent wastewater for all the studied experiments. The developed model is easily applicable to secondary settlers and thickeners, also taking into account biological activity inside them.

  19. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  20. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  1. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  2. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  3. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  4. Sixteen years of collaborative learning through active sense-making in physics (CLASP) at UC Davis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Wendell; Webb, David; Paul, Cassandra; West, Emily; Bowen, Mark; Weiss, Brenda; Coleman, Lawrence; De Leone, Charles

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes our large reformed introductory physics course at UC Davis, which bioscience students have been taking since 1996. The central feature of this course is a focus on sense-making by the students during the 5 h per week discussion/labs in which the students take part in activities emphasizing peer-peer discussions, argumentation, and presentations of ideas. The course differs in many fundamental ways from traditionally taught introductory physics courses. After discussing the unique features of CLASP and its implementation at UC Davis, various student outcome measures are presented that show increased performance by students who took the CLASP course compared to students who took a traditionally taught introductory physics course. Measures we use include upper-division GPAs, MCAT scores, FCI gains, and MPEX-II scores.

  5. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2008-09-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to have potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of such particles, and ignore interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we develop a new parameterization framework that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler Theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frankel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory, and i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH for which activation into cloud droplets is not possible, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. Parameterization formulations are developed for sectional and lognormal aerosol size distribution functions. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2 ~0.98.

  6. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  7. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  8. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  9. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  10. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  11. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  12. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  13. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  14. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  15. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  16. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  17. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  18. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  19. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.

  20. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  1. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, intrahepatic cholestasis, and other cholestatic conditions. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of the disease pathophysiology, our understanding of the effects of UDCA remains unclear. Possibly underlying its cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative effects, UDCA was reported to regulate the expression of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines. However, it is not known if this effect involves also modulation of ADAM family of metalloproteinases, which are responsible for release of ectodomains of inflammatory cytokines from the cell surface. We hypothesized that UDCA modulates ADAM17 activity, resulting in amelioration of cholestasis in a murine model of bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The effect of UDCA on ADAM17 activity was studied using the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Untransfected cells or cells ectopically expressing human ADAM17 were cultured with or without UDCA and further activated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The expression and release of ADAM17 substrates, TNFα, TGFα, and c-Met receptor (or its soluble form, sMet) were evaluated using ELISA and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Immunoblotting analyses were conducted to evaluate expression and activation of ADAM17 as well as the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after UDCA treatment. The regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) by UDCA was studied using zymography and qRT-PCR. A mouse model of acute cholestasis was induced by common BDL technique, during which mice received daily orogastric gavage with either UDCA or vehicle only. Liver injury was quantified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP), relative liver weight, and confirmed by histological analysis. ADAM17 substrates in sera were assessed using a bead multiplex assay. Results UDCA decreases amount of shed TNFα, TGFα, and sMet in cell culture media and the phosphorylation of

  2. A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cangiani, A; Natalini, R

    2010-12-21

    We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.

  3. Have Hatchet--Will Survive: Suggested Activities for Decision-Making Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressler, Jean; Howell, Helen

    1991-01-01

    Describes oral activities that help middle and junior high school students develop decision-making skills. The activities, based on Gary Paulsen's novel "Hatchet," focus on struggling for survival. Recommends "Hatchet" as a vehicle for observing the maturing process and for teaching skills that students can apply to their own…

  4. What makes the dorsomedial frontal cortex active during reading the mental states of others?

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Masaki; Noritake, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM) or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC) constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others' intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others' actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others' actions. PMID:24367287

  5. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  6. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  7. [Development of asymmetric synthesis of optically active compounds including fluoroorganic molecules].

    PubMed

    Iseki, K

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis of chiral fluorinated molecules is important in the biological and medicinal chemistry fields in view of the influence of fluorine's unique properties on biological activity. In recent years, we have studied asymmetric synthesis focussing on such optically active compounds. This review describes 1) diastereoselective trifluoromethylation of chiral N-acyloxazolidinones, 2) catalytic enantioselective aldol reactions of fluorine-substituted ketene silyl acetals, and 3) catalytic enantioselective allylation of aldehydes mediated by chiral Lewis bases. The trifluoromethylation of lithium enolates of N-acyloxazolidinones with iodotrifluoromethane is mediated by triethylborane to give the corresponding trifluoromethylated products with up to 86% diastereomeric excess. The stereoselective reaction is considered to proceed through the attack of the trifluoromethyl radical on the less hindered face of the lithium imide. Difluoroketene and bromofluoroketene trimethylsilyl ethyl acetals react with various aldehydes in the presence of chiral Lewis acids to afford the corresponding desired aldols with up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee). It is noteworthy that the aldol reactions of the fluorine-substituted acetals at -78 degrees C and at higher temperatures (-45 or -20 degrees C) provide the (+)- and (-)-aldols, respectively, with excellent-to-good enantioselectivity. Chiral phosphoramides newly prepared from (S)-proline were found to catalyze the allylation and crotylation of aromatic aldehydes with allylic trichlorosilanes in good enantioselective yields (up to 90% ee). (S,S)-Bis(alpha-methylbenzyl)formamide developed as an efficient catalyst for the allylation and crotylation of aliphatic aldehydes mediates the enantioselective addition with the assistance of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% ee.

  8. A Proposal on How to Make Educational Activities Deep-rooted in the Local Community Successful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, Akihiro; Momota, Masahiro; Sadano, Syuichiro; Ishitobi, Takaaki; Murashige, Kiyoshi

    The purpose of this paper is to propose what is necessary for institutions of higher education to succeed in contributive activities for the local community. First, an outline of status quo of such activities is provided. Next, a discussion of how our college plans, organizes and performs such activities with “the Planning and Coordination Office” and “the Division of Cooperation with the Local Community” as the central divisions will be offered. Following this, clarification of some of the problems to be solved in regard to the activities is discussed. Finally, it is argued that organizational and continuous approaches are essential to make the activities successful.

  9. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  10. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  11. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  12. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  13. Can active music making promote health and well-being in older citizens? Findings of the music for life project

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Susan; Creech, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although there is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people’s well-being, little attention has been paid to the potential for music making to effect a significant contribution to the quality of life of older people. The research summarised here explored the role of music in older people’s lives and how participation in community music making can enhance their social, emotional and cognitive well-being. The research comprised three UK case study sites, each offering a variety of musical activities. At each site, a sample of people aged 50+ (total N = 398), some of whom had recently begun musical activities and others who were more experienced, were recruited to complete questionnaires that assessed quality of life. A control group (N = 102) completed the same measures. In-depth interviews were carried out with a representative sample, followed by observations of musical activities, focus groups and interviews with the facilitators of the activities. Higher scores on the quality of life measures were found consistently among the music participants, in comparison with the control group with ongoing benefits into the 4th age. Analysis of the qualitative data demonstrated: (1) cognitive benefits including challenge, the acquisition of new skills, a sense of achievement, and improvements in concentration and memory; (2) health benefits including increased vitality, improved mental health and mobility and feelings of rejuvenation; and (3) emotional benefits including protection against stress, protection against depression, support following bereavement, a sense of purpose, positive feelings, confidence and opportunities for creativity. Participants also identified a number of barriers to participation including lack of information about opportunities for making music. Ways that GP surgeries might support participation in music making are considered. PMID:28250825

  14. Can active music making promote health and well-being in older citizens? Findings of the music for life project.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Susan; Creech, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although there is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people's well-being, little attention has been paid to the potential for music making to effect a significant contribution to the quality of life of older people. The research summarised here explored the role of music in older people's lives and how participation in community music making can enhance their social, emotional and cognitive well-being. The research comprised three UK case study sites, each offering a variety of musical activities. At each site, a sample of people aged 50+ (total N = 398), some of whom had recently begun musical activities and others who were more experienced, were recruited to complete questionnaires that assessed quality of life. A control group (N = 102) completed the same measures. In-depth interviews were carried out with a representative sample, followed by observations of musical activities, focus groups and interviews with the facilitators of the activities. Higher scores on the quality of life measures were found consistently among the music participants, in comparison with the control group with ongoing benefits into the 4th age. Analysis of the qualitative data demonstrated: (1) cognitive benefits including challenge, the acquisition of new skills, a sense of achievement, and improvements in concentration and memory; (2) health benefits including increased vitality, improved mental health and mobility and feelings of rejuvenation; and (3) emotional benefits including protection against stress, protection against depression, support following bereavement, a sense of purpose, positive feelings, confidence and opportunities for creativity. Participants also identified a number of barriers to participation including lack of information about opportunities for making music. Ways that GP surgeries might support participation in music making are considered.

  15. Effects of Making Sense of SCIENCE[TM] Professional Development on the Achievement of Middle School Students, Including English Language Learners. Final Report. NCEE 2012-4002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Joan I.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated an approach to professional development for middle school science teachers by closely examining one grade 8 course that embodies that approach. Using a cluster-randomized experimental design, the study tested the effectiveness of the Making Sense of SCIENCE[TM] professional development course on force and motion (Daehler,…

  16. Challenges and Successes with Including Kentucky's Parents in School-Based Decision Making: Pilot Year School Councils Respond. UKERA Occasional Paper #0003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane Clark

    The 1990 Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) provided, among other measures, a new governance body for schools called "School Councils." These school-based, decision-making councils are composed of parents and teachers and headed by principals. This paper presents findings of a study that explored the effects of KERA's provision for…

  17. Impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making in young adults with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjong; Lee, Junghan; Yoon, Kang Joon; Kee, Namkoong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2016-05-25

    Internet gaming disorder is defined as excessive and compulsive use of the internet to engage in games that leads to clinically significant psychosocial impairment. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with internet gaming disorder would be less sensitive to high-risk situations and show aberrant brain activation related to risk prediction processing. Young adults with internet gaming disorder underwent functional MRI while performing a risky decision-making task. The healthy control group showed stronger activations within the dorsal attention network and the anterior insular cortex, which were not found in the internet gaming disorder group. Our findings imply that young adults with internet gaming disorder show impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making, which might make them vulnerable when they need to adapt new behavioral strategies in high-risk situations.

  18. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  19. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities; modifications. 440.11 Section 440.11 Aeronautics and... Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted...

  20. Motivation alters response bias and neural activation patterns in a perceptual decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Reckless, G E; Bolstad, I; Nakstad, P H; Andreassen, O A; Jensen, J

    2013-05-15

    Motivation has been demonstrated to affect individuals' response strategies in economic decision-making, however, little is known about how motivation influences perceptual decision-making behavior or its related neural activity. Given the important role motivation plays in shaping our behavior, a better understanding of this relationship is needed. A block-design, continuous performance, perceptual decision-making task where participants were asked to detect a picture of an animal among distractors was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The effect of positive and negative motivation on sustained activity within regions of the brain thought to underlie decision-making was examined by altering the monetary contingency associated with the task. In addition, signal detection theory was used to investigate the effect of motivation on detection sensitivity, response bias and response time. While both positive and negative motivation resulted in increased sustained activation in the ventral striatum, fusiform gyrus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, only negative motivation resulted in the adoption of a more liberal, closer to optimal response bias. This shift toward a liberal response bias correlated with increased activation in the left DLPFC, but did not result in improved task performance. The present findings suggest that motivation alters aspects of the way perceptual decisions are made. Further, this altered response behavior is reflected in a change in left DLPFC activation, a region involved in the computation of perceptual decisions.

  1. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  2. The effect of keyboard keyswitch make force on applied force and finger flexor muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Rempel, D; Serina, E; Klinenberg, E; Martin, B J; Armstrong, T J; Foulke, J A; Natarajan, S

    1997-08-01

    The design of the force-displacement characteristics or 'feel' of keyboard keyswitches has been guided by preference and performance data; there has been very little information on how switch 'feel' alters muscle activity or applied force. This is a laboratory-based repeated measures design experiment to evaluate the effect of computer keyboard keyswitch design on applied finger force and muscle activity during a typing task. Ten experienced typists typed on three keyboards which differed in keyswitch make force (0.34, 0.47 and 1.02 N) while applied fingertip force and finger flexor electromyograms were recorded. The keyboard testing order was randomized and subjects typed on each keyboard for three trials, while data was collected for a minimum of 80 keystrokes per trial. No differences in applied fingertip force or finger flexor EMG were observed during typing on keyboards with switch make force of 0.34 or 0.47 N. However, applied fingertip force increased by approximately 40% (p < 0.05) and EMG activity increased by approximately 20% (p < 0.05) when the keyswitch make force was increased from 0.47 to 1.02 N. These results suggest that, in order to minimize the biomechanical loads to forearm tendons and muscles of keyboard users, keyswitches with a make force of 0.47 N or less should be considered over switches with a make force of 1.02 N.

  3. Hemispheric activation differences in novice and expert clinicians during clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Pam; Hecker, Kent G; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin; Cortese, Filomeno; Doig, Christopher; Beran, Tanya; Wright, Bruce; Krigolson, Olav

    2016-12-01

    Clinical decision making requires knowledge, experience and analytical/non-analytical types of decision processes. As clinicians progress from novice to expert, research indicates decision-making becomes less reliant on foundational biomedical knowledge and more on previous experience. In this study, we investigated how knowledge and experience were reflected in terms of differences in neural areas of activation. Novice and expert clinicians diagnosed simple or complex (easy, hard) cases while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected. Our results highlight key differences in the neural areas activated in novices and experts during the clinical decision-making process. fMRI data were collected from ten second year medical students (novices) and ten practicing gastroenterologists (experts) while they diagnosed sixteen (eight easy and eight hard) clinical cases via multiple-choice questions. Behavioral data were collected for diagnostic accuracy (correct/incorrect diagnosis) and time taken to assign a clinical diagnosis. Two analyses were performed with the fMRI data. First, data from easy and hard cases were compared within respective groups (easy > hard, hard > easy). Second, neural differences between novices and experts (novice > expert, expert > novice) were assessed. Experts correctly diagnosed more cases than novices and made their diagnoses faster than novices on both easy and hard cases (all p's < 0.05). Time taken to diagnose hard cases took significantly longer for both novices and experts. While similar neural areas were activated in both novices and experts during the decision making process, we identified significant hemispheric activation differences between novice and expert clinicians when diagnosing hard clinical cases. Specifically, novice clinicians had greater activations in the left anterior temporal cortex and left ventral lateral prefrontal cortex whereas expert clinicians had greater activations in the right

  4. Making Physical Activity Accessible to Older Adults with Memory Loss: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McCurry, Susan M.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Teri, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), memory loss may prevent successful engagement in exercise, a key factor in preventing additional disability. The Resources and Activities for Life Long Independence (RALLI) program uses behavioral principles to make exercise more accessible for these individuals. Exercises are broken…

  5. Formative Evaluation of Project "TEAM" (Teens Making Environment and Activity Modifications)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Roemer, Kristin; Liljenquist, Kendra; Shin, Julia; Hart, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Research documents the negative impact of physical and social environmental barriers on engagement in school, work, and the community for youth with intellectual and /or developmental disabilities (IDD). Project "TEAM" (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) was designed to teach youth to systematically identify…

  6. Practical Activities that Focus on the Decision-Making Process. TEAL Occasional Papers, Vol. 2, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Nancy

    This paper demonstrates how a diagram of a Safeway supermarket can be the vehicle for a language lesson based on Lawrence's cognitive categories (classification, definition, spatial order, chronological order, generalizations and specifics, and cause and effect). A wide variety of decision-making activities based on this diagram are described.…

  7. Making Tracks 1.0: Action Researching an Active Transportation Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel; Foran, Andrew; Robinson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the first cycle of an action research project. The objective of this action research was to examine the implementation of a school-based active transportation education program (Making Tracks). A two-cycle action research design was employed in which elementary school students' (ages 7-9), middle school…

  8. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  9. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  10. Neural Activation During Risky Decision-Making in Youth at High Risk for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A.; Hummer, Tom A.; Fukunaga, Rena; Leibenluft, Ellen; Finn, Peter; Cyders, Melissa A.; Anand, Amit; Overhage, Lauren; Dir, Allyson; Brown, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10–14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The HR group had faster reaction times, but otherwise showed no behavioral differences from the HC group. HR youth experienced greater activation when processing outcome, as the chances of balloon explosion increased, relative to HC youth, in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). As explosion probability increased, group-by-condition interactions in the ventral striatum/anterior cingulate and the anterior insula showed increasing activation in HR youth, specifically on trials when explosions occurred. Thus, atypical activation increased with increasing risk of negative outcome (i.e., balloon explosion) in a cortico-striatal network in the HR group. These findings identify candidate neurobiological markers of addiction risk in youth at high familial and phenotypic risk for SUDs. PMID:26071624

  11. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making-REPOPA project.

    PubMed

    Aro, Arja R; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Van De Goor, Ien; Skovgaard, Thomas; Valente, Adriana; Castellani, Tommaso; Chereches, Razvan; Edwards, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation to learn more in depth from the policy making process and carried out 86 qualitative stakeholder interviews. The second, ongoing phase builds on the central findings of the first phase in each country; it consists of two sets of interventions: game simulations to study cross-sector collaboration and organizational change processes in the use of evidence and locally tailored interventions to increase knowledge integration. The results of the first two study phases will be tested and validated among policy makers and other stakeholders in the third phase using a Delphi process. Initial results from the first project phase showed the lack of explicit evidence use in HEPA policy making. Facilitators and barriers of the evidence use were the availability of institutional resources and support but also networking between researchers and policy makers. REPOPA will increase understanding use of research evidence in different contexts; develop guidance and tools and establish sustainable structures such as networks and platforms between academics and policy makers across relevant sectors.

  12. Low attentional engagement makes attention network activity susceptible to emotional interference.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Marttunen, Verónica; Pickard, Natasha; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Ogawa, Keith H; Knight, Robert T; Hartikainen, Kaisa M

    2014-09-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether emotion-attention interaction depends on attentional engagement. To investigate emotional modulation of attention network activation, we used a functional MRI paradigm consisting of a visuospatial attention task with either frequent (high-engagement) or infrequent (low-engagement) targets and intermittent emotional or neutral distractors. The attention task recruited a bilateral frontoparietal network with no emotional interference on network activation when the attentional engagement was high. In contrast, when the attentional engagement was low, the unpleasant stimuli interfered with the activation of the frontoparietal attention network, especially in the right hemisphere. This study provides novel evidence for low attentional engagement making attention control network activation susceptible to emotional interference.

  13. Using the decision ladder to understand road user decision making at actively controlled rail level crossings.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, Christine M; Salmon, Paul M; Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-09-01

    Rail level crossings (RLXs) represent a key strategic risk for railways worldwide. Despite enforcement and engineering countermeasures, user behaviour at RLXs can often confound expectations and erode safety. Research in this area is limited by a relative absence of insights into actual decision making processes and a focus on only a subset of road user types. One-hundred and sixty-six road users (drivers, motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians) completed a diary entry for each of 457 naturalistic encounters with RLXs when a train was approaching. The final eligible sample comprised 94 participants and 248 encounters at actively controlled crossings where a violation of the active warnings was possible. The diary incorporated Critical Decision Method probe questions, which enabled user responses to be mapped onto Rasmussen's decision ladder. Twelve percent of crossing events were non-compliant. The underlying decision making was compared to compliant events and a reference decision model to reveal important differences in the structure and type of decision making within and between road user groups. The findings show that engineering countermeasures intended to improve decision making (e.g. flashing lights), may have the opposite effect for some users because the system permits a high level of flexibility for circumvention. Non-motorised users were more likely to access information outside of the warning signals because of their ability to achieve greater proximity to the train tracks and the train itself. The major conundrum in resolving these issues is whether to restrict the amount of time and information available to users so that it cannot be used for circumventing the system or provide more information to help users make safe decisions.

  14. Social Status-Dependent Shift in Neural Circuit Activation Affects Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H; Clements, Katie; Ahn, Sungwoo; Park, Choongseok; Hye Ji, Eoon; Issa, Fadi A

    2017-02-22

    In a social group, animals make behavioral decisions that fit their social ranks. These behavioral choices are dependent on the various social cues experienced during social interactions. In vertebrates, little is known of how social status affects the underlying neural mechanisms regulating decision-making circuits that drive competing behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio) influences behavioral decisions by shifting the balance in neural circuit activation between two competing networks (escape and swim). We show that socially dominant animals enhance activation of the swim circuit. Conversely, social subordinates display a decreased activation of the swim circuit, but an enhanced activation of the escape circuit. In an effort to understand how social status mediates these effects, we constructed a neurocomputational model of the escape and swim circuits. The model replicates our findings and suggests that social status-related shift in circuit dynamics could be mediated by changes in the relative excitability of the escape and swim networks. Together, our results reveal that changes in the excitabilities of the Mauthner command neuron for escape and the inhibitory interneurons that regulate swimming provide a cellular mechanism for the nervous system to adapt to changes in social conditions by permitting the animal to select a socially appropriate behavioral response.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how social factors influence nervous system function is of great importance. Using zebrafish as a model system, we demonstrate how social experience affects decision making to enable animals to produce socially appropriate behavior. Based on experimental evidence and computational modeling, we show that behavioral decisions reflect the interplay between competing neural circuits whose activation thresholds shift in accordance with social status. We demonstrate this through analysis of the behavior and neural circuit

  15. Functional Genetic Variation in Dopamine Signaling Moderates Prefrontal Cortical Activity During Risky Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Milky; Nurmi, Erika L; Laughlin, Christopher P; Morales, Angelica M; Gail, Emma H; Hellemann, Gerhard S; London, Edythe D

    2016-01-01

    Brain imaging has revealed links between prefrontal activity during risky decision-making and striatal dopamine receptors. Specifically, striatal dopamine D2-like receptor availability is correlated with risk-taking behavior and sensitivity of prefrontal activation to risk in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). The extent to which these associations, involving a single neurochemical measure, reflect more general effects of dopaminergic functioning on risky decision making, however, is unknown. Here, 65 healthy participants provided genotypes and performed the BART during functional magnetic resonance imaging. For each participant, dopamine function was assessed using a gene composite score combining known functional variation across five genes involved in dopaminergic signaling: DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, DAT1, and COMT. The gene composite score was negatively related to dorsolateral prefrontal cortical function during risky decision making, and nonlinearly related to earnings on the task. Iterative permutations of all possible allelic variations (7777 allelic combinations) was tested on brain function in an independently defined region of the prefrontal cortex and confirmed empirical validity of the composite score, which yielded stronger association than 95% of all other possible combinations. The gene composite score also accounted for a greater proportion of variability in neural and behavioral measures than the independent effects of each gene variant, indicating that the combined effects of functional dopamine pathway genes can provide a robust assessment, presumably reflecting the cumulative and potentially interactive effects on brain function. Our findings support the view that the links between dopaminergic signaling, prefrontal function, and decision making vary as a function of dopamine signaling capacity. PMID:26119471

  16. Reduced activation in the ventral striatum during probabilistic decision-making in patients in an at-risk mental state

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Eifler, Sarah; Fenske, Sabrina; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Englisch, Susanne; Schilling, Claudia; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia display metacognitive impairments, such as hasty decision-making during probabilistic reasoning — the “jumping to conclusion” bias (JTC). Our recent fMRI study revealed reduced activations in the right ventral striatum (VS) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to be associated with decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these functional alterations occur in the at-risk mental state (ARMS). Methods We administered the classical beads task and fMRI among ARMS patients and healthy controls matched for age, sex, education and premorbid verbal intelligence. None of the ARMS patients was treated with antipsychotics. Both tasks request probabilistic decisions after a variable amount of stimuli. We evaluated activation during decision-making under certainty versus uncertainty and the process of final decision-making. Results We included 24 AMRS patients and 24 controls in our study. Compared with controls, ARMS patients tended to draw fewer beads and showed significantly more JTC bias in the classical beads task, mirroring findings in patients with schizophrenia. During fMRI, ARMS patients did not demonstrate JTC bias on the behavioural level, but showed a significant hypoactivation in the right VS during the decision stage. Limitations Owing to the cross-sectional design of the study, results are constrained to a better insight into the neurobiology of risk constellations, but not pre-psychotic stages. Nine of the ARMS patients were treated with antidepressants and/or lorazepam. Conclusion As in patients with schizophrenia, a striatal hypoactivation was found in ARMS patients. Confounding effects of antipsychotic medication can be excluded. Our findings indicate that error prediction signalling and reward anticipation may be linked to striatal dysfunction during prodromal stages and should be examined for their utility in predicting transition risk. PMID:25622039

  17. Active learning to understand infectious disease models and improve policy making.

    PubMed

    Willem, Lander; Stijven, Sean; Vladislavleva, Ekaterina; Broeckhove, Jan; Beutels, Philippe; Hens, Niel

    2014-04-01

    Modeling plays a major role in policy making, especially for infectious disease interventions but such models can be complex and computationally intensive. A more systematic exploration is needed to gain a thorough systems understanding. We present an active learning approach based on machine learning techniques as iterative surrogate modeling and model-guided experimentation to systematically analyze both common and edge manifestations of complex model runs. Symbolic regression is used for nonlinear response surface modeling with automatic feature selection. First, we illustrate our approach using an individual-based model for influenza vaccination. After optimizing the parameter space, we observe an inverse relationship between vaccination coverage and cumulative attack rate reinforced by herd immunity. Second, we demonstrate the use of surrogate modeling techniques on input-response data from a deterministic dynamic model, which was designed to explore the cost-effectiveness of varicella-zoster virus vaccination. We use symbolic regression to handle high dimensionality and correlated inputs and to identify the most influential variables. Provided insight is used to focus research, reduce dimensionality and decrease decision uncertainty. We conclude that active learning is needed to fully understand complex systems behavior. Surrogate models can be readily explored at no computational expense, and can also be used as emulator to improve rapid policy making in various settings.

  18. Active Learning to Understand Infectious Disease Models and Improve Policy Making

    PubMed Central

    Vladislavleva, Ekaterina; Broeckhove, Jan; Beutels, Philippe; Hens, Niel

    2014-01-01

    Modeling plays a major role in policy making, especially for infectious disease interventions but such models can be complex and computationally intensive. A more systematic exploration is needed to gain a thorough systems understanding. We present an active learning approach based on machine learning techniques as iterative surrogate modeling and model-guided experimentation to systematically analyze both common and edge manifestations of complex model runs. Symbolic regression is used for nonlinear response surface modeling with automatic feature selection. First, we illustrate our approach using an individual-based model for influenza vaccination. After optimizing the parameter space, we observe an inverse relationship between vaccination coverage and cumulative attack rate reinforced by herd immunity. Second, we demonstrate the use of surrogate modeling techniques on input-response data from a deterministic dynamic model, which was designed to explore the cost-effectiveness of varicella-zoster virus vaccination. We use symbolic regression to handle high dimensionality and correlated inputs and to identify the most influential variables. Provided insight is used to focus research, reduce dimensionality and decrease decision uncertainty. We conclude that active learning is needed to fully understand complex systems behavior. Surrogate models can be readily explored at no computational expense, and can also be used as emulator to improve rapid policy making in various settings. PMID:24743387

  19. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  20. Making Algebra Come Alive: Student Activities & Teacher Notes. Math Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posamentier, Alfred S.

    This book contains a set of versatile enrichment exercises that cover a very broad range of mathematical topics and applications in algebra from the Moebius strip to the googol. Several criteria have been used in developing the activities and selecting the topics that are included. All of them bear heavily and equally on concerns for curriculum…

  1. Making Pre-Algebra Come Alive: Student Activities & Teacher Notes. Math Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posamentier, Alfred S.

