Science.gov

Sample records for activities include measuring

  1. Interest Inventory. [Includes Academic Interest Measure, Pupil Activity Inventory, and Semantic Differential].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This Interest Inventory contains three inventories: Academic Interest Measure (AIM), Pupil Activity Inventory (PAI), and Semantic Differential test (SD). The AIM measures six subscales of academic interests; the PAI measures non-school activities in science; and the SD measures attitudes toward science and physics. The inventories are designed for…

  2. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations. PMID:25985872

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people’s ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people’s use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments. PMID:19285214

  4. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 85Sr to include the 2009 result of the POLATOM (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Dziel, T.; Listkowska, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1975, ten laboratories have submitted 27 samples of known activity of 85Sr to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.2 MBq and 19 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the primary standardization result for the POLATOM, Poland. There are now four results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Measurement of stratospheric HOCl - Concentration profiles, including diurnal variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Johnson, D. G.; Traub, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    Determinations have been made of concentration profiles of HOCl in the earth's stratosphere, including the diurnal variation. Measurements of the rotational Q2 branch at 99.5/cm and of five RR(J3) transitions between 143 and 159/cm were made using far-infrared thermal emission spectroscopy. The spectra were obtained during a balloon flight of the FIRS 2 far-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer and telescope from Palestine, Texas on May 12-13, 1988. From these measurements, altitude profiles of HOCl from 23 to 42 km are obtained. Daytime and nighttime average profiles of HOCl, as well as measurements on a 30-min time scale through the sunset transition at a single (35 km) altitude are presented. The measured profiles are lower than the current predictions from several modeling groups by a factor of approximately 0.6.

  6. Modeling potentiometric measurements in topological insulators including parallel channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokmin; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo; Chen, Yong P.

    2012-08-01

    The discovery of spin-polarized states at the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators (TI) like Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 motivates intense interests in possible electrical measurements demonstrating unique signatures of these unusual states. Here we show that a three-terminal potentiometric set-up can be used to probe them by measuring the voltage change of a detecting magnet upon reversing its magnetization. We present numerical results using a nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF)-based model to show the corresponding signal quantitatively in various transport regimes. We then provide an analytical expression for the resistance (the measured voltage difference divided by an applied current) that agrees with NEGF results well in both ballistic and diffusive limits. This expression is applicable to TI surface states, two-dimensional electrons with Rashba spin-split bands, and any combination of multiple channels, including bulk parallel states in TI, which makes it useful in analyzing experimental results.

  7. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  8. SAGE II aerosol validation - Selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Russell, Philip B.; Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Ferry, Guy V.; Livingston, John M.; Rosen, James N.; Osborn, Mary T.; Kritz, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements obtained during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II is tested. The SAGE II measurements are compared with correlative aerosol measurements taken during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986 with impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers on a U-2 aircraft, an upward pointing lidar on a P-3 aircraft, and balloon-borne optical particle counters. The data for July 29, 1986 are discussed in detail. The aerosol measurements taken on this day at an altitude of 20.5 km produce particulate extinction values which validate the SAGE II values for similar wavelengths.

  9. Optimal design of active and semi-active suspensions including time delays and preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hac', A.; Youn, I.

    1993-10-01

    Several control laws for active and semi-active suspension based on a linear half car model are derived and investigated. The strategies proposed take full advantage of the fact that the road input to the rear wheels is a delayed version of that to the front wheels, which in turn can be obtained either from the measurements of the front wheels and body motions or by direct preview of road irregularities if preview sensors are available. The suspension systems are optimized with respect to ride comfort, road holding and suspension rattle space as expressed by the mean-square-values of body acceleration (including effects of heave and pitch), tire deflections and front and rear suspension travels. The optimal control laws that minimize the given performance index and include passivity constraints in the semi-active case are derived using calculus of variation. The optimal semi-active suspension becomes piecewise linear, varying between passive and fully active systems and combinations of them. The performances of active and semi-active systems with and without preview were evaluated by numerical simulation in the time and frequency domains. The results show that incorporation of time delay between the front and rear axles in controller design improves the dynamic behavior of the rear axle and control of body pitch motion, while additional preview improves front wheel dynamics and body heave.

  10. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Cassette, P.; Moune, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted seven samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. The values of the activity submitted were between about 1 MBq and 18 MBq. The primary standardization result for the LNE-LNHB, France, replaces their earlier result of 2002 and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated. In the frame of the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F18 comparison, the NPL updated their result in the KCDB. Consequently there are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  12. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-56 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 56Co to include the result of the CMI-IIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G.; Sochorová, J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Ceský Metrologický Institut/Czech Metrological Institute - Inspectorate for Ionizing Radiation (CMI-IIR) submitted an ampoule of known activity of 56Co to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The activity was about 6.7 MBq. The degrees of equivalence between each of the four national metrology institute results now measured in the SIR and the re-evaluated key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. The comparison identifier is BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-56. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  13. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  14. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-13

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-+μ- and e±μ). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-b and tt-bb- cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  15. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-b and tt-bb- cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  16. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  17. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  18. Teaching Introductory Measurement: Suggestions for What to Include and How to Motivate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandalos, Deborah L.; Kopp, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of measurement literacy and some issues encountered in teaching introductory measurement courses. We present results from a survey of introductory measurement instructors, including information about the topics included in such courses and the amount of time spent on each. Topics that were included by the…

  19. A simple procedure to include a free-form measurement capability to standard coordinate measurement machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Florian; Rascher, Rolf; Stamp, Richard; Smith, Gordon

    2013-09-01

    The modern optical industry requires objects with complex topographical structures. Free-form shaped objects are of large interest in many branches, especially for size reduced, modern lifestyle products like digital cameras. State of the art multi-axes-coordinate measurement machines (CMM), like the topographical measurement machine TII-3D, are by principle suitable to measure free-form shaped objects. The only limitation is the software package. This paper may illustrate a simple way to enhance coordinate measurement machines in order to add a free-form function. Next to a coordinate measurement machine, only a state of the art CAD† system and a simple piece of software are necessary. For this paper, the CAD software CREO‡ had been used. CREO enables the user to develop a 3D object in two different ways. With the first method, the user might design the shape by drawing one or more 2D sketches and put an envelope around. Using the second method, the user could define one or more formulas in the editor to describe the favoured surface. Both procedures lead to the required three-dimensional shape. However, further features of CREO enable the user to export the XYZ-coordinates of the created surface. A special designed software tool, developed with Matlab§, converts the XYZ-file into a measurement matrix which can be used as a reference file. Finally the result of the free-form measurement, carried out with a CMM, has to be loaded into the software tool and both files will be computed. The result is an error profile which provides the deviation between the measurement and the target-geometry.

  20. ACTIVITIES: Centimeter and Millimeter Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolster, L. Carey

    1974-01-01

    An activity is suggested which will give junior high school students practice in estimating and measuring in centimeters and millimeters. Three worksheets are given, one of which is a model for making a metric caliper. (LS)

  1. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    DOEpatents

    DeWall, Kevin George; Garcia, Humberto Enrique; McKellar, Michael George

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  2. Are language-based activities in science effective for all students, including low achievers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivard, Léonard P.

    2004-05-01

    The study investigated achievement status as a factor determining the use of language-based activities for learning science. A total of 154 eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to four groups, all stratified for gender and achievement level. The treatments involved various combinations of talk and writing, and descriptive and explanatory tasks. The dependent measures included scores on multiple choice tests obtained at three times during the study. Records of student talk and writing were also analyzed to identify patterns of differences between groups of achievers. The findings suggested that low achievers complete more problems, and develop better understanding and comprehension of ecology concepts when they have engaged in peer discussions of explanatory tasks. In comparison, high achievers benefit more from writing than talking, and writing explanations enhances comprehension more than restricted writing activities.

  3. 7 CFR 718.108 - Measuring acreage including skip row acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Measuring acreage including skip row acreage. 718.108 Section 718.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.108 Measuring acreage...

  4. 7 CFR 718.108 - Measuring acreage including skip row acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measuring acreage including skip row acreage. 718.108 Section 718.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.108 Measuring acreage...

  5. 7 CFR 718.108 - Measuring acreage including skip row acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Measuring acreage including skip row acreage. 718.108 Section 718.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... APPLICABLE TO MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.108 Measuring acreage...

  6. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What environmental protection measures... What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan? (a) Describe, at a... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  7. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What environmental protection measures... What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan? (a) Describe, at a... resources; (6) Minimize air and noise pollution; and (7) Minimize hazards to public health and safety...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  13. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. PMID:25684073

  14. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  15. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  16. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  17. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  18. Measuring activity in ant colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, C.; Fernández, J.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Altshuler, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays "swarm intelligence:" the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed to get a detailed understanding of self-organization of ant swarms in the wild. Here we are presenting a measurement system intended to monitor ant activity in the field comprising massive data acquisition and high sensitivity. A central role is played by an infrared sensor devised specifically to monitor relevant parameters to the activity of ants through the exits of the nest, although other sensors detecting temperature and luminosity are added to the system. We study the characteristics of the activity sensor and its performance in the field. Finally, we present massive data measured at one exit of a nest of Atta insularis, an ant endemic to Cuba, to illustrate the potential of our system.

  19. 43 CFR 3272.12 - What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What environmental protection measures must I include in my utilization plan? 3272.12 Section 3272.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  20. Monitoring active volcanoes and mitigating volcanic hazards: the case for including simple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoiber, Richard E.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1990-07-01

    Simple approaches to problems brought about eruptions and their ensuing hazardous effects should be advocated and used by volcanologists while awaiting more sophisticated remedies. The expedients we advocate have all or many of the following attributes: only locally available materials are required; no extensive training of operators or installation is necessary; they are affordable and do not require foreign aid or exports; they are often labor intensive and are sustainable without outside assistance. Where appropriate, the involvement of local residents is advocated. Examples of simple expedients which can be used in forecasting or mitigating the effects of crises emphasize the relative ease and the less elaborate requirements with which simple approaches can be activated. Emphasis is on visual observations often by untrained observers, simple meteorogical measurements, observations of water level in lakes, temperature and chemistry of springs and fumaroles, new springs and collapse areas and observations of volcanic plumes. Simple methods are suggested which can be applied to mitigating damage from mudflows, nuées ardentes, tephra falls and gas discharge. A review in hindsight at Ruiz includes the use of both chemical indicators and simple mudflow alarms. Simple expedients are sufficiently effective that any expert volcanologist called to aid in a crisis must include them in the package of advice offered. Simple approaches are a critical and logical complement to highly technical solutions to hazardous situations.

  1. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  2. Measurement network design including traveltime determinations to minimize model prediction uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Gijs M. C. M.; Valstar, Johan R.; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.

    2008-02-01

    Traveltime determinations have found increasing application in the characterization of groundwater systems. No algorithms are available, however, to optimally design sampling strategies including this information type. We propose a first-order methodology to include groundwater age or tracer arrival time determinations in measurement network design and apply the methodology in an illustrative example in which the network design is directed at contaminant breakthrough uncertainty minimization. We calculate linearized covariances between potential measurements and the goal variables of which we want to reduce the uncertainty: the groundwater age at the control plane and the breakthrough locations of the contaminant. We assume the traveltime to be lognormally distributed and therefore logtransform the age determinations in compliance with the adopted Bayesian framework. Accordingly, we derive expressions for the linearized covariances between the transformed age determinations and the parameters and states. In our synthetic numerical example, the derived expressions are shown to provide good first-order predictions of the variance of the natural logarithm of groundwater age if the variance of the natural logarithm of the conductivity is less than 3.0. The calculated covariances can be used to predict the posterior breakthrough variance belonging to a candidate network before samples are taken. A Genetic Algorithm is used to efficiently search, among all candidate networks, for a near-optimal one. We show that, in our numerical example, an age estimation network outperforms (in terms of breakthrough uncertainty reduction) equally sized head measurement networks and conductivity measurement networks even if the age estimations are highly uncertain.

  3. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  4. Status of LDEF activation measurements and archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. Alan; Parnell, Thomas A.; Laird, Christopher E.