    This book contains a set of versatile enrichment exercises that cover a very broad range of mathematical topics and applications in pre-algebra from the Moebius strip to the googol. Several criteria have been used in developing the activities and selecting the topics that are included. All of them bear heavily and equally on concerns for…

  2. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  3. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  4. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    PubMed

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  5. Social information and personal interests modulate neural activity during economic decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Anna; Gaertig, Celia; Ruz, María

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we employed electrophysiological recordings to investigate the levels of processing at which positive and negative descriptions of other people bias social decision-making in a game in which participants accepted or rejected economic offers. Besides social information, we manipulated the fairness of the assets distribution, whether offers were advantageous or not for the participant and the uncertainty of the game context. Results show that a negative description of the interaction partner enhanced the medial frontal negativity (MFN) in an additive manner with fairness evaluations. The description of the partner interacted with personal benefit considerations, showing that this positive or negative information only biased the evaluation of offers when they did not favor the participant. P300 amplitudes were enhanced by advantageous offers, suggesting their heightened motivational significance at later stages of processing. Throughout all stages, neural activity was enhanced with certainty about the personal assignments of the split. These results provide new evidence on the importance of interpersonal information and considerations of self-interests relative to others in decision-making situations. PMID:24567708

  6. UPDATE ON PEC ACTIVITIES INCLUDING NEW EVALUATION CRITERIA, THE APPLICATION COMPLETENESS CHECKLIST, AND STATUS OF THE WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA's Pathogen Equivalency Committee (PEC) has updated the evaluation criteria it uses to make recommendations of equivalency (to processes acceptable under 40CFR503) on innovative or alternative sludge pathogen reduction processes. These criteria will be presented along with ...

  7. Does improved decision-making ability reduce the physiological demands of game-based activities in field sport athletes?

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J; Carius, Josh; Mulvey, Mike

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of video-based perceptual training on pattern recognition and pattern prediction ability in elite field sport athletes and determined whether enhanced perceptual skills influenced the physiological demands of game-based activities. Sixteen elite women soccer players (mean +/- SD age, 18.3 +/- 2.8 years) were allocated to either a video-based perceptual training group (N = 8) or a control group (N = 8). The video-based perceptual training group watched video footage of international women's soccer matches. Twelve training sessions, each 15 minutes in duration, were conducted during a 4-week period. Players performed assessments of speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint), repeated-sprint ability (6 x 20-m sprints, with active recovery on a 15-second cycle), estimated maximal aerobic power (V O2 max, multistage fitness test), and a game-specific video-based perceptual test of pattern recognition and pattern prediction before and after the 4 weeks of video-based perceptual training. The on-field assessments included time-motion analysis completed on all players during a standardized 45-minute small-sided training game, and assessments of passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making ability. No significant changes were detected in speed, repeated-sprint ability, or estimated V O2 max during the training period. However, video-based perceptual training improved decision accuracy and reduced the number of recall errors, indicating improved game awareness and decision-making ability. Importantly, the improvements in pattern recognition and prediction ability transferred to on-field improvements in passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making skills. No differences were detected between groups for the time spent standing, walking, jogging, striding, and sprinting during the small-sided training game. These findings demonstrate that video-based perceptual training can be used effectively to enhance the decision-making ability of field

  8. Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.

  9. Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.

    PubMed

    Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2013-08-01

    Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel.

  10. Reduced prefrontal cortex activation using the Trail Making Test in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Ryo; Morita, Kiichiro; Sato, Mamoru; Kamada, Yuji; Kato, Yusuke; Inoue, Masayuki; Shoji, Yoshihisa; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a deficit of the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in attention, executive processes, and working memory. The Trail Making Test (TMT) is administered in two parts, TMT-A and TMT-B. It is suggested that the difference in performance between part A and part B reflects executive processes. In this study, we compared the characteristics of hemodynamic changes during TMT tasks between 14 outpatients with schizophrenia and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, we measured relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, which reflects brain activity of the prefrontal cortex during this task. In both tasks, patients showed significantly smaller activation than controls and, in an assessment of executive functions, a subtraction of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) changes during TMT-A from those of TMT-B showed a decrease in cerebral lateralization and hypoactivity in patients. There was a significant negative correlation between oxy-Hb changes and the severity of psychiatric symptoms. These findings may characterize disease-related features, suggesting the usefulness of oxy-Hb change measurement during TMT tasks for assessing functional outcomes in schizophrenic patients. PMID:23696704

  11. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  12. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  13. Novelty seeking is related to individual risk preference and brain activation associated with risk prediction during decision making

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Gu, Feng; Li, Xiaoming; Zha, Rujing; Wei, Zhengde; Pei, Yakun; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) is a personality trait reflecting excitement in response to novel stimuli. High NS is usually a predictor of risky behaviour such as drug abuse. However, the relationships between NS and risk-related cognitive processes, including individual risk preference and the brain activation associated with risk prediction, remain elusive. In this fMRI study, participants completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire to measure NS and performed a probabilistic decision making task. Using a mathematical model, we estimated individual risk preference. Brain regions associated with risk prediction were determined via fMRI. The NS score showed a positive correlation with risk preference and a negative correlation with the activation elicited by risk prediction in the right posterior insula (r-PI), left anterior insula (l-AI), right striatum (r-striatum) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Within these brain regions, only the activation associated with risk prediction in the r-PI showed a correlation with NS after controlling for the effect of risk preference. Resting-state functional connectivity between the r-PI and r-striatum/l-AI was negatively correlated with NS. Our results suggest that high NS may be associated with less aversion to risk and that the r-PI plays an important role in relating risk prediction to NS. PMID:26065910

  14. Making rainfall features fun: scientific activities for teaching children aged 5-12 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, Auguste; Muller, Catherine L.; le Gueut, Marie-Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Research projects now rely on an array of different channels to increase impact, including high-level scientific output, tools, and equipment, but also communication, outreach, and educational activities. This paper focuses on education for children aged 5-12 years and presents activities that aim to help them (and their teachers) grasp some of the complex underlying issues in environmental science. More generally, it helps children to become familiarized with science and scientists, with the aim to enhance scientific culture and promote careers in this field. The activities developed are focused on rainfall: (a) designing and using a disdrometer to observe the variety of drop sizes; (b) careful recording of successive dry and rainy days and reproducing patterns using a simple model based on fractal random multiplicative cascades; and (c) collaboratively writing a children's book about rainfall. These activities are discussed in the context of current state-of-the-art pedagogical practices and goals set by project funders, especially in a European Union framework.

  15. EGFR-activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Heike N; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H; Sequist, Lecia V; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-10-15

    In patients with lung cancer whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGF receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared with wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of cross-linker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2-M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR-mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer.

  16. Youth Activity Involvement, Neighborhood Adult Support, Individual Decision Making Skills, and Early Adolescent Delinquent Behaviors: Testing a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crean, Hugh F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a cross-sectional structural equation model of participation in youth activities, neighborhood adult support, individual decision making skills, and delinquent behavior in urban middle school youths (n = 2611). Results indicate extracurricular activity participation had both direct and indirect associations with delinquent…

  17. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

  18. Making sense: Dopamine activates conscious self‐monitoring through medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Joensson, Morten; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Andersen, Lau M.; Gross, Joachim; Mouridsen, Kim; Sandberg, Kristian; Østergaard, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When experiences become meaningful to the self, they are linked to synchronous activity in a paralimbic network of self‐awareness and dopaminergic activity. This network includes medial prefrontal and medial parietal/posterior cingulate cortices, where transcranial magnetic stimulation may transiently impair self‐awareness. Conversely, we hypothesize that dopaminergic stimulation may improve self‐awareness and metacognition (i.e., the ability of the brain to consciously monitor its own cognitive processes). Here, we demonstrate improved noetic (conscious) metacognition by oral administration of 100 mg dopamine in minimal self‐awareness. In a separate experiment with extended self‐awareness dopamine improved the retrieval accuracy of memories of self‐judgment (autonoetic, i.e., explicitly self‐conscious) metacognition. Concomitantly, magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed increased amplitudes of oscillations (power) preferentially in the medial prefrontal cortex. Given that electromagnetic activity in this region is instrumental in self‐awareness, this explains the specific effect of dopamine on explicit self‐awareness and autonoetic metacognition. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1866–1877, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. PMID:25627861

  19. Making sense: Dopamine activates conscious self-monitoring through medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Joensson, Morten; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Andersen, Lau M; Gross, Joachim; Mouridsen, Kim; Sandberg, Kristian; Østergaard, Leif; Lou, Hans C

    2015-05-01

    When experiences become meaningful to the self, they are linked to synchronous activity in a paralimbic network of self-awareness and dopaminergic activity. This network includes medial prefrontal and medial parietal/posterior cingulate cortices, where transcranial magnetic stimulation may transiently impair self-awareness. Conversely, we hypothesize that dopaminergic stimulation may improve self-awareness and metacognition (i.e., the ability of the brain to consciously monitor its own cognitive processes). Here, we demonstrate improved noetic (conscious) metacognition by oral administration of 100 mg dopamine in minimal self-awareness. In a separate experiment with extended self-awareness dopamine improved the retrieval accuracy of memories of self-judgment (autonoetic, i.e., explicitly self-conscious) metacognition. Concomitantly, magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed increased amplitudes of oscillations (power) preferentially in the medial prefrontal cortex. Given that electromagnetic activity in this region is instrumental in self-awareness, this explains the specific effect of dopamine on explicit self-awareness and autonoetic metacognition.

  20. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  1. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  2. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  3. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  4. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  5. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... licensed launch or permitted activities is sufficiently small that financial responsibility is no...

  6. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  7. The contribution of structured activity and deliberate play to the development of expert perceptual and decision-making skill.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jason; Abernethy, Bruce; Côté, Jean

    2008-12-01

    The developmental histories of 32 players in the Australian Football League (AFL), independently classified as either expert or less skilled in their perceptual and decision-making skills, were collected through a structured interview process and their year-on-year involvement in structured and deliberate play activities retrospectively determined. Despite being drawn from the same elite level of competition, the expert decision-makers differed from the less skilled in having accrued, during their developing years, more hours of experience in structured activities of all types, in structured activities in invasion-type sports, in invasion-type deliberate play, and in invasion activities from sports other than Australian football. Accumulated hours invested in invasion-type activities differentiated between the groups, suggesting that it is the amount of invasion-type activity that is experienced and not necessarily intent (skill development or fun) or specificity that facilitates the development of perceptual and decision-making expertise in this team sport.

  8. Application of decision-making theory to the regulation of muscular work rate during self-paced competitive endurance activity.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Martin, Louise; Micklewright, Dominic; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Successful participation in competitive endurance activities requires continual regulation of muscular work rate in order to maximise physiological performance capacities, meaning that individuals must make numerous decisions with regards to the muscular work rate selected at any point in time. Decisions relating to the setting of appropriate goals and the overall strategic approach to be utilised are made prior to the commencement of an event, whereas tactical decisions are made during the event itself. This review examines current theories of decision-making in an attempt to explain the manner in which regulation of muscular work is achieved during athletic activity. We describe rational and heuristic theories, and relate these to current models of regulatory processes during self-paced exercise in an attempt to explain observations made in both laboratory and competitive environments. Additionally, we use rational and heuristic theories in an attempt to explain the influence of the presence of direct competitors on the quality of the decisions made during these activities. We hypothesise that although both rational and heuristic models can plausibly explain many observed behaviours in competitive endurance activities, the complexity of the environment in which such activities occur would imply that effective rational decision-making is unlikely. However, at present, many proposed models of the regulatory process share similarities with rational models. We suggest enhanced understanding of the decision-making process during self-paced activities is crucial in order to improve the ability to understand regulation of performance and performance outcomes during athletic activity.

  9. Affective judgment and beneficial decision making: ventromedial prefrontal activity correlates with performance in the Iowa Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg; Grimm, Simone; Boeker, Heinz; Schmidt, Conny; Bermpohl, Felix; Heinzel, Alexander; Hell, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Damasio proposes in his somatic marker theory that not only cognitive but also affective components are critical for decision making. Since affective judgment requires an interplay between affective and cognitive components, it might be considered a key process in decision making that has been linked to neural activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the relationship between VMPFC, emotionally (unexpected)- and cognitively (expected)-accentuated affective judgment, and beneficial decision making (Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) in healthy subjects. Neuronal activity in the VMPFC during unexpected affective judgment significantly correlated with both global and final performance in the IGT task. These findings suggest that the degree to which subjects recruit the VMPFC during affective judgment is related to beneficial performance in decision making in gambling.

  10. Hemispheric Activation Differences in Novice and Expert Clinicians during Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Pam; Hecker, Kent G.; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin; Cortese, Filomeno; Doig, Christopher; Beran, Tanya; Wright, Bruce; Krigolson, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision making requires knowledge, experience and analytical/non-analytical types of decision processes. As clinicians progress from novice to expert, research indicates decision-making becomes less reliant on foundational biomedical knowledge and more on previous experience. In this study, we investigated how knowledge and experience…

  11. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  12. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD), which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) without IGD were recruited, and the balloon analog risk task (BART) was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion) on brain activity during risky decision making in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents.

  13. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  14. Make the Most of Play - Tips for Kids to Get Active

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food and Beverage Toolkit Tips to Keep in Mind for Physical Activity Updated:Jun 19,2014 Part ... day. Here are some tips to keep in mind during physical activity: Physical activity is fun! Being ...

  15. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials with activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiruveedhula, V.V.N. Phani Babu; Witzigmann, Christopher M.; Verma, Ranjit; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Rott, Marc; Schwan, William R.; Medina-Bielski, Sara; Lane, Michelle; Close, William; Polanowski, Rebecca L.; Sherman, David; Monte, Aaron; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Cook, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase in bacterial resistance over the last decade along with a dramatic decrease in new treatments for infections has led to problems in the healthcare industry. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths per year. A world-wide threat with HIV co-infected with multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of TB has emerged. In this regard, herein, novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives were synthesized in simple, efficient routes and evaluated as potential agents against several Mycobacterium species. These were synthesized via a stereospecific process for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays indicated that esters 12, 13, and 20 exhibited greater in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis than rifampin, one of the current, first-line anti-mycobacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Based on these studies the acrylic ester 20 has been developed as a potential lead compound which was found to have an MIC value of 0.4 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The SAR and biological activity of this series is presented; a Michael – acceptor mechanism appears to be important for potent activity of this series of analogs. PMID:24200931

  16. Autonomic control network active in Aplysia during locomotion includes neurons that express splice variants of R15-neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; McKay, Natasha; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Koester, John

    2007-01-01

    Splice-variant products of the R15 neuropeptide gene are differentially expressed within the CNS of Aplysia. The goal of this study was to test whether the neurons in the abdominal ganglion that express the peptides encoded by this gene are part of a common circuit. Expression of R15 peptides had been demonstrated previously in neuron R15. Using a combination of immunocytochemical and analytical methods, this study demonstrated that R15 peptides are also expressed in heart exciter neuron RB(HE), the two L9(G) gill motoneurons, and L40--a newly identified interneuron. Mass spectrometric profiling of individual neurons that exhibit R15 peptide-like immunoreactivity confirmed the mutually exclusive expression of two splice-variant forms of R15 peptides in different neurons. The L9(G) cells were found to co-express pedal peptide in addition to the R15 peptides. The R15 peptide-expressing neurons examined here were shown to be part of an autonomic control circuit that is active during fictive locomotion. Activity in this circuit contributes to implementing a central command that may help to coordinate autonomic activity with escape locomotion. Chronic extracellular nerve recording was used to determine the activity patterns of a subset of neurons of this circuit in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using shared patterns of neuropeptide expression as a guide for neural circuit identification.

  17. The Utility of the OMI HCHO and NO2 Data Products in Air Quality Decision- Making Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.

    2010-01-01

    We will present three related air quality applications of the OMI HCHO (formaldehyde) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) data products, which we us to support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. First, we will discuss a novel and practical application of the data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2, which we use as an air quality indicator, may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. Second, we will discuss how we use variations in the OMI HCHO product as a proxy for variability in the biogenic hydrocarbon, isoprene, which is an important player for the formation of high levels of ozone and the dominant source of HCHO in the eastern U.S. Third, we will discuss the variability of NO2 in the U.S. as indicated by the OMI NO2 product. In addition, we will show the impact of the 2005 hurricanes on pollutant emissions, including those associated with the intensive oil extraction and refining activities, in the Gulf of Mexico region using the OMI NO2 product. The variability of HCHO and NO2 as indicated by OMI helps us to understand changes in the OMI HCHO/NO2 and the implications for ozone formation.

  18. Increased activation in the right insula during risk-taking decision making is related to harm avoidance and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Martin P; Rogalsky, Corianne; Simmons, Alan; Feinstein, Justin S; Stein, Murray B

    2003-08-01

    Decision making and risk taking are interrelated processes that are important for daily functioning. The somatic marker hypothesis has provided a conceptual basis for processes involved in risk-taking decision making and has been used to link discrete neural substrates to risk-related behaviors. This investigation examined the hypothesis that the degree of risk-taking is related to the degree of activation in the insular cortex. Seventeen healthy, right-handed subjects performed a risk-taking decision-making task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a fast event-related design. This investigation yielded three main findings. First, right insula (BA 13) activation was significantly stronger when subjects selected a "risky" response versus selecting a "safe" response. Second, the degree of insula activation was related to the probability of selecting a "safe" response following a punished response. Third, the degree of insula activation was related to the subjects' degree of harm avoidance and neuroticism as measured by the TCI and NEO personality questionnaires, respectively. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that insula activation serves as a critical neural substrate to instantiate aversive somatic markers that guide risk-taking decision-making behavior.

  19. An Intramolecular Silylene Borane Capable of Facile Activation of Small Molecules, Including Metal-Free Dehydrogenation of Water.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhenbo; Szilvási, Tibor; Zhou, Yu-Peng; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    The first single-component N-heterocyclic silylene borane 1 (LSi-R-BMes2 ; L=PhC(N(t) Bu)2 ; R=1,12-xanthendiyl spacer; Mes=2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 ), acting as a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) in small-molecule activation, can be synthesized in 65 % yields. Its HOMO is largely localized at the silicon(II) atom and the LUMO has mainly boron 2p character. In small-molecule activation 1 allows access to the intramolecular silanone-borane 3 featuring a Si=O→B interaction through reaction with O2 , N2 O, or CO2 , and formation of silanethione borane 4 from reaction with S8 . The Si(II) center in 1 undergoes immediate hydrogenation if exposed to H2 at 1 atm pressure in benzene, affording the silane borane 5-H2 , L(H2 )Si-R-BMes2 . Remarkably, no H2 activation occurs if the single silylene LSiPh and Mes3 B intermolecularly separated are exposed to dihydrogen. Unexpectedly, the pre-organized Si-B separation in 1 enables a metal-free dehydrogenation of H2 O to give the silanone-borane 3 as reactive intermediate.

  20. Making Pickles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Sarah

    1977-01-01

    Making pickles developed from a laboratory lesson during a unit on solutions, suspensions, acids, and bases. The pickle lab has been used as a summation and application of these topics. Directions for setting up the lab experience and actually making the pickles are included. (MA)

  1. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity: effects on liking and relative reinforcing value of TV and physical activity in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of making access to television (TV) viewing contingent on physical activity on the liking and reinforcing value of TV and attitudes towards physical activity in overweight and obese children. Secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial designed to increase physical activity and reduce TV viewing in 30, 8-12 years old overweight or obese children by making access to TV contingent on physical activity (intervention) or free access to TV (control). Liking of TV and physical activity was measured by a 100 point visual analog scale, while the relative reinforcing value of TV in relation to physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire based on behavioural choice paradigm that provided children an opportunity to work (button presses) to gain access to TV or physical activity according to a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Enjoyment, Adequacy, Predilection and Motivation for physical activity was assessed by self-report questionnaire. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity showed a trend that approached statistical significance towards increased enjoyment of physical activity and did not adversely affect change in the liking or the relative reinforcing value of TV viewing. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity had no adverse effects on the liking or reinforcing value of TV and even showed a suggestive effect of increased enjoyment of physical activity. Thus, given this intervention markedly increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing in overweight and obese children, long-term evaluations of this interventions to assess sustainability of these behavioral changes and associated health benefits are warranted.

  2. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  3. Predicted residual activity of rilpivirine in HIV-1 infected patients failing therapy including NNRTIs efavirenz or nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Theys, K; Camacho, R J; Gomes, P; Vandamme, A M; Rhee, S Y

    2015-06-01

    Rilpivirine is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) currently indicated for first-line therapy, but its clinical benefit for HIV-1 infected patients failing first-generation NNRTIs is largely undefined. This study quantified the extent of genotypic rilpivirine resistance in viral isolates from 1212 patients upon failure of efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing antiretroviral treatment, of whom more than respectively 80% and 90% showed high-level genotypic resistance to the failing NNRTI. Of all study patients, 47% showed a rilpivirine resistance-associated mutation (RPV-RAM), whereas preserved residual rilpivirine activity was predicted in half of the patients by three genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms. An NNRTI-dependent impact on rilpivirine resistance was detected. Compared with the use of nevirapine, the use of efavirenz was associated with a 32% lower risk of having a RPV-RAM and a 50% lower risk of predicted reduced rilpivirine susceptibility. Most prevalent RPV-RAMs after nevirapine experience were Y181C and H221Y, whereas L100I+K103N, Y188L and K101E occurred most in efavirenz-experienced patients. Predicted rilpivirine activity was not affected by HIV-1 subtype, although frequency of individual mutations differed across subtypes. In conclusion, this genotypic resistance analysis strongly suggests that the latest NNRTI, rilpivirine, may retain activity in a large proportion of HIV-1 patients in whom resistance failed while they were on an efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing regimen, and may present an attractive option for second-line treatment given its good safety profile and dosing convenience. However, prospective clinical studies assessing the effectiveness of rilpivirine for NNRTI-experienced patients are warranted to validate knowledge derived from genotypic and phenotypic drug resistance studies.

  4. Effects of invalid feedback on learning and feedback-related brain activity in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Benjamin; Steinhauser, Marco

    2015-10-01

    For adaptive decision-making it is important to utilize only relevant, valid and to ignore irrelevant feedback. The present study investigated how feedback processing in decision-making is impaired when relevant feedback is combined with irrelevant and potentially invalid feedback. We analyzed two electrophysiological markers of feedback processing, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300, in a simple decision-making task, in which participants processed feedback stimuli consisting of relevant and irrelevant feedback provided by the color and meaning of a Stroop stimulus. We found that invalid, irrelevant feedback not only impaired learning, it also altered the amplitude of the P300 to relevant feedback, suggesting an interfering effect of irrelevant feedback on the processing of relevant feedback. In contrast, no such effect on the FRN was obtained. These results indicate that detrimental effects of invalid, irrelevant feedback result from failures of controlled feedback processing.

  5. Mural Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Five articles describe techniques of mural making and mural projects which have been accomplished by elementary and secondary students, including a class of blind and partially sighted children. (SJL)

  6. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  7. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  8. Making the Economic Concept of Scarcity Oh-so-Sweet: An Activity for the K-12 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Melanie; Davis, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The authors outline an innovative activity that helps teachers make the abstract concepts of scarcity and allocation concrete in the K-12 classroom. Students evaluate the scarcity of chocolate and often determine, incorrectly, that the candy is not scarce because there is enough for each student to have one piece. After students reveal their…

  9. T & I--Industrial Sewing. Making Decorative Pillows by Hand. Kit No. 47. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Shelvia

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on making decorative pillows by hand are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (industrial sewing). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational…

  10. Motivational Activities for High School Economics, Keyed to the New York State Syllabus "Economics and Economic Decision Making."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George G.

    This manual provides secondary school teachers with ideas for relating economics to student needs, interests, and experiences. The tentative syllabus "Economics and Economic Decision Making," designed for 12th grade social studies by the New York State Education Department in 1987, is used as a guide. Motivational activities for the 18…

  11. Metal Work--Making a Hanging Basket Bracket. Kit No. 22. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jim

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on making a hanging basket bracket are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (metal work). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  12. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  13. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  14. Making Connections: Language Activities for Creating Interpersonal Tolerance in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Susan; Tannenbaum, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Using communicative activities with learners from diverse cultures can create excitement and empathy while promoting the acquisition of English. This article offers ESL/EFL activities that foster interpersonal tolerance among students who have experienced intergroup conflict. The activities are based on the idea that there are four levels of…

  15. Memory-Based Decision-Making with Heuristics: Evidence for a Controlled Activation of Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khader, Patrick H.; Pachur, Thorsten; Meier, Stefanie; Bien, Siegfried; Jost, Kerstin; Rosler, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Many of our daily decisions are memory based, that is, the attribute information about the decision alternatives has to be recalled. Behavioral studies suggest that for such decisions we often use simple strategies (heuristics) that rely on controlled and limited information search. It is assumed that these heuristics simplify decision-making by…

  16. Collaborative Curriculum Making in the Physical Education Vein: A Narrative Inquiry of Space, Activity and Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cheryl J.; You, JeongAe; Oh, Suhak

    2013-01-01

    Located at the intersection where teaching and curriculum meet, this narrative inquiry examines how collaborative curriculum making unfolded between and among six members of a physical education department in a middle school in the mid-southern USA. The internationally significant work takes the position that long-term relations are prerequisite…

  17. What Makes Lectures "Unmissable"? Insights into Teaching Excellence and Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Andrea; Wainwright, Emma

    2009-01-01

    This research explores "teaching excellence" by examining the perceptions of geography academics and students at Brunel University as to what makes a lecture "unmissable". The findings from 10 interviews with lecturers and five focus groups with undergraduate students suggest that whilst there is probably no such thing as an…

  18. Making It Better: Activities for Children Living in a Stressful World, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehlberg, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Children living with uncertainty and insecurity often have difficulty focusing on learning. They might demonstrate disrespectful or defiant behaviors, act out, or act with aggression. As an educator, you may provide the only stability in their otherwise turbulent world. "Making It Better" explains trauma-­informed education, an approach…

  19. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  20. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  1. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  2. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  3. What makes the political personal? Openness, personal political salience, and activism.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J; Duncan, Lauren E

    2010-06-01

    People who attach personal meaning to social and political events or are high in Personal Political Salience (PPS) are more likely to engage in political activism (Duncan & Stewart, 2007). Although research suggests that PPS is consequential for activism, we know little about its origins or, more generally, about indirect effects of personality on activism. In this study we examined the possibility that the personality trait of Openness to Experience may be one source of PPS and an indirect predictor of activism. In addition, we proposed that Openness would also be directly related to political activism in young adults but not in middle-aged and older adults. Analyses confirmed these predictions in cross-sectional and over-time data from six samples. We argue that Openness may predispose some individuals both to find personal meaning in distant political events and to engage in social activism in their youth.

  4. Fun, Flow, and Fitness: Opinions for Making More Effective Active Videogames.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Ann E; Mellecker, Robin; Buday, Richard; Gao, Zan; Hinkley, Trina; Esparza, Laura; Alexander, Shirley

    2015-02-01

    Despite active videogames' popularity and ability to increase a player's energy expenditure, research indicates their use sharply declines over time, which limits their utility in promoting physical activity. A frequent criticism is that a player's interest is quickly exhausted. At the preconference of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014, a group of investigators and videogame developers gathered to share lessons learned from using serious videogames in health behavior change and offer insight to guide future efforts.

  5. Fun, Flow, and Fitness: Opinions for Making More Effective Active Videogames

    PubMed Central

    Mellecker, Robin; Buday, Richard; Gao, Zan; Hinkley, Trina; Esparza, Laura; Alexander, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite active videogames' popularity and ability to increase a player's energy expenditure, research indicates their use sharply declines over time, which limits their utility in promoting physical activity. A frequent criticism is that a player's interest is quickly exhausted. At the preconference of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014, a group of investigators and videogame developers gathered to share lessons learned from using serious videogames in health behavior change and offer insight to guide future efforts. PMID:26181681

  6. The Object of Activity: Making Sense of the Sense-Maker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaptelinin, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The concept of "the object of activity" plays a key role in research based on activity theory. However, the usefulness of this concept is somewhat undermined by the fact that a number of problems related to its meaning and its contexts of use remain unsolved. This article is an attempt to address some of these problems. The article focuses on 3…

  7. How Do Small Things Make a Big Difference? Activities to Teach about Human-Microbe Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Chandana; Hug, Barbara; Waters, Jillian L.; Whitaker, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent scientific studies are providing increasing evidence for how microbes living in and on us are essential to our good health. However, many students still think of microbes only as germs that harm us. The classroom activities presented here are designed to shift student thinking on this topic. In these guided inquiry activities, students…

  8. Process, Goal and Social Interaction Differences in Recreation: What Makes an Activity Substitutable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Robert; Heberlein, Thomas A.

    Two recreational activities, deer hunting and goose hunting, both similar in form, are compared. It was hypothesized that the activity for which participants rated the process, the goal, and the social interaction as most important to the experience and for which participants showed the strongest family ties and social support for participation…

  9. Effect of the Heat-exposure on Peripheral Sudomotor Activity Including the Density of Active Sweat Glands and Single Sweat Gland Output.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2010-10-01

    Tropical inhabitants are able to tolerate heat through permanent residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. The goal of this study was to clarify the peripheral mechanisms involved in thermal sweating pre and post exposure (heat-acclimatization over 10 days) by studying the sweating responses to acetylcholine (ACh), a primary neurotransmitter of sudomotor activity, in healthy subjects (n=12). Ten percent ACh was administered on the inner forearm skin for iontophoresis. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing, after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with ACH, was performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, as well as oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The post exposure activity had a short onset time (p<0.01), higher active sweat rate [(AXR (p<0.001) and DIR (p<0.001)], higher sweat output per gland (p<0.001) and higher transepidermal water loss (p<0.001) compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The activated sweat rate in the sudomotor activity increased the output for post-exposure compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The results suggested that post-exposure activity showed a higher active sweat gland output due to the combination of a higher AXR (DIR) sweat rate and a shorter onset time. Therefore, higher sudomotor responses to ACh receptors indicate accelerated sympathetic nerve responsiveness to ACh sensitivity by exposure to environmental conditions.

  10. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  11. Making an Impact with Public Outreach Activities on Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, V.; Gurton, S.; Berendsen, M.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Night Sky Network is a collaboration of close to 350 astronomy clubs across the US that actively engage in public outreach within their communities. Since 2004, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific has been creating outreach ToolKits filled with carefully crafted sets of physical materials designed to help these volunteer clubs explain the wonders of the night sky to the public. The effectiveness of the ToolKit activities and demonstrations is the direct result of a thorough testing and vetting process. Find out how this iterative assessment process can help other programs create useful tools for both formal and informal educators. The current Space Rocks Outreach ToolKit focuses on explaining asteroids, comets, and meteorites to the general public using quick, big-picture activities that get audiences involved. Eight previous ToolKits cover a wide range of topics from the Moon to black holes. In each case, amateur astronomers and the public helped direct the development the activities along the way through surveys, focus groups, and active field-testing. The resulting activities have been embraced by the larger informal learning community and are enthusiastically being delivered to millions of people across the US and around the world. Each ToolKit is delivered free of charge to active Night Sky Network astronomy clubs. All activity write-ups are available free to download at the website listed here. Amateur astronomers receive frequent questions from the public about Earth impacts, meteors, and comets so this set of activities will help them explain the dynamics of these phenomena to the public. The Space Rocks ToolKit resources complement the Great Balls of Fire museum exhibit produced by Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning and scheduled for release in 2011. NSF has funded this national traveling exhibition and outreach ToolKit under Grant DRL-0813528.

  12. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park is important because of its diversity of life on the surface and underground. Some of the plants in the park include trees such as oaks, hickories, tulip poplars, sycamores, and many types of bushes. The animal population is also very diverse and includes bats, squirrels, deer, raccoons, opossums, chipmunks,…

  13. The Utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 in Air Quality Decision-Making Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss a novel and practical application of the OMI HCHU and NO2 data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. In addition, the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may be used to define new emission control strategies as the photochemical environments of urban areas evolve over time. I will demonstrate the utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 over the U.S. for air quality applications with support from simulations with both a regional model and a photochemical box model. These results support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. However, I'm attending the meeting as the Aura Deputy Project Scientist, so I don't technically need to present anything to justify the travel.

  14. Memory in the making: localized brain activation related to song learning in young songbirds.

    PubMed

    Gobes, Sharon M H; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2010-11-07

    Songbird males learn to sing their songs from an adult 'tutor' early in life, much like human infants learn to speak. Similar to humans, in the songbird brain there are separate neural substrates for vocal production and for auditory memory. In adult songbirds, the caudal pallium, the avian equivalent of the auditory association cortex, has been proposed to contain the neural substrate of tutor song memory, while the song system is involved in song production as well as sensorimotor learning. If this hypothesis is correct, there should be neuronal activation in the caudal pallium, and not in the song system, while the young bird is hearing the tutor song. We found increased song-induced molecular neuronal activation, measured as the expression of an immediate early gene, in the caudal pallium of juvenile zebra finch males that were in the process of learning to sing their songs. No such activation was found in the song system. Molecular neuronal activation was significantly greater in response to tutor song than to novel song or silence in the medial part of the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). In the caudomedial mesopallium, there was significantly greater molecular neuronal activation in response to tutor song than to silence. In addition, in the NCM there was a significant positive correlation between spontaneous molecular neuronal activation and the strength of song learning during sleep. These results suggest that the caudal pallium contains the neural substrate for tutor song memory, which is activated during sleep when the young bird is in the process of learning its song. The findings provide insight into the formation of auditory memories that guide vocal production learning, a process fundamental for human speech acquisition.

  15. Macrophages make me sick: how macrophage activation states influence sickness behavior.

    PubMed

    Moon, Morgan L; McNeil, Leslie K; Freund, Gregory G

    2011-11-01

    The macrophage (MΦ) is an essential cellular first responder in the innate immune system, sensing, alerting, removing and destroying intrinsic and extrinsic pathogens. While congenital aplasia of granulocytes, T or B lymphocytes leads to serious disease, lack of MΦs is incompatible with life. The MΦ, however, is not a monomorphic entity. These constructers, repairers and defenders of the body are diverse in form and function. What controls MΦ phenotype is beginning to be understood and involves a complex interplay of origination, location and microenvironment. Common to all MΦ developmental pathways are pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. MΦs respond to these bioactives in distinct ways developing recently recognized activation phenotypes that canonically support bacterial clearance (classical activation), parasite defense/tissue repair (alternative activation) and anti-inflammation (deactivation). Critically, the same cytokines which orchestrate immune defense and homeostasis dramatically impact sense of well being and cognition by eliciting sickness symptoms. Such behaviors are the manifestation of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine action in the brain and are a direct consequence of MΦ function. This review describes the "new" archetypal MΦ activation states, delineates microglia phenotypic plasticity and explores the importance of these macrophage activation states to sickness behavior.

  16. Making the Right Moves: Promoting Smart Growth and Active Aging in Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes an award program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for excellence in smart growth and active aging. Having examined qualitative and quantitative data, we suggest that any community can foster changes to improve the health and well-being ...

  17. Teaching and Learning Activities in Chilean Classrooms: Is ICT Making a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinostroza, J. Enrique; Labbe, Christian; Brun, Mario; Matamala, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of teaching and learning activities in state subsidized schools in Chile. The study is based on the data collected through a national survey applied to all state subsidized schools (census) and a sample of private schools and examines teachers' and students' reported teaching and learning activities…

  18. Making Online Instruction Count: Statistical Reporting of Web-Based Library Instruction Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Tim; Todd, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Statistical reporting of library instruction (LI) activities has historically focused on measures relevant to face-to-face (F2F) settings. However, newer forms of LI conducted in the online realm may be difficult to count in traditional ways, leading to inaccurate reporting to both internal and external stakeholders. A thorough literature review…

  19. Inverting Instruction in Literacy Methods Courses: Making Learning More Active and Personalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawilinski, Lisa M.; Richard, Kimberly A.; Henry, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Three teacher educators who inverted/flipped instruction in their literacy courses describe their experience in this article. Inverted, or flipped, instruction is a blended learning approach that increases opportunities for active engagement in class by moving basic instructor demonstration and presentation outside of class. The authors provide a…

  20. Can the Wisdom of Aging Be Activated and Make a Difference Societally?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Jeanine M.; Rebok, George W.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Fried, Linda P.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Tan, Erwin J.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Piferi, Rachel L.

    2009-01-01

    The Experience Corps[R], a community-based intergenerational program, was developed to promote the health of older adults while simultaneously addressing unmet social and academic needs in public elementary schools. The model was designed to draw on, and potentially activate, the wisdom of older adults. This paper explores the nature of…

  1. US Activities in Making Life Cycle Inventory Data More Available to Users

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demand for LCA studies continues to grow, although, the lack of reliable, transparent Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data is hampering the wide-spread application of LCA. This paper will present activities related to the development and accessibility of process LCI data in the U...

  2. Making Physics Fun: Key Concepts, Classroom Activities, and Everyday Examples, Grades K-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigo, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Teaching physical science in the elementary and middle grades can be challenging for busy teachers faced with growing science demands and limited classroom resources. Robert Prigo provides fun and engaging activities using safe, available materials that educators can easily incorporate into lesson plans. Extensive examples, sample inquiry…

  3. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  4. What Makes the Muscle Twitch: Motor System Connectivity and TMS-Induced Activity.

    PubMed

    Volz, Lukas J; Hamada, Masashi; Rothwell, John C; Grefkes, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) evokes several volleys of corticospinal activity. While the earliest wave (D-wave) originates from axonal activation of cortico-spinal neurons (CSN), later waves (I-waves) result from activation of mono- and polysynaptic inputs to CSNs. Different coil orientations preferentially stimulate cortical elements evoking different outputs: latero-medial-induced current (LM) elicits D-waves and short-latency electromyographic responses (MEPs); posterior-anterior current (PA) evokes early I-waves. Anterior-posterior current (AP) is more variable and tends to recruit later I-waves, featuring longer onset latencies compared with PA-TMS. We tested whether the variability in response to AP-TMS was related to functional connectivity of the stimulated M1 in 20 right-handed healthy subjects who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an isometric contraction task. The MEP-latency after AP-TMS (relative to LM-TMS) was strongly correlated with functional connectivity between the stimulated M1 and a network involving cortical premotor areas. This indicates that stronger premotor-M1 connectivity increases the probability that AP-TMS recruits shorter latency input to CSNs. In conclusion, our data strongly support the hypothesis that TMS of M1 activates distinct neuronal pathways depending on the orientation of the stimulation coil. Particularly, AP currents seem to recruit short latency cortico-cortical projections from premotor areas.

  5. Using a Meta-Analysis Activity to Make Critical Reflection Explicit in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, M.; Lawson, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how the development of critical reflection in student teachers has been made an explicit part of a teacher education programme. Using a rubric presented by Ward and McCotter, (2004) and supported by an online discussion forum, the rubric was used in a meta-analysis activity where students identified the quality of critical…

  6. Choice-Making in Vocational Activities Planning: Recommendations from Job Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobigo, Virginie; Lachapelle, Yves; Morin, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Choice in the job seeking process may lead to increased satisfaction with the chosen job, and improve attention, performance, and motivation. Consequently, providing opportunities to express choices and interests while planning vocational activities is a key factor in achieving employment outcomes. Despite their commitment to promoting…

  7. Call to Action on Making Physical Activity Assessment and Prescription a Medical Standard of Care.

    PubMed

    Sallis, Robert E; Matuszak, Jason M; Baggish, Aaron L; Franklin, Barry A; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Fletcher, Barbara J; Gregory, Andrew; Joy, Elizabeth; Matheson, Gordon; McBride, Patrick; Puffer, James C; Trilk, Jennifer; Williams, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. population is plagued by physical inactivity, lack of cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary lifestyles, all of which are strongly associated with the emerging epidemic of chronic disease. The time is right to incorporate physical activity assessment and promotion into health care in a manner that engages clinicians and patients. In April 2015, the American College of Sports Medicine and Kaiser Permanente convened a joint consensus meeting of subject matter experts from stakeholder organizations to discuss the development and implementation of a physical activity vital sign (PAVS) to be obtained and recorded at every medical visit for every patient. This statement represents a summary of the discussion, recommendations, and next steps developed during the consensus meeting. Foremost, it is a "call to action" for current and future clinicians and the health care community to implement a PAVS in daily practice with every patient.

  8. The endocrine activity of beef cattle wastes: do growth-promoting steroids make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sellin, Marlo K; Snow, Daniel D; Gustafson, Sarah T; Erickson, Galen E; Kolok, Alan S

    2009-05-17

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the endocrine activity of wastes from trenbolone acetate:estradiol (TBA:E)-implanted steers to that of wastes from unimplanted steers. To accomplish this, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to urine or fecal slurry from TBA:E-implanted or unimplanted steers for 7 days. Following exposures, hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA expression and secondary sexual characteristics were assessed. Among both males and females, there were no differences in vtg mRNA expression between fish exposed to urine from implanted or unimplanted steers at any of the concentrations tested. Furthermore, concentrations of steroid hormones in the urine of implanted and unimplanted steers were similar. These findings indicate a lack of differences in the endocrine activity of urine from TBA:E-implanted and unimplanted steers. With regard to the fecal slurry exposures, there were no significant differences in vtg mRNA expression among females from any of the groups; however, significant differences in male vtg mRNA expression were detected. Specifically, males exposed to 1600 mg dry feces/L from implanted cattle experienced an 840-fold increase in vtg mRNA expression relative to both unexposed males and males exposed to the corresponding fecal concentration from unimplanted steers. These males also appeared to experience a reduction in male secondary sexual characteristics. These findings suggest that steroids associated with the wastes from TBA:E-implanted steers have both feminizing and demasculinizing effects on male fish. Furthermore, these effects are most likely due to the presence of estrogenic compounds, which were detected in the liquid portion of the fecal slurry from TBA:E-implanted steers, but not in that of unimplanted steers. The findings of this study indicate the presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in the urine and feces of cattle and suggest that the implant history of cattle alters the endocrine activity of

  9. Antifungal activity of sourdough fermented wheat germ used as an ingredient for bread making.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cassone, Angela; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of sourdough fermented (Lactobacillus plantarum LB1 and Lactobacillus rossiae LB5) wheat germ (SFWG). Preliminarily, methanol and water/salt-soluble extracts from SFWG were assayed by agar diffusion towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the water/salt-soluble extract showed the inhibition of various fungi isolated from bakeries. The antifungal activity was attributed to a mixture of organic acids and peptides which were synthesized during fermentation. Formic (24.7mM) acid showed the highest antifungal activity. Four peptides, having similarities with well known antifungal sequences, were identified and chemically synthesized. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 2.5-15.2mg/ml. Slices of bread made by addition of 4% (wt/wt) of freeze dried SFWG were packed in polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature. Slices did not show contamination by fungi until at least 28days of storage and behaved as the calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt).

  10. Preparation of Granular Red Mud Adsorbent using Different Binders by Microwave Pore - Making and Activation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thiquynhxuan; Wang, Hanrui; Ju, Shaohua; Peng, Jinhui; Zhou, Liexing; Wang, Shixing; Yin, Shaohua; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    In this work, microwave energy is used for preparing a granular red mud (GRM) adsorbent made of red mud with different binders, such as starch, sodium silicate and cement. The effects of the preparation parameters, such as binder type, binder addition ratio, microwave heating temperature, microwave power and holding time, on the absorption property of GRM are investigated. The BET surface area, strength, pore structure, XRD and SEM of the GRM absorbent are analyzed. The results show that the microwave roasting has a good effect on pore-making of GRM, especially when using organic binder. Both the BET surface area and the strength of GRM obtained by microwave heating are significantly higher than that by conventional heating. The optimum conditions are obtained as follows: 6:100 (w/w) of starch to red mud ratio, microwave roasting with a power of 2.6 kW at 500℃ for holding time of 30 min. The BET surface area, pore volume and average pore diameter of GRM prepared at the optimum conditions are 15.58 m2/g, 0.0337 cm3/g and 3.1693 A0, respectively.

  11. An Embodied Approach to Understanding: Making Sense of the World Through Simulated Bodily Activity

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Firat

    2016-01-01

    Even though understanding is a very widely used concept, both colloquially and in scholarly work, its definition is nebulous and it is not well-studied as a psychological construct, compared to other psychological constructs like learning and memory. Studying understanding based on third-person (e.g., behavioral, neuroimaging) data alone presents unique challenges. Understanding refers to a first-person experience of making sense of an event or a conceptual domain, and therefore requires incorporation of multiple levels of study, at the first-person (phenomenological), behavioral, and neural levels. Previously, psychological understanding was defined as a form of conscious knowing. Alternatively, biofunctional approach extends to unconscious, implicit, automatic, and intuitive aspects of cognition. Here, to bridge these two approaches an embodied and evolutionary perspective is provided to situate biofunctional understanding in theories of embodiment, and to discuss how simulation theories of cognition, which regard simulation of sensorimotor and affective states as a central tenet of cognition, can bridge the gap between biofunctional and psychological understanding. PMID:27999558

  12. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiping; Lester, Robert L; Dickson, Robert C

    2005-06-17

    The Pkh1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes. Phytosphingosine (PHS), a sphingoid long chain base, is hypothesized to be a lipid activator of Pkh1 and thereby controls the activity of Ypk1/2. Here we present biochemical evidence supporting this hypothesis, and in addition we demonstrate that PHS also stimulates autophosphorylation and activation of Ypk1/2. Greatest stimulation of Ypk1/2 phosphorylation and activity are achieved by inclusion of both PHS and Pkh1 in an in vitro kinase reaction. We also demonstrate for the first time that Pkh1 phosphorylates the Sch9 protein kinase in vitro and that such phosphorylation is stimulated by PHS. This is the first biochemical demonstration of Sch9 activators, and the results further support roles for long chain bases in heat stress resistance in addition to implying roles in chronological aging and cell size determination, since Sch9 functions in these processes. Thus, our data support a model in which PHS, rather than simply being an upstream activator of Pkh1, also activates kinases that are downstream targets of Pkh1 including Ypk1/2 and Sch9.

  13. Making Glasses Conduct: Electrochemical Doping of Redox-Active Polymer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudouris, Bryan

    Optoelectronically-active macromolecules have been established as promising materials in myriad organic electronic applications (e.g., organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices). To date, however, the majority of the work surrounding these materials has focused on materials with a great deal of conjugation along their macromolecular backbones and with varying degrees of crystalline structure. Here, we describe an emerging class of macromolecular charge conductors, radical polymers, that: (1) do not contain conjugation and (2) are completely amorphous glasses. Radical polymers contain non-conjugated macromolecular backbones and stable radical sites along the side chains of the electronically-active materials. In contrast to conjugated polymer systems, these materials conduct charge in the solid state through oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions along these pendant groups. Specifically, we demonstrate that controlling the chemical functionality of the pendant groups and the molecular mobility of the macromolecular backbones significantly impacts the charge transport ability of the pristine (i.e., not doped) radical polymers species. Through proper control of these crucial parameters, we show that radical polymers can have electrical conductivity and charge mobility values on par with commonly-used conjugated polymers. Importantly, we also highlight the ability to dope radical polymers with redox-active small molecule species. This doping, in turn, increases the electrical conductivity of the glassy radical polymer thin films in a manner akin to what is observed in traditional conjugated polymer systems. In this way, we establish a means by which to fabricate optically-transparent and colorless thin film glasses capable of conducting charge in a rather rapid manner. We anticipate that these fundamental insights will prove crucial in developing new transparent conducting layers for future electronic applications.

  14. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to illustrate a process of making connections, not between mathematics and other activities, but within mathematics itself--between diverse parts of the subject. Novel connections are still possible in previously explored mathematics when the material happens to be unfamiliar, as may be the case for a learner at any career stage.…

  15. When your friends make you cringe: social closeness modulates vicarious embarrassment-related neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Rademacher, Lena; Paulus, Frieder M.

    2016-01-01

    Social closeness is a potent moderator of vicarious affect and specifically vicarious embarrassment. The neural pathways of how social closeness to another person affects our experience of vicarious embarrassment for the other’s public flaws, failures and norm violations are yet unknown. To bridge this gap, we examined the neural response of participants while witnessing threats to either a friend’s or a stranger’s social integrity. The results show consistent responses of the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), shared circuits of the aversive quality of affect, as well as the medial prefrontal cortex and temporal pole, central structures of the mentalizing network. However, the ACC/AI network activation was increased during vicarious embarrassment in response to a friend’s failures. At the same time, the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-related thoughts, showed a specific activation and an increase in functional connectivity with the shared circuits in the frontal lobe while observing friends. This might indicate a neural systems mechanism for greater affective sharing and self-involvement while people interact with close others that are relevant to oneself. PMID:26516170

  16. Decision making and action implementation: evidence for an early visually triggered motor activation specific to potential actions.

    PubMed

    Tandonnet, Christophe; Garry, Michael I; Summers, Jeffery J

    2013-07-01

    To make a decision may rely on accumulating evidence in favor of one alternative until a threshold is reached. Sequential-sampling models differ by the way of accumulating evidence and the link with action implementation. Here, we tested a model's prediction of an early action implementation specific to potential actions. We assessed the dynamics of action implementation in go/no-go and between-hand choice tasks by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (single- or paired-pulse TMS; 3-ms interstimulus interval). Prior to implementation of the selected action, the amplitude of the motor evoked potential first increased whatever the visual stimulus but only for the hand potentially involved in the to-be-produced action. These findings suggest that visual stimuli can trigger an early motor activation specific to potential actions, consistent with race-like models with continuous transmission between decision making and action implementation.

  17. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  18. Situated meaning-making of the human body: a study of elementary school children's reasons in two different activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Mattias; Jakobson, Britt

    2014-03-01

    In this text we compare children's expressions in drawings to their statements during interviews, for the purpose of understanding how different situations afford children to make meaning. In specific we study how two different activities interact and afford children to make meaning differently about the human body. The analytic attention is drawn to the meaning-making the children made as they in pairs were asked to explain the body drawings that they did prior to the interviews. Meaning-making was studied by using a practical epistemology analysis, an analysis facilitating understanding of how relations are established in a developing conversation, and more generally providing understanding from a child perspective. The results indicate that several reasons are at hand for children in the two different situations; namely, social, artistic, practical, empirical and memory reasons are identified. Social reasons refer to statements belonging to the social context and items that were described as inappropriate to express. Artistic reasons were interpreted from aesthetic judgements, referring to the artistic quality of the drawing. Practical reasons were given in situations where children expressed, for example, that the space limited their opportunities to draw. Empirical reasons are built on children's statements referring to picture items that are identified by pointing or touching their own body. Memory reasons are involved in all the situations where children explained items were previously omitted, because the body part had been temporarily forgotten. Furthermore, we suggest that children interpret situational aspects and make judgements concerning the relevance of their different reasons. By these means we hope to facilitate children's understanding of interview questions and also to improve researchers' understanding of children's ability to grasp relevant details prior to their response (or participation).

  19. Making Personalized Health Care Even More Personalized: Insights From Activities of the IOM Genomics Roundtable.

    PubMed

    David, Sean P; Johnson, Samuel G; Berger, Adam C; Feero, W Gregory; Terry, Sharon F; Green, Larry A; Phillips, Robert L; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Genomic research has generated much new knowledge into mechanisms of human disease, with the potential to catalyze novel drug discovery and development, prenatal and neonatal screening, clinical pharmacogenomics, more sensitive risk prediction, and enhanced diagnostics. Genomic medicine, however, has been limited by critical evidence gaps, especially those related to clinical utility and applicability to diverse populations. Genomic medicine may have the greatest impact on health care if it is integrated into primary care, where most health care is received and where evidence supports the value of personalized medicine grounded in continuous healing relationships. Redesigned primary care is the most relevant setting for clinically useful genomic medicine research. Taking insights gained from the activities of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health, we apply lessons learned from the patient-centered medical home national experience to implement genomic medicine in a patient-centered, learning health care system.

  20. Electrodes made with disordered active material and methods of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Keem, J.E.; Bergeron, R.C.; Custer, R.C.; McCallum, R.W.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes a hydrogen storage electrode for an alkaline hydrogen storage electrochemical cell comprising at least one solid, metallic, amorphous electrochemically active body, capable of being self-supporting and formed by rapid solidification from a melt thereby having a non-particulate, dimensionally anisotropic shape characterized by a continuous amorphous structure throughout. The body has a composition comprising at least three elements, the three elements comprising titanium, nickel and at least one element selected from the group consisting of aluminum, boron, chromium, cobalt, hafnium, indium, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, niobium, palladium, tin, zirconium and rare earth metals. Each of the elements is preset in an effective amount so that the electrode is capable of being electrochemically charged with hydrogen to store energy and capable of electrochemically discharging hydrogen and releasing energy, while maintaining its structural integrity during electrochemical charge and discharge cycles.

  1. Differential activation of the striatum for decision making and outcomes in a monetary task with gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ino, Tadashi; Nakai, Ryusuke; Azuma, Takashi; Kimura, Toru; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-01-01

    We examined brain activation for decision making and for different monetary outcomes in a two-alternative choice task with monetary rewards and punishments. Brain hemodynamic changes were monitored by functional MRI (fMRI) when seventeen healthy volunteers performed a task in which they were required to press one of two buttons (button 1 or 2) which increased or decreased their previously endowed money depending upon accord or disaccord with the number (1 or 2) which was displayed later. The amount of money subjects gained or lost was large when they selected 2 and small when they selected 1. They were informed in advance that the order of the appearance of 1 or 2 at outcome phase was predetermined and random, irrespective of their selection, and that the expected value was mathematically zero for both selecting 1 and 2. Results of fMRI showed that bilateral putamen and nucleus accumbens were more activated when selecting large gain or loss option than selecting small gain or loss option, and the right putamen and nucleus accumbens were more activated for gain outcome than for loss outcome. No significantly different activation of the striatum was found between large gain outcome and small gain outcome, suggesting that activity of the striatum at outcome phase was insensitive for reward magnitude when expectation by subject was already performed. We also found that activations of the bilateral putamen were correlated parametrically with stock amount of money.

  2. Activation during the Trail Making Test measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Katja; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Haeussinger, Florian B; Heinzel, Sebastian; Dresler, Thomas; Mueller, Laura D; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Metzger, Florian G

    2014-01-15

    Cognitive decline is very common in age and particularly in subjects with neurodegenerative conditions. Besides memory and language, executive functions are very often affected in elderly and patients with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. However, the neural alterations associated with these executive deficits are still not fully understood. Therefore, we measured cortical activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in 16 healthy elderly subjects (50-75 years) performing the Trail Making Test (TMT), a widely used neuropsychological instrument measuring executive function. In line with previous studies focusing on younger subjects, the results showed frontal activation during the TMT A and the TMT B in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the frontopolar area and also Broca's area. Furthermore, significant activation in the left motor, somatosensory cortices and somatosensory association cortices was demonstrated. Additionally, after a median split the differences between younger (<58 years) and older (>58 years) subjects were analyzed with the older subjects showing a less focused prefrontal activation. Altogether, fNIRS was found to be suitable to detect cortical activation in elderly subjects during performance of the TMT as well as aging-related differences in prefrontal activation topography. These neural correlates of executive functions should be further investigated as a potential prodromal neural marker of executive deficits and neurodegenerative processes.

  3. The method of subliminal psychodynamic activation: do individual thresholds make a difference?

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Paraherakis, A; Joseph, S; Ladd, H

    1996-12-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of subliminal psychodynamic stimuli on anxiety as measured by heart rate. Following an anxiety-inducing task, male and female subjects were tachistoscopically shown, at their subjective thresholds, one of five subliminal stimuli, MOMMY AND I ARE ONE, DADDY AND I ARE ONE (symbiotic messages). MOMMY HAS LEFT ME (abandonment message), I AM HAPPY AND CALM (positively toned but nonsymbiotic phrase), or MYMMO NAD I REA ENO (control stimulus). It was hypothesized that men would exhibit a greater decrease in heart rate after exposure to the MOMMY stimulus than the control message. No definitive predictions were made for women. The abandonment phrase was expected to increase heart rate. A positively toned message was included to assess whether its effects would be comparable to those hypothesized for the MOMMY message. The results yielded no significant effects for stimulus or gender and so provided no support for the hypotheses.