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of induced radioactivity measurements for the LDEF spacecraft which includes studies of the nuclide, target, directional and depth dependences of the activation. Analysis of the data has focused on extraction of the specific activities for many materials to develop a global picture of the low Earth orbital environment to which the LDEF was subjected. Preliminary comparisons of data in a previous review showed that it was possible to make meaningful intercomparisons between results obtained at different facilities. Generally these comparisons were good and gave results to within 10-20 percent, although some analysis remains. These results clearly provide constraints for recent calculations being performed of the radiation environment of the LDEF. We are not anticipating a period of production of final activation results. An archive is being prepared jointly between NASA/Marshall and Eastern Kentucky University which will include gamma ray spectra and other intermediate results.

  5. Verification of scattering parameter measurements in waveguides up to 325 GHz including highly-reflective devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, T.; Kuhlmann, K.; Dickhoff, R.; Dittmer, J.; Hiebel, M.

    2011-07-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) scattering parameters (S-parameters) play an important role to characterise RF signal transmission and reflection of active and passive devices such as transmission lines, components, and small-signal amplifiers. Vector network analysers (VNAs) are employed as instrumentation for such measurements. During the last years, the upper frequency limit of this instrumentation has been extended up to several hundreds of GHz for waveguide measurements. Calibration and verification procedures are obligatory prior to the VNA measurement to achieve accurate results and/or to obtain traceability to the International System of Units (SI). Usually, verification is performed by measuring well-matched devices with known S-parameters such as attenuators or short precision waveguide sections (shims). In waveguides, especially above 110 GHz, such devices may not exist and/or are not traceably calibrated. In some cases, e.g. filter networks, the devices under test (DUT) are partly highly reflective. This paper describes the dependency of the S-parameters a) on the calibration procedure, b) on the applied torque to the flange screws during the mating process of the single waveguide elements. It describes further c) how highly-reflective devices (HRD) can be used to verify a calibrated VNA, and d) how a measured attenuation at several hundreds of GHz can be substituted by a well-known coaxial attenuation at 279 MHz, the intermediate frequency (IF) of the VNA, to verify the linearity. This work is a contribution towards traceability and to obtain knowledge about the measurement uncertainty of VNA instrumentation in the millimetre-wave range.

  6. Gleason-Type Theorem for Projective Measurements, Including Qubits: The Born Rule Beyond Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Zela, F.

    2016-05-01

    Born's quantum probability rule is traditionally included among the quantum postulates as being given by the squared amplitude projection of a measured state over a prepared state, or else as a trace formula for density operators. Both Gleason's theorem and Busch's theorem derive the quantum probability rule starting from very general assumptions about probability measures. Remarkably, Gleason's theorem holds only under the physically unsound restriction that the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space H must be larger than two. Busch's theorem lifted this restriction, thereby including qubits in its domain of validity. However, while Gleason assumed that observables are given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors, Busch made the mathematically stronger assumption that observables are given by positive operator-valued measures. The theorem we present here applies, similarly to the quantum postulate, without restricting the dimension of H and for observables given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors. We also show that the Born rule applies beyond the quantum domain, thereby exhibiting the common root shared by some quantum and classical phenomena.

  7. Flight-measured laminar boundary-layer transition phenomena including stability theory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obara, C. J.; Holmes, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on a single-engine turboprop aircraft fitted with a 92-in-chord, 3-ft-span natural laminar flow glove at glove section lift coefficients from 0.15 to 1.10. The boundary-layer transition measurement methods used included sublimating chemicals and surface hot-film sensors. Transition occurred downstream of the minimum pressure point. Hot-film sensors provided a well-defined indication of laminar, laminar-separation, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers. Theoretical calculations of the boundary-layer parameters provided close agreement between the predicted laminar-separation point and the measured transition location. Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave growth n-factors between 15 and 17 were calculated at the predicted point of laminar separation. These results suggest that for many practical airplane cruise conditions, laminar separation (as opposed to T-S instability) is the major cause of transition in predominantly two-dimensional flows.

  8. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Swan, Shanna H.; Main, Katharina M.; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Husby, Steffen; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2016-01-01

    compatible with an anti-androgenic effect of prenatal TCS exposure on fetal growth in boys. Citation: Lassen TH, Frederiksen H, Kyhl HB, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261–1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637 PMID:26908126

  9. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  10. Validity of a questionnaire measuring motives for choosing foods including sustainable concerns.

    PubMed

    Sautron, Valérie; Péneau, Sandrine; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1990s, sustainability of diet has become an increasingly important concern for consumers. However, there is no validated multidimensional measurement of motivation in the choice of foods including a concern for sustainability currently available. In the present study, we developed a questionnaire that measures food choice motives during purchasing, and we tested its psychometric properties. The questionnaire included 104 items divided into four predefined dimensions (environmental, health and well-being, economic and miscellaneous). It was administered to 1000 randomly selected subjects participating in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study. Among 637 responders, one-third found the questionnaire complex or too long, while one-quarter found it difficult to fill in. Its underlying structure was determined by exploratory factor analysis and then internally validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was also assessed by internal consistency of selected dimensions and test-retest repeatability. After selecting the most relevant items, first-order analysis highlighted nine main dimensions: labeled ethics and environment, local and traditional production, taste, price, environmental limitations, health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. The model demonstrated excellent internal validity (adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.97; standardized root mean square residuals = 0.07) and satisfactory reliability (internal consistency = 0.96, test-retest repeatability coefficient ranged between 0.31 and 0.68 over a mean 4-week period). This study enabled precise identification of the various dimensions in food choice motives and proposed an original, internally valid tool applicable to large populations for assessing consumer food motivation during purchasing, particularly in terms of sustainability. PMID:25529817

  11. Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology. PMID:24089617

  12. Multiple tail models including inverse measures for structural design under uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramu, Palaniappan

    Sampling-based reliability estimation with expensive computer models may be computationally prohibitive due to a large number of required simulations. One way to alleviate the computational expense is to extrapolate reliability estimates from observed levels to unobserved levels. Classical tail modeling techniques provide a class of models to enable this extrapolation using asymptotic theory by approximating the tail region of the cumulative distribution function (CDF). This work proposes three alternate tail extrapolation techniques including inverse measures that can complement classical tail modeling. The proposed approach, multiple tail models, applies the two classical and three alternate extrapolation techniques simultaneously to estimate inverse measures at the extrapolation regions and use the median as the best estimate. It is observed that the range of the five estimates can be used as a good approximation of the error associated with the median estimate. Accuracy and computational efficiency are competing factors in selecting sample size. Yet, as our numerical studies reveal, the accuracy lost to the reduction of computational power is very small in the proposed method. The method is demonstrated on standard statistical distributions and complex engineering examples.

  13. Methods for the measurement of cell and tissue compatibility including tissue regeneration processes

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2008-01-01

    Biocompatibility is one of the main requirements for the safe use of medical devices. Determination of cytotoxicity is part of the initial evaluation stipulated by ISO standards for the biological evaluation of medical devices. The use of cell cultures to test the biocompatibility of drugs, biomaterials or treatment techniques used in various disciplines is gaining in importance. A wide variety of self-initiated and commercially available cell lines has been evaluated and used: cultured fibroblasts from human skin, buccal mucosa, periodontal membrane, embryonic lung, epithelial and HeLa cells; cultures of human keratinocytes and HaCaT cells; different murine cell lines (C3H-L, Balb/c 3T3, L929 and others) as well as murine cells cultured from liver and spleen; T-lymphocytes from lymph nodes and macrophages obtained by lavage. All of the above cells are suitable for use in biocompatibility tests. Nevertheless, the general opinion is that toxicity tests in vitro will be more convincing when performed with cells that are homologous with the human tissue concerned. In accordance, appropriate cell lines for use in cytotoxicity and tolerance tests concerning the skin would be human dermal fibroblasts and human epidermal keratinocytes, as they take an active part in the immune response, inflammatory processes, and wound healing. The evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of a biomaterial is often a qualitative analysis based on the morphological examination of cell damage and growth after direct or indirect contact with the material. Different commercial assays based on the determination of nucleic acids, metabolic activity, protein content or membrane integrity are available to measure cell proliferation and cell viability. A small selection – Pico Green® DNA Cell Proliferation Assay, ATPLite™ Luminescence ATP Detection Assay, BC Assay: protein quantitation kit, AlamarBlue™ Proliferation Assay and Live/Dead Staining with SYTO-13 and EthD-2 – are discussed

  14. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test. PMID:12637206

  15. ΔPK oncolytic activity includes modulation of the tumour cell milieu.

    PubMed

    Bollino, Dominique; Colunga, Aric; Li, Baiquan; Aurelian, Laure

    2016-02-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a unique cancer therapeutic that encompasses tumour cell lysis through both virus replication and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. Nonetheless, clinical efficacy is relatively modest, likely related to the immunosuppressive tumour milieu. Our studies use the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-based oncolytic virus ΔPK that has documented anti-tumour activity associated with virus replication, PCD and cancer stem cell lysis. They are designed to examine whether ΔPK-mediated oncolysis includes the ability to reverse the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by altering the balance of cytokines directly secreted by the melanoma cells and to define its mechanism. Here, we show that melanoma cells secreted the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and that secretion was inhibited by ΔPK through virus replication and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun activation. ΔPK-induced IL-10 inhibition upregulated surface expression of MHC class I chain-related protein A, the ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor expressed on NK- and cytotoxic T-cells. Concomitantly, ΔPK also upregulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-1β through autophagy-mediated activation of Toll-like receptor 2 pathways and pyroptosis, and it inhibited the expression of the negative immune checkpoint regulator cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. Pharmacologic inhibition of these processes significantly reduces the oncolytic activity of ΔPK. PMID:26602205

  16. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  17. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  18. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  19. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 113Sn to include the 2010 results of the PTB (Germany) and the LNE-LNHB (France), and the 2011 result of the CIEMAT (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Bobin, C.; Lépy, M.-C.; Moune, M.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Peyres, V.; Roteta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1975, seven national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted eleven samples of known activity of 113Sn to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.7 MBq and 22 MBq. The present primary standardization results for the PTB, Germany and the LNE-LNHB, France, replace their earlier results of 1989 and 1992, respectively. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 113Sn. There are only three results remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 comparison, all the previously published ones being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each of these three equivalent activities measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. A Theoretical Framework for Defining Similarity Measures for Boolean Search Request Formulations, Including Some Experimental Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1985-01-01

    Reports research results into a methodology for determining similarity between queries characterized by Boolean search request formulations and discusses similarity measures for Boolean combinations of index terms. Rationale behind these measures is outlined, and conditions ensuring their equivalence are identified. Results of an experiment…

  1. Antiviral activity of 1-docosanol, an inhibitor of lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, D H; Marcelletti, J F; Khalil, M H; Pope, L E; Katz, L R

    1991-01-01

    This article reports that 1-docosanol, a 22-carbon-long saturated alcohol, exerts a substantial inhibitory effect on replication of certain viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus) within primary target cells in vitro. To study the basis for its viral inhibitory activity, a suspension of 1-docosanol was formulated in an inert and nontoxic surfactant, Pluronic F-68; this suspension exerted potent inhibitory activity on the ability of susceptible viruses to infect cultured target cells. Susceptible viruses included wild-type herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 as well as acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 2 and also respiratory syncytial virus--all of which are lipid-enveloped. In contrast, nonenveloped poliovirus was not susceptible to the inhibitory action of 1-docosanol. Although the precise mechanism has yet to be defined, current evidence suggests that 1-docosanol inhibits viral replication by interfering with the early intracellular events surrounding viral entry into target cells. It is possible that interaction between the highly lipophilic compound and components of target cell membranes renders such target cells less susceptible to viral fusion and/or entry. If this mechanism proves to be correct, 1-docosanol may provide a broad spectrum activity against many different viruses, especially those with lipid-containing envelopes. Images PMID:1660151

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Value-Added Data Products (Including Evaluated Data Sets)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Many of the scientific needs of the ARM Program are met through the analysis and processing of existing data products into "value-added" products or VAPs. Despite extensive instrumentation deployed at the ARM sites, there will always be quantities of interest that are either impractical or impossible to measure directly or routinely. Physical models using ARM instrument data as inputs are implemented as VAPs and can help fill some of the unmet measurement needs of the Program. Conversely, ARM produces some VAPs not in order to fill unmet measurement needs, but instead to improve the quality of existing measurements. In addition, when more than one measurement is available, ARM also produces "best estimate" VAPs. A special class of VAP called a Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) adds value to the input data streams by providing for continuous assessment of the quality of the input data. [taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/vaps_all.php] One of the ARM data centers, the External Data Center or XDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory, also adds value to ARM information by identifying sources and acquiring external data to augment the data being generated within the program. These external data sets are converted, processed, and carefully evaluated for their value to the overall ARM program. /. Data Plots are also value-added products from ARM.