  4. Activation of the DLPFC Reveals an Asymmetric Effect in Risky Decision Making: Evidence from a tDCS Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Daqiang; Chen, Shu; Wang, Siqi; Shi, Jinchuan; Ye, Hang; Luo, Jun; Zheng, Haoli

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of loss aversion (the tendency for losses to have a greater impact than comparable gains) has long been observed in daily life. Neurocognitive studies and brain imaging studies have shed light on the correlation between the phenomenon of loss aversion and the brain region of the prefrontal cortex. Recent brain stimulation studies using bilateral transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have obtained various results showing the causal relationship between brain regions and decision making. With the goal of studying whether unilateral stimulation can change participants’ risky decision making in the frames of gains and losses, we applied different polarities of tDCS over the regions of the right or left prefrontal cortex. We also designed a risk measurement table (Multiple Price List) to reflect the participants’ attitudes toward risky decision making via the crossover point including the frames of gains and losses. The results of our experiment indicated that the participants tended to be more risk averse in the gain frame after receiving left anodal tDCS and more risk seeking in the loss frame after receiving right cathodal tDCS, which was consistent with the hypothesis that the process of risky decision making was correlated with the interaction of multiple systems in the brain. Our conclusion revealed an asymmetric effect of right/left DLPFC when the participants faced gains and losses, which partially provided the neural evidence and a feasible paradigm to help better understand risky decision making and loss aversion. The current study can not only expand the traditional understanding of the behavioral preferences of humans in economics but also accommodate empirical observations of behavioral economists on the preferences of humans. PMID:28174549

  5. Activation of the DLPFC Reveals an Asymmetric Effect in Risky Decision Making: Evidence from a tDCS Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Daqiang; Chen, Shu; Wang, Siqi; Shi, Jinchuan; Ye, Hang; Luo, Jun; Zheng, Haoli

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of loss aversion (the tendency for losses to have a greater impact than comparable gains) has long been observed in daily life. Neurocognitive studies and brain imaging studies have shed light on the correlation between the phenomenon of loss aversion and the brain region of the prefrontal cortex. Recent brain stimulation studies using bilateral transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have obtained various results showing the causal relationship between brain regions and decision making. With the goal of studying whether unilateral stimulation can change participants' risky decision making in the frames of gains and losses, we applied different polarities of tDCS over the regions of the right or left prefrontal cortex. We also designed a risk measurement table (Multiple Price List) to reflect the participants' attitudes toward risky decision making via the crossover point including the frames of gains and losses. The results of our experiment indicated that the participants tended to be more risk averse in the gain frame after receiving left anodal tDCS and more risk seeking in the loss frame after receiving right cathodal tDCS, which was consistent with the hypothesis that the process of risky decision making was correlated with the interaction of multiple systems in the brain. Our conclusion revealed an asymmetric effect of right/left DLPFC when the participants faced gains and losses, which partially provided the neural evidence and a feasible paradigm to help better understand risky decision making and loss aversion. The current study can not only expand the traditional understanding of the behavioral preferences of humans in economics but also accommodate empirical observations of behavioral economists on the preferences of humans.

  6. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    Electric power has been traditionally supplied to customers at regulated rates by vertically integrated utilities (VIUs), which own generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, the regulatory authorities of VIUs are promoting competition in their businesses to lower the price of electric energy. Consequently, in new deregulated circumstances, many suppliers and marketers compete in the generation market, and conflict of interest may often occur over transmission. Therefore, a neutral entity, called an independent system operator (ISO), which operates the power system independently, has been established to give market participants nondiscriminatory access to transmission sectors with a natural monopoly, and to facilitate competition in generation sectors. Several types of ISOs are established at present, with their respective regions and authorities. The ISO receives many requests from market participants to transfer power, and must evaluate the feasibility of their requests under the system's condition. In the near future, regulatory authorities may impose various objectives on the ISOs. Then, based on the regulators' policies, the ISO must determine the optimal schedules from feasible solutions, or change the market participants' requests. In a newly developed power market, market participants will conduct their transactions in order to maximize their profit. The most crucial information in conducting power transactions is price and demand. A direct transaction between suppliers and consumers may become attractive because of its stability of price, while in a power exchange market, gaming and speculation of participants may push up electricity prices considerably. To assist the consumers in making effective decisions, suitable methods for forecasting volatile market price are necessary. This research has been approached from three viewpoints: Firstly, from the system operator's point of view, desirable system operation and power market structure

  7. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18–19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  8. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    SciTech Connect

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J.; Schweitzer, M.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  9. Can iron-making and steelmaking slag products be used to sequester CO2? Passive weathering and active carbonation experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Dobrzański, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The high calcium content of iron and steel-making slags has been highlighted as providing a suitable feedstock material and medium with which to sequester CO2 into geologically stable carbonate phases. Optimisation of the natural carbonation process provides the potential for increasing the degree of carbonation above that possible via passive weathering. This study has assessed the baseline passive carbonation potential of several different slag products (graded steel slag aggregate, pellite, GBFS) within the climate of the northern UK. This baseline was then used as a comparison to the carbonation values achieved by the same products when actively reacted in a CO2-rich environment. The active carbonation phase of the project involved a factorial experimental study of materials reacted at 1MPa/10MPa CO2 pressure and 25˚C/125˚C. This study has shown: 1) That active carbonation of these products can successfully sequester additional CO2. 2) Carbonation potential in general is highly dependent upon grain size within material types, 3) There is a material-dependant cost-benefit issue when using different active carbonation conditions as well as the choice to use active vs. passive carbonation. The median sequestration potential of the slag products in this study is equivalent to the total emissions from 910 people from the UK; the CO2 emissions from 10000 tonnes of cement production; or 340000 tonnes of steel production.

  10. Activator-inhibitor coupling between Rho signaling and actin assembly make the cell cortex an excitable medium

    PubMed Central

    Bement, William M.; Leda, Marcin; Moe, Alison M.; Kita, Angela M.; Larson, Matthew E.; Golding, Adriana E.; Pfeuti, Courtney; Su, Kuan-Chung; Miller, Ann L.; Goryachev, Andrew B.; von Dassow, George

    2016-01-01

    Animal cell cytokinesis results from patterned activation of the small GTPase Rho, which directs assembly of actomyosin in the equatorial cortex. Cytokinesis is restricted to a portion of the cell cycle following anaphase onset in which the cortex is responsive to signals from the spindle. We show that shortly after anaphase onset oocytes and embryonic cells of frogs and echinoderms exhibit cortical waves of Rho activity and F-actin polymerization. The waves are modulated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity and require the Rho GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor), Ect2. Surprisingly, during wave propagation, while Rho activity elicits F-actin assembly, F-actin subsequently inactivates Rho. Experimental and modeling results show that waves represent excitable dynamics of a reaction diffusion system with Rho as the activator and F-actin the inhibitor. We propose that cortical excitability explains fundamental features of cytokinesis including its cell cycle regulation. PMID:26479320

  11. Decision making.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.

  12. Increased ventral-striatal activity during monetary decision making is a marker of problem poker gambling severity.

    PubMed

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; He, Qinghua; Melrose, James A; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different neural systems on monetary decision making in frequent poker gamblers, who vary in their degree of problem gambling. Fifteen frequent poker players, ranging from non-problem to high-problem gambling, and 15 non-gambler controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). During IGT deck selection, between-group fMRI analyses showed that frequent poker gamblers exhibited higher ventral-striatal but lower dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal activations as compared with controls. Moreover, using functional connectivity analyses, we observed higher ventral-striatal connectivity in poker players, and in regions involved in attentional/motor control (posterior cingulate), visual (occipital gyrus) and auditory (temporal gyrus) processing. In poker gamblers, scores of problem gambling severity were positively associated with ventral-striatal activations and with the connectivity between the ventral-striatum seed and the occipital fusiform gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Present results are consistent with findings from recent brain imaging studies showing that gambling disorder is associated with heightened motivational-reward processes during monetary decision making, which may hamper one's ability to moderate his level of monetary risk taking.

  13. A proposed 30-45 minute 4 page standard protocol to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) that includes measures of inflammatory activity, joint damage, and longterm outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pincus, T; Brooks, R H; Callahan, L F

    1999-02-01

    A proposed 4 page, 30-45 minute standard protocol to assess rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) is described that includes all relevant measures of inflammatory activity such as joint swelling, measures of joint damage such as joint deformity, and outcomes such as joint replacement surgery, to monitor patients in longterm observational studies. Forms are included: (1) a patient self-report modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ) to assess function, pain, fatigue, psychological distress, symptoms, and drugs used; (2) assessor-completed forms: "RA clinical features" --criteria for RA, functional class, family history, extraarticular disease, comorbidities, joint surgery, radiographic score, and laboratory findings. (3) A 32 joint count with 5 variables: (a) a "shorthand" normal/abnormal so that normal joints require no further detailed assessment; (b) tenderness or pain on motion; (c) swelling; (d) limited motion or deformity; (e) previous surgeries; physical measures of function, i.e., grip strength, walk time, and button test. (4) Medication review of previous disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD), work history, and years of education. The forms allow cost effective acquisition of all relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in routine clinical care, and allow recognition that measures of activity may show similar or improved values over 5-10 years, while measures of damage and outcomes indicate severe progression in the same patients. The SPERA is feasible to acquire most known relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in RA in 30-45 min in usual clinical settings, to provide a complete database for analyses of longterm outcomes.

  14. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit. PMID:27248826

  15. A higher effort-based paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health: making the case for a greater emphasis on resistance training.

    PubMed

    Steele, James; Fisher, James; Skivington, Martin; Dunn, Chris; Arnold, Josh; Tew, Garry; Batterham, Alan M; Nunan, David; O'Driscoll, Jamie M; Mann, Steven; Beedie, Chris; Jobson, Simon; Smith, Dave; Vigotsky, Andrew; Phillips, Stuart; Estabrooks, Paul; Winett, Richard

    2017-04-05

    It is well known that physical activity and exercise is associated with a lower risk of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. Further, it appears that risk reductions are greater when physical activity and/or exercise is performed at a higher intensity of effort. Why this may be the case is perhaps explained by the accumulating evidence linking physical fitness and performance outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and muscle mass) also to morbidity and mortality risk. Current guidelines about the performance of moderate/vigorous physical activity using aerobic exercise modes focuses upon the accumulation of a minimum volume of physical activity and/or exercise, and have thus far produced disappointing outcomes. As such there has been increased interest in the use of higher effort physical activity and exercise as being potentially more efficacious. Though there is currently debate as to the effectiveness of public health prescription based around higher effort physical activity and exercise, most discussion around this has focused upon modes considered to be traditionally 'aerobic' (e.g. running, cycling, rowing, swimming etc.). A mode customarily performed to a relatively high intensity of effort that we believe has been overlooked is resistance training. Current guidelines do include recommendations to engage in 'muscle strengthening activities' though there has been very little emphasis upon these modes in either research or public health effort. As such the purpose of this debate article is to discuss the emerging higher effort paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health and to make a case for why there should be a greater emphasis placed upon resistance training as a mode in this paradigm shift.

  16. Resting-state EEG power predicts conflict-related brain activity in internally guided but not in externally guided decision-making.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Takashi; Bai, Yu; Nashiwa, Hitomi; Northoff, Georg

    2013-02-01

    Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making). Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision-making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making, e.g. preference judgment). We compared these two different types of decision-making in terms of conflict-monitoring and their relation with resting-state brain activity. Current electroencephalography (EEG) data demonstrated that conflict-related N2 amplitudes (i.e., difference between large-conflict and small-conflict conditions) in externally guided decision-making were modulated by the type of external stimulus (i.e., large-conflict stimulus pair or small-conflict stimulus pair) but were not found to be correlated with resting-state brain activity (i.e. resting-state EEG power). In contrast, conflict-related N2 amplitudes in internally guided decision-making were found to be correlated with resting-state brain activity, but were not found to be modulated by the type of stimulus itself: the degree to which the type of external stimulus modulates the conflict during stimulus encoding varies according to individual differences in intrinsic brain activity. Considering those results comprehensively, we demonstrate for the first time resting-state and stimulus-related differences between externally and internally guided decision-making.

  17. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P < 0.002) influencing all enzyme expressions but not activities. The cholesterol supplement decreased most enzyme expression and activity. W-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of GPx, GR, Mn-SOD, and Cu,Zn-SOD and decreased that of catalase. N-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of catalase and Mn-SOD. GR activity increased in W-RM rats while SOD activity increased, but that of Se-GPx decreased in N animals. W-RM increased total and reduced glutathione and decreased the redox index. CN diet induced significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) than the CW diet. In conclusion, Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  18. Neural activity in macaque parietal cortex reflects temporal integration of visual motion signals during perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Huk, Alexander C; Shadlen, Michael N

    2005-11-09

    Decision-making often requires the accumulation and maintenance of evidence over time. Although the neural signals underlying sensory processing have been studied extensively, little is known about how the brain accrues and holds these sensory signals to guide later actions. Previous work has suggested that neural activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of the monkey brain reflects the formation of perceptual decisions in a random dot direction-discrimination task in which monkeys communicate their decisions with eye-movement responses. We tested the hypothesis that decision-related neural activity in LIP represents the time integral of the momentary motion "evidence." By briefly perturbing the strength of the visual motion stimulus during the formation of perceptual decisions, we tested whether this LIP activity reflected a persistent, integrated "memory" of these brief sensory events. We found that the responses of LIP neurons reflected substantial temporal integration. Brief pulses had persistent effects on both the monkeys' choices and the responses of neurons in LIP, lasting up to 800 ms after appearance. These results demonstrate that LIP is involved in neural time integration underlying the accumulation of evidence in this task. Additional analyses suggest that decision-related LIP responses, as well as behavioral choices and reaction times, can be explained by near-perfect time integration that stops when a criterion amount of evidence has been accumulated. Temporal integration may be a fundamental computation underlying higher cognitive functions that are dissociated from immediate sensory inputs or motor outputs.

  19. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  20. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistive materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2003-07-08

    Method of making an active magnetic refrigerant represented by Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4 alloy for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0 comprising placing amounts of the commercially pure Gd, Si, and Ge charge components in a crucible, heating the charge contents under subambient pressure to a melting temperature of the alloy for a time sufficient to homogenize the alloy and oxidize carbon with oxygen present in the Gd charge component to reduce carbon, rapidly solidifying the alloy in the crucible, and heat treating the solidified alloy at a temperature below the melting temperature for a time effective to homogenize a microstructure of the solidified material, and then cooling sufficiently fast to prevent the eutectoid decomposition and improve magnetocaloric and/or the magnetostrictive and/or the magnetoresistive properties thereof.

  1. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the NPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Woods, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Since 2001, four national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted four samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the most recent being that of the NPL (UK). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 8 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  2. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the CIEMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; García-Toraño, E.; Los Arcos, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, five national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted five samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the CIEMAT (Spain). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  3. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kossert, K.; Janßen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted six samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the PTB (Germany). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value, with the agreement of the CCRI(II). The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been recalculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  4. Making tortillas without lard: Latino parents' perspectives on healthy eating, physical activity, and weight-management strategies for overweight Latino children.

    PubMed

    Flores, Glenn; Maldonado, Julio; Durán, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Latinos are among the most overweight racial/ethnic groups of US children. The study aim was to identify parents' perspectives on healthy eating, physical activity, and weight-management strategies for overweight Latino children. Four focus groups were conducted of Mexican immigrant, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, and other Latino families with overweight children. Parents were asked 33 questions and sampled four healthy substitutes for traditional Latino foods, including multigrain enchiladas and brown rice. Nineteen parents were interviewed in the focus groups. The children?s median body mass index was 23; 60% had a body mass index ?95th percentile. Parents identified 22 themes regarding the most important things parents can do to help overweight children lose weight, including encouragement, not making the child feel left out, the whole family eating healthy, and the parent setting a good example. Parents identified 17 themes regarding the most important things overweight children can do to help themselves lose weight, including eating healthier, limiting portion size and second helpings, drinking more water, increased physical activity, decreased screen time, children educating themselves at school, asking parents for help, and participating in interventions that include the whole family. Challenges to getting kids to exercise included expense, time constraints, and neighborhood safety. Parents were open to integrating healthy substitutes into traditional Latino meals/snacks, and found them palatable. One mother stated, "We have to keep our traditional foods, but realize that we can make them more nutritious." Parents reported their children would accept high-fiber foods and low-fat dairy. In designing effective weight-management interventions for overweight Latino children, the study findings may prove useful in identifying healthy, well-accepted foods and beverages; agreeable physical activities; suitable targets for reducing inactivity; and efficacious

  5. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  6. mGluR1, but not mGluR5, activates feed-forward inhibition in the medial prefrontal cortex to impair decision making

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility depends on the integrity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We showed previously that impaired decision making in pain results from amygdala-driven inhibition of medial PFC neurons, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. Using whole cell patch clamp in rat brain slices and a cognitive behavioral task, we tested the hypothesis that group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) activate feed-forward inhibition to decrease excitability and output function of PFC pyramidal cells, thus impairing decision making. Polysynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were evoked in layer V pyramidal cells by stimulating presumed amygdala afferents. An mGluR1/5 agonist [(S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, DHPG] increased synaptic inhibition more strongly than excitatory transmission. The facilitatory effects were blocked by an mGluR1 [(S)-(+)-α-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid, LY367385], but not mGluR5, antagonist, 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine. IPSCs were blocked by bicuculline and decreased by 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide disodium salt (NBQX). Facilitation of synaptic inhibition by DHPG was glutamate driven because it was blocked by NBQX. DHPG increased frequency but not amplitude of spontaneous IPSCs; consistent with action potential-dependent synaptic inhibition, tetrodotoxin (TTX) prevented the facilitatory effects. DHPG decreased synaptically evoked spikes (E-S coupling) and depolarization-induced spiking [frequency-current (f-I) relationship]. This effect was indirect, resulting from glutamate-driven synaptic inhibition, because it persisted when a G protein blocker was included in the pipette but was blocked by GABAA receptor antagonists and NBQX. In contrast, DHPG increased E-S coupling and f-I relationships in mPFC interneurons through a presynaptic action, further supporting the concept of feed

  7. In vitro activity of fosfomycin against blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, including those nonsusceptible to tigecycline and/or colistin.

    PubMed

    Endimiani, Andrea; Patel, Gopi; Hujer, Kristine M; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Perez, Federico; Rice, Louis B; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In vitro activity of fosfomycin was evaluated against 68 bla(KPC)-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpKPC) isolates, including 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains. By agar dilution, 93% of the overall KpKPC were susceptible (MIC(50/90) of 16/64 microg/ml, respectively). The subgroup of 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains showed susceptibility rates of 87% (MIC(50/90) of 32/128 microg/ml, respectively). Notably, 5 out of 6 extremely drug-resistant (tigecycline and colistin nonsusceptible) KpKPC were susceptible to fosfomycin. Compared to agar dilution, disk diffusion was more accurate than Etest.

  8. Natural product derivatives with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joshua B; Smith, Adrienne E; Kusche, Brian R; Bessette, Bradley A; Swain, P Whitney; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McMills, Mark C; Wright, Dennis L; Priestley, Nigel D

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that the intentional engineering of a natural product biosynthesis pathway is a useful way to generate stereochemically complex scaffolds for use in the generation of combinatorial libraries that capture the structural features of both natural products and synthetic compounds. Analysis of a prototype library based upon nonactic acid lead to the discovery of triazole-containing nonactic acid analogs, a new structural class of antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against drug resistant, Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  9. Actively Negotiating the Mind-Body Divide: How Clozapine-Treated Schizophrenia Patients Make Health for Themselves.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julia E H; Dennis, Simone

    2017-01-10

    It is well recognised that antipsychotic treatments impact the whole body, not just the target area of the brain. For people with refractory schizophrenia on clozapine, the gold standard antipsychotic treatment in England and Australia, the separation of mental and physical regimes of health is particularly pronounced, resulting in multiple, compartmentalised treatment registers. Clinicians often focus on the mental health aspects of clozapine use, using physical indicators to determine whether treatment can continue. Our observations of 59 participants in England and Australia over 18 months revealed that patients did not observe this hierarchisation of mental treatments and physical outcomes. Patients often actively engaged in the management of their bodily symptoms, leading us to advance the figure of the active, rather than passive, patient. In our paper, we do not take the position that the facility for active management is a special one utilised only by these patients. We seek instead to draw attention to what is currently overlooked as an ordinary capacity to enact some sort of control over life, even under ostensibly confined and confining circumstances. We argue that clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients utilise the clinical dichotomy between mental and physical domains of health to rework what health means to them. This permits patients to actively manage their own phenomenological 'life projects' (Rapport, I am Dynamite: an Alternative Anthropology of Power, Routledge, London 2003), and forces us to reconsider the notion of clinical giveness of what health means. This making of one's own meanings of health may be critical to the maintenance of a sense of self.

  10. Situated Meaning-Making of the Human Body: A Study of Elementary School Children's Reasons in Two Different Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Mattias; Jakobson, Britt

    2014-01-01

    In this text we compare children's expressions in drawings to their statements during interviews, for the purpose of understanding how different situations afford children to make meaning. In specific we study how two different activities interact and afford children to make meaning differently about the human body. The analytic attention is…

  11. Kinetic Structure of Large-Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channels Suggests that the Gating Includes Transitions through Intermediate or Secondary States

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Brad S.; Magleby, Karl L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms for the Ca2+-dependent gating of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were developed using two-dimensional analysis of single-channel currents recorded with the patch clamp technique. To extract and display the essential kinetic information, the kinetic structure, from the single channel currents, adjacent open and closed intervals were binned as pairs and plotted as two-dimensional dwell-time distributions, and the excesses and deficits of the interval pairs over that expected for independent pairing were plotted as dependency plots. The basic features of the kinetic structure were generally the same among single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but channel-specific differences were readily apparent, suggesting heterogeneities in the gating. Simple gating schemes drawn from the Monod- Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model for allosteric proteins could approximate the basic features of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. However, consistent differences between the observed and predicted dependency plots suggested that additional brief lifetime closed states not included in MWC-type models were involved in the gating. Adding these additional brief closed states to the MWC-type models, either beyond the activation pathway (secondary closed states) or within the activation pathway (intermediate closed states), improved the description of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. Secondary closed states are consistent with the closing of secondary gates or channel block. Intermediate closed states are consistent with mechanisms in which the channel activates by passing through a series of intermediate conformations between the more stable open and closed states. It is the added secondary or intermediate closed states that give rise to the majority of the brief closings (flickers) in the gating. PMID:9607935

  12. Risk patterns and correlated brain activities. Multidimensional statistical analysis of FMRI data in economic decision making study.

    PubMed

    van Bömmel, Alena; Song, Song; Majer, Piotr; Mohr, Peter N C; Heekeren, Hauke R; Härdle, Wolfgang K

    2014-07-01

    Decision making usually involves uncertainty and risk. Understanding which parts of the human brain are activated during decisions under risk and which neural processes underly (risky) investment decisions are important goals in neuroeconomics. Here, we analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on 17 subjects who were exposed to an investment decision task from Mohr, Biele, Krugel, Li, and Heekeren (in NeuroImage 49, 2556-2563, 2010b). We obtain a time series of three-dimensional images of the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signals. We apply a panel version of the dynamic semiparametric factor model (DSFM) presented in Park, Mammen, Wolfgang, and Borak (in Journal of the American Statistical Association 104(485), 284-298, 2009) and identify task-related activations in space and dynamics in time. With the panel DSFM (PDSFM) we can capture the dynamic behavior of the specific brain regions common for all subjects and represent the high-dimensional time-series data in easily interpretable low-dimensional dynamic factors without large loss of variability. Further, we classify the risk attitudes of all subjects based on the estimated low-dimensional time series. Our classification analysis successfully confirms the estimated risk attitudes derived directly from subjects' decision behavior.

  13. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  14. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  15. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  16. Making healthy eating and physical activity policy practice: the design and overview of a group randomized controlled trial in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Glenn Weaver, R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R; Beighle, Aaron; Hutto, Brent; Moore, Justin B

    2014-07-01

    National and state organizations have developed policies calling upon afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6 pm) to serve a fruit or vegetable (FV) each day for snack, while eliminating foods and beverages high in added-sugars, and to ensure children accumulate a minimum of 30 min/d of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Few efficacious and cost-effective strategies exist to assist ASP providers in achieving these important public health goals. This paper reports on the design and conceptual framework of Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Policy Practice in ASPs, a 3-year group randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of strategies designed to improve snacks served and increase MVPA in children attending community-based ASPs. Twenty ASPs, serving over 1800 children (6-12 years) will be enrolled and match-paired based on enrollment size, average daily min/d MVPA, and days/week FV served, with ASPs randomized after baseline data collection to immediate intervention or a 1-year delayed group. The framework employed, STEPs (Strategies To Enhance Practice), focuses on intentional programming of HEPA in each ASPs' daily schedule, and includes a grocery store partnership to reduce price barriers to purchasing FV, professional development training to promote physical activity to develop core physical activity competencies, as well as ongoing technical support/assistance. Primary outcome measures include children's accelerometry-derived MVPA and time spend sedentary while attending an ASP, direct observation of staff HEPA promoting and inhibiting behaviors, types of snacks served, and child consumption of snacks, as well as, cost of snacks via receipts and detailed accounting of intervention delivery costs to estimate cost-effectiveness.

  17. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  18. Dive and Explore: An Interactive Web Visualization that Simulates Making an ROV Dive to an Active Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, C.; Chadwick, W. W.

    2004-12-01

    Several years ago we created an exciting and engaging multimedia exhibit for the Hatfield Marine Science Center that lets visitors simulate making a dive to the seafloor with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) named ROPOS. The exhibit immerses the user in an interactive experience that is naturally fun but also educational. The public display is located at the Hatfield Marine Science Visitor Center in Newport, Oregon. We are now completing a revision to the project that will make this engaging virtual exploration accessible to a much larger audience. With minor modifications we will be able to put the exhibit onto the world wide web so that any person with internet access can view and learn about exciting volcanic and hydrothermal activity at Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The modifications address some cosmetic and logistic ISSUES confronted in the museum environment, but will mainly involve compressing video clips so they can be delivered more efficiently over the internet. The web version, like the museum version, will allow users to choose from 1 of 3 different dives sites in the caldera of Axial Volcano. The dives are based on real seafloor settings at Axial seamount, an active submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (NE Pacific) that is also the location of a seafloor observatory called NeMO. Once a dive is chosen, then the user watches ROPOS being deployed and then arrives into a 3-D computer-generated seafloor environment that is based on the real world but is easier to visualize and navigate. Once on the bottom, the user is placed within a 360 degree panorama and can look in all directions by manipulating the computer mouse. By clicking on markers embedded in the scene, the user can then either move to other panorama locations via movies that travel through the 3-D virtual environment, or they can play video clips from actual ROPOS dives specifically related to that scene. Audio accompanying the video clips informs the user where they are

  19. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  20. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  1. Establishment of reference intervals for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in dogs including an assessment of the effects of sex and anticoagulant use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Eralp, Oya; Moritz, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF)- and kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) have been performed in a small number of healthy dogs, but reference intervals have not been assessed in a larger number of dogs. The goal of the current study was to establish reference intervals and assess intra-assay repeatability for kaolin-activated TEG in dogs. Additionally, the impact of sex and the influence of anticoagulant (native blood vs. recalcified citrate anticoagulated blood) were evaluated. Thromboelastography analyses were performed in 56 healthy dogs including German Shepherd Dogs (n = 19), Beagles (n = 15), and others (n = 22). Median age was 2 years (range: 1-6 years) and sex was evenly distributed (31 males and 25 females). To establish reference intervals, citrated whole-blood samples were collected, and TEG was performed 1 hr after sampling. Five TEG variables (R = reaction time; K = clot formation time; alpha = angle alpha; MA = maximal amplitude; G-value reflecting clot stability) were evaluated, and reference intervals were defined as the mean +/- 1.96-fold standard deviation. Intra-assay repeatability was assessed by calculating the pooled variance estimate in duplicate measurements of 6 healthy dogs. The effect of anticoagulant was assessed in 17 specimens. Reference intervals were as follows: R = 1.8-8.6 min; angle alpha = 36.9-74.6 degrees; K = 1.3-5.7 min; MA = 42.9-67.9 mm, and G = 3.2-9.6 Kdyn/cm(2). Coefficients of variation for R, K, angle alpha, MA, and G were 7.6%, 17.7%, 7.4%, 2.9%, and 6.6%, respectively. There was no significant impact of sex or anticoagulant on results. Interindividual variation was higher in native samples than in citrated whole blood. A limitation of the current study was that most of the samples were obtained from Beagles and German Shepherd Dogs. This study provides useful reference intervals for kaolin-activated TEG.

  2. Making large class basic histology lectures more interactive: The use of draw-along mapping techniques and associated educational activities.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2015-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would focus students during large class lectures. After each lecture on three basic histology tissues, a guided draw-along mapping session covering the work from the lecture was introduced in the form of a click-advance PowerPoint presentation which was used to demonstrate the unfolding of an "ideal" map. The lecturer simultaneously drew a similar map using an overhead projector allowing the students to draw their own maps on blank sheets of paper along with the lecturer. Students remained attentive during the activity and many participated in answering informal questions posed by the lecturer as the map-making session progressed. After the last session, students completed an anonymous, voluntary questionnaire (response rate of 78%). The majority of students found the draw-along maps useful (94%) and believed that its use should be continued in the future (93%). A significant increase (P < 0.001) was found in the test results of student cohorts who were given the current intervention compared to cohorts from previous years who were given mind maps as handouts only or had no intervention. The use of the draw-along mapping sessions were successful in focusing students during large class lectures while also providing them with a useful tool for their studies.

  3. Unsatisfied basic needs of older patients in emergency care environments - obstacles to an active role in decision making.

    PubMed

    Nydén, Kristoffer; Petersson, Martin; Nyström, Maria

    2003-03-01

    Little attention is paid in Emergency Care Units (ECUs) in Sweden to the special needs of older people. The aim of this study was thus to analyse older people's basic needs in the emergency care environment. The study was carried out with a life-world interpretative approach, and the theoretical framework for interpretation was Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and personality. Seven informants aged between 65 and 88 years, with various experiences of being patients with urgent as well as non-urgent health-related problems, were interviewed about their experiences of ECU care. Their basic needs at the lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy were well-represented in the data. Higher needs, such as desire to know and understand, appeared to be totally neglected. Safety needs dominated the whole situation. Our conclusion is that standards of care must be developed in Sweden to make older patients feel safer and more secure in ECUs. Furthermore, the principles of nursing care for older patients need to be defined in order to encourage them to take an active part in their own health process.

  4. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  5. What Makes the Fizz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimkanin, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to answer the question, "What makes soda pop fizz?". Lists necessary materials and describes the procedure for making soda pop. Discusses the fermentation process and how it occurs. (NB)

  6. The Making of a Citizen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Shirley; Frank, Charlotte

    1987-01-01

    Classroom activities to help children learn about and celebrate the bicentennial anniversary of the United States Constitution are described, including making up a class constitution, teaching about becoming a United States citizen, and researching details of a specific state's ratification of the Constitution. (CB)

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  8. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  9. Delay discounting without decision-making: medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala activations reflect immediacy processing and correlate with impulsivity and anxious-depressive traits

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Vera U.; Nüsser, Corinna; Goschke, Thomas; Wittfoth-Schardt, Dina; Wiers, Corinde E.; Erk, Susanne; Schott, Björn H.; Walter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Humans value rewards less when these are delivered in the future as opposed to immediately, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. While delay discounting has been studied during the anticipation of rewards and in the context of intertemporal decision-making, little is known about its neural correlates in the outcome phase (during reward delivery) and their relation to personality. Personality traits that have been associated with increased delay discounting include impulsivity and, potentially, anxious-depressive traits. Here we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 72 healthy participants while they carried out a monetary incentive delay (MID) task with a delay manipulation. In sixty percent of the experimental trials, participants won rewards that differed in magnitude (0.05€, 0.50€ or 1€) and delay until delivery (immediately, 10 days, or 100 days). A factor analysis on questionnaires yielded two factors reflecting Impulsivity and Anxiety/Depression, which we used to examine potential relationships between personality and delay discounting. When winning a reward, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation was higher for immediate compared to delayed rewards. Moreover, amygdala activation correlated with reward magnitude for immediate but not for delayed rewards. Amygdala activation to winning immediate rewards was higher in more impulsive participants, while mPFC activation to winning immediate rewards was higher in more anxious-depressed participants. Our results uncover neural correlates of delay discounting during reward delivery, and suggest that impulsivity and subclinical anxious-depressive traits are related to stronger neural responses for winning immediate relative to delayed rewards. PMID:26578910

  10. From Thoughts To Action - Linking Practice, Science, Policy And Decision Making: Dissemination Activities Of The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stal, Marc; Sutter, Corina; Ammann, Walter

    2010-05-01

    The world's growing population in combination with expanding urbanisation, globalisation and climate change has greatly aggravated the risk potential to all communities and nations. These increasing risks imply the intensification of worldwide disasters, hence collaborations and worldwide knowledge exchange to mitigate these negative impacts is mandatory. How can these exchange and collaboration activities take place? The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos addresses the variety of risks that face communities with a special focus on climate change, natural hazards, environmental degradation as well as technical, biological risks, pandemics and terrorism - all across different political institutions, national and international organisations, countries and business sectors. One of GRF's main goals is to bridge the gap between science and practice and to promote and accelerate the worldwide exchange of know-how and experience. GRF Davos aims at targeting solutions and promoting good practice in integral risk management and climate change adaptation.. The Forum also provides and manages a network for decision-makers, practitioners and experts from politics, government, IGOs, business, science, NGOs, media and the public and works on maintaining and expanding these networks constantly to enable the dissemination of disaster and risk reduction techniques. In order to link practice, science, policy and decision making, GRF Davos has three pillars, the Risk Academy, the International Disaster and Risk Conferences and Workshops (IDRC) as well as the online Platform for Networks. With its pillars, the GRFs aims at reducing vulnerability for all types of risks and disasters to protect life, property, environment, critical infrastructure and all means of business for the worldwide community on a sustainable basis.

  11. Gadd45a and Gadd45b protect hematopoietic cells from UV-induced apoptosis via distinct signaling pathways, including p38 activation and JNK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mamta; Gupta, Shiv Kumar; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2006-06-30

    Gadd45a, Gadd45b, and Gadd45g (Gadd45/MyD118/CR6) are genes that are rapidly induced by genotoxic stress and have been implicated in genotoxic stress-induced responses, notably in apoptosis. Recently, using myeloid-enriched bone marrow (BM) cells obtained from wild-type (WT), Gadd45a-deficient, and Gadd45b-deficient mice, we have shown that in hematopoietic cells Gadd45a and Gadd45b play a survival function to protect hematopoietic cells from DNA-damaging agents, including ultra violet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to decipher the molecular paths that mediate the survival functions of Gadd45a and Gadd45b against genotoxic stress induced by UV radiation. It is shown that in hematopoietic cells exposed to UV radiation Gaddd45a and Gadd45b cooperate to promote cell survival via two distinct signaling pathways involving activation of the GADD45a-p38-NF-kappaB-mediated survival pathway and GADD45b-mediated inhibition of the stress response MKK4-JNK pathway.

  12. Experiences from active membership and participation in decision-making processes and age in moral reasoning and goal orientation of referees.

    PubMed

    Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of experiences of active membership and participation in decision-making processes and age on moral reasoning and goal orientations of referees in sport. The sample consisted of 148 referees of whom 56 judged soccer, 55 basketball, and 37 handball. Their ages ranged from 17 to 50 years (M=36.6, SD=7.4). Of the total number of referees, 8.3% have no experiences from active membership and participation in decision-making processes in organizations (social, athletic, political), 53.1% were simply active members, and 38.6% were involved in decision-making in their respective organizations. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance showed an interaction between experiences and age on moral reasoning and goal orientation of referees.

  13. Making Aliens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, A.

    During the next few decades, the decisions we make will determine the future of our biosphere and our species. In this context, space exploration will literally answer a question that has preoccupied us ever since we became self-aware: What is going to happen to us? Reaching and inhabiting other planets is often considered an extension of human exploration and occupation of Earth but the analogy is useful only as a metaphor. Whatever the extremes of Earth, we can live almost everywhere on it because we started and evolved here. Given the vagaries of chance in every event of planetmaking, we will never find an Earth twin. To live under strange skies will require courage, ingenuity and stamina ­ but above all, it will require a hard look at our assumptions, including what it means to be human.

  14. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  15. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  16. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  17. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  18. Making an Adjustable C-Clamp. Kit No. 603. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Manual. [Revised.] T & I--Metalwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jim; Alexander, Larry

    This student activity kit consists of a programmed, self-instructional learning guide and an accompanying instructor's manual for use in teaching trade and industrial education students how to make an adjustable C-clamp. The student guide contains step-by-step instructions in the following areas: basic layout principles; use of a hack saw, file,…

  19. The Effect of Career Assessments and Follow-Up Counseling on Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) among Active-Duty Coast Guard Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study (a) examined career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) differences across gender, age, military grade, level of education, previous career assessments, previous career counseling, and currently attending college, and (b) examined the effect of career assessments with follow-up counseling on CDMSE among active-duty Coast Guard…

  20. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance.

  1. "Moving and Learning across the Curriculum: 315 Activities and Games to Make Learning Fun" by Rae Pica. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheux, Isabelle

    2000-01-01

    Maintains that Pica's resource book is an excellent guide for educators seeking new movement activities to perform with young children. Asserts that the organization of the book offers clear directions for the activities and proposes guidelines to transform the activities in interesting ways. Notes that the book sometimes does not provide specific…

  2. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…

  3. Trends and Challenges in Sport Science and Engineering Related Technology Education at Surf Science and Technology: Researching Surfboard Making Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audy, Jaromir

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained from teaching, learning and research associated with Surf Science and Technology (SST) course taught at the South West Campus of Edith Cowan University. The main topic discussed is Teaching and Learning with the Surfboard Making. It looks at a group of recent second year SST students who, after acquiring the…

  4. Dissociation between Neural Signatures of Stimulus and Choice in Population Activity of Human V1 during Perceptual Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Kyoung Whan; Blake, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    Primary visual cortex (V1) forms the initial cortical representation of objects and events in our visual environment, and it distributes information about that representation to higher cortical areas within the visual hierarchy. Decades of work have established tight linkages between neural activity occurring in V1 and features comprising the retinal image, but it remains debatable how that activity relates to perceptual decisions. An actively debated question is the extent to which V1 responses determine, on a trial-by-trial basis, perceptual choices made by observers. By inspecting the population activity of V1 from human observers engaged in a difficult visual discrimination task, we tested one essential prediction of the deterministic view: choice-related activity, if it exists in V1, and stimulus-related activity should occur in the same neural ensemble of neurons at the same time. Our findings do not support this prediction: while cortical activity signifying the variability in choice behavior was indeed found in V1, that activity was dissociated from activity representing stimulus differences relevant to the task, being advanced in time and carried by a different neural ensemble. The spatiotemporal dynamics of population responses suggest that short-term priors, perhaps formed in higher cortical areas involved in perceptual inference, act to modulate V1 activity prior to stimulus onset without modifying subsequent activity that actually represents stimulus features within V1. PMID:24523561

  5. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... net/ Back to top Adapting the Environment Making adaptations to the environment where a child with a ... or school personnel to decide what kinds of adaptations are necessary to ensure the child’s safety while ...

  6. Dystonia redefined as central non-paretic loss of control of muscle action: a concept including inability to activate muscles required for a specific movement, or 'negative dystonia'.

    PubMed

    Mezaki, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. Although this definition comprises an essential feature of dystonia, the clinical observation indicates that there is an additional aspect of dystonia; failure to adequately activate muscles required for specific movement, exemplified by the lack of contractions of the levator palpebrae superioris muscles in apraxia of lid opening, as well as by inability to activate appropriate muscles in cervical dystonia or in the paretic form of writer's cramp, and possibly by dropped head syndrome or camptocormia seen in parkinsonian patients without apparent truncal dystonia or rigidity. Taking this "negative dystonia" into consideration, the author proposes a revised definition of dystonia as a symptom characterized by the central non-paretic loss of voluntary control of muscle activities, which may result in either excessive or deficient contractions of muscles, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, limitation of movements, or abnormal postures.

  7. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells.

  8. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  9. Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-12-30

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  10. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-10-14

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  11. Methods of making pyrrolidones

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2003-08-05

    The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

  12. The Influence of Art Making on Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmire, David Alan; Gorham, Sarah Roberts; Rankin, Nancy Elizabeth; Grimm, David Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychological effects of art making in a sample of 57 undergraduate students. One week prior to final examinations, participants were randomly assigned to either an art-making group or a control group. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered before and after participation. Art making activities included painting…

  13. FBI-1 can stimulate HIV-1 Tat activity and is targeted to a novel subnuclear domain that includes the Tat-P-TEFb-containing nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, P Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-03-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain-containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor-rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

  14. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  15. Making Meaning of Everyday Practices: Parents' Attitudes toward Children's Extracurricular Activities in the United States and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Izquierdo, Carolina; Fatigante, Marilena

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on children's engagement in extracurricular activities from the perspective of middle-class parents in Rome, Italy, and Los Angeles, California. Analysis of parents' accounts captured in interviews and ethnographic fieldwork reveals that both sets of parents perceive activities as important for children's success. Yet Roman…

  16. Making the Failure More Productive: Scaffolding the Invention Process to Improve Inquiry Behaviors and Outcomes in Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, N. G.; Day, James; Park, Anthony H. K.; Bonn, D. A.; Roll, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Invention activities are Productive Failure activities in which students attempt (and often fail) to invent methods that capture deep properties of a construct before being taught expert solutions. The current study evaluates the effect of scaffolding on the invention processes and outcomes, given that students are not expected to succeed in their…

  17. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  18. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  19. Mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, derived from mefloquine and arenecarbaldehydes: In vitro activity including against the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strain T113.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Raoni S B; Kaiser, Carlos R; Lourenço, Maria C S; Bezerra, Flavio A F M; de Souza, Marcus V N; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Henriques, Maria das Graças M de O; Costa, Thadeu

    2012-01-01

    Ten new mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(aryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (1: aryl=substituted phenyl) and 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(heteroaryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline [2: heteroaryl=5-nitrothien-2-yl (2a); 5-nitrofuran-2-yl (2b) and 4H-imidazol-2-yl) (2c)], have been synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compounds 1f (aryl=3-ethoxyphenyl), 1g (Ar=3,4,5-(MeO)(3)-C(6)H(2)) and 2c were slightly more active than mefloquine (MIC=33μM) with MICs=24.5, 22.5 and 27.4, respectively, whereas compounds 1e (aryl=3,4-(MeO)(2)-C(6)H(3)) and 2a (MICs=11.9 and 12.1μM, respectively) were ca. 2.7 times more active than mefloquine, with a better tuberculostatic activity than the first line tuberculostatic agent ethambutol (MIC=15.9). The compounds were also assayed against the MDR strain T113 and the same MICs were observed. Thus the new derivatives have advantages over such anti-TB drugs as isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and ofloxacin, for which this strain is resistant. The most active compounds were not cytotoxic to Murine Macrophages Cells in a concentration near their MIC values.

  20. The importance of activity-based methods in radiology and the technology that now makes this possible.

    PubMed

    Monge, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based methods serve as a dynamic process that has allowed many other industries to reduce and control their costs, increase productivity, and streamline their processes while improving product quality and service. The method could serve the healthcare industry in an equally beneficial way. Activity-based methods encompass both activity based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM). ABC is a cost management approach that links resource consumption to activities that an enterprise performs, and then assigns those activities and their associated costs to customers, products, or product lines. ABM uses the resource assignments derived in ABC so that operation managers can improve their departmental processes and workflows. There are three fundamental problems with traditional cost systems. First, traditional systems fail to reflect the underlying diversity of work taking place within an enterprise. Second, it uses allocations that are, for the most part, arbitrary Single step allocations fail to reflect the real work-the activities being performed and the associate resources actually consumed. Third, they only provide a cost number that, standing alone, does not provide any guidance on how to improve performance by lowering cost or enhancing throughput.

  1. Changes in free amino acid content and activities of amination and transamination enzymes in yeasts grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Norkrans, B; Tunblad-Johansson, I

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns inter- and intraspecific differences between yeasts at assimilation of different nitrogen sources. Alterations in the content of free amino acids in cells and media as well as in the related enzyme activities during growth were studied. The hydroxylamine (HA)-tolerant Endomycopsis lipolytica was examined and compared with the nitrate-reducing Cryptococcus albidus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. Special attention was paid to alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, the amino acids closely related to the Krebs cycle keto acids. The amino acids were analyzed as their n-propyl N-acetyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The composition of the amino acid pool was similar for the three yeasts. Glutamic acid was predominant; in early log-phase cells of E. lipolytica contents of 200-234 micromol . g(-1) dry weight were found. A positive correlation between the specific growth rate and the size of the amino acid pool was observed. The assimilation of ammonia was mediated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The NADP-GDH was the dominating enzyme in all three yeasts showing the highest specific activity in Cr. albidus grown on nitrate (6980 nmol . (min(-1)).(mg protein(-1)). Glutamine synthetase (GS) displayed a high specific activity in S. cerevisiae, which also had a high amount of glutamine. The assimilation of HA did not differ greatly from the assimilation of ammonium in E. lipolytica. The existing differences could rather be explained as provoked by the concentration of available nitrogen.

  2. The Role of Patient Activation in Preferences for Shared Decision Making: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samuel G.; Pandit, Anjali; Rush, Steven R.; Wolf, Michael S.; Simon, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating preferences for shared decision making (SDM) have focused on associations with sociodemographic variables, with few investigations exploring patient factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between patient activation and preferences for SDM in 6 common medical decisions among a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of American adults. Adults older than 18 were recruited online (n = 2,700) and by telephone (n = 700). Respondents completed sociodemographic assessments and the Patient Activation Measure. They were also asked whether they perceived benefit (yes/no) in SDM in 6 common medical decisions. Nearly half of the sample (45.9%) reached the highest level of activation (Level 4). Activation was associated with age (p < .001), higher income (p = .001), higher education (p = .010), better self-rated health (p < .001), and fewer chronic conditions (p = .050). The proportion of people who agreed that SDM was beneficial varied from 53.1% (deciding the necessity of a diagnostic test) to 71.8% (decisions associated with making lifestyle changes). After we controlled for participant characteristics, higher activation was associated with greater perceived benefit in SDM across 4 of the 6 decisions. Preferences for SDM varied among 6 common medical scenarios. Low patient activation is an important barrier to SDM that could be ameliorated through the development of behavioral interventions. PMID:26313690

  3. Comment regarding Malik, et al.'s (1996) "The method of subliminal psychodynamic activation: do individual thresholds make a difference?".

    PubMed

    Greenberg, A C

    1997-06-01

    Researchers using the method of subliminal psychodynamic activation need to consider the neutrality of their control messages. Anagrams or numbers are recommended as even benign-sounding phrases can produce nonneutral effects.

  4. Feasibility of measuring ferricyanide reduction by yeasts to estimate their activity during alcoholic fermentation in wine-making conditions.

    PubMed

    Roustan, Jean-Louis; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the feasibility of measuring the extracellular reduction of ferricyanide in the presence of an intermediate carrier (menadione) as a means of estimating the activity of yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. A spectrophotometric and a potentiometric approach were used. Comparison of specific reductase activity and gas production rate during the stationary phase indicated that measuring the menadione-catalyzed reduction of ferricyanide provides a good estimate of the total activity of the yeast cells in a fermenting must. The response observed following the addition of an electron acceptor (acetaldehyde) confirmed that the reductase activity of menadione is dependent on the availability of NADH. The stability of menadione in the fermentation medium, as assessed by the potentiometric method, suggested that electrochemical reoxidation of the ferrocyanide can act as a substitute for the addition of an electron acceptor when studying the redox regulation of fermenting yeasts.

  5. Antibacterial Honey (Medihoney™): in-vitro Activity Against Clinical Isolates of MRSA, VRE, and Other Multiresistant Gram-negative Organisms Including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    George, Narelle May; Cutting, Keith F

    2007-09-01

    The clinical use of honey has received increasing interest in recent years, particularly its use as a topical antibacterial dressing. Results thus far are extremely encouraging, and demonstrate that honey is effective against a broad range of microorganisms, including multiresistant strains. This in-vitro study complements the work of others and focuses on the impact that a standardized honey can have on multiresistant bacteria that are regularly found in wounds and are responsible for increased morbidity.

  6. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO.

  7. Cortical Brain Activity Reflecting Attentional Biasing Toward Reward-Predicting Cues Covaries with Economic Decision-Making Performance.

    PubMed

    San Martín, René; Appelbaum, Lawrence G; Huettel, Scott A; Woldorff, Marty G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive choice behavior depends critically on identifying and learning from outcome-predicting cues. We hypothesized that attention may be preferentially directed toward certain outcome-predicting cues. We studied this possibility by analyzing event-related potential (ERP) responses in humans during a probabilistic decision-making task. Participants viewed pairs of outcome-predicting visual cues and then chose to wager either a small (i.e., loss-minimizing) or large (i.e., gain-maximizing) amount of money. The cues were bilaterally presented, which allowed us to extract the relative neural responses to each cue by using a contralateral-versus-ipsilateral ERP contrast. We found an early lateralized ERP response, whose features matched the attention-shift-related N2pc component and whose amplitude scaled with the learned reward-predicting value of the cues as predicted by an attention-for-reward model. Consistently, we found a double dissociation involving the N2pc. Across participants, gain-maximization positively correlated with the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable gain-predicting cue, suggesting an attentional bias toward such cues. Conversely, loss-minimization was negatively correlated with the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable loss-predicting cue, suggesting an attentional avoidance toward such stimuli. These results indicate that learned stimulus-reward associations can influence rapid attention allocation, and that differences in this process are associated with individual differences in economic decision-making performance.

  8. Cortical Brain Activity Reflecting Attentional Biasing Toward Reward-Predicting Cues Covaries with Economic Decision-Making Performance

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, René; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Huettel, Scott A.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive choice behavior depends critically on identifying and learning from outcome-predicting cues. We hypothesized that attention may be preferentially directed toward certain outcome-predicting cues. We studied this possibility by analyzing event-related potential (ERP) responses in humans during a probabilistic decision-making task. Participants viewed pairs of outcome-predicting visual cues and then chose to wager either a small (i.e., loss-minimizing) or large (i.e., gain-maximizing) amount of money. The cues were bilaterally presented, which allowed us to extract the relative neural responses to each cue by using a contralateral-versus-ipsilateral ERP contrast. We found an early lateralized ERP response, whose features matched the attention-shift-related N2pc component and whose amplitude scaled with the learned reward-predicting value of the cues as predicted by an attention-for-reward model. Consistently, we found a double dissociation involving the N2pc. Across participants, gain-maximization positively correlated with the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable gain-predicting cue, suggesting an attentional bias toward such cues. Conversely, loss-minimization was negatively correlated with the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable loss-predicting cue, suggesting an attentional avoidance toward such stimuli. These results indicate that learned stimulus–reward associations can influence rapid attention allocation, and that differences in this process are associated with individual differences in economic decision-making performance. PMID:25139941

  9. The Brd4 Extraterminal Domain Confers Transcription Activation Independent of pTEFb by Recruiting Multiple Proteins, Including NSD3 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shaila; Sowa, Mathew E.; Ottinger, Matthias; Smith, Jennifer A.; Shi, Yang; Harper, J. Wade; Howley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) plays critical roles in development, cancer progression, and virus-host pathogenesis. To gain mechanistic insight into the various biological functions of Brd4, we performed a proteomic analysis to identify and characterize Brd4-associated cellular proteins. We found that the extraterminal (ET) domain, whose function has to date not been determined, interacts with NSD3, JMJD6, CHD4, GLTSCR1, and ATAD5. These ET-domain interactions were also conserved for Brd2 and Brd3, the other human BET proteins tested. We demonstrated that GLTSCR1, NSD3, and JMJD6 impart a pTEFb-independent transcriptional activation function on Brd4. NSD3 as well as JMJD6 is recruited to regulated genes in a Brd4-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that depletion of Brd4 or NSD3 reduces H3K36 methylation, demonstrating that the Brd4/NSD3 complex regulates this specific histone modification. Our results indicate that the Brd4 ET domain through the recruitment of the specific effectors regulates transcriptional activity. In particular, we show that one of these effectors, NSD3, regulates transcription by modifying the chromatin microenvironment at Brd4 target genes. Our study thus identifies the ET domain as a second important transcriptional regulatory domain for Brd4 in addition to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) that interacts with pTEFb. PMID:21555454

  10. Effect of pH, water activity and gel micro-structure, including oxygen profiles and rheological characterization, on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Theys, T E; Geeraerd, A H; Verhulst, A; Poot, K; Van Bree, I; Devlieghere, F; Moldenaers, P; Wilson, D; Brocklehurst, T; Van Impe, J F

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tryptic Soy Broth was examined at different pH (4.50-5.50), water activity a(w) (0.970-0.992) and gelatin concentration (0%, 1% and 5% ) at 20 degrees C. Experiments in TSB with 0% gelatin were carried out in shaken erlenmeyers, in the weak 1% gelatin media in petri plates and in the firm 5% gelatin media in gel cassettes. A quantification of gel strength was performed by rheological measurements and the influence of oxygen supply on the growth of S. Typhimurium was investigated. pH, as well as a(w) as well as gelatin concentration had an influence on the growth rate. Both in broth and in gelatinized media, lowering pH or water activity caused a decrease of growth rate. In media with 1% gelatin a reduction of growth rate and maximal cell density was observed compared to broth at all conditions. However, the effects of decreasing pH and a(w) were less pronounced. A further increase in gelatin concentration to 5% gelatin caused a small or no additional drop of growth rate. The final oxygen concentration dropped from 5.5 ppm in stirred broth to anoxic values in petri plates, also when 0% and 5% gelatin media were tested in this recipient. Probably, not stirring the medium, which leads to anoxic conditions, has a more pronounced effect on the growth rate of S. Typhimurium then medium solidness. Finally, growth data were fitted with the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J. and Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294]. An additional factor was introduced into the secondary model of Ross et al. [Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. and Mellefont, L. A. and McMeekin, T. A., 2003. Modelling the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth rate of Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 33-43.] to incorporate the effect of gelatin concentration, next to

  11. Synthesis and Exploratory Catalysis of 3d Metals: Group-Transfer Reactions, and the Activation and Functionalization of Small Molecules Including Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2014-05-07

    Our work over the past three years has resulted in the development of electron rich and low-coordinate vanadium fragments, molecular nitrides of vanadium and parent imide systems of titanium, and the synthesis of phosphorus containing molecules of the 3d transition metal series. Likewise, with financial support from BES Division in DOE (DE-FG02-07ER15893), we now completed the full characterization of the first single molecular magnet (SMM) of Fe(III). We demonstrated that this monomeric form of Fe(III) has an unusual slow relaxation of the magnetization under zero applied field. To make matters more interesting, this system also undergoes a rare example of an intermediate to high-spin transition (an S = 3/2 to S = 5/2 transition). In 2010 we reported the synthesis of the first neutral and low-coordinate vanadium complexes having the terminal nitride functionality. We have now completed a full study to understand formation of the nitride ligand from the metastable azide precursor, and have also explored the reactivity of the nitride ligand in the context of incomplete and complete N-atom transfer. During the 2010-2013 period we also discovered a facile approach to assemble low-coordinate and low-valent vanadium(II) complexes and exploit their multielectron chemistry ranging from 1-3 electrons. Consequently, we can now access 3d ligand frameworks such as cyclo-P3 (and its corresponding radical anion), nitride radical anions and cations, low-coordinate vanadium oxo’s, and the first example of a vanadium thionitrosyl complex. A cis-divacant iron(IV) imido having some ligand centered radical has been also discovered, and we are in the process of elucidating its electronic structure (in particular the sign of zero field splitting and the origin of its magnitude), bonding and reactivity. We have also revisited some paramagnetic and classic metallocene compounds with S >1/2 ground states in order to understand their reactivity patterns and electronic structure. Lastly

  12. What Makes Red Giants Tick? Linking Tidal Forces, Activity, and Solar-Like Oscillations via Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.; Gaulme, Patrick; McKeever, Jean; Jackiewicz, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to advances in asteroseismology, red giants have become astrophysical laboratories for studying stellar evolution and probing the Milky Way. However, not all red giants show solar-like oscillations. It has been proposed that stronger tidal interactions from short-period binaries and increased magnetic activity on spotty giants are linked to absent or damped solar-like oscillations, yet each star tells a nuanced story. In this work, we characterize a subset of red giants in eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler. The binaries exhibit a range of orbital periods, solar-like oscillation behavior, and stellar activity. We use orbital solutions together with a suite of modeling tools to combine photometry and spectroscopy in a detailed analysis of tidal synchronization timescales, star spot activity, and stellar evolution histories. These red giants offer an unprecedented opportunity to test stellar physics and are important benchmarks for ensemble asteroseismology.