  3. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  4. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  5. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  6. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  7. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  8. New standard measures for clinical voice analysis include high speed films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Mette; Munch, Kasper

    2012-02-01

    In the clinical work with patients in a medical voice clinic it is important to have a normal updated reference for the data used. Several new parameters have to be correlated to older traditional measures. The older ones are stroboscopy, eventually coordinated with electroglottography (EGG), the Multi- Dimensional-Voice Program and airflow rates. Long Time Averaged Spectrograms (LTAS) and phonetograms (voice profiles) are calculating the range and dynamics of tones of the patients. High-speed films, updated airflow measures as well as area calculations of phonotograms add information to the understanding of the glottis closure in single movements of the vocal cords. A multivariate analysis was made to study the connection between the measures. This information can be used in many connections, also in the otolaryngological clinic.

  9. A New Approach to Including Student Intent Information in Performance Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nelle

    The key to better outcome performance measures for community colleges is finding an effective and valid method of determining students' educational goals or reasons for attending the institution. In an attempt to find a solution to identifying student intent, San Juan College (SJC) postulated that student intent at any point in time can be most…

  10. Analysis and Interpretation of Twin Studies Including Measures of the Shared Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkheimer, Eric; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent reports using a classical behavior genetic research design in which twin data are combined with a measured characteristic of their shared family environment have made striking claims about estimating environmental influences on behavior with genetic effects controlled. Such claims are overstated for two related reasons. First, when a…

  11. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  12. Including quality attributes in efficiency measures consistent with net benefit: creating incentives for evidence based medicine in practice.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Coelli, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Evidence based medicine supports net benefit maximising therapies and strategies in processes of health technology assessment (HTA) for reimbursement and subsidy decisions internationally. However, translation of evidence based medicine to practice is impeded by efficiency measures such as cost per case-mix adjusted separation in hospitals, which ignore health effects of care. In this paper we identify a correspondence method that allows quality variables under control of providers to be incorporated in efficiency measures consistent with maximising net benefit. Including effects framed from a disutility bearing (utility reducing) perspective (e.g. mortality, morbidity or reduction in life years) as inputs and minimising quality inclusive costs on the cost-disutility plane is shown to enable efficiency measures consistent with maximising net benefit under a one to one correspondence. The method combines advantages of radial properties with an appropriate objective of maximising net benefit to overcome problems of inappropriate objectives implicit with alternative methods, whether specifying quality variables with utility bearing output (e.g. survival, reduction in morbidity or life years), hyperbolic or exogenous variables. This correspondence approach is illustrated in undertaking efficiency comparison at a clinical activity level for 45 Australian hospitals allowing for their costs and mortality rates per admission. Explicit coverage and comparability conditions of the underlying correspondence method are also shown to provide a robust framework for preventing cost-shifting and cream-skimming incentives, with appropriate qualification of analysis and support for data linkage and risk adjustment where these conditions are not satisfied. Comparison on the cost-disutility plane has previously been shown to have distinct advantages in comparing multiple strategies in HTA, which this paper naturally extends to a robust method and framework for comparing efficiency of

  13. Tensiometer for shallow or deep measurements including vadose zone and aquifers

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1999-01-01

    A two cell tensiometer is described in which water level in the lower cell is maintained at a relatively constant height, and in equilibrium with the water pressure of materials that surround the tensiometer. An isolated volume of air in the lower cell changes pressure proportionately to the changing water pressure of the materials that surround the tensiometer. The air pressure is measured remotely. The tensiometer can be used in drying as well as wetting cycles above and below the water table.

  14. Interpretation of thermoreflectance measurements with a two-temperature model including non-surface heat deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Regner, K. T.; Wei, L. C.; Malen, J. A.

    2015-12-21

    We develop a solution to the two-temperature diffusion equation in axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates to model heat transport in thermoreflectance experiments. Our solution builds upon prior solutions that account for two-channel diffusion in each layer of an N-layered geometry, but adds the ability to deposit heat at any location within each layer. We use this solution to account for non-surface heating in the transducer layer of thermoreflectance experiments that challenge the timescales of electron-phonon coupling. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify important parameters in the solution and to establish a guideline for when to use the two-temperature model to interpret thermoreflectance data. We then fit broadband frequency domain thermoreflectance (BB-FDTR) measurements of SiO{sub 2} and platinum at a temperature of 300 K with our two-temperature solution to parameterize the gold/chromium transducer layer. We then refit BB-FDTR measurements of silicon and find that accounting for non-equilibrium between electrons and phonons in the gold layer does lessen the previously observed heating frequency dependence reported in Regner et al. [Nat. Commun. 4, 1640 (2013)] but does not completely eliminate it. We perform BB-FDTR experiments on silicon with an aluminum transducer and find limited heating frequency dependence, in agreement with time domain thermoreflectance results. We hypothesize that the discrepancy between thermoreflectance measurements with different transducers results in part from spectrally dependent phonon transmission at the transducer/silicon interface.

  15. Measurement of Contact Behavior Including Slippage of Cuff When Using Wearable Physical Assistant Robot.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Shogo; Yamada, Yoji; Ishiguro, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Continuous use of wearable robots can cause skin injuries beneath the cuffs of robots. To prevent such injuries, understanding the contact behavior of the cuff is important. Thus far, this contact behavior has not been studied because of the difficulty involved in measuring the slippage under the cuff. In this study, for the first time, the relative displacement, slippage, and interaction force and moment at the thigh cuff of a robot during sit-to-stand motion were measured using an instrumented cuff, which was developed for this purpose. The results indicated that the slippage and relative displacement under the cuff was uneven because of the rotation of the cuff, which suggests that the risk of skin injuries is different at different positions. Especially, the skin closer to the hip showed larger dynamism, with a maximum slippage of approximately 10 mm and a displacement of 20 mm during motion. Another important phenomenon was the individual difference among subjects. During motion, the interaction force, moment, and slippage of some subjects suddenly increased. Such behavior results in stress concentration, which increases the risk of skin injuries. These analyses are intended to understand how skin injuries are caused and to design measures to prevent such injuries. PMID:26276994

  16. Precise Measurements of the Cosmic Ray Antiproton Spectrum with BESS Including the Effects of Solar Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Abe, K.; Anraku, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Fujikawa, M.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Ikeda, N.; Imori, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Balloon Borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) has measured the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons between 0.18 and 4.20 GeV in eight flights between 1993 and 2002. Above about 1 GeV, models in which antiprotons are secondary products of the interactions of primary cosmic rays with the interstellar gas agree with the BESS antiproton spectrum. Below 1 GeV, the data show a possible excess antiproton flux compared to secondary model predictions, suggesting the presence of an additional source of antiprotons. The antiproton/proton ratios measured between 1993 and 1999, during the Sun's positive-polarity phase, are consistent with simple models of solar modulation. However, results from the 2000 flight, following the solar magnetic field reversal, show a sudden increase in the antiproton/proton ratio and tend to favor a charge-sign-dependent drift model. To extend BESS measurements to lower energies, an evolutionary instrument, BESS-Polar, is under construction for polar flight in 2004.

  17. The QCRad Value Added Product: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control Testing, Including Climatology Configurable Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CN; Shi, Y

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the QCRad methodology, which uses climatological analyses of the surface radiation measurements to define reasonable limits for testing the data for unusual data values. The main assumption is that the majority of the climatological data are “good” data, which for field sites operated with care such as those of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a reasonable assumption. Data that fall outside the normal range of occurrences are labeled either “indeterminate” (meaning that the measurements are possible, but rarely occurring, and thus the values cannot be identified as good) or “bad” depending on how far outside the normal range the particular data reside. The methodology not only sets fairly standard maximum and minimum value limits, but also compares what we have learned about the behavior of these instruments in the field to other value-added products (VAPs), such as the Diffuse infrared (IR) Loss Correction VAP (Younkin and Long 2004) and the Best Estimate Flux VAP (Shi and Long 2002).

  18. Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Wallenburg, Marika A.; Li, Shu-Hong; Weisel, Richard D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Ren-Ke; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to structural remodeling of the myocardium, in particular to the loss of cardiomyocytes due to necrosis and an increase in collagen with scar formation. Stem cell regenerative treatments have been shown to alter this remodeling process, resulting in improved cardiac function. As healthy myocardial tissue is highly fibrous and anisotropic, it exhibits optical linear birefringence due to the different refractive indices parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. Accordingly, changes in myocardial structure associated with infarction and treatment-induced remodeling will alter the anisotropy exhibited by the tissue. Polarization-based linear birefringence is measured on the myocardium of adult rat hearts after myocardial infarction and compared with hearts that had received mesenchymal stem cell treatment. Both point measurement and imaging data show a decrease in birefringence in the region of infarction, with a partial rebound back toward the healthy values following regenerative treatment with stem cells. These results demonstrate the ability of optical polarimetry to characterize the micro-organizational state of the myocardium via its measured anisotropy, and the potential of this approach for monitoring regenerative treatments of myocardial infarction.

  19. Measuring energy metabolism in cultured cells, including human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Nuebel, Esther; Wisidagama, Dona R R; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Hong, Jason S; Van Horn, Christine M; Imam, Sarah S; Vergnes, Laurent; Malone, Cindy S; Koehler, Carla M; Teitell, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of glycolysis and mitochondrial function are required to quantify energy metabolism in a wide variety of cellular contexts. In human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their differentiated progeny, this analysis can be challenging because of the unique cell properties, growth conditions and expense required to maintain these cell types. Here we provide protocols for analyzing energy metabolism in hPSCs and their early differentiated progenies that are generally applicable to mature cell types as well. Our approach has revealed distinct energy metabolism profiles used by hPSCs, differentiated cells, a variety of cancer cells and Rho-null cells. The protocols measure or estimate glycolysis on the basis of the extracellular acidification rate, and they measure or estimate oxidative phosphorylation on the basis of the oxygen consumption rate. Assays typically require 3 h after overnight sample preparation. Companion methods are also discussed and provided to aid researchers in developing more sophisticated experimental regimens for extended analyses of cellular bioenergetics. PMID:22576106

  20. Review of Skin Friction Measurements Including Recent High-Reynolds Number Results from NASA Langley NTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Ralph D.; Hall, Robert M.; Anders, John B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews flat plate skin friction data from early correlations of drag on plates in water to measurements in the cryogenic environment of The NASA Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) in late 1996. The flat plate (zero pressure gradient with negligible surface curvature) incompressible skin friction at high Reynolds numbers is emphasized in this paper, due to its importance in assessing the accuracy of measurements, and as being important to the aerodynamics of large scale vehicles. A correlation of zero pressure gradient skin friction data minimizing extraneous effects between tests is often used as the first step in the calculation of skin friction in complex flows. Early data compiled by Schoenherr for a range of momentum thickness Reynolds numbers, R(sub Theta) from 860 to 370,000 contained large scatter, but has proved surprisingly accurate in its correlated form. Subsequent measurements in wind tunnels under more carefully controlled conditions have provided inputs to this database, usually to a maximum R(sub Theta) of about 40,000. Data on a large axisymmetric model in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility extends the upper limit in incompressible R(sub Theta) to 619,800 using the van Driest transformation. Previous data, test techniques, and error sources ar discussed, and the NTF data will be discussed in detail. The NTF Preston tube and Clauser inferred data accuracy is estimated to be within -2 percent of a power-law curve fit, and falls above the Spalding theory by 1 percent at R(sub Theta) of about 600,000.