  13. Wrinkled substrate and Indium Tin Oxide-free transparent electrode making organic solar cells thinner in active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kong; Lu, Shudi; Yue, Shizhong; Ren, Kuankuan; Azam, Muhammad; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-11-01

    To enable organic solar cells with a competent charge transport efficiency, reducing the thickness of active layer without sacrificing light absorption efficiency turns out to be of high feasibility. Herein, organic solar cells on wrinkled metal surface are designed. The purposely wrinkled Al/Au film with a smooth surface provides a unique scaffold for constructing thin organic photovoltaic devices by avoiding pinholes and defects around sharp edges in conventional nanostructures. The corresponding surface light trapping effect enables the thin active layer (PTB7-Th:PC71BM) with a high absorption efficiency. With the innovative MoO3/Ag/ZnS film as the top transparent electrode, the resulting Indium Tin Oxide-free wrinkled devices show a power conversion efficiency as 7.57% (50 nm active layer), higher than the planner counterparts. Thus, this paper provides a new methodology to improve the performance of organic solar cells by balancing the mutual restraint factors to a high level.

  14. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  15. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  16. Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Duhnam-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Cruz, Adriana R.; Moore, Meagan W.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Velez-Climent, Leonor; Shupe, Jonathan; Krueger, Winfried; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-β and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1β, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-β and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. PMID:19461888

  17. In Planta Expression Screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effectors Reveal Diverse Phenotypes, Including Activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum Disease Resistance Protein Rpi-blb2[W

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cano, Liliana M.; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I.B.; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A.G.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2009-01-01

    The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD3645-1, suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34–amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

  18. Making Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. Making Large Class Basic Histology Lectures More Interactive: The Use of Draw-Along Mapping Techniques and Associated Educational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2015-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would…

  20. Making Evidence Work: A Framework for Monitoring, Tracking and Evaluating Widening Participation Activity across the Student Lifecycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The need for a robust evidence base able to demonstrate the impact of widening participation activity across the student lifecycle has been emphasised in recent guidance to the higher education sector. However, with competing demands on their time this is likely to represent a challenge for practitioners. Yet, there is wide recognition of the need…

  1. Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policy Practice: Process Evaluation of a Group Randomized Controlled Intervention in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying…

  2. "It makes me feel like myself": Person-centered versus traditional visual arts activities for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Philip E; Fopma-Loy, Joan; Kinney, Jennifer M; Lokon, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    During a 15-month period between February 2010 and April 2011, video data on (n = 38) people with dementia were collected during a person-centered and intergenerational arts activity program called Opening Minds through Art (OMA) at three different long-term care facilities in Ohio. A subsample of the OMA participants (n = 10) were also video recorded during traditional visual arts activities (e.g. coloring books, scrapbooking). A modified version of the Greater Cincinnati Chapter Well-Being Observation Tool© was used to code the intensity and frequency of observed domains of well-being (i.e. social interest, engagement, and pleasure) and ill-being (i.e. disengagement, negative affect, sadness, and confusion). Descriptive results indicate a high percentage of moderate or high intensities of well-being during OMA sessions with little to no ill-being. Paired-sample t-tests comparing OMA vs. traditional visual arts activities showed significantly higher intensity scores for OMA in the domain of engagement and pleasure, as well as significantly lower intensity scores for disengagement. The findings of this exploratory study contribute to the overall discussion about the impact of person-centered, creative-expressive arts activities on people with dementia.

  3. Making Diversity "Everyone's Business": A Discourse Analysis of Institutional Responses to Student Activism for Equity and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Garrett D.; Mitchell, Tania D.

    2016-01-01

    Student activism has long been a mainstay on college campuses. Student activist efforts continue to demand administrative accountability around issues of equity and inclusion on campus. These movements demand engagement and support from administrators to honor the students' experiences and efforts as well as to respect institutional commitments to…

  4. "Here Comes the Sausage:" An Empirical Study of Children's Verbal Communication during a Collaborative Music-Making Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the verbal communication that three 7-year-old children are engaged in when given the task of composing music together. The data consist of a video-observation of the activities that unfold when they try to manage a composition task using a keyboard and two novel technologies called "MirorImpro"…

  5. Janice VanCleave's the Human Body for Every Kid: Easy Activities That Make Learning Science Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    This book provides fun experiments that teach known concepts about the human body. It is designed to teach facts, concepts, and problem-solving strategies. The scientific concepts presented can be applied to many similar situations, and the exercises and activities were selected for their ability to be explained in basic terms with little…

  6. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research.

  7. Implementation of a comprehensive program including psycho-social and treatment literacy activities to improve adherence to HIV care and treatment for a pediatric population in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Van Winghem, Joelle; Telfer, Barbara; Reid, Tony; Ouko, Judith; Mutunga, Angela; Jama, Zaina; Vakil, Shobha

    2008-01-01

    Background To achieve good clinical outcomes with HAART, patient adherence to treatment and care is a key factor. Since the literature on how to care for pediatric HIV patients is limited, we describe here adherence interventions implemented in our comprehensive care program in a resource-limited setting in Kenya. Methods We based our program on factors reported to influence adherence to HIV care and treatment. We describe, in detail, our program with respect to how we adapted our clinical settings, implemented psycho-social support activities for children and their caregivers and developed treatment literacy for children and teenagers living with HIV/AIDS. Results This paper focused on the details of the program, with the treatment outcomes as secondary. However, our program appeared to have been effective; for 648 children under 15 years of age who were started on HAART, the Kaplan-Meier mortality survival estimate was 95.27% (95%CI 93.16–96.74) at 12 months after the time of initiation of HAART. Conclusion Our model of pediatric HIV/AIDS care, focused on a child-centered approach with inclusion of caregivers and extended family, addressed the main factors influencing treatment adherence. It appeared to produce good results and is replicable in resource-limited settings. PMID:19025581

  8. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  9. Single-trial coupling of EEG and fMRI reveals the involvement of early anterior cingulate cortex activation in effortful decision making.

    PubMed

    Mulert, Christoph; Seifert, Christian; Leicht, Gregor; Kirsch, Valerie; Ertl, Matthias; Karch, Susanne; Moosmann, Matthias; Lutz, Jürgen; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hegerl, Ulrich; Pogarell, Oliver; Jäger, Lorenz

    2008-08-01

    While the precise role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is still being discussed, it has been suggested that ACC activity might reflect the amount of mental effort associated with cognitive processing. So far, not much is known about the temporal dynamics of ACC activity in effort-related decision making or auditory attention, because fMRI is limited concerning its temporal resolution and electroencephalography (EEG) is limited concerning its spatial resolution. Single-trial coupling of EEG and fMRI can be used to predict the BOLD signal specifically related to amplitude variations of electrophysiological components. The striking feature of single-trial coupling is its ability to separate different aspects of the BOLD signal according to their specific relationship to a distinct neural process. In the present study we investigated 10 healthy subjects with a forced choice reaction task under both low and high effort conditions and a control condition (passive listening) using simultaneous EEG and fMRI. We detected a significant effect of mental effort only for the N1 potential, but not for the P300 potential. In the fMRI analysis, ACC activation was present only in the high effort condition. We used single-trial coupling of EEG and fMRI in order to separate information specific to N1-amplitude variations from the unrelated BOLD response. Under high effort conditions we were able to detect circumscribed BOLD activations specific to the N1 potential in the ACC (t=4.7) and the auditory cortex (t=6.1). Comparing the N1-specific BOLD activity of the high effort condition versus the control condition we found only activation of the ACC (random effects analysis, corrected for multiple comparisons, t=4.4). These findings suggest a role of early ACC activation in effort-related decision making and provide a direct link between the N1 component and its corresponding BOLD signal.

  10. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  11. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  12. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  13. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  14. Participative Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; And Others

    Chapter 6 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter makes a case for the use of participative decision-making (PDM) at the school-site level, outlines guidelines for its implementation, and describes the experiences of some schools with PDM systems. It begins by citing research indicating the advantages of PDM, including better decisions,…

  15. Net Making = Kuvrinialiq.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    Presented in English and Upper Kobuk Inupiaq Eskimo, the booklet describes and illustrates the skills necessary for the construction and the hanging of the fishing nets used by Eskimos. Description of net making includes gathering the bark; willow twine making; kinds of implements used in net construction (twine, shuttle, gauge, forked stick,…

  16. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J [Chicago, IL; Sears, Devin N [Spruce Grove, CA; Smith, Luis J [Natick, MA; Klingler, Robert J [Glenview, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  17. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOEpatents

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al2O3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  18. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klinger, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2013-11-26

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li.sup.+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  19. Gamma ray sterilization of delta inulin adjuvant particles (Advax™) makes minor, partly reversible structural changes without affecting adjuvant activity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P D; Barclay, T G; Ginic-Markovic, M; Petrovsky, N

    2014-01-23

    We earlier identified a developmental series of seven isoforms/polymorphs of microparticulate inulin by comparing non-covalent bonding strengths. Their pharmaceutical utility lies in the modulation of cellular immunity, exploited as vaccine adjuvants (Advax™) especially for delta inulin (DI). As such particles cannot be sterilized by filtration we explore the effect of (60)Co gamma radiation (GR) on inulin isoforms, particularly DI. Its adjuvant activity and overt physical properties were unaffected by normal GR sterilizing doses (up to 25kGy). Heating irradiated isoform suspensions near their critical dissolution temperature revealed increased solubility deduced to reflect a single lethal event in one component of a multi-component structure. Local oxidative effects of GR on DI were not found. The observed DI loss was almost halved by re-annealing at the critical temperature: surviving inulin chains apparently reassemble into smaller amounts of the original type of structure. Colorimetric tetrazolium assay revealed increases in reducing activity after GR of raw inulin powder, which yielded DI with normal physical properties but only 25% normal recovery yet 4× normal reducing ability, implying final retention of some GR-changed inulin chains. These findings suggest minimal inulin chain cleavage and confirm that GR may be a viable strategy for terminal sterilization of microparticulate inulin adjuvants.

  20. Making healthy eating and physical activity policy practice: process evaluation of a group randomized controlled intervention in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs’ (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying factors essential to meeting HE-PA Standards, while 10 control ASPs continued routine practice. All programs, intervention and control, were assigned a STEPs for HE-PA index score based on implementation. Mixed-effects linear regressions showed high implementation ASPs had the greatest percentage of boys and girls achieving 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (47.3 and 29.3%), followed by low implementation ASPs (41.3 and 25.0%), and control ASPs (34.8 and 18.5%). For healthy eating, high/low implementation programs served fruits and vegetables an equivalent number of days, but more days than control programs (74.0 and 79.1% of days versus 14.2%). A similar pattern emerged for the percent of days sugar-sweetened foods and beverages were served, with high and low implementation programs serving sugar-sweetened foods (8.0 and 8.4% of days versus 52.2%), and beverages (8.7 and 2.9% of days versus 34.7%) equivalently, but less often than control programs. Differences in characteristics and implementation of STEPs for HE-PA between high/low implementers were also identified. PMID:26590240

  1. Making Lemonade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Erin

    2009-01-01

    In the current economic climate, alumni associations are taking hard looks at their budgets and making cuts where necessary. However, the recession is an opportunity for alumni associations to create and build alumni loyalty through networking and career services--when they are needed most. Many alumni association budgets are set through the end…

  2. Dynamics of Sequential Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Huerta, Ramón; Afraimovich, Valentin

    2006-11-01

    We suggest a new paradigm for intelligent decision-making suitable for dynamical sequential activity of animals or artificial autonomous devices that depends on the characteristics of the internal and external world. To do it we introduce a new class of dynamical models that are described by ordinary differential equations with a finite number of possibilities at the decision points, and also include rules solving this uncertainty. Our approach is based on the competition between possible cognitive states using their stable transient dynamics. The model controls the order of choosing successive steps of a sequential activity according to the environment and decision-making criteria. Two strategies (high-risk and risk-aversion conditions) that move the system out of an erratic environment are analyzed.

  3. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2006-04-04

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  4. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2004-07-13

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  5. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  6. Helping Italian science teachers to make earth and climate active lessons. Results of 3 years support with the ICLEEN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, M.

    2013-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that in Italy Earth and Climate System Sciences Education (ESS) is one of the scientific disciplines where science teachers show a greatest need in terms of professional support. Among the causes that have been reported we should mention: the predominance of science teachers with a degree in biological disciplines rather then geo-logical or physical topics, and the high interdisciplinarity of certain topics, in particular those related to the climate system. Furthermore, it was found that ESS topics are predominant in the science curricula of those grades in which have been reported the major students dropout rates during the whole italian school cycle . In this context, in 2010, the MUSE, the Museum of Science of Trento (Italy), created a web-based service named I-Cleen (Inquring on Climate and Energy www.icleen.muse.it). This is a tool aimed at promoting the collaboration among science teachers in order to share resources and enhance the professional collaboration by means of participatory methods and models belonging to the world of open source and open content. The main instrument of the I-CLEEN project is an online repository (with metadata compliant with the DCMI and LOM international standards) of teaching resources focused on Earth and Climate Sciences all published under the Creative Commons license Attribution 3.0 and therefore, belonging to the model of OER (Open Educational Resources). The service has been designed, developed and managed by a team consisting of very experiencing science teachers and scientists from the Museum and other partners research institutions. The editorial work is carried out online utilizing a specific platform made with LifeRay, a CMS (Content Management System) software that is open source and manageable in a single Java-frameworked environment using the dbase, the website, the editorial process and several web 2.0 services. The project has been subjected to two distinct testing activities in

  7. Making Images That Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The history of the moving image (the cinema) is well documented in books and on the Internet. This article offers a number of activities that can easily be carried out in a science class. They make use of the phenomenon of "Persistence of Vision." The activities presented herein demonstrate the functionality of the phenakistoscope, the…

  8. Making Connections with Estimation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobato, Joanne E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes four methods to structure estimation activities that enable students to make connections between their understanding of numbers and extensions of those concepts to estimating. Presents activities that connect estimation with other curricular areas, other mathematical topics, and real-world applications. (MDH)

  9. Tighter αC-helix–αL16-helix interactions seem to make p38α less prone to activation by autophosphorylation than Hog1

    PubMed Central

    Tesker, Masha; Selamat, Sadiduddin Edbe; Beenstock, Jonah; Hayouka, Ruchama; Livnah, Oded; Engelberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic protein kinases (EPKs) are autoactivated through autophosphorylation of their activation loop. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases do not autophosphorylate spontaneously; relying instead upon mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MKKs) for their activation loop phosphorylation. Yet, in previous studies we identified mutations in the yeast MAPK high osmolarity glycerol (Hog1) that render it capable of spontaneous autophosphorylation and consequently intrinsically active (MKK-independent). Four of the mutations occurred in hydrophobic residues, residing in the αC-helix, which is conserved in all EPKs, and in the αL16-helix that is unique to MAPKs. These four residues interact together forming a structural element termed ‘hydrophobic core’. A similar element exists in the Hog1’s mammalian orthologues p38s. Here we show that the ‘hydrophobic core’ is a loose suppressor of Hog1’s autophosphorylation. We inserted 18 point mutations into this core, 17 of which were able to render Hog1 MKK-independent. In p38s, however, only a very few mutations in the equivalent residues rendered these proteins intrinsically active. Structural analysis revealed that a salt bridge between the αC-helix and the αL16-helix that exists in p38α may not exist in Hog1. This bond further stabilizes the ‘hydrophobic core’ of p38, making p38 less prone to de-repressing its concealed autophosphorylation. Mutating equivalent hydrophobic residues in Jnk1 and Erk2 has no effect on their autophosphorylation. We propose that specific structural elements developed in the course of evolution to suppress spontaneous autophosphorylation of Hog1/p38. The suppressors were kept wobbly, probably to allow activation by induced autophosphorylation, but became stricter in mammalian p38s than in the yeast Hog1. PMID:26987986

  10. A Year of Hands-on Science: Exciting Theme Units with More Than 100 Activities, Projects, and Experiments To Make Science Come Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne; Novelli, Joan, Ed.

    This book contains 18 themed teaching units with 2 themes per chapter, organized seasonally around the traditional school year. Each theme includes natural connections and hands-on science activities that correspond to what children are already observing in their world. Each chapter begins with highlights of the month and a reproducible "Science…

  11. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  12. A resolution establishing a Select Committee of the Senate to make a full and thorough investigation of the unauthorized disclosures of apparently classified information concerning the National Security Agency intelligence-collection programs, operations, and activities, including programs affecting Americans, to make findings based upon the investigation, and to make recommendations based on the investigation and findings.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. McCain, John [R-AZ

    2014-02-04

    02/04/2014 Referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration. (text of measure as introduced: CR S765-767) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Stop making plans; start making decisions.

    PubMed

    Mankins, Michael C; Steele, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Many executives have grown skeptical of strategic planning. Is it any wonder? Despite all the time and energy that go into it, strategic planning most often acts as a barrier to good decision making and does little to influence strategy. Strategic planning fails because of two factors: It typically occurs annually, and it focuses on individual business units. As such, the process is completely at odds with the way executives actually make important strategy decisions, which are neither constrained by the calendar nor defined by unit boundaries. Thus, according to a survey of 156 large companies, senior executives often make strategic decisions outside the planning process, in an ad hoc fashion and without rigorous analysis or productive debate. But companies can fix the process if they attack its root problems. A few forward-looking firms have thrown out their calendar-driven, business-unit-focused planning procedures and replaced them with continuous, issues-focused decision making. In doing so, they rely on several basic principles: They separate, but integrate, decision making and plan making. They focus on a few key themes. And they structure strategy reviews to produce real decisions. When companies change the timing and focus of strategic planning, they also change the nature of senior management's discussions about strategy--from "review and approve" to "debate and decide," in which top executives actively think through every major decision and its implications for the company's performance and value. The authors have found that these companies make more than twice as many important strategic decisions per year as companies that follow the traditional planning model.

  14. Making and Using Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes nine articles that discuss audiovisuals in junior and senior high school libraries. Highlights include skills that various media require and foster; teaching students how to make effective audiovisuals; film production; state media contests; library orientation videos; slide-tape shows; photographic skills; and the use of audiovisuals to…

  15. Designing for Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  16. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  17. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of small cationic amphipathic aminobenzamide marine natural product mimics and evaluation of relevance against clinical isolates including ESBL-CARBA producing multi-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Igumnova, Elizaveta M; Mishchenko, Ekaterina; Haug, Tor; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Sollid, Johanna U Ericson; Fredheim, Elizabeth G Aarag; Lauksund, Silje; Stensvåg, Klara; Strøm, Morten B

    2016-11-15

    A library of small aminobenzamide derivatives was synthesised to explore a cationic amphipathic motif found in marine natural antimicrobials. The most potent compound E23 displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5-2μg/ml against several Gram-positive bacterial strains, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).E23 was also potent against 275 clinical isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and ESBL-CARBA producing multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The study demonstrates how structural motifs found in marine natural antimicrobials can be a valuable source for making novel antimicrobial lead-compounds.

  18. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Method of making diode structures

    DOEpatents

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Gupta, Akhlesh

    2006-11-28

    A method of making a diode structure includes the step of depositing a transparent electrode layer of any one or more of the group ZnO, ZnS and CdO onto a substrate layer, and depositing an active semiconductor junction having an n-type layer and a p-type layer onto the transparent electrode layer under process conditions that avoid substantial degradation of the electrode layer. A back electrode coating layer is applied to form a diode structure.

  20. Making recombinant extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Florence; Koch, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    A variety of approaches to understand extracellular matrix protein structure and function require production of recombinant proteins. Moreover, the expression of heterologous extracellular matrix proteins, in particular collagens, using the recombinant technology is of major interest to the biomedical industry. Although extracellular matrix proteins are large, modular and often multimeric, most of them have been successfully produced in various expression systems. This review provides important factors, including the design of the construct, the cloning strategies, the expression vectors, the transfection method and the host cell systems, to consider in choosing a reliable and cost-effective way to make recombinant extracellular matrix proteins. Advantages and drawbacks of each system have been appraised. Protocols that may ease efficient recombinant production of extracellular matrix are described. Emphasis is placed on the recombinant collagen production. Members of the collagen superfamily exhibit specific structural features and generally require complex post-translational modifications to retain full biological activity that make more arduous their recombinant production.

  1. Making starch.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M

    1999-06-01

    Improvements in understanding the structure of the starch granule and the nature and roles of starch-synthesising enzymes have allowed detailed mechanisms of the synthesis of the amylopectin and amylose components of the granule to be suggested. However, none of these proposed mechanisms has yet been shown to operate in vivo. Several critical aspects of granule synthesis, including granule initiation and the formation of the growth rings, remain a mystery.

  2. The relationship between chemical concentration and odor activity value explains the inconsistency in making a comprehensive surrogate scent training tool representative of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A

    2015-12-01

    This report highlights the importance of an individual chemical's odor impact in the olfactory identification of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. There are small amounts of highly odorous compounds present in headspace of these drugs, with very low odor detection thresholds, that are more likely responsible for contributing to the overall odor of these drugs. Previous reports of the most abundant compounds in headspace can mislead researchers when dealing with whole odor of these drugs. Surrogate scent formulations, therefore, must match the odor impact of key compounds and not just the chemical abundance of compounds. The objective of this study was to compare odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from illicit drug samples of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin to surrogate smell formulations using simultaneous sensory (via human olfaction) and chemical analyses. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed VOCs in drug headspace to be extracted and pre-concentrated on site, and analyzed by multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O). Use of MDGC-MS-O allowed for further separation of odorous compounds and simultaneous detection by the human nose of the separate odor parts that make up the total aroma of these drugs. The compounds most abundant in headspace were not the most odor impactful when ranked by odor activity values (OAVs) (defined as ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold, ODT). There were no apparent correlations between concentrations and OAVs. A 1g marijuana surrogate lacked in odor active acids, aldehydes, ethers, hydrocarbons, N-containing, and S-containing VOCs and was overabundant in odor active alcohols and aromatics compared with real marijuana. A 1g cocaine surrogate was overabundant in odor active alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, esters, ethers, halogenates, hydrocarbons, ketones and N-containing compounds compared with real. A 1g heroin surrogate should contain less odor active acids

  3. The Study of Animal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce

    1971-01-01

    Describes how to measure the daily rhythm of activity (photoperiodism) of small mammals. Three methods for recording information are reviewed including instructions for making a recorder. Includes suggestions for activities and experiments. (PR)

  4. Image-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Rosalind; Simon, Marcia

    1992-01-01

    Describes Image-Making, a workshop in creative bookmaking based on a series of simple, carefully structured, parallel verbal and visual activities. Explains how each teacher and student designed and created an individual book (of his or her own poems and visual images) and a large communal book. (MG)

  5. Making Rainforests Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustbader, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program for teaching about tropical rainforests in a concrete way using what's outside the door. This activity uses an eastern deciduous hardwood forest as an example. Step-by-step instructions include introductory activities, plus descriptions of stations in the forest to be visited. Resources include books, audio-visual materials,…

  6. Making strides

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Burr, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Inge Fretheim, president of Amoco Power Resources Corp., was speaking to an audience of developers, finance executives and other power industry leader at the Fifth Annual Independent Energy Forum in New York City last October. {open_quotes}A deregulated framework should include market competition, not just private investment that the government defines,{close_quotes} he said. {open_quotes}Governments that only seek to increase the efficiency of power generation itself will not see the full benefits that the IPP industry can bring to the table.{close_quotes} The industry has made significant progress in many markets around the world in the past year, but a number of obstacles are still standing in developers` way. As Fretheim pointed out, in many cases project tender solicitations are too rigid to allow the competitive process to achieve its full potential. When companies are asked to bid on a pre-defined {open_quotes}box,{close_quotes} they are not able to bring their full palette of skills and resources to the canvas. Competitive bidding has during the past year become a favorite means of awarding project contracts in many countries around the world. This trend reflect the increasing state of competitiveness in the global power industry. New financing sources are emerging, but not enough to fill the gap. Numerous examples of the industry`s consolidation--including the Enron/Portland General merger. Southern Energy International`s purchase of Consolidated Electric Power Asia and Tractebel`s acquisition of CRSS Capital and several plants in the United States--point toward an industry of large, trans-border utility companies.

  7. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  8. Let's Make Pots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicuranza, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project for high school chemistry students that links science with art: making glazed ceramic pots. Includes materials list, base glaze recipe, step-by-step procedures for setting up a lab, and the time frame involved. Text for students covers the history of earthenware pottery, fundamentals of working with clay, description of the…

  9. Comprehensive Trail Making Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is designed to be used in neuropsychological assessment for the purposes of detecting effects of brain defects and deficits and in tracking progress in rehabilitation. More specific purposes include the detection of frontal lobe deficits, problems with psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing,…

  10. Making People Feel Valued.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergueson, Susan; Aimone, Logan

    2002-01-01

    Suggests many quick, easy and inexpensive ways to help make staff members of student publications feel valued and keep staff motivation levels high. Includes additional articles that describe how an editor can support efforts to motivate, suggest that staff retreats lead to success, note how banquets serve as reward, and suggest some favorite…

  11. Making Desegregation Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jerry C.

    Some of the tasks undertaken by the Pittsburgh Public Schools over the past 10 years in the continuing effort to make desegregation work include the construction of new buildings and the renovation of old, restructuring of school attendance patterns, development of innovative programs, utilization of community resources and support, and the…

  12. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 85Sr to include the 2009 result of the POLATOM (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Dziel, T.; Listkowska, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1975, ten laboratories have submitted 27 samples of known activity of 85Sr to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.2 MBq and 19 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the primary standardization result for the POLATOM, Poland. There are now four results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. 25 CFR 162.016 - Will BIA comply with tribal laws in making lease decisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... laws in making lease decisions? Unless contrary to Federal law, BIA will comply with tribal laws in making decisions regarding leases, including tribal laws regulating activities on leased land under... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Will BIA comply with tribal laws in making...

  14. Let's Make Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang-Jensen, Valerie

    1986-01-01

    A learning experience designed to expand primary students' knowledge of what is and is not magic is described. Included are activities involving language arts, math, art, class discussion, and motor skills. (MT)

  15. You Make the Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradway, Heather A.

    2001-01-01

    Explains a laboratory activity in which students study the effects of balanced and unbalanced nutrition on individuals' health by examining simulated urine samples. Uses a journal writing approach and includes laboratory instructions. (YDS)

  16. Realism and Impartiality: Making Sustainability Effective in Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Bastons, Miquel; Armengou, Jaume

    2016-11-24

    There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them. Based on this double perspective, sustainability is explored as a method for decision-making which both expands the assessment of the consequences, and also provides an objective criterion for such assessment. It will be argued that the idea of sustainability, seen from this perspective, brings to decision-making two qualities which had been partially lost: realism and impartiality. In turn, the criteria for realism and impartiality in decision-making can be used to identify the limitations of some partial approaches to sustainability, which suffer from insufficient realism (emotional altruism), insufficient impartiality (tactical altruism) or both phenomena at once (egoism). The article concludes by demonstrating how realism and impartiality provide the basis for a new form of sustainable decision-making (ethical sustainability), which is dependent on the development of two moral virtues, prudence and benevolence, and which brings practical effectiveness and ethical sense to the concept of sustainability.