  1. Human calcium metabolism including bone resorption measured with {sup 41}Ca tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.P.H.T.; King, J.C.; Vieira, N.E.; Woodhouse, L.R.; Yergey, A.L.

    1996-08-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is so sensitive to small quantities of {sup 41}Ca that it might be used as a tracer in the study of human calcium kinetics to generate unique kinds of data. In contrast with the use of other Ca isotopic tracers, {sup 41}Ca tracer can be so administered that the tracer movements between the various body pools achieve a quasi steady state. Resorbing bone may thus be directly measured. We have tested such a protocol against a conventional stable isotope experiment with good agreement.

  2. Tensiometer for shallow or deep measurements including vadose zone and aquifers

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, B.

    1999-08-24

    A two cell tensiometer is described in which water level in the lower cell is maintained at a relatively constant height, and in equilibrium with the water pressure of materials that surround the tensiometer. An isolated volume of air in the lower cell changes pressure proportionately to the changing water pressure of the materials that surround the tensiometer. The air pressure is measured remotely. The tensiometer can be used in drying as well as wetting cycles above and below the water table. 8 figs.

  3. Measurements of the ponderomotive force including sideband mode coupling effects and damping rates

    SciTech Connect

    Meassick, S.; Intrator, T.; Hershkowitz, N.; Browning, J.; Majeski, R.

    1989-05-01

    Measurements of the interactions of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) with flute interchange modes are presented. Interactions between the applied l = 1 radio frequency (rf) wave and an m = -1 flute mode give rise to sidebands above and below the rf frequency with mode numbers of l = 0 and l = +2, respectively. The contribution of the sideband terms to stability are shown to cancel 40% of the direct ponderomotive contribution. This is less than the 90% predicted by theory (Phys. Fluids 30, 148 (1987)) for an applied l = +1 rf wave above the ion cyclotron frequency with a large separation between the plasma and the vacuum vessel. Measurements of the linear growth and damping rate of the flute instability in the presence of rf are in good agreement with that calculated by considering only the curvature-driven instability and the ponderomotive force. The growth rate of the magnetohydrodynamic mode is consistent with the primary force acting on the plasma being the curvature force. This method allows a determination of the net stabilizing force on the plasma.

  4. A methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Hoeffelin, H; Jacquemin, D; Defaweux, V; Nizet, J L

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery. PMID:24511536

  5. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  6. Measurement of Larval Activity in the Drosophila Activity Monitor

    PubMed Central

    McParland, Aidan L.; Follansbee, Taylor L.; Ganter, Geoffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larvae are used in many behavioral studies, yet a simple device for measuring basic parameters of larval activity has not been available. This protocol repurposes an instrument often used to measure adult activity, the TriKinetics Drosophila activity monitor (MB5 Multi-Beam Activity Monitor) to study larval activity. The instrument can monitor the movements of animals in 16 individual 8 cm glass assay tubes, using 17 infrared detection beams per tube. Logging software automatically saves data to a computer, recording parameters such as number of moves, times sensors were triggered, and animals’ positions within the tubes. The data can then be analyzed to represent overall locomotion and/or position preference as well as other measurements. All data are easily accessible and compatible with basic graphing and data manipulation software. This protocol will discuss how to use the apparatus, how to operate the software and how to run a larval activity assay from start to finish. PMID:25993121

  7. Measured backscatter and attenuation properties, including polarization effects, of various dispersions at 0.9 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. H.; Flaherty, M. I.; Partin, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The optical properties of a wide variety of atmospheric dispersions were studied using a 0.9-micron lidar system which included a GaAs laser stack transmitter emitting a horizontally polarized beam of 4 milliradians vertical divergence and 1.5 milliradians horizontal divergence. A principal means for assessing optical properties was the polarization ratio, that is, the backscattered radiation power perpendicular to the transmitter beam divided by the backscattered radiation power parallel to the beam polarization. The ratio of the backscattered fraction to the attenuation coefficient was also determined. Data on the dispersion properties of black carbon smoke, road dust, fog, fair-weather cumulus clouds, snow and rain were obtained; the adverse effects of sunlight-induced background noise on the readings is also discussed.

  8. Local heat transfer measurement with liquid crystals on rotating surfaces including non-axisymmetric cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Kim, Y. K.

    1993-01-01

    An overview and summary of test methods and results are given for the problem of measuring local heat transfer on rotating surfaces that model gas turbine engine disks. Disk cavity situations generically similar to those encountered in the high pressure stage disk cooling are considered, with cooling air supplied both at or near the wheel centerline as well as through single or multiple jets impinging outboard on the wheel near the blade attachment region. In some situations provision has been made for ingestion into the disk-cavity from the gas path region radially outboard of the disk. Local heat transfer rates in all cases are determined from the color display from a thin coating of encapsulated liquid crystals sprayed onto the disk, in conjunction with use of a video camera and computer vision system. For cases with axisymmetric disk surfaces, the coated surfaces are illuminated and viewed continuously, and detailed radial distributions of local Nusselt number are obtained. For non-axisymmetric disk surfaces, such as encountered in the vicinity of bolt heads, the disk is illuminated with stroboscopic light, and a method has been developed and used to synchronize the computer frame grabber with the illumination.

  9. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  10. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  11. The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

    2011-07-01

    The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission

  12. Detection of Telomerase Activity Using Capacitance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bong Keun; Lee, Ri Mi; Choi, Ahmi; Jung, Hyo-Il; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2007-03-01

    Telomerase activity has been found in about 85% cancer cells, while no activity observed in normal cells, so that telomerase has been proposed as a marker for cancer detection. Here, we describe electrical detection of telomerase activity using capacitance measurements. We have investigated the length dependence of capacitance on DNA solutions and found that the capacitance of DNA solutions were dependent on the DNA length. In addition, upon adding telomerase into the solution of telomeric substrate primer, the capacitance was observed to change as a function of time due to the telomeric elongation. These results suggest that this novel nanosensor may be used for rapid detection of telomerase activity.

  13. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  14. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  15. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus. PMID:12127709

  16. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  17. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  18. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  19. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  20. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  1. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  2. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  3. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  4. Measurements of aerosol-cloud interactions, including on-line particle chemical composition, at the Jungfraujoch Global Atmospheric Watch Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, P. I.; Bower, K. N.; Gallagher, M. W.; Choularton, T. W.; Weingartner, E.; Corrigan, C.; Baltensperger, U.

    2003-04-01

    The Global Atmospheric Watch research laboratory is located in the Sphinx building, 3580 m asl; 46.55oN, 7.98oE on the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps. The site is exposed to a wide range of conditions and frequently samples long range transported lower free tropospheric air, and is exposed to cloudy conditions. The Paul Scherrer Institute have previously developed a dual inlet system that allows measurements of the total sub-micron aerosol population (dry residuals and interstitial particles) and interstitial particles alone to be made alternately every few minutes. During July 2002 an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was coupled to the dual inlet and was used to sample the composition of both the total particle distribution and the interstitial fraction and hence derive the mass loadings of the dry droplet residuals. In out of cloud conditions the aerosol composition can be linked to air mass history and age of the air mass. Microphysical measurements include cloud droplet size distributions made using an FSSP and also a new phase Doppler anemometry system. A comparison between these probes will be made. Two different types of cloud droplet spectra were observed. In the first type a large number of cloud droplets were measured with a single, narrow drop size distribution and modal diameter of around 10 um. In the second type, a bimodal cloud droplet spectrum occurred with a smaller mode (by number) at around 20 um, in addition to the 10 um mode. The aerosol mass spectrometry shows that the composition of the residuals from the two spectrum types is very different, the former type being composed mainly of sulphate, the latter a combination of nitrate, sulphate and organic material. We have also shown that the organic material observed is highly oxidized. We argue that the bimodality arises as a result of mixing of cloud droplets below the site that have been activated separately: the larger a less numerous mode in the widespread strato-cumulus forming under low

  5. A novel peptide inhibitor of classical and lectin complement activation including ABO incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Clifford T.; Pallera, Haree K.; Sharp, Julia A.; Woltmann, Jon L.; Qian, Shizhi; Hair, Pamela S.; van der Pol, Pieter; van Kooten, Cees; Thielens, Nicole M.; Lattanzio, Frank A.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments from our laboratories have identified peptides derived from the human astrovirus coat protein (CP) that bind C1q and mannose binding lectin (MBL) inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of these coat protein peptides (CPPs) in an in vitro model of complement-mediated disease (ABO incompatibility), preliminarily assess their in vivo complement suppression profile and develop more highly potent derivatives of these molecules. E23A, a 30 amino acid CPP derivative previously demonstrated to inhibit classical pathway activation was able to dose-dependently inhibit lysis of AB erythrocytes treated with mismatched human O serum. Additionally, when injected into rats, E23A inhibited the animals’ serum from lysing antibody-sensitized erythrocytes, providing preliminary in vivo functional evidence that this CPP can cross the species barrier to inhibit serum complement activity in rodents. A rational drug design approach was implemented to identify more potent CPP derivatives, resulting in the identification and characterization of a 15 residue peptide (Polar Assortant (PA)), which demonstrated both superior inhibition of classical complement pathway activation and robust binding to C1q collagen-like tails. PA also inhibited ABO incompatibility in vitro and demonstrated in vivo complement suppression up to 24 hours post-injection. CPP’s ability to inhibit ABO incompatibility in vitro, proof of concept in vivo inhibitory activity in rats and the development of the highly potent PA derivative set the stage for preclinical testing of this molecule in small animal models of complement-mediated disease. PMID:22906481

  6. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health. PMID:25430599

  7. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  8. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  9. Measurements of thermospheric response to auroral activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okano, S.; Kim, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Joule heating produced by auroral electrojets and its thermospheric response can be studied by monitoring the thermospheric temperatures by optical methods; simultaneously, the concurrent auroral electrojet activities can be investigated by using geomagnetic records obtained from stations along a meridian close to the observation site of optical measurements. The measurements are reported of thermospheric response to auroral activities which were made at Albany (42.68 deg N, 73.82 deg W), New York on September 2, 1978 (UT) when an isolated substorm occured. The thermospheric temperatures were measured by using a high resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer that determines the line profiles of the (OI) 6300A line emission. The intensities and latitudinal positions of auroral electrojets were obtained by the analysis of magnetograms from the IMS Fort Churchill meridian chain stations.

  10. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  11. Phytophthora infestans Has a Plethora of Phospholipase D Enzymes Including a Subclass That Has Extracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  12. Evaluation of school-based dental health activities including fluoride mouth-rinsing in Hiraizumi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohara, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Shinada, K; Sasaki, Y

    2000-06-01

    School-based dental health activities conducted in Hiraizumi over the past 20 years have remarkably improved the dental health status of schoolchildren. For example, DMFT index of 12-year-old children decreased to 1.5 in 1998, one-half that of the national average. School dental health activities, which were focused on dental health education, resulted in an increase of filled teeth rates, a decrease in the number of missing teeth, and a decline in incisor caries (1979-1986). In addition, the introduction of a school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing program (1986 - ) showed a positive effect on the prevention of dental caries; a significant decrease was observed in the overall prevalence of dental caries, particularly in the molars. In Japan it seems advantageous to promote the dental health of schoolchildren by school-based programs that combine dental health examination, dental health education and fluoride mouth-rinsing program. Especially, to prevent dental caries in the mandibular first molars more effectively, it is recommended to start fluoride mouth-rinsing at age 5. PMID:12160185

  13. 49 CFR 23.25 - What measures must recipients include in their ACDBE programs to ensure nondiscriminatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What measures must recipients include in their ACDBE programs to ensure nondiscriminatory participation of ACDBEs in concessions? 23.25 Section 23.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION OF DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN AIRPORT CONCESSIONS ACDBE Programs §...

  14. 49 CFR 23.25 - What measures must recipients include in their ACDBE programs to ensure nondiscriminatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What measures must recipients include in their ACDBE programs to ensure nondiscriminatory participation of ACDBEs in concessions? 23.25 Section 23.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION OF DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN AIRPORT CONCESSIONS ACDBE Programs §...

  15. 43 CFR 10005.12 - Policy regarding the scope of measures to be included in the plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy regarding the scope of measures to be included in the plan. 10005.12 Section 10005.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING...

  16. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    PubMed

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). PMID:22280793

  17. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  18. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. PMID:26476681

  19. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  20. Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments including activation energies and mathematical modeling of methyl halide dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstein, O.; Prager, M.; Grimm, H.; Buchsteiner, A.; Wischnewski, A.

    2007-09-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments were carried out using the multichopper time-of-flight spectrometer V3 at the Hahn-Meitner Institut, Germany and the backscattering spectrometer at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Activation energies for CH3X, X =F, Cl, Br, and I, were obtained. In combination with results from previous inelastic neutron scattering experiments the data were taken to describe the dynamics of the halides in terms of two different models, the single particle model and the coupling model. Coupled motions of methyl groups seem to explain the dynamics of the methyl fluoride and chloride; however, the coupling vanishes with the increase of the mass of the halide atom in CH3Br and CH3I.

  1. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  2. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2010-01-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual’s segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial–ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces. PMID:21643546

  3. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David W. S.; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-06-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.

  4. Driver Performance Measurement Research. Volume 2: Guide for Training Observer/Raters in the Driver Performance Measurements Procedure. (Including Course and Content).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, R. O.; And Others

    The Final Report, Volume 1, covers research results of the Michigan State University Driver Performance Measurement Project. This volume (Volume 2) constitutes a guide for training observers/raters in the driver performance measurement procedures developed in this research by MSU. The guide includes a training course plan and content materials…

  5. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  6. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  7. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  8. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  9. Differences in Lifestyles Including Physical Activity According to Sexual Orientation among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Jin-Ho; SO, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in lifestyle factors such as physical activity among homosexual (gay or lesbian), bisexual, and heterosexual Korean adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 74,186 adolescents from grades 7—12 (ages 12—18) who participated in the 8th annual Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in 2012. Of this sample, only 11,829 provided enough information regarding their romantic and sexual experiences to define them as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual. From this information, males were divided into gay (n = 323), bisexual (n = 243), and heterosexual (n = 6,501) groups, and females were divided into lesbian (n = 208), bisexual (n = 113), and heterosexual (n = 4,441) groups. Differences in lifestyle factors according to sexual orientation were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results Males showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P = 0.029), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), muscular strength exercises (P = 0.020), and walking for at least 10 minutes per week (P < 0.001). Females showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), vigorous physical exercise (P < 0.001), moderate physical exercise (P < 0.001), and muscular strength exercises (P < 0.001), as well as for self-reported mental stress (P < 0.001). Conclusion We concluded those gay and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females had significant lifestyle differences as compared with heterosexual adolescents. This effect was stronger for females than for males. PMID:26060636

  10. RADIO PROPERTIES OF LOW-REDSHIFT BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI INCLUDING EXTENDED RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Rafter, Stephen E.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Wiita, Paul J.

    2011-03-15

    We present a study of the extended radio emission in a sample of 8434 low-redshift (z < 0.35) broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To calculate the jet and lobe contributions to the total radio luminosity, we have taken the 846 radio core sources detected in our previous study of this sample and performed a systematic search in the FIRST database for extended radio emission that is likely associated with the optical counterparts. We found that 51 out of 846 radio core sources have extended emission (>4'' from the optical AGN) that is positively associated with the AGN, and we have identified an additional 12 AGNs with extended radio emission but no detectable radio core emission. Among these 63 AGNs, we found 6 giant radio galaxies, with projected emission exceeding 750 kpc in length, and several other AGNs with unusual radio morphologies also seen in higher redshift surveys. The optical spectra of many of the extended sources are similar to those of typical broad-line radio galaxy spectra, having broad H{alpha} emission lines with boxy profiles and large M{sub BH}. With extended emission taken into account, we find strong evidence for a bimodal distribution in the radio-loudness parameter R ({identical_to}{nu}{sub radio} L{sub radio}/{nu}{sub opt} L{sub opt}), where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the extended sources, with a dividing line at log(R) {approx}1.75. This dividing line ensures that these are indeed the most radio-loud AGNs, which may have different or extreme physical conditions in their central engines when compared to the more numerous radio-quiet AGNs.

  11. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  12. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  13. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  14. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  15. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  16. Measurement of glutathione in activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Dziurla, M A; Leroy, P; Strünkmann, G W; Salhi, M; Lee, D U; Camacho, P; Heinz, V; Müller, J A; Paul, E; Ginestet, Ph; Audic, J M; Block, J C

    2004-01-01

    Thermal, electric, mechanical or oxidative stress seem a promising way to reduce the production of excess activated sludge during biological wastewater treatment. However, the adaptation and the resistance of the sludge microbial ecosystem to stress conditions is a major question as it may definitively limit the effect of some treatments. Defence mechanisms developed by aerobic organisms, in particular, in response to oxidative stress involve various antioxidant activities and compounds such as glutathione. An HPLC method was developed for measuring reduced and total glutathione (GSH and GSHt) in perchloric acid sludge extracts. The method was sensitive, highly specific and validated for linearity, precision and recovery. Considering the extraction yield and the oxidation of GSH during extract storage, the measured GSH concentration was estimated to represent 60% of the GSH content from activated sludges. GSHt ranged from 0.32 to 3.34micromolg(-1) volatile solids and the GSH/GSHt ratio ranged from 32% to 91%. Measurements performed on sludges stressed in precise conditions selected to reach a reduction of sludge production showed a decrease of GSH and GSHt concentrations with thermal, mechanical, electric and ozone stress. PMID:14630122

  17. Activity of tigecycline tested against a global collection of Enterobacteriaceae, including tetracycline-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Strabala, Patty A; Sader, Helio S; Dowzicky, Michael J; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-07-01

    Steadily increasing resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has compromised the utility of these commonly used antimicrobial classes for many community- or hospital-acquired infections. The development of tigecycline, the sentinel representative of a novel class of broad-spectrum agents (the glycylcyclines), represents an important milestone in addressing this critical need. Resistance to tigecycline might be expected to occur via the same mechanisms that produce tetracycline resistance; however, tigecycline remains stable and largely unaffected by the commonly occurring efflux and ribosomal protection resistance mechanisms. In this study, an international collection of Enterobacteriaceae (11327 isolates; 32.8% tetracycline-resistant) from global surveillance studies (2000-2004) were evaluated against tigecycline and other comparator antimicrobials. Although the most active agents were the carbapenems and aminoglycosides (97.5-99.7% susceptible), tigecycline displayed high potency (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 and 1 microg/mL) with 95.7% of all strains being inhibited at < or =2 microg/mL. Despite higher MIC values observed with Serratia spp. and Proteae, between 90.5% and 97.5% of isolates were inhibited by < or =4 microg/mL of tigecycline. Tetracycline-resistant populations demonstrated only modest decreases in potency to tigecycline, which appeared to be species-dependent (up to 2-fold only for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Panteoa agglomerans; and up to 4-fold for Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp.). Among E. coli (263 isolates) and Klebsiella spp. (356) that meet recognized screening definitions for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production, 100.0% and 94.4% were inhibited by tigecycline at 2 microg/mL, respectively. These findings confirm that tigecycline exhibits potency, breadth of spectrum, and stability to the

  18. Fast optical 3D form measurement of aspheres including determination of thickness and wedge and decenter errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stover, E.; Berger, G.; Wendel, M.; Petter, J.

    2015-10-01

    A method for non-contact 3D form testing of aspheric surfaces including determination of decenter and wedge errors and lens thickness is presented. The principle is based on the absolute measurement capability of multi-wavelength interferometry (MWLI). The approach produces high density 3D shape information and geometric parameters at high accuracy in short measurement times. The system allows inspection of aspheres without restrictions in terms of spherical departures, of segmented and discontinuous optics. The optics can be polished or ground and made of opaque or transparent materials.

  19. Neutron and proton activation measurements from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactivity induced by high-energy protons and secondary neutrons (from nuclear interactions) in various samples returned from different locations in Skylab was measured directly by gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of decay gamma rays from the samples. Incident fluxes were derived from the activation measurements, using known nuclear cross-section. Neutron and proton flux values were found to range from 0.2 to 5 particles/sq cm-sec, depending on the energy range and location in Skylab. The thermal neutron flux was less than 0.07 neutrons/sq cm-sec. The results are useful for data analysis and planning of future high-energy astronomy experiments.

  20. Systems and methods for measuring a parameter of a landfill including a barrier cap and wireless sensor systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.

    2007-03-06

    A method of measuring a parameter of a landfill including a cap, without passing wires through the cap, includes burying a sensor apparatus in the landfill prior to closing the landfill with the cap; providing a reader capable of communicating with the sensor apparatus via radio frequency (RF); placing an antenna above the barrier, spaced apart from the sensor apparatus; coupling the antenna to the reader either before or after placing the antenna above the barrier; providing power to the sensor apparatus, via the antenna, by generating a field using the reader; accumulating and storing power in the sensor apparatus; sensing a parameter of the landfill using the sensor apparatus while using power; and transmitting the sensed parameter to the reader via a wireless response signal. A system for measuring a parameter of a landfill is also provided.

  1. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  2. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  3. Twisted nematic liquid crystal cell characterization using rotating polarizers including full-field cell gap thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Kapil; Prakarsa, Andy; Jiang, Yin Xi; Lee, Hooi Leng; Asundi, Anand

    2009-12-01

    Liquid crystal cells have always been an important part of commercially available displays, modulators and projectors. In this paper, Jones matrix representation including four independent parameters for twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN-LC) cell has been demonstrated. The physical parameters of the TN-LC cell such as twist angle, birefringence and director orientation at the input face of cell has been calculated using intensity transmittance of an experimental set-up that includes circularly polarized light and TN-LC cell sandwiched between two polarizers. The physical parameters have been calculated without any ambiguity using three different wavelengths. The knowledge from above measurement gives the general information about the birefringence and hence liquid crystal cell gap thickness. To acquire full-field liquid crystal cell gap thickness measurement phase shift polariscope has been adopted. The four phase shifted images through the rotating analyzer gives the full-field cell gap thickness measurement. The experimental results have been compared with the commercial point wise measurement and are in good agreement.

  4. Twisted nematic liquid crystal cell characterization using rotating polarizers including full-field cell gap thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Kapil; Prakarsa, Andy; Jiang, Yin Xi; Lee, Hooi Leng; Asundi, Anand

    2010-03-01

    Liquid crystal cells have always been an important part of commercially available displays, modulators and projectors. In this paper, Jones matrix representation including four independent parameters for twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN-LC) cell has been demonstrated. The physical parameters of the TN-LC cell such as twist angle, birefringence and director orientation at the input face of cell has been calculated using intensity transmittance of an experimental set-up that includes circularly polarized light and TN-LC cell sandwiched between two polarizers. The physical parameters have been calculated without any ambiguity using three different wavelengths. The knowledge from above measurement gives the general information about the birefringence and hence liquid crystal cell gap thickness. To acquire full-field liquid crystal cell gap thickness measurement phase shift polariscope has been adopted. The four phase shifted images through the rotating analyzer gives the full-field cell gap thickness measurement. The experimental results have been compared with the commercial point wise measurement and are in good agreement.