  17. Make it a Lesson They'll Never Forget!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Kristen

    1999-01-01

    Suggestions for creating memorable lessons that keep students' attention include the following: relate what is being taught to students' lives and interests, give students choices, show students that you enjoy teaching, include human emotion and human interest stories, reduce students' negative emotions, make lessons interesting and active, vary…

  18. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  19. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  20. Nothing in Evolution Makes Sense Except in the Light of Genomics: Read-Write Genome Evolution as an Active Biological Process.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, James A

    2016-06-08

    The 21st century genomics-based analysis of evolutionary variation reveals a number of novel features impossible to predict when Dobzhansky and other evolutionary biologists formulated the neo-Darwinian Modern Synthesis in the middle of the last century. These include three distinct realms of cell evolution; symbiogenetic fusions forming eukaryotic cells with multiple genome compartments; horizontal organelle, virus and DNA transfers; functional organization of proteins as systems of interacting domains subject to rapid evolution by exon shuffling and exonization; distributed genome networks integrated by mobile repetitive regulatory signals; and regulation of multicellular development by non-coding lncRNAs containing repetitive sequence components. Rather than single gene traits, all phenotypes involve coordinated activity by multiple interacting cell molecules. Genomes contain abundant and functional repetitive components in addition to the unique coding sequences envisaged in the early days of molecular biology. Combinatorial coding, plus the biochemical abilities cells possess to rearrange DNA molecules, constitute a powerful toolbox for adaptive genome rewriting. That is, cells possess "Read-Write Genomes" they alter by numerous biochemical processes capable of rapidly restructuring cellular DNA molecules. Rather than viewing genome evolution as a series of accidental modifications, we can now study it as a complex biological process of active self-modification.

  1. Nothing in Evolution Makes Sense Except in the Light of Genomics: Read–Write Genome Evolution as an Active Biological Process

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The 21st century genomics-based analysis of evolutionary variation reveals a number of novel features impossible to predict when Dobzhansky and other evolutionary biologists formulated the neo-Darwinian Modern Synthesis in the middle of the last century. These include three distinct realms of cell evolution; symbiogenetic fusions forming eukaryotic cells with multiple genome compartments; horizontal organelle, virus and DNA transfers; functional organization of proteins as systems of interacting domains subject to rapid evolution by exon shuffling and exonization; distributed genome networks integrated by mobile repetitive regulatory signals; and regulation of multicellular development by non-coding lncRNAs containing repetitive sequence components. Rather than single gene traits, all phenotypes involve coordinated activity by multiple interacting cell molecules. Genomes contain abundant and functional repetitive components in addition to the unique coding sequences envisaged in the early days of molecular biology. Combinatorial coding, plus the biochemical abilities cells possess to rearrange DNA molecules, constitute a powerful toolbox for adaptive genome rewriting. That is, cells possess “Read–Write Genomes” they alter by numerous biochemical processes capable of rapidly restructuring cellular DNA molecules. Rather than viewing genome evolution as a series of accidental modifications, we can now study it as a complex biological process of active self-modification. PMID:27338490

  2. Making a Submarine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchia, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Archimedes principle and why a ship sinks when it gets a hole in it. Suggests an activity for teaching the concept of density and water displacement through the construction of a simple submarine. Includes materials and procedures for this activity. (KHR)

  3. Clinically relevant HIF-1α-dependent metabolic reprogramming in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas includes coordinated activation of CAIX and the miR-210/ISCU signaling axis, but not MCT1 and MCT4 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Inés; Bernardo-Castiñeira, Cristóbal; Secades, Pablo; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Sandra; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Chiara, María-Dolores

    2017-01-13

    Metabolic reprogramming is a very heterogeneous phenomenon in cancer. It mostly consists on increased glycolysis, lactic acid formation and extracellular acidification. These events have been associated to increased activity of the hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1α. This study aimed at defining the metabolic program activated by HIF-1α in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and assessing its clinical impact. Global gene/miRNA expression was analyzed in SCC-derived cells exposed to hypoxia. Expression of HIF-1α, the carbonic anhydrase CAIX, and the lactate/H+ transporters MCT1 and MCT4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 246 SCCs. Cell-based analysis revealed that HIF-1α-driven metabolic program includes over-expression of glycolytic enzymes and the microRNA miR-210 coupled to down-regulation of its target, the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein, ISCU. pH-regulator program entailed over-expression of CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4. Accordingly, significant overlapping exists between over-expression of HIF-1α and CAIX, but not HIF-1α and MCT1 or MCT4, in tumor cells. Increased miR-210 and concomitant decreased ISCU RNA levels were found in ~40% of tumors and this was significantly associated with HIF-1α and CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4, over-expression. HIF-1α and/or CAIX over-expression was associated with high recurrence rate and low overall survival of surgically treated patients. By contrast, clinically significant correlations were not found in tumors with MCT1 or MCT4 over-expression. This is the first study that provides in vivo evidences of coordinated activation of HIF-1α, CAIX, miR-210 and ISCU in carcinoma and association with poor prognosis, a finding with important implications for the development of metabolic-targeting therapies against hypoxia.

  4. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  5. Making and Differentiating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    The rocky planets formed by progressive aggregation of dust to make planetesimals which joined to make large objects called planetary embryos that finally accumulated into planets, one of which we live on. This chaotic process is complicated further by chemical changes with distance from the Sun, including differences in oxidation conditions and water concentration. Once the inner planets began to form, metallic iron sank to form cores, reacting with the rocky portions in the process. David C. Rubie (University of Bayreuth, Germany) and colleagues in Germany, France, and the United States put all this planetary action into an impressively thorough computer model of planet formation and differentiation. They show that the observed compositions of the Earth can be matched by simulations that include the Grand Tack (Jupiter and Saturn migrate inwards towards the Sun and then back out), and chemical gradients in the Solar System, with more reducing conditions near the Sun, more oxidizing farther from the Sun, and oxidizing and hydrated conditions even farther from the Sun. The study identifies other important variables, such as the extent to which metallic iron chemically equilibrated with the silicate making up the Earth's mantle, the pressure at which it happened, and the likelihood that Earth accreted heterogeneously.

  6. Where are multisensory signals combined for perceptual decision-making?

    PubMed

    Bizley, Jennifer K; Jones, Gareth P; Town, Stephen M

    2016-10-01

    Multisensory integration is observed in many subcortical and cortical locations including primary and non-primary sensory cortex, and higher cortical areas including frontal and parietal cortex. During unisensory perceptual tasks many of these same brain areas show neural signatures associated with decision-making. It is unclear whether multisensory representations in sensory cortex directly inform decision-making in a multisensory task, or if cross-modal signals are only combined after the accumulation of unisensory evidence at a final decision-making stage in higher cortical areas. Manipulations of neuronal activity are required to establish causal roles for given brain regions in multisensory perceptual decision-making, and so far indicate that distributed networks underlie multisensory decision-making. Understanding multisensory integration requires synthesis of small-scale pathway specific and large-scale network level manipulations.

  7. The Effectiveness of Using Linguistic Classroom Activities in Teaching English Language in Developing the Skills of Oral Linguistic Performance and Decision Making Skill among Third Grade Intermediate Students in Makah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshareef, Fahd Majed

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to reveal the effectiveness of the use of certain classroom language activities in teaching English language in the development of oral linguistic performance and decision-making among intermediate third-grade students in Makah, and it revealed a statistically significant correlation relationship between the averages of the study…

  8. It's the 11th Hour in Your Teen's High School Career! Do You Know Where Your Kids Are Going? Parental Activities To Help Your Adolescent Make a Successful Transition to Life after High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Suzanne; Gahris, Cynthia; Reeder, Marcia; Tizzano, Anthony

    This document, which is intended for parents of Ohio students in grade 11, explains the purpose and content of the Career Passport and provides activities through which parents can help their adolescents make a successful transition to life after high school. The document begins with an overview of the Career Passport, which is a five-part…

  9. Implications of the Naturalistic Decision Making Framework for Information Dominance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    Information Dominance , defined as an operational advantage obtained through superior effectiveness of informational activity. NDM is the study of how people use their experience to make decisions in field settings. Expertise was considered at both the individual and the team level of decision making. The report defines the components of expertise and identifies obstacles to the acquisition of Information Dominance . These obstacles include: (1) excessive data, (2) pre-processed data, (3) excessive procedures, (4) performing formal analyses, (5) passive

  10. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Günther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  11. Make Astrobiology Yours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, I will give the AbGradCon attendees an overview of astrobiology activities ongoing at NASA as well as a brief description of the various funding programs and careers that they can pursue. After this, I will present to them the case that the future of the field is theirs to determine, and give input on how to effectively make astrobiology and NASA responsive to the needs of the community. This presentation will leverage my experiences leading various efforts in the early career astrobiology community, where I have served as a conference organizer, primer lead editor, community blogger, and unofficial liaison to NASA headquarters.

  12. ABC's of Higher Education. Getting Back to the Basics: An Activity-Based Costing Approach to Planning and Financial Decision Making. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Kelline S.; Downey, Ronald G.; Smith, Laurinda G.

    This paper describes the activity-based costing approach used to report and capture the time spent by faculty for specified activities at one Midwestern university. For each department, four major areas (instruction, research, public service, and administration) and 14 activities were identified. During the annual goal-setting period, each faculty…

  13. The Arabs: Activities for the Elementary School Level. The Things that Make for Peace: Empowering Children To Value Themselves and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabbas, Audrey; And Others

    These activities for teaching elementary school students about the Arab people are designed to reflect the principles of peace education: respect for one's self, others, and for the planet. The activities are hands-on in nature and designed with the "whole child" in mind. The activities integrate movement, fine muscle and large muscle…

  14. Which Country Will Make You the Most Money? Ninth-Twelfth Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drieberg, Denver

    Foreign Currency Exchange is the largest business in the world. The New York Institute of Finance estimates that somewhere around 1.5 trillion dollars changes hands every 24 hours. The trading of international currencies has made overnight millionaires. No other marketplace in the world can give a person more significant opportunity to make money…

  15. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  16. Include Passive Solar in Your Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Gerald F.; Probasco, Jack F.

    1981-01-01

    A checklist covers potential energy saving modifications in a building scheduled for renovation, and includes suggestions for room utilization, landscaping, and building envelope, solar control, and active system modifications. (Author)

  17. SH2B1beta (SH2-Bbeta) enhances expression of a subset of nerve growth factor-regulated genes important for neuronal differentiation including genes encoding urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloproteinase 3/10.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linyi; Maures, Travis J; Jin, Hui; Huo, Jeffrey S; Rabbani, Shafaat A; Schwartz, Jessica; Carter-Su, Christin

    2008-02-01

    Previous work showed that the adapter protein SH2B adapter protein 1beta (SH2B1) (SH2-B) binds to the activated form of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor TrkA and is critical for both NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth and maintenance. To identify SH2B1beta-regulated genes critical for neurite outgrowth, we performed microarray analysis of control PC12 cells and PC12 cells stably overexpressing SH2B1beta (PC12-SH2B1beta) or the dominant-negative SH2B1beta(R555E) [PC12-SH2B1beta(R555E)]. NGF-induced microarray expression of Plaur and Mmp10 genes was greatly enhanced in PC12-SH2B1beta cells, whereas NGF-induced Plaur and Mmp3 expression was substantially depressed in PC12-SH2B1beta(R555E) cells. Plaur, Mmp3, and Mmp10 are among the 12 genes most highly up-regulated after 6 h of NGF. Their protein products [urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), and MMP10] lie in the same pathway of extracellular matrix degradation; uPAR has been shown previously to be critical for NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed SH2B1beta enhancement of NGF induction of all three genes and the suppression of NGF induction of all three when endogenous SH2B1 was reduced using short hairpin RNA against SH2B1 and in PC12-SH2B1beta(R555E) cells. NGF-induced levels of uPAR and MMP3/10 and neurite outgrowth through Matrigel (MMP3-dependent) were also increased in PC12-SH2B1beta cells. These results suggest that SH2B1beta stimulates NGF-induced neuronal differentiation at least in part by enhancing expression of a specific subset of NGF-sensitive genes, including Plaur, Mmp3, and/or Mmp10, required for neurite outgrowth.

  18. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance.

  19. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  20. Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrington, Susan; DeLacy, Ann

    1993-01-01

    To reverse African-American youngsters' low achievement pattern, one Maryland middle school initiated the African-American Student Achievement Program. Plan devised strategies to improve African-American students' academic achievement, school participation, and academic self-esteem. Activities include homework club, MESA (Math, Engineering, and…

  1. Making Minneapolis Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes several projects currently underway in Minneapolis to overcome the problems of poor population density, no downtown after-dark activity, lack of a mass transit system, pollution, congestion and a cold climate. Solutions include parkways, enclosed public space, the new-town-in-town concept, greenways, and restoration. (BT)

  2. Making Mitosis Visible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle; Linn, Marcia C.; Hollowell, Gail P.

    2008-01-01

    The Technology-Enhanced Learning in Science (TELS) center, a National Science Foundation-funded Center for Learning and Teaching, offers research-tested science modules for students in grades 6-12 (Linn et al. 2006). These free, online modules engage students in scientific inquiry through collaborative activities that include online…

  3. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients.

  4. Making Connections to the "Real World": A Model Building Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horibe, Shusaku; Underwood, Bret

    2009-01-01

    Classroom activities that include the process of model building, in which students build simplified physical representations of a system, have the potential to help students make meaningful connections between physics and the real world. We describe a lesson designed with this intent for an introductory college classroom that engages students in…

  5. A Sense-Making Approach to Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosegbe-Okoka, Clara

    2004-01-01

    This study describes a conceptual teaching approach that helps students make connections between their everyday activities and mathematical word problems. It includes a brief review of the importance of teaching for understanding and describes four principles of conceptual teaching: (1) use cooperative groups; (2) allow students enough time to act…

  6. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  7. Larvicidal activity of Blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including Zika virus vectors: the promising potential of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene, carvotanacetone and dodecyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Senthilmurugan, Sengamalai; Vijayan, Periasamy; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M

    2017-04-01

    The effective and environmentally sustainable control of mosquitoes is a challenge of essential importance. This is due to the fact that some invasive mosquitoes, with special reference to the Aedes genus, are particularly difficult to control, due to their high ecological plasticity. Moreover, the indiscriminate overuse of synthetic insecticides resulted in undesirable effects on human health and non-target organisms, as well as resistance development in targeted vectors. Here, the leaf essential oil (EO) extracted from a scarcely studied plant of ethno-medicinal interest, Blumea eriantha (Asteraceae), was tested on the larvae of six mosquitoes, including Zika virus vectors. The B. eriantha EO was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The B. eriantha EO showed high toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of six important mosquito species: Anopheles stephensi (LC50=41.61 μg/ml), Aedes aegypti (LC50=44.82 μg/ml), Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50 =48.92 μg/ml), Anopheles subpictus (LC50=51.21 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50=56.33 μg/ml) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=61.33 μg/ml). The major components found in B. eriantha EO were (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene (12.8%), carvotanacetone (10.6%), and dodecyl acetate (8.9%). Interestingly, two of the main EO components, (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone, achieved LC50 lower than 10 μg/ml on all tested mosquito species. The acute toxicity of B. eriantha EO and its major constituents on four aquatic predators of mosquito larval instars was limited, with LC50 ranging from 519 to 11.431 μg/ml. Overall, the larvicidal activity of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone far exceed most of the LC50 calculated in current literature on mosquito botanical larvicides, allowing us to propose both of them as potentially alternatives for developing eco-friendly mosquito control tools.

  8. A combination of gefitinib and FOLFOX-4 as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer patients. A GISCAD multicentre phase II study including a biological analysis of EGFR overexpression, amplification and NF-kB activation

    PubMed Central

    Cascinu, S; Berardi, R; Salvagni, S; Beretta, G D; Catalano, V; Pucci, F; Sobrero, A; Tagliaferri, P; Labianca, R; Scartozzi, M; Crocicchio, F; Mari, E; Ardizzoni, A

    2007-01-01

    Interesting activity has been reported by combining chemotherapy with cetuximab. An alternative approach for blocking EGFR function has been the development of small-molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinase domain such as gefitinib. We designed a multicentre phase II study in advanced colorectal cancer combining gefitinib+FOLFOX in order to determine the activity and to relate EGFR expression and gene amplification and NF-kB activation to therapeutic results. Patients received FOLFOX-4 regimen plus gefitinib as first-line treatment. Tumour samples were analysed for EGFR protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis and for EGFR gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) and NF-kB activation. Forty-three patients were enrolled into this study; 15 patients experienced a partial response (response rate=34.9%), whereas other 12 (27.9%) had a stable disease. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.8 months and median overall survival (OS) was 13.9 months. We did not find any relationship with EGFR overexpression, gene amplification, while NF-kB activation was associated with a resistance to therapy. Gefitinib does not seem to increase the activity of FOLFOX in advanced colorectal cancer even in patients overexpressing EGFR or with EGFR amplification. Furthermore, while NF-kB activation seems to predict resistance to chemotherapy as demonstrated ‘in vitro' models, gefitinib does not overcome this mechanism of resistance, as reported for cetuximab. PMID:18059397

  9. Make a Splash with Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Helen

    1989-01-01

    Several across-the-curriculum activities, with a penguin theme, are described. Research, discussion, science, writing, math, and art activities are listed. Included is a list of resources which gives sources for books and posters. (IAH)

  10. Bathymetric Mapping: Making Underwater Profile Charts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettus, Alvin M.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on mapping activities designed to provide simulated experiences that help students understand the techniques used to measure and represent underwater terrain without making direct visual observations. (DDR)

  11. Decision making in neonatologia.

    PubMed

    Paterlini, G; Tagliabue, P

    2010-06-01

    The field of neonatology presents a fascinating context in which hugely important decisions have to be made on the basis of physicians' assessments of the long term consequences of various possible choices. In many cases such assessments cannot be derived from a consensual professional opinion; the situation is characterized by a high level of uncertainty. A sample of neonatologists in different countries received a questionnaire including vignette cases for which no clear consensus exists regarding the (probabilistic) prognosis. They were asked to (I) assess the probability of various outcomes (death, severe impairment) and (II) choose a treatment to be offered to the parents. Information on the physicians' professional and socio-demographic characteristics and their ethical "values" was also collected. The goal of this international survey is to understand the prognosis and to analyze decision making by professionals in the context of life and death in medicine. The availability of an identical technology in different social and institutional contexts should help identifying the convergences and differences under consideration. Seventy percent of those invited responded to the questionnaire (International 60-80%). Italian neonatologists seem to be quite pessimistic about the prognosis of infants at high risk of death or long term disabilities, they show a pro-life attitude, but in a certain proportion are willing to change their minds if requested by parents. Furthermore personal opinions predominate in the decision-making process and the contribution of team meeting and/or ethic consultation seem not significantly modify the decisions.

  12. Making space part of general education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    General education reform is on-going at many universities to, in part, make undergraduate students more technically literate. The space program provides an area of study that is still exciting to students, provides technical content, and can incorporate the other goals. Additionally, human space activity contains international and interdisciplinary dimensions that can reach students outside of the technical disciplines. The development and contents of a space education course to become part of the university's general education program open to all students is presented. Included in the presentation is a listing of the course materials to be used by the students.

  13. Strengthening Innovation in the Netherlands: Making Better Use of Knowledge Creation in Innovation Activities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 479

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard; Oyomopito, Rebecca; Theisens, Jelte

    2006-01-01

    Strengthening the innovation system in the Netherlands is a priority for raising productivity growth, which has been relatively weak in recent years. Knowledge creation in the Netherlands is strong -- scientific publications per capita are the sixth highest in the OECD -- but innovation activity is only around the average for OECD countries…

  14. Healthy Children, Healthy Families: Parents Making a Difference! A Curriculum Integrating Key Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Parenting Practices to Help Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…

  15. Children Making Sense of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Clíona; Murphy, Colette; Kilfeather, Paula

    2011-03-01

    This study explored the effects that the incorporation of nature of science (NoS) activities in the primary science classroom had on children's perceptions and understanding of science. We compared children's ideas in four classes by inviting them to talk, draw and write about what science meant to them: two of the classes were taught by `NoS' teachers who had completed an elective nature of science (NoS) course in the final year of their Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) degree. The `non-NoS' teachers who did not attend this course taught the other two classes. All four teachers had graduated from the same initial teacher education institution with similar teaching grades and all had carried out the same science methods course during their B.Ed programme. We found that children taught by the teachers who had been NoS-trained developed more elaborate notions of nature of science, as might be expected. More importantly, their reflections on science and their science lessons evidenced a more in-depth and sophisticated articulation of the scientific process in terms of scientists "trying their best" and "sometimes getting it wrong" as well as "getting different answers". Unlike children from non-NoS classes, those who had engaged in and reflected on NoS activities talked about their own science lessons in the sense of `doing science'. These children also expressed more positive attitudes about their science lessons than those from non-NoS classes. We therefore suggest that there is added value in including NoS activities in the primary science curriculum in that they seem to help children make sense of science and the scientific process, which could lead to improved attitudes towards school science. We argue that as opposed to considering the relevance of school science only in terms of children's experience, relevance should include relevance to the world of science, and NoS activities can help children to link school science to science itself.

  16. Systems safety including DOD standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, Donald M.

    The stated purpose of MIL STD 882B (1984), which is currently the basis of all U.S. DOD criteria in the field of systems safety design and analysis, is 'To provide uniform requirements for developing and implementing a system safety program of sufficient comprehensiveness to identify the hazards of a system, and to impose design requirements and management controls to prevent mishaps by eliminating hazards or reducing the associated risk to a level acceptable to the managing activity.' Attention is presently given to safety-related issues in material acquisition activities, as well as over the course of a system's life cycle, together with accounts of current hazard-analysis techniques, risk management and system-safety control methods, human factors, and the role of interfaces.

  17. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: Does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Marion; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Lyon-Caen, Sarah; Morelli, Xavier; Cracowski, Claire; Pontet, Sabrina; Pin, Isabelle; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Slama, Rémy

    2015-11-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=-0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=-0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them.

  18. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Marion, OUIDIR; Lise, GIORGIS-ALLEMAND; Sarah, LYON-CAEN; Xavier, MORELLI; Claire, CRACOWSKI; Sabrina, PONTET; Isabelle, PIN; Johanna, LEPEULE; Valérie, SIROUX; Rémy, SLAMA

    2016-01-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=−0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=−0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. PMID:26300245

  19. Making Stories, Making Sense. Reading Education Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Andee

    Three characteristics of school writing activities that may make it difficult for students to learn to write with skill and enthusiasm are identified in this paper. They are: the solitary nature of most writing tasks, a lopsided emphasis on low-level details of text such as grammar and spelling, and the isolation of writing from reading in the…

  20. Retained platinum uptake and indifference to p53 status make novel transplatinum agents active in platinum-resistant cells compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robert F.; Komlodi-Pasztor, Edina; Robey, Rob; Balis, Frank M.; Farrell, Nicholas P.; Fojo, Tito

    2012-01-01

    Despite the clinical success of platinum-containing drugs in the treatment of solid tumors, acquired resistance remains a major obstacle. We previously identified a group of novel transplanaramine or transplatinum compounds based on distinct activity profiles in the NCI-60 panel. In the present study, parental KB-3.1 cells with wild-type p53 and its cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant sublines harboring mutant p53 proteins were used to contrast several transplatinum compounds with cisplatin and oxaliplatin. The transplatinum compounds retained cytotoxic activity in the resistant cell lines. While intracellular accumulation and DNA platination of cisplatin and oxaliplatin was decreased in the resistant cells, the transplatinum compounds both accumulated intracellularly and platinated DNA at comparable levels in all cell lines. Cytoflow analysis confirmed that cisplatin and oxaliplatin alter the cell cycle distribution and result in apoptosis; however, at comparably toxic concentrations, the transplatinum compounds did not alter the cell cycle distribution. Analysis of the cytoplasmic fraction treated with acetone showed that cisplatin and oxaliplatin readily bound to macromolecules in the pellet, whereas a larger percentage of the transplatinum compounds remained in the supernatant. We concluded that, distinct from platinum compounds currently in use, transplatinum compounds accumulate intracellularly in resistant cells at levels comparable to those in drug-sensitive cells, do not affect the cell cycle and thus retain cytotoxicity independent of p53 status and likely have cytoplasmic targets that are important in their activity. PMID:22333583

  1. Collective decision-making in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Gillespie, Adin; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are intensely social organisms that routinely cooperate and coordinate their activities to express elaborate population level phenotypes. Such coordination requires a process of collective decision-making, in which individuals detect and collate information not only from their physical environment, but also from their social environment, in order to arrive at an appropriately calibrated response. Here, we present a conceptual overview of collective decision-making as it applies to all group-living organisms; we introduce key concepts and principles developed in the context of animal and human group decisions; and we discuss, with appropriate examples, the applicability of each of these concepts in microbial contexts. In particular, we discuss the roles of information pooling, control skew, speed vs. accuracy trade-offs, local feedbacks, quorum thresholds, conflicts of interest, and the reliability of social information. We conclude that collective decision-making in microbes shares many features with collective decision-making in higher taxa, and we call for greater integration between this fledgling field and other allied areas of research, including in the humanities and the physical sciences. PMID:24624121

  2. Toy Making for Parents and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Carmen P.

    Recognizing that toy-making activities have tremendous potential for developing good parent-child interactions, this paper examines (1) the why, where, when, how, and who of making toys at home; (2) the use of toys in play; and (3) the value of toys as tools for learning. The snags and obstacles of toy making as well as the challenges and benefits…

  3. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Cassette, P.; Moune, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted seven samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. The values of the activity submitted were between about 1 MBq and 18 MBq. The primary standardization result for the LNE-LNHB, France, replaces their earlier result of 2002 and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated. In the frame of the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F18 comparison, the NPL updated their result in the KCDB. Consequently there are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Programming Makes Software; Support Makes Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batcheller, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Skilled software engineers may build fantastic software for climate modeling, yet fail to achieve their project’s objectives. Software support and related activities are just as critical as writing software. This study followed three different software projects in the climate sciences, using interviews, observation, and document analysis to examine the value added by support work. Supporting the project and interacting with users was a key task for software developers, who often spent 50% of their time on it. Such support work most often involved replying to questions on an email list, but also included talking to users on teleconference calls and in person. Software support increased adoption by building the software’s reputation and showing individuals how the software can meet their needs. In the process of providing support, developers often learned new of requirements as users reported features they desire and bugs they found. As software matures and gains widespread use, support work often increases. In fact, such increases can be one signal that the software has achieved broad acceptance. Maturing projects also find demand for instructional classes, online tutorials and detailed examples of how to use the software. The importance of support highlights the fact that building software systems involves both social and technical aspects. Yes, we need to build the software, but we also need to “build” the users and practices that can take advantage of it.

  5. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  6. Make Better Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  7. TRICARE: changes included in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010; enhancement of transitional dental care for members of the Reserve Component on active duty for more than 30 days in support of a contingency operation. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-12-28

    The Department is publishing this final rule to implement section 703 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (NDAA for FY10). Specifically, that legislation amends the transitional health care dental benefits for Reserve Component members on active duty for more than 30 days in support of a contingency operation. The legislation entitles these Reserve Component members to dental care in the same manner as a member of the uniformed services on active duty for more than 30 days, thus providing care to the Reserve member in both military dental treatment facilities and authorized private sector dental care. This final rule does not eliminate any medical or dental care that is currently covered as transitional health care for the member.

  8. Further investigation of the spontaneous and evoked activity of the primary neurons of statoreceptors (and other receptors) of the labyrinth of the bullfrog before, during and after an extended period of weightlessness, including alternative intervals of artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Vestibular neuron activity was examined by studying nerve stimulation and evoked response. A cooling element, applied to the nerve consisted of a silver hook through which a coolant fluid flowed. Temperature changes were recorded via microtermistors on an eight channel brush recorder, together with response. Diffusion of the cooling effect was measured, recovery time was assessed, and the nerve was then studied hystologically and ultrastructurally. Problems in frog preparation were discussed along with problems in maintaining healthy specimens and bacteria controlled aquaria.