  5. A Statistical Review of DWPF Laboratory Data Including Measurements of the ARG-1 Standard for Batches 94 - 263.

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS, EDWARDS

    2004-11-30

    Measurements of calibration and bench standards as well as samples of ARG-1 that were performed by the DWPF Lab during the processing of batches 94 through 263 were provided to SCS for review. Three datasets, one associated with each of three preparation methods (Cold Chem, Mixed Acid, and Fusion) were included in the review. The review conducted covered several areas of investigation. Biases in these measurements relative to the reference values for the standards including ARG-1 were estimated and found to be of no practical concern. Percent relative standard deviations for these data also were determined. Sources of variation in the measurements (i.e., batch-to-batch and within process batch) were estimated and compared. An investigation into evidence of instrument drift during a group of measurements representing a prototypical block was conducted for each preparation method using pairs of calibration and bench standards. No evidence of instrument drift at levels of practical concern was seen in these data. Also, the replicates of calibration standards at the beginning of each analytical block were found to be unnecessary. The uncertainties of the measurements, which incorporated biases and precision errors, were computed for the calibration standards, bench standards, and ARG-1. The limits for these uncertainties were compared to the current, LIMS operating limits for the errors in the measurements of these standards. These comparisons may provide opportunities for revising the LIMS limits. Comparisons between MFT and SME results were made for both the Mixed Acid and the Fusion prep methods. There was no evidence of differences (in either bias or precision) between the results for these two tanks for either of the two prep methods.

  6. Noninvasive ambulatory measurement system of cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Chavez, Javier A P; Aqueveque, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    This work implements a noninvasive system that measures the movements caused by cardiac activity. It uses unobtrusive Electro-Mechanical Films (EMFi) on the seat and on the backrest of a regular chair. The system detects ballistocardiogram (BCG) and respiration movements. Real data was obtained from 54 volunteers. 19 of them were measured in the laboratory and 35 in a hospital waiting room. Using a BIOPAC acquisition system, the ECG was measured simultaneously to the BCG for comparison. Wavelet Transform (WT) is a better option than Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for signal extraction and produces higher effective measurement time. In the laboratory, the best results are obtained on the seat. The correlation index was 0.9800 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were 0.7136 ± 4.3673 [BPM]. In the hospital waiting room, the best results are also from the seat sensor. The correlation index was 0.9840, and the limits of agreement were 0.4386 ± 3.5884 [BPM]. The system is able to measure BCG in an unobtrusive way and determine the cardiac frequency with high precision. It is simple to use, which means the system can easily be used in non-standard settings: resting in a chair or couch, at the gym, schools or in a hospital waiting room, as shown. PMID:26738057

  7. Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R; Martínez, E; Varela, C

    2003-01-01

    The correct administration to a patient of the prescribed activity of a radiopharmaceutical is an important factor to ensure the confidence in the diagnosis or the therapeutic efficiency, while at the same time keeping the unnecessary human exposure as low as possible. Comparisons of activity measurements for 131I, 201Tl and 99mTc with radionuclide calibrators were organized the first time in Cuba during 2002 with the aim of obtaining information about the quality of administration of radiopharmaceuticals. Ten Cuban nuclear medicine departments and the laboratories involved in the production of these kinds of compounds participated in the comparison runs. The results presented in this paper facilitated the identification of several problems and initiated corrective actions. In addition, they indicate the necessity of establishing Quality Systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba. PMID:14622940

  8. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  9. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  10. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  11. Measurement and calculation of individual head-related transfer functions using a boundary element model including the measurement and effect of skin and hair impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian Fredrick Gray

    1998-12-01

    This research investigates various aspects of the Head- Related Transfer Function (HRTF), which is a description of the acoustic frequency filtering performed by the geometry of the head as a function of incident angle. The effects of this filtering are used in the brain to determine the location of sound sources in space. Initially, various methods for measuring the HRTF are examined, as well as several means of normalizing or equalizing the data. One method is chosen which best represents the informational content of the measured data for comparisons between experimental methods. The question as to whether the acoustic properties of skin and hair contribute to the HRTF is also examined. Measurements are made of the acoustic absorption and impedance of various skin and hair samples using a plane wave tube and two microphones. The limitations of this technique and published standards are also included. Finally, an individual HRTF is calculated using an optically generated surface mesh and a numerical boundary element (BEM) solution. The results of the impedance measurements are included in the calculations. Final analysis consists of comparing the various calculated HRTFs and measured HRTFs. Geometric variations in the head mesh such as removal of the pinna are also included. Good agreement is found given the assumptions made in the generation of the computational model (i.e. lack of torso) throughout the frequency range of the model, which extends from 1-6 kHz. Computational speed and size of the numerical problem limit the work to this region.

  12. Measuring mechanical properties, including isotonic fatigue, of fast and slow MLC/mIgf-1 transgenic skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Zaccaria; Musarò, Antonio; Rizzuto, Emanuele

    2008-07-01

    Contractile properties of fast-twitch (EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) skeletal muscles were measured in MLC/mIgf-1 transgenic and wild-type mice. MLC/mIgf-1 mice express the local factor mIgf-1 under the transcriptional control of MLC promoter, selectively activated in fast-twitch muscle fibers. Isolated muscles were studied in vitro in both isometric and isotonic conditions. We used a rapid "ad hoc" testing protocol that measured, in a single procedure, contraction time, tetanic force, Hill's (F-v) curve, power curve and isotonic muscle fatigue. Transgenic soleus muscles did not differ from wild-type with regard to any measured variable. In contrast, transgenic EDL muscles displayed a hypertrophic phenotype, with a mass increase of 29.2% compared to wild-type. Absolute tetanic force increased by 21.5% and absolute maximum power by 34.1%. However, when normalized to muscle cross-sectional area and mass, specific force and normalized power were the same in transgenic and wild-type EDL muscles, revealing that mIgf-1 expression induces a functional hypertrophy without altering fibrotic tissue accumulation. Isotonic fatigue behavior did not differ between transgenic and wild-type muscles, suggesting that the ability of mIgf-1 transgenic muscle to generate a considerable higher absolute power did not affect its resistance to fatigue. PMID:18415017

  13. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session. PMID:20562324

  14. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  15. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  16. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170.137 Section 170.137 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails...

  17. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  18. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  19. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  20. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  1. Stability enhancement of an atomic force microscope for long-term force measurement including cantilever modification for whole cell deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weafer, P. P.; McGarry, J. P.; van Es, M. H.; Kilpatrick, J. I.; Ronan, W.; Nolan, D. R.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2012-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in the study of both morphology and mechanical properties of living cells under physiologically relevant conditions. However, quantitative experiments on timescales of minutes to hours are generally limited by thermal drift in the instrument, particularly in the vertical (z) direction. In addition, we demonstrate the necessity to remove all air-liquid interfaces within the system for measurements in liquid environments, which may otherwise result in perturbations in the measured deflection. These effects severely limit the use of AFM as a practical tool for the study of long-term cell behavior, where precise knowledge of the tip-sample distance is a crucial requirement. Here we present a readily implementable, cost effective method of minimizing z-drift and liquid instabilities by utilizing active temperature control combined with a customized fluid cell system. Long-term whole cell mechanical measurements were performed using this stabilized AFM by attaching a large sphere to a cantilever in order to approximate a parallel plate system. An extensive examination of the effects of sphere attachment on AFM data is presented. Profiling of cantilever bending during substrate indentation revealed that the optical lever assumption of free ended cantilevering is inappropriate when sphere constraining occurs, which applies an additional torque to the cantilevers "free" end. Here we present the steps required to accurately determine force-indentation measurements for such a scenario. Combining these readily implementable modifications, we demonstrate the ability to investigate long-term whole cell mechanics by performing strain controlled cyclic deformation of single osteoblasts.

  2. Infiltration rate measurement by active perfluorocarbon monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, K.T.; Pong, C.M.; Randel, M.A. )

    1987-01-01

    The rate of air infiltration in homes and buildings is a significant factor affecting the magnitude of human exposure to air pollutants in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been utilized for the determination of air infiltration. These include building pressurization and tracer analysis, e.g., SF/sub 6/. Dietz and Cote at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have developed a simple, steady-state tracer kit that can be utilized by homeowners. This kit includes a source(s) of perfluorocarbon, i.e., perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) or perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (PDCH), and a passive sampling tube containing Ambersorb XE-347. Typically, the sampling tube is deployed for several days and then returned to a laboratory for analysis by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection. The authors developed an alternative sampling and analysis technique for PMCH/PDCH in homes. In order to facilitate monitoring of short-term infiltration rates (i.e., less than one day) they developed an active sorbent sampling method and solvent desorption/gas chromatography/electron capture detection analytical method. The method is based on the collection of PMCH on charcoal. The method validation, which is discussed in this article, includes analytical method development, selection of a solid sorbent, determination of desorption efficiency, analysis of breakthrough, testing of storage stability, and assessment of precision and accuracy in both the laboratory and field environment.

  3. Ceftaroline versus isolates from animal bite wounds: comparative in vitro activities against 243 isolates, including 156 Pasteurella species isolates.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2012-12-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC(90)s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  4. Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

    2012-01-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  5. CMAQ model performance enhanced when in-cloud secondary organic aerosol is included: comparisons of organic carbon predictions with measurements.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Annmarie G; Turpin, Barbara I; Altieri, Katye E; Seitzinger, Sybil P; Mathur, Rohit; Roselle, Shawn J; Weber, Rodney J

    2008-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that low-volatility (particle-phase) organic compounds form in the atmosphere through aqueous phase reactions in clouds and aerosols. Although some models have begun including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation through cloud processing, validation studies that compare predictions and measurements are needed. In this work, agreement between modeled organic carbon (OC) and aircraft measurements of water soluble OC improved for all 5 of the compared ICARTT NOAA-P3 flights during August when an in-cloud SOA (SOAcld) formation mechanism was added to CMAQ (a regional-scale atmospheric model). The improvement was most dramatic for the August 14th flight, a flight designed specifically to investigate clouds. During this flight the normalized mean bias for layer-averaged OC was reduced from -64 to -15% and correlation (r) improved from 0.5 to 0.6. Underpredictions of OC aloft by atmospheric models may be explained, in part, by this formation mechanism (SOAcld). OC formation aloft contributes to long-range pollution transport and has implications to radiative forcing, regional air quality and climate. PMID:19192800

  6. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  7. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  8. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    PubMed Central

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  9. Activity of Eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, Including Multidrug-Resistant Isolates, from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David

    2014-01-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  10. Modified agar dilution susceptibility testing method for determining in vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, T; Jono, K; Okonogi, K

    1997-01-01

    In vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds, against yeasts were easily determined by using RPMI-1640 agar medium and by incubating the plates in the presence of 20% CO2. The end point of inhibition was clear by this method, even in the case of azole compounds, because of the almost complete inhibition of yeast growth at high concentrations which permitted weak growth of some Candida strains by traditional methods. MICs obtained by the agar dilution method were similar to those obtained by the broth dilution method proposed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:9174197

  11. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  12. 45 CFR 2553.109 - What happens if a sponsor fails to meet the performance measures included in the Notice of Grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... performance measures included in the Notice of Grant Award (NGA)? 2553.109 Section 2553.109 Public Welfare... meet the performance measures included in the Notice of Grant Award (NGA)? If a sponsor fails to meet a target performance measure established in the NGA, the Corporation will negotiate a period of no...

  13. 45 CFR 2553.109 - What happens if a sponsor fails to meet the performance measures included in the Notice of Grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... performance measures included in the Notice of Grant Award (NGA)? 2553.109 Section 2553.109 Public Welfare... meet the performance measures included in the Notice of Grant Award (NGA)? If a sponsor fails to meet a target performance measure established in the NGA, the Corporation will negotiate a period of no...

  14. 45 CFR 2553.109 - What happens if a sponsor fails to meet the performance measures included in the Notice of Grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... performance measures included in the Notice of Grant Award (NGA)? 2553.109 Section 2553.109 Public Welfare... meet the performance measures included in the Notice of Grant Award (NGA)? If a sponsor fails to meet a target performance measure established in the NGA, the Corporation will negotiate a period of no...

  15. 45 CFR 2553.109 - What happens if a sponsor fails to meet the performance measures included in the Notice of Grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... performance measures included in the Notice of Grant Award (NGA)? 2553.109 Section 2553.109 Public Welfare... meet the performance measures included in the Notice of Grant Award (NGA)? If a sponsor fails to meet a target performance measure established in the NGA, the Corporation will negotiate a period of no...

  16. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes. PMID:16818330

  17. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  18. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  19. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  20. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-15

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale ({approx}1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  1. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-01

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale (˜1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  2. 34 CFR 403.202 - What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Reference: See 34 CFR 400.6. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under Control No. 1830-0030... and competency gains, including student progress in the achievement of basic and more advanced... work skill attainment or enhancement including student progress in achieving occupational...

  3. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  4. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  5. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  6. Neutron spectrum measurements in DT discharges using activation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, B.; Bertalot, L.; Loughlin, M.; Roquemore, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    The JET activation system has eight irradiation ends where samples may be irradiated in the neutron flux from the plasma. There is one end, re-entrant into the top of the vessel, for which there is little intervening material between it and the plasma; the other ends, including two beneath the divertor coils, have increasingly larger amounts of intervening structure. The local neutron spectrum at each irradiation end was measured by simultaneously activating several elemental foils (Al, Au, Co, Fe, In, Mg, Nb, Ni, Ti, Zr). There were 15 activation reactions in the energy range of 0.5-16 MeV which were used as input to the SNL-SAND-II code to determine the neutron energy spectrum. The results are compared with neutron transport calculations both from the MCNP and FURNACE codes: the average standard deviation between measured to SNL-SAND-II calculated activity ratios was as low as 5%. The results demonstrate the reliability of the neutronics calculations and have implications for the design of diagnostics and blankets for the next generation of large tokamaks such as ITER. The 377.9 keV line of the 54Fe(n,2n)53Fe reaction (threshold ˜13.9 MeV, not a dosimetric standard) has also been measured in different plasma conditions. The ratio of the saturated activity from this reaction to that from the 56Fe(n,p)56Mn reaction (threshold ˜4.5 MeV) provides information on the broadening of the 14 MeV fusion peak.

  7. Antimicrobial characterisation of CEM-101 activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including multidrug-resistant pneumococcal serogroup 19A isolates.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Castanheira, Mariana; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-06-01

    CEM-101 is a novel fluorinated macrolide-ketolide with potent activity against bacterial pathogens that are susceptible or resistant to other macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B))-ketolide agents. CEM-101 is being developed for oral and parenteral use in moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of CEM-101 and comparators against contemporary respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates. A worldwide sample of organisms was used, including Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=168; 59.3% erythromycin-resistant and 18 multidrug-resistant (MDR) serogroup 19A strains], Moraxella catarrhalis (n=21; 11 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus influenzae (n=100; 48 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus (n=12), and Legionella pneumophila (n=30). Testing and interpretation were performed using reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. CEM-101 was very potent against S. pneumoniae [minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the organisms (MIC90)=0.25 mg/L; highest MIC at 0.5 mg/L] and was 2- and > or =32-fold more active than telithromycin and clindamycin, respectively. CEM-101 also demonstrated potent activity against S. pneumoniae MDR-19A strains (MIC90=0.5 mg/L). CEM-101 was the most potent antimicrobial agent tested against L. pneumophila, with all MIC values at < or = 0.015 mg/L (telithromycin MIC90=0.03 mg/L). CEM-101 was as potent as azithromycin against Haemophilus spp. RTI pathogens (MIC90=2 mg/L), with no variations for beta-lactamase production. CEM-101 MIC values against M. catarrhalis were all at < or =0.5mg/L. Interestingly, CEM-101 potency was ca. 6 log(2) dilutions greater than telithromycin MIC results among 44 beta-haemolytic streptococci having telithromycin MICs > or = 2 mg/L. CEM-101 exhibited the greatest potency and widest spectrum of activity against RTI pathogens among the tested MLS(B)-ketolide agents

  8. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  9. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  10. [An electrochemical method for measuring metabolic activity and counting cells].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, B a; Khlupova, M e; Shleev, S V; Kaprel'iants, A S; Iaropolov, A I

    2006-01-01

    An express electrochemical method for determining the metabolic activity of live cells based on the possibility of an electron exchange between an electrode and elements of the biological electron transfer chain in the presence of a mediator is proposed. This method is useful for studying any live cells (animal, plant, and microbial), including anaerobic, dormant, and spore cells. The sample preparation and measurement itself does not take more than 30 min. The detection limit in a volume of 15 ml amounts to 10-5 cells/ml. The applicability of the assessment method of the metabolic activity level during the transition of the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis into an uncultivable dormant state was demonstrated. This method is of special value for medicine and environmental control, detecting latent forms of pathogens. An optimal combination of the methods for the express analysis of latent pathogens is proposed. PMID:17066962

  11. Longitudinal emittance: An introduction to the concept and survey of measurement techniques including design of a wall current monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.C.

    1990-03-01

    The properties of charged particle beams associated with the distribution of the particles in energy and in time can be grouped together under the category of longitudinal emittance. This article is intended to provide an intuitive introduction to the concepts longitudinal emittance; to provide an incomplete survey of methods used to measure this emittance and the related properties of bunch length and momentum spread; and to describe the detailed design of a 6 Ghz bandwidth resistive wall current monitor useful for measuring bunch shapes of moderate to high intensity beams. Overall, the article is intended to be broad in scope, in most cases deferring details to cited original papers. 37 refs., 21 figs.

  12. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  13. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  14. Validation of the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) against the Rasch Measurement Model Including Differences by Gender, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Riley, Barth B.; Conrad, Karen M.; Chan, Ya-Fen; Dennis, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    In assessing criminality, researchers have used counts of crimes, arrests, and so on, because interval measures were not available. Additionally, crime seriousness varies depending on demographic factors. This study examined the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) regarding psychometric quality using item response theory (IRT) and invariance of the…

  15. 43 CFR 10005.12 - Policy regarding the scope of measures to be included in the plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Specific objectives for five-year plans. Each five-year plan will contain a set of specific objectives... be included in the plan. 10005.12 Section 10005.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING THE COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.12...

  16. 43 CFR 10005.12 - Policy regarding the scope of measures to be included in the plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Specific objectives for five-year plans. Each five-year plan will contain a set of specific objectives... be included in the plan. 10005.12 Section 10005.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING THE COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.12...

  17. 43 CFR 10005.12 - Policy regarding the scope of measures to be included in the plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Specific objectives for five-year plans. Each five-year plan will contain a set of specific objectives... be included in the plan. 10005.12 Section 10005.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... FOR DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING THE COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.12...

  18. 49 CFR 23.25 - What measures must recipients include in their ACDBE programs to ensure nondiscriminatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance to ACDBEs in overcoming limitations, such as inability to obtain bonding or financing; (5... direct ownership arrangement with a ACDBE, calculate the goal as a percentage of the total estimated...) Negotiation with a potential concessionaire to include ACDBE participation, through direct...

  19. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  20. Physical Activity in Vietnam: Estimates and Measurement Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Tan Van; Blizzard, Christopher Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Truong, Ngoc Le Van; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark Raymond; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Gall, Seana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aims were to provide the first national estimates of physical activity (PA) for Vietnam, and to investigate issues affecting their accuracy. Methods Measurements were made using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) on a nationally-representative sample of 14706 participants (46.5% males, response 64.1%) aged 25−64 years selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Results Approximately 20% of Vietnamese people had no measureable PA during a typical week, but 72.9% (men) and 69.1% (women) met WHO recommendations for PA by adults for their age. On average, 52.0 (men) and 28.0 (women) Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET)-hours/week (largely from work activities) were reported. Work and total PA were higher in rural areas and varied by season. Less than 2% of respondents provided incomplete information, but an additional one-in-six provided unrealistically high values of PA. Those responsible for reporting errors included persons from rural areas and all those with unstable work patterns. Box-Cox transformation (with an appropriate constant added) was the most successful method of reducing the influence of large values, but energy-scaled values were most strongly associated with pathophysiological outcomes. Conclusions Around seven-in-ten Vietnamese people aged 25–64 years met WHO recommendations for total PA, which was mainly from work activities and higher in rural areas. Nearly all respondents were able to report their activity using the GPAQ, but with some exaggerated values and seasonal variation in reporting. Data transformation provided plausible summary values, but energy-scaling fared best in association analyses. PMID:26485044

  1. Biological aerosol detection with combined passive-active infrared measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifarraguerri, Agustin I.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ben-David, Avishai

    2004-12-01

    A data collection experiment was performed in November of 2003 to measure aerosol signatures using multiple sensors, all operating in the long-wave infrared. The purpose of this data collection experiment was to determine whether combining passive hyperspectral and LIDAR measurements can substantially improve biological aerosol detection performance. Controlled releases of dry aerosols, including road dust, egg albumin and two strains of Bacillus Subtilis var. Niger (BG) spores were performed using the ECBC/ARTEMIS open-path aerosol test chamber located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD. The chamber provides a ~ 20' path without optical windows. Ground truth devices included 3 aerodynamic particle sizers, an optical particle size spectrometer, 6 nephelometers and a high-volume particle sampler. Two sensors were used to make measurements during the test: the AIRIS long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer and the FAL CO2 LIDAR. The AIRIS and FAL data sets were analyzed for detection performance relative to the ground truth. In this paper we present experimental results from the individual sensors as well as results from passive-active sensor fusion. The sensor performance is presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  2. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  3. Quantification of β region IgA paraproteins - should we include immunochemical "heavy/light chain" measurements? Counterpoint.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation (s-IFE), free light chain measurement (FLC) and nephelometric measurements of total immunoglobulin in serum (IgTot) are some of the laboratory tests required for the management of plasma cell proliferative disorders. The monoclonal protein is usually visible on SPE as a spike (M-spike) in the γ region and the derived densitogram is used to quantify it relative to serum total protein concentration. IgA M-protein, however, often migrates in the β region on SPE and its quantification can be masked by other serum proteins that migrate in this region. The immunoassay Hevylite™ (heavy/light chain, HLC) seems to solve this problem: it quantifies the involved/uninvolved isotype, calculating the ratio IgAκ/IgAλ, considered indicative of clonal proliferation. However, this test seems redundant in the case of artifacts on SPE such as obvious hemolysis or lipemia, or if the IgA M-spike is clearly visible in the β region. In conclusion whereas the IgA HLC assay does not represent an alternative to SPE and s-IFE in the diagnostic patient workup, it may prove to be an alternative to SPE, s-IFE and total IgA quantification in risk stratification and evaluation of response to therapy in patients affected by MM and other monoclonal plasma proliferative disorders. PMID:26812795

  4. What's the Risk? A Simple Approach for Estimating Adjusted Risk Measures from Nonlinear Models Including Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Lawrence C; Norton, Edward C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a general method (called regression risk analysis) to estimate adjusted risk measures from logistic and other nonlinear multiple regression models. We show how to estimate standard errors for these estimates. These measures could supplant various approximations (e.g., adjusted odds ratio [AOR]) that may diverge, especially when outcomes are common. Study Design Regression risk analysis estimates were compared with internal standards as well as with Mantel–Haenszel estimates, Poisson and log-binomial regressions, and a widely used (but flawed) equation to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR) from AOR. Data Collection Data sets produced using Monte Carlo simulations. Principal Findings Regression risk analysis accurately estimates ARR and differences directly from multiple regression models, even when confounders are continuous, distributions are skewed, outcomes are common, and effect size is large. It is statistically sound and intuitive, and has properties favoring it over other methods in many cases. Conclusions Regression risk analysis should be the new standard for presenting findings from multiple regression analysis of dichotomous outcomes for cross-sectional, cohort, and population-based case–control studies, particularly when outcomes are common or effect size is large. PMID:18793213