  9. I: Making Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke; Johnson, Marquetta; Plemons, Anna; Makol, Suzanne; Zanskas, Meghan; Dzula, Mark; Mahoney, Meg Robson

    2014-01-01

    Writing about the teaching artist practice should mean writing about art making. As both teacher and artist, the authors are required to be cognizant of their own art-making processes, both how it works and why it is important to them, in order to make this process visible to their students. They also need the same skills to write about how and…

  10. Altered RECQL5 expression in urothelial bladder carcinoma increases cellular proliferation and makes RECQL5 helicase activity a novel target for chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Karl; Arya, Lovleen; Bottomley, Sarah; Morgan, Susan; Cox, Angela; Catto, James; Bryant, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    RECQ helicases are a family of enzymes with both over lapping and unique functions. Functional autosomal recessive loss of three members of the family BLM, WRN and RECQL4, results in hereditary human syndromes characterized by cancer predisposition and premature aging, but despite the finding that RECQL5 deficient mice are cancer prone, no such link has been made to human RECQL5. Here we demonstrate that human urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCC) has increased expression of RECQL5 compared to normal bladder tissue and that increasing RECQL5 expression can drive proliferation of normal bladder cells and is associated with poor prognosis. Further, by expressing a helicase dead RECQL5 and by depleting bladder cancer cells of RECQL5 we show that inhibition of RECQL5 activity has potential as a new target for treatment of UCC. PMID:27764811

  11. Governing the lithosphere: Insights from Eyjafjallajökull concerning the role of scientists in supporting decision-making on active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Amy; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2012-03-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, and the social consequences across the world, demonstrated some key issues in volcanological science and its application. Scientists in several nations were called upon to advise governments, to justify models and to give guidance about likely future activity. This is symptomatic of many other fields: scientists increasingly have a role in governance, and their work may be driven by questions that arise as a result. This article considers the role of scientists in different national contexts and the challenges faced in formulating scientific advice for policymakers. It concludes by assessing future challenges, and the key role that social scientific research can play. While this is a research paper and presents new data, it takes a commentary approach to elucidate some of the challenges involved in governing volcanic hazards.

  12. Factors affecting the hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase/vinylphenol reductase activity of dekkera/brettanomyces: application for dekkera/brettanomyces control in red wine making.

    PubMed

    Benito, S; Palomero, F; Morata, A; Calderón, F; Suárez-Lepe, J A

    2009-01-01

    The growth of Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts during the ageing of red wines-which can seriously reduce the quality of the final product-is difficult to control. The present study examines the hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase/vinylphenol reductase activity of different strains of Dekkera bruxellensis and Dekkera anomala under a range of growth-limiting conditions with the aim of finding solutions to this problem. The yeasts were cultured in in-house growth media containing different quantities of growth inhibitors such as ethanol, SO(2), ascorbic acid, benzoic acid and nicostatin, different sugar contents, and at different pHs and temperatures. The reduction of p-coumaric acid and the formation of 4-ethylphenol were periodically monitored by HPLC-PDA. The results of this study allow the optimization of differential media for detecting/culturing these yeasts, and suggest possible ways of controlling these organisms in wineries.

  13. Assessment Can Support Reasoning and Sense Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suurtam, Christine

    2012-01-01

    "Reasoning and sense making should occur in every classroom every day," states "Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making" (NCTM 2009, p. 5). As this book suggests, reasoning can take many forms, including explorations and conjectures as well as explanations and justifications of student thinking. Sense making, on the other…

  14. Cellulases, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David; Gemsch Cuenca, Joslin; Dycaico, Mark

    2013-04-23

    This invention relates to molecular and cellular biology and biochemistry. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, mannanase and/or .beta.-glucosidase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, mannanase and/or .beta.-glucosidase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts.

  15. Art Makes Sense: Making Sense through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Lisa; Pavone, Mindy

    2010-01-01

    The news is sometimes frightening, but reacting to a disaster in a positive way empowers students to make a difference. On January 12, 2010, a catastrophic earthquake occurred in Haiti. An estimated three million people were affected and an estimated 230,000 people died. In response to this tragic event, the author's eighth-grade class viewed and…

  16. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  17. Hospice Decision Making: Diagnosis Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Meeker, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the process of decision making about hospice enrollment and identified factors that influence the timing of that decision. Methods: This study employed an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional design and was conducted using qualitative methods. In-depth in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with 36…

  18. The amygdala and decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rupa; Koscik, Timothy R.; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Decision-making is a complex process that requires the orchestration of multiple neural systems. For example, decision-making is believed to involve areas of the brain involved in emotion (e.g., amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and memory (e.g., hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In this article, we will present findings related to the amygdala’s role in decision-making, and differentiate the contributions of the amygdala from those of other structurally and functionally connected neural regions. Decades of research have shown that the amygdala is involved in associating a stimulus with its emotional value. This tradition has been extended in newer work, which has shown that the amygdala is especially important for decision-making, by triggering autonomic responses to emotional stimuli, including monetary reward and punishment. Patients with amygdala damage lack these autonomic responses to reward and punishment, and consequently, cannot utilize “somatic marker” type cues to guide future decision-making. Studies using laboratory decision-making tests have found deficient decision-making in patients with bilateral amygdala damage, which resembles their real-world difficulties with decision-making. Additionally, we have found evidence for an interaction between sex and laterality of amygdala functioning, such that unilateral damage to the right amygdala results in greater deficits in decision-making and social behavior in men, while left amygdala damage seems to be more detrimental for women. We have posited that the amygdala is part of an “impulsive,” habit type system that triggers emotional responses to immediate outcomes. PMID:20920513

  19. Genome-wide identification of Drosophila Hb9 targets reveals a pivotal role in directing the transcriptome within eight neuronal lineages, including activation of Nitric Oxide Synthase and Fd59a/Fox-D

    PubMed Central

    Lacin, Haluk; Rusch, Jannette; Yeh, Raymond T.; Fujioka, Miki; Wilson, Beth A.; Zhu, Yi; Robie, Alice A.; Mistry, Hemlata; Wang, Ting; Jaynes, James B.; Skeath, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Hb9 is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that acts in combination with Nkx6, Lim3, and Tail-up (Islet) to guide the stereotyped differentiation, connectivity, and function of a subset of neurons in Drosophila. The role of Hb9 in directing neuronal differentiation is well documented, but the lineage of Hb9+ neurons is only partly characterized, its regulation is poorly understood, and most of the downstream genes through which it acts remain at large. Here, we complete the lineage tracing of all embryonic Hb9+ neurons (to eight neuronal lineages) and provide evidence that hb9, lim3, and tail-up are coordinately regulated by a common set of upstream factors. Through the parallel use of micro-array gene expression profiling and the Dam-ID method, we searched for Hb9-regulated genes, uncovering transcription factors as the most over-represented class of genes regulated by Hb9 (and Nkx6) in the CNS. By a nearly ten-to-one ratio, Hb9 represses rather than activates transcription factors, highlighting transcriptional repression of other transcription factors as a core mechanism by which Hb9 governs neuronal determination. From the small set of genes activated by Hb9, we characterized the expression and function of two – fd59a/foxd, which encodes a transcription factor, and Nitric oxide synthase. Under standard lab conditions, both genes are dispensable for Drosophila development, but Nos appears to inhibit hyper-active behavior and fd59a appears to act in octopaminergic neurons to control egg-laying behavior. Together our data clarify the mechanisms through which Hb9 governs neuronal specification and differentiation and provide an initial characterization of the expression and function of Nos and fd59a in the Drosophila CNS. PMID:24512689

  20. NOVA making stuff: Season 2

    SciTech Connect

    Leombruni, Lisa; Paulsen, Christine Andrews

    2014-12-12

    Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plants—these were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVA’s four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our world—showing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVA’s goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach “toolkit” for science educators to create their own “makerspaces,” an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafés, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an “Idealab,” participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the project’s intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were

  1. Decision Making in the Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful In improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that

  2. Making a Canoe-Paddle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Rob

    1996-01-01

    Instructions on making a canoe paddle include types of wood to consider, choices of tools, how to determine paddle length, various designs, blade dimensions, smoothing, waterproofing, and storage. Explains how every aspect of the design is influenced by upper body strength, paddling experience, and personal preference. (TD)

  3. The Dose Makes the Poison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottoboni, Alice

    1992-01-01

    A Toxicologist discusses common misconception that all chemicals are poisonous to people and the environment and how these misconceptions are perpetuated. Describes what makes a chemical toxic. Defines related concepts including dose, acute and chronic toxicity, and natural verses synthetic chemicals. (MCO)

  4. Film Makers On Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

  5. Halley's Comet Makes a Comeback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on Halley's Comet including its discovery, impact on history, planned investigations related to its 1986 return, where and when to make observations, and predicted calendar of events. Gives general information on comets such as physical structure, theoretical origin, and paths and provides an annotated reference list. (JM)

  6. Policy Making for American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roald F.; Layton, Donald H.

    This monograph studies the policy-making process of public schools at the elementary and secondary levels. Variables include legislative bodies and courts at the local, State, and national levels and special interest groups (e.g., labor unions and religious bodies, professional educators, and qualified voters). Public expectations have contributed…

  7. How Do Caterpillars Make Cocoons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kay

    1994-01-01

    Describes a Lexington, Kentucky, kindergarten science project that employed the Reggio Emilia approach of long-term open-ended projects steered by children's interests and group discussions. The children's investigation of how caterpillars make cocoons included direct observation of the metamorphosis process, construction of child-sized cocoons,…

  8. Effects of enzyme activities during steeping and sprouting on the solubility and composition of proteins, their bioactivity and relationship with the bread making quality of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Žilić, Slađana; Janković, Marijana; Barać, Miroljub; Pešić, Mirjana; Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra; Hadži-Tašković Šukalović, Vesna

    2016-10-12

    The aim was to determine the effect of steeping and sprouting on wheat grain proteins and the functional consequences in this regard. The solubility of proteins and the polypeptide composition of albumins, globulins, gliadins and glutenins were determined, as well as the content of non-protein nitrogen and free sulfhydryl groups (-SH), and the activity of peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX). In addition, the pasting viscosity of flour and protein bioactivity such as antioxidant capacity and immunoreactivity were evaluated. The increase of non-protein nitrogen and free -SH groups by about 62.09 and 96.7%, respectively, as well as the decrease of albumin + globulin polypeptides with a molecular weight over 85.94 kDa and between 85.94-48.00 kDa by about 34 and 8.7%, respectively, were the most notable changes observed in the flour from whole sprouted wheat that clearly point to the intensive protein hydrolysis. The reduction of disulfide bonds and increased concentrations of free -SH groups significantly modify the visco-elastic properties of gliadins and glutenins causing pasting viscosity reduction. However, sprouted wheat flour could be considered as a potential food ingredient because of its improved antioxidant capacity that is a result of protein hydrolysis inter alia. As protein modification induced by steeping may have beneficial effects on the antigenicity of the glutenin fraction, this kind of wheat pretreatment can represent a putative strategy in the dietary modulation of diseases related to glutenin immunoreactivity, e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis.

  9. Include heuristics in protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kobyakov, A.I. )

    1993-02-01

    Automatic systems based on interlock principles are the most popular method of protecting plants from hazards. Nevertheless, such systems have specific shortcomings. The major one comes from the fact that protection controls are activated at the stage of break down mode development, and not at the moments of pre-fault status origin. It is possible to design protection controls that account for information relating to pre-fault status, causes, locations, and potential danger severity. A method of recreating automatic protection systems (APS) with functioning and structural organization is based on the accepted strategy of potentially hazardous plant protection. APS features these basic functions: pre-fault status classification and diagnostic providing protection controls that depend on pre-fault status type and cause, and suppression process analysis and protection controls correction. The system functions as a parallel/series process. Pre-fault status location data with related classification and diagnostics are based on current startup information. A protection control vector is formed that guarantees pre-fault status suppression. This paper describes these features.

  10. Molecular genetic responses to lysergic acid diethylamide include transcriptional activation of MAP kinase phosphatase-1, C/EBP-beta and ILAD-1, a novel gene with homology to arrestins.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2004-08-01

    We recently demonstrated that the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) dynamically influences the expression of a small collection of genes within the mammalian prefrontal cortex. Towards generating a greater understanding of the molecular genetic effects of hallucinogens and how they may relate to alterations in behavior, we have identified and characterized expression patterns of a new collection of three genes increased in expression by acute LSD administration. These genes were identified through additional screens of Affymetrix DNA microarrays and examined in experiments to assess dose-response, time course and the receptor mediating the expression changes. The first induced gene, C/EBP-beta, is a transcription factor. The second gene, MKP-1, suggests that LSD activates the MAP (mitogen activated protein) kinase pathway. The third gene, ILAD-1, demonstrates sequence similarity to the arrestins. The increase in expression of each gene was partially mediated through LSD interactions at 5-HT2A (serotonin) receptors. There is evidence of alternative splicing at the ILAD-1 locus. Furthermore, data suggests that various splice isoforms of ILAD-1 respond differently at the transcriptional level to LSD. The genes thus far found to be responsive to LSD are beginning to give a more complete picture of the complex intracellular events initiated by hallucinogens.

  11. Brassica napus responses to short-term excessive copper treatment with decrease of photosynthetic pigments, differential expression of heavy metal homeostasis genes including activation of gene NRAMP4 involved in photosystem II stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zlobin, I E; Kholodova, V P; Rakhmankulova, Z F; Kuznetsov, Vl V

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of 50 and 100 µM CuSO4 was investigated starting from 3 h till 72 h treatment of 4-weeks Brassica napus plants. High CuSO4 concentrations in nutrient medium resulted in the rapid copper accumulation in plants, especially in roots, much slower and to lower degree in leaves. Copper excess induced early decrease in the leaf water content and temporary leaf wilting. The decrease in content of photosynthetic pigments became significant to 24 h of excessive copper treatments and reached 35 % decrease to 72 h, but there were no significant changes in maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry. The copper excess affected the expression of ten genes involved in heavy metal homeostasis and copper detoxification. The results showed the differential and organ-specific expression of most genes. The potential roles of copper-activated genes encoding heavy metal transporters (ZIP5, NRAMP4, YSL2, and MRP1), metallothioneins (MT1a and MT2b), low-molecular chelator synthesis enzymes (PCS1 and NAS2), and metallochaperones (CCS and HIPP06) in heavy metal homeostasis and copper ion detoxification were discussed. The highest increase in gene expression was shown for NRAMP4 in leaves in spite of relatively moderate Cu accumulation there. The opinion was advanced that the NRAMP4 activation can be considered among the early reactions in the defense of the photosystem II against copper excess.

  12. Confidence-related decision making.

    PubMed

    Insabato, Andrea; Pannunzi, Mario; Rolls, Edmund T; Deco, Gustavo

    2010-07-01

    Neurons have been recorded that reflect in their firing rates the confidence in a decision. Here we show how this could arise as an emergent property in an integrate-and-fire attractor network model of decision making. The attractor network has populations of neurons that respond to each of the possible choices, each biased by the evidence for that choice, and there is competition between the attractor states until one population wins the competition and finishes with high firing that represents the decision. Noise resulting from the random spiking times of individual neurons makes the decision making probabilistic. We also show that a second attractor network can make decisions based on the confidence in the first decision. This system is supported by and accounts for neuronal responses recorded during decision making and makes predictions about the neuronal activity that will be found when a decision is made about whether to stay with a first decision or to abort the trial and start again. The research shows how monitoring can be performed in the brain and this has many implications for understanding cognitive functioning.

  13. Nighttime activity of moving objects, their mapping and statistic making, on the example of applying thermal imaging and advanced image processing to the research of nocturnal mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregowski, Piotr; Owadowska, Edyta; Pietrzak, Jan; Zwolenik, Slawomir

    2005-09-01

    The paper presents method of acquiring a new form of statistical information about the changes at scenery, overseen by thermal imaging camera in static configuration. This type of imagers reach uniquely high efficiency during nighttime surveillance and targeting. The technical issue we have solved, resulted from the problem: how to verify the hypothesis that small, nocturnal rodents, like bank voles, use common paths inside their range and that they form a common, rather stable system? Such research has been especially difficult because the mentioned mammals are secretive, move with various speed and due to low contrast to their natural surroundings - as leaves or grass - nearly impossible for other kind of observations from a few meters distance. The main advantage of the elaborated method showed to be both adequately filtered long thermal movies for manual analyses, as well as auto-creation of the synthetic images which present maps of invisible paths and activity of their usage. Additional file with logs describing objects and their dislocations as the ".txt" files allows various, more detailed studies of animal behavior. The obtained results proved that this original method delivers a new, non-invasive, powerful and dynamic concept of solving various ecological problems. Creation of networks consisted of uncooled thermal imagers - of significantly increased availability - with data transmissions to digital centers allows to investigate of moving - particularly heat generated - objects in complete darkness, much wider and much more efficiently than up today. Thus, although our system was elaborated for ecological studies, a similar one can be considered as a tool for chosen tasks in the optical security areas.

  14. A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mink, S; Härtig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

    1992-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. Images PMID:1328867

  15. Current Status of Newborn Screening: Decision-Making about the Conditions to Include in Screening Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    Newborn screening is considered a highly successful public health program that has resulted in the reduction of mortality, mental retardation, and other serious disabilities in thousands of children since the introduction of screening for phenylketonuria (PKU) in the 1960s. Programs are based in state public health departments such that each state…

  16. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik F; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-10-15

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating strategies. Therefore, the LCA evaluation is repeated for three different scenarios depending on the limitation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or both, when evaluating the nutrient enrichment impact in water bodies. The LCA results indicate that for treated effluent discharged into N-deficient aquatic systems (e.g. open coastal areas) the most eco-friendly strategies differ from the ones dealing with discharging into P-deficient (e.g. lakes and rivers) and N&P-deficient systems (e.g. coastal zones). More particularly, the results suggest that strategies that promote increased nutrient removal and/or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P-deficient aquatic systems.

  17. Making Space Science Elementary!: Broadening our Audience to Include the K-4 Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglierani, R. L.; Schultz, G. R.; McConnell, S. L.

    2008-06-01

    The integration of elementary science with language arts provides a means of keeping science education robust in the elementary classroom. By linking the two subject areas, teachers can take advantage of the highly-motivational content that science provides while using writing as a powerful tool to synthesize science learning. We report on two successful K-4 NASA curricula, Eye on the Sky and Reading, Writing & Rings! which suggest a model for the successful integration of science instruction with language arts through inquiry-based learning.

  18. How Can Teaching Make a Difference to Students' Interest in Science? Including Bourdieuan Field Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderhag, Per; Wickman, Per-Olof; Hamza, Karim Mikael

    2015-01-01

    In this article we respond to the discussion by Alexandra Schindel Dimick regarding how the taste analysis presented in our feature article can be expanded within a Bourdieuan framework. Here we acknowledge the significance of field theory to introduce wider reflexivity on the kind of taste that is constituted in the science classroom, while we at…

  19. Method for making carbon super capacitor electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Firsich, David W.; Ingersoll, David; Delnick, Frank M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for making near-net-shape, monolithic carbon electrodes for energy storage devices. The method includes the controlled pyrolysis and activation of a pressed shape of methyl cellulose powder with pyrolysis being carried out in two stages; pre-oxidation, preferably in air at a temperature between 200.degree.-250.degree. C., followed by carbonization under an inert atmosphere. An activation step to adjust the surface area of the carbon shape to a value desirable for the application being considered, including heating the carbon shape in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 300.degree. C., follows carbonization.

  20. Method for making carbon super capacitor electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Firsich, D.W.; Ingersoll, D.; Delnick, F.M.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for making near-net-shape, monolithic carbon electrodes for energy storage devices. The method includes the controlled pyrolysis and activation of a pressed shape of methyl cellulose powder with pyrolysis being carried out in two stages; pre-oxidation, preferably in air at a temperature between 200--250 C, followed by carbonization under an inert atmosphere. An activation step to adjust the surface area of the carbon shape to a value desirable for the application being considered, including heating the carbon shape in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 300 C, follows carbonization. 1 fig.

  1. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  2. An assessment of hazards caused by electromagnetic interaction on humans present near short-wave physiotherapeutic devices of various types including hazards for users of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMD).

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both-GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment).

  3. Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, C. A.; Crimmins, M.; Ferguson, D. B.; Garfin, G. M.; Scott, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    As society is confronted with population growth, limited resources, and the impacts of climate variability and change, it is vital that institutions of higher education promote the development of professionals who can work with decision-makers to incorporate scientific information into environmental planning and management. Skills for the communication of science are essential, but equally important is the ability to understand decision-making contexts and engage with resource managers and policy makers. It is increasingly being recognized that people who understand the linkages between science and decision making are crucial if science is to better support planning and policy. A new graduate-level seminar, "Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making," is a core course for a new post-baccalaureate certificate program, Connecting Environmental Science and Decision Making at the University of Arizona. The goal of the course is to provide students with a basic understanding of the dynamics between scientists and decision makers that result in scientific information being incorporated into environmental planning, policy, and management decisions. Through readings from the environmental and social sciences, policy, and planning literature, the course explores concepts including scientific information supply and demand, boundary organizations, co-production of knowledge, platforms for engagement, and knowledge networks. Visiting speakers help students understand some of the challenges of incorporating scientific information into planning and decision making within institutional and political contexts. The course also includes practical aspects of two-way communication via written, oral, and graphical presentations as well as through the interview process to facilitate the transfer of scientific information to decision makers as well as to broader audiences. We aspire to help students develop techniques that improve communication and

  4. A highly acid-resistant novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 has antibacterial activity, including that against Helicobacter pylori, and inhibits gastrin-mediated acid production in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuji; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Koga, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was isolated from the gastric juice of a healthy Japanese male volunteer, and characterized for its effectiveness in the stomach environment. Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was found to have the strongest acid resistance among several lactobacilli examined (>10% of cells survived at pH 1.0 after 2 h), and such a high acid resistance property was a specific characteristic of this strain of L. johnsonii. When cultured with various virulent bacteria, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori,Escherichia coli O-157, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile, in which case its effectiveness was more potent than that of a type strain of L. johnsonii,JCM2012. In addition to its effect in vitro, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of H. pylori in human intestinal microbiota-associated mice in both its live and lyophilized forms. Moreover, L. johnsonii No. 1088 suppressed gastric acid secretion in mice via decreasing the number of gastrin-positive cells in the stomach. These results taken together suggest that L. johnsonii No. 1088 is a unique lactobacillus having properties beneficial for supporting H. pylori eradication by triple therapy including the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and also for prophylaxis of gastroesophageal reflux disease possibly caused after H. pylori eradication as a side effect of PPI. PMID:25771812

  5. Decision-making, errors, and confidence in the brain.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Deco, Gustavo

    2010-11-01

    To provide a fundamental basis for understanding decision-making and decision confidence, we analyze a neuronal spiking attractor-based model of decision-making. The model predicts probabilistic decision-making with larger neuronal responses and larger functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses on correct than on error trials because the spiking noise-influenced decision attractor state of the network is consistent with the external evidence. Moreover, the model predicts that the neuronal activity and the BOLD response will become larger on correct trials as the discriminability ΔI increases and confidence increases and will become smaller as confidence decreases on error trials as ΔI increases. Confidence is thus an emergent property of the model. In an fMRI study of an olfactory decision-making task, we confirm these predictions for cortical areas including medial prefrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex implicated in choice decision-making, showing a linear increase in the BOLD signal with ΔI on correct trials, and a linear decrease on error trials. These effects were not found in a control area, the orbitofrontal cortex, where reward value useful for the choice is represented on a continuous scale but that is not implicated in the choice itself. This provides a unifying approach to decision-making and decision confidence and to how spiking-related noise affects choice, confidence, synaptic and neuronal activity, and fMRI signals.

  6. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Making and Setting Cuffs.] Module 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on making and setting cuffs, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

  7. How Many Colors in Your Computer? Discovering the Rules for Making Colors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Describes a student activity that focuses on color and the production of images on computer monitors. Students discover the rules for making colors through the use of a magnifying glass and a computer monitor. Includes some tips for integrating the activity into the curriculum. (DDR)

  8. Distinct neural mechanisms of risk and ambiguity: a meta-analysis of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Krain, Amy L; Wilson, Amanda M; Arbuckle, Robert; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2006-08-01

    Converging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that decision-making relies upon a distributed neural network based in the frontal lobes. In particular, models of decision-making emphasize the involvement of orbitofrontal cortices (OFC) and the medial wall. While decision-making has been studied broadly as a class of executive function, recent models have suggested the differentiation between risky and ambiguous decision-making. Given recent emphasis on the role of OFC in affectively laden "hot" executive function and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in more purely cognitive "cool" executive function, we hypothesize that the neural substrates of decision-making may differ depending on the nature of the decision required. To test this hypothesis, we used recently developed meta-analytic techniques to examine the existent functional neuroimaging literature. An initial meta-analysis of decision-making, both risky and ambiguous, found significantly elevated probabilities of activation in frontal and parietal regions, thalamus, and caudate. Ambiguous decision-making was associated with activity in DLPFC, regions of dorsal and subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and parietal cortex. Risky decision-making was associated with activity in OFC, rostral portions of the ACC, and parietal cortex. Direct statistical comparisons revealed significant differences between risky and ambiguous decision-making in frontal regions, including OFC, DLPFC, and ACC, that were consistent with study hypotheses. These findings provide evidence for the dissociation of neural circuits underlying risky and ambiguous decision-making, reflecting differential involvement of affective "hot" and cognitive "cool" processes.

  9. It Makes You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of…

  10. Making Best Practices Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dappolone, Mike

    2013-01-01

    It's easy to make excuses for not integrating technology into classes, and some of these excuses do have merit. If teachers plan on making the effort to overcome these difficulties, they must believe strongly in the strategies they select and stick to them long enough to at least test their effectiveness. Technology use is sometimes referred…

  11. Making Team Differences Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathman, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Most district and school leaders understand that recruiting group members who have differing backgrounds, perspectives, talents, and personalities makes for good decision-making. Unfortunately, simply assembling a variety of top-notch individuals does not necessarily mean their talents and perspectives will be fully considered. Beth Strathman…

  12. What Makes Learning Meaningful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.; Burket, Lee

    This document examines the work of Dewey, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow, Freire, Rogers, and Houle to find out what these experiential learning theorists have to say about the role experience plays in making learning meaningful. The first section addresses each writer's work for specific ideas of how experience is related to making learning meaningful,…

  13. Improving Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehallis, Mantha, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on the importance of accurate and timely information for effective decision making. First, Ivan Lach considers the proliferation of statewide planning and policy formation and discusses problems with and ways to improve statewide research. Next, Cheryl Opacinch focuses on decision making for federal postsecondary…

  14. Sustainability Based Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    With sustainability as the “true north” for EPA research, a premium is placed on the ability to make decisions under highly complex and uncertain conditions. The primary challenge is reconciling disparate criteria toward credible and defensible decisions. Making decisions on on...

  15. Making Smart Building Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how a positive partnership with the architect can help one who is inexperienced in building design and construction make smart building decisions. Tips address how to prevent change orders, what red flags to look for in a building project, what the administrator should expect from the architect to make the project run smoothly, and what…

  16. What Makes Me Sneeze?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? What Makes Me Sneeze? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Makes Me Sneeze? A A A en español ¿Qué me hace ... irritating or tickling the inside of your nose. Sneezing, also called sternutation, is your body's way of ...

  17. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  18. What Makes Chickenpox Itch?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What Makes Chickenpox Itch? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Makes Chickenpox Itch? A A A en español ¿Por qué ... not a game of connect-the-dots. It's chickenpox . And chickenpox sure do itch! Here's why: After ...

  19. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, George D.; Lewis, Linda; Yen, Laurel C.

    2014-06-24

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  20. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Yen, William; Yen, Laurel C.; Jia, George D.

    2012-12-04

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.