  5. Measuring initiator caspase activation by bimolecular fluorescence complementation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Melissa J; Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Initiator caspases, including caspase-2, -8, and -9, are activated by the proximity-driven dimerization that occurs after their recruitment to activation platforms. Here we describe the use of caspase bimolecular fluorescence complementation (caspase BiFC) to measure this induced proximity. BiFC assays rely on the use of a split fluorescent protein to identify protein-protein interactions in cells. When fused to interacting proteins, the fragments of the split fluorescent protein (which do not fluoresce on their own) can associate and fluoresce. In this protocol, we use the fluorescent protein Venus, a brighter and more photostable variant of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), to detect the induced proximity of caspase-2. Plasmids encoding two fusion products (caspase-2 fused to either the amino- or carboxy-terminal halves of Venus) are transfected into cells. The cells are then treated with an activating (death) stimulus. The induced proximity (and subsequent activation) of caspase-2 in the cells is visualized as Venus fluorescence. The proportion of Venus-positive cells at a single time point can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. Alternatively, the increase in fluorescence intensity over time can be evaluated by time-lapse confocal microscopy. The caspase BiFC strategy described here should also work for other initiator caspases, such as caspase-8 or -9, as long as the correct controls are used. PMID:25561623

  6. A method for measuring total thiaminase activity in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Brown, S.B.; Fitzsimons, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate, quantitative, and rapid method for the measurement of thiaminase activity in fish samples is required to provide sufficient information to characterize the role of dietary thiaminase in the onset of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines. A radiometric method that uses 14C-thiamine was optimized for substrate and co-substrate (nicotinic acid) concentrations, incubation time, and sample dilution. Total thiaminase activity was successfully determined in extracts of selected Great Lakes fishes and invertebrates. Samples included whole-body and selected tissues of forage fishes. Positive control material prepared from frozen alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in Lake Michigan enhanced the development and application of the method. The method allowed improved discrimination of thiaminolytic activity among forage fish species and their tissues. The temperature dependence of the thiaminase activity observed in crude extracts of Lake Michigan alewives followed a Q10 = 2 relationship for the 1-37??C temperature range, which is consistent with the bacterial-derived thiaminase I protein. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  7. Neutron Yield Measurements via Aluminum Activation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-08

    Neutron activation of aluminum may occur by several neutron capture reactions. Four such reactions are described here: {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na, {sup 27}Al(n, 2n){sup 26}Al and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg. The radioactive nuclei {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 27}Mg, which are produced via the {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg neutron reactions, beta decay to excited states of {sup 28}Si, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 27}Al respectively. These excited states then emit gamma rays as the nuclei de-excite to their respective ground states.

  8. Validation of Measured Damping Trends for Flight-Like Vehicle Panel/Equipment including a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Davis, R. Benjamin; LaVerde, Bruce T.; Fulcher, Clay W.; Jones, Douglas C.; Waldon, James M.; Craigmyle, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that leverages a finite element model of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. While the full test series is not yet complete, the first configuration of cable bundles that was assessed effectively increased the viscous critical damping fraction of the system by as much as 0.02 in certain frequency ranges.

  9. Development and flight evaluation of active controls in the L-1011. [including wing load alleviation and stability augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.; Urie, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Active controls in the Lockheed L-1011 for increased energy efficiency are discussed. Active wing load alleviation for extended span, increased aspect ratio, and active stability augmentation with a smaller tail for reduced drag and weight are among the topics considered. Flight tests of active wing load alleviation on the baseline aircraft and moving-base piloted simulation developing criteria for stability augmentation are described.

  10. Peptide biosensors for the electrochemical measurement of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kerman, Kagan; Song, Haifeng; Duncan, James S; Litchfield, David W; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2008-12-15

    The kinase activities are elucidated using the novel redox-active cosubstrate adenosine 5'-[gamma-ferrocene] triphosphate (Fc-ATP), which enables the kinase-catalyzed transfer of a redox active gamma-phosphate-Fc to a hydroxyamino acid. In this report, a versatile electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring the activity and inhibition of a serine/threonine kinase, casein kinase 2 (CK2), and protein tyrosine kinases, Abl1-T315I and HER2, in buffered solutions and in cell lysates. The method is based on the labeling of a specific phosphorylation event with Fc, followed by electrochemical detection. The electrochemical response obtained from the "ferrocenylated" peptides enables monitoring the activity of the kinase and its substrate, as well as the inhibition of small molecule inhibitors on protein phosphorylation. Kinetic information was extracted from the electrochemical measurements for the determination of K(m) and V(m) values, which were in agreement with those previously reported. Kinase reactions were also performed in the presence of well-defined inhibitors of CK2, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole, and E-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)acrylic acid as well as the nonspecific kinase inhibitors, staurosporine and N-benzoylstaurosporine. On the basis of the dependency of the Fc signal on inhibitor concentration, K(i) of the inhibitors was estimated, which were also in agreement with the literature values. The performance of the biosensor was optimized including the kinase reaction, incubation with Fc-ATP, and the small molecule inhibitors. Peptide modified electrochemical biosensors are promising candidates for cost-effective in vitro kinase activity and inhibitor screening assays. PMID:18989981

  11. Quantifying Ant Activity Using Vibration Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult. PMID:24658467

  12. Method of measuring sea surface water temperature with a satellite including wideband passive synthetic-aperture multichannel receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A wideband passive synthetic-aperture multichannel receiver with an antenna is mounted on a satellite which travels in an orbit above the Earth passing over large bodies of water, e.g., the Atlantic Ocean. The antenna is scanned to receive signals over a wide frequency band from each incremental surface area (pixel) of the water which are related to the pixel's sea temperature. The received signals are fed to several channels which are tuned to separate selected frequencies. Their outputs are fed to a processor with a memory for storage. As the antenna points to pixels within a calibration area around a buoy of known coordinates, signals are likewise received and stored. Exactly measured sea temperature is received from the buoy. After passing over several calibration areas, a forward stepwise regression analysis is performed to produce an expression which selects the significant from the insignificant channels and assigns weights (coefficients) to them. The expression is used to determine the sea temperature at each pixel based on the signals received therefrom. Wind temperature, pressure, and wind speed at each pixel can also be calculated.

  13. EGFR activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pfäffle, Heike N.; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-01-01

    In lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared to wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of crosslinker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi Anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in-vitro and in-vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer. PMID:23966292

  14. The Measurement of Physical Activity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents data from two studies determining the validity of various measures of physical activity in preschool children. One explored how certain measures of activity predicted observed behavior. The other examined the Caltrac motion sensor's predictive validity. Results indicate the Caltrac monitor is sensitive to children's individual differences…

  15. 12 CFR 1806.201 - Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities. 1806.201 Section 1806.201 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.201 Measuring and reporting Qualified Activities. (a) General. An Applicant...

  16. Measuring Reading Activity: An Inventory. Instructional Resource No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; And Others

    Noting that the amount of reading students do is related to their reading achievement, this booklet presents an instrument designed to measure the amount and breadth of students' reading in and out of school. The first part of the booklet discusses the Reading Activity Inventory (RAI) and how it differs from other reading activity measures, uses…

  17. A Measurement Activity to Encourage Exploration of Calculus Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuffey, William

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an activity that incorporates measurement in order to lead students to discover and explore fundamental concepts of calculus. Students are provided with an experientially real starting point involving measurement and are encouraged to engage in mathematical discussions in a low-stakes environment. I describe the activity as…

  18. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  19. Overview of API (COPM) - measurement activities

    SciTech Connect

    Beckstrom, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    The American Petroleum Institute was founded in 1919 as an outgrowth of the National Petroleum War Committee. That committee was comprised of U.S. oil industry leaders who worked together with the federal government to meet the tremendous demand for petroleum fuel during World War I. The experience demonstrated that, oil industry representatives could work together on common problems affecting the industry and still compete with one another in the marketplace. This in an important concept because under U.S. antitrust law, industry competitors can work together toward mutual objectives using API as the forum. API was the first national petroleum trade association to include all five of the major branches of the industry - exploration, production, refining, transportation and marketing. Today, API is the oil industry`s largest trade association with about 250 member companies. As a non-profit organization, API`s objectives, as set fort in its charter, are: (1) Promote the interests of the U.S. oil industry; (2) Encourage the development of petroleum technology; (3) Cooperate with government on matters of national concern; (4) Foster foreign and domestic trade in U.S. petroleum products; and (5) Inform government and the general public on matters affecting the petroleum industry.

  20. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Activity of Debio1452, a FabI Inhibitor with Potent Activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus spp., Including Multidrug-Resistant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, Paul R.; Kaplan, Nachum; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are responsible for a wide variety of human infections. The investigational antibacterial Debio1450 (previously AFN-1720), a prodrug of Debio1452 (previously AFN-1252), specifically targets staphylococci without significant activity against other Gram-positive or Gram-negative species. Debio1452 inhibits FabI, an enzyme critical to fatty acid biosynthesis in staphylococci. The activity of Debio1452 against CoNS, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), including significant clones, was determined. A globally diverse collection of 574 patient isolates from 35 countries was tested that included CoNS (6 species, 103 strains), MSSA (154 strains), MRSA (163 strains), and molecularly characterized strains (including spa-typed MRSA clones; 154 strains). The isolates were tested for susceptibility by CLSI broth microdilution methods against Debio1452 and 10 comparators. The susceptibility rates for the comparators were determined using CLSI and EUCAST breakpoint criteria. All S. aureus and CoNS strains were inhibited by Debio1452 concentrations of ≤0.12 and ≤0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC50s for MSSA, MRSA, and molecularly characterized MRSA strains were 0.004 μg/ml, and the MIC90s ranged from 0.008 to 0.03 μg/ml. The MICs were higher for the CoNS isolates (MIC50/90, 0.015/0.12 μg/ml). Among S. aureus strains, resistance was common for erythromycin (61.6%), levofloxacin (49.0%), clindamycin (27.6%), tetracycline (15.7%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.0%). Debio1452 demonstrated potent activity against MSSA, MRSA, and CoNS. Debio1452 showed significantly greater activity overall (MIC50, 0.004 μg/ml) than the other agents tested against these staphylococcal species, which included dominant MRSA clones and strains resistant to currently utilized antimicrobial agents. PMID:25691627

  2. Twin Knudsen Cell Configuration for Activity Measurements by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.

    1996-01-01

    A twin Knudsen cell apparatus for alloy activity measurements by mass spectrometry is described. Two Knudsen cells - one containing an alloy and one containing a pure component - are mounted on a single flange and translated into the sampling region via a motorized x-y table. Mixing of the molecular beams from the cells is minimized by a novel system of shutters. Activity measurements were taken on two well-characterized alloys to verify the operation of the system. Silver activity measurements are reported for Ag-Cu alloys and aluminum activity measurements are reported for Fe-Al alloys. The temperature dependence of activity for a 0.474 mol fraction Al-Fe alloy gives a partial molar heat of aluminum. Measurements taken with the twin cell show good agreement with literature values for these alloys.

  3. Quantitative PCR measurements of Escherichia coli including shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in animal feces and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Gyawali, P; Toze, S

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to determine the concentrations of E. coli including shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) associated virulence genes (eaeA, stx1, stx2, and hlyA) in ten animal species (fecal sources) and environmental water samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The mean Log10 concentrations and standard deviations of E. coli 23S rRNA across fecal sources ranged from 1.3 ± 0.1 (horse) to 6.3 ± 0.4 (cattle wastewater) gene copies at a test concentration of 10 ng of DNA. The differences in mean concentrations of E. coli 23S rRNA gene copies among fecal source samples were significantly different from each other (P < 0.0001). Among the virulence genes, stx2 (25%, 95% CI, 17-33%) was most prevalent among fecal sources, followed by eaeA (19%, 95% CI, 12-27%), stx1 (11%, 95% CI, 5%-17%) and hlyA (8%, 95% CI, 3-13%). The Log10 concentrations of STEC virulence genes in cattle wastewater samples ranged from 3.8 to 5.0 gene copies at a test concentration of 10 ng of DNA. Of the 18 environmental water samples tested, three (17%) were positive for eaeA and two (11%) samples were also positive for the stx2 virulence genes. The data presented in this study will aid in the estimation of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) from fecal pollution of domestic and wild animals in drinking/recreational water catchments. PMID:25648758

  4. Measurement of uterine activity in vitro by integrating muscle tension

    PubMed Central

    Styles, P. R.; Sullivan, T. J.

    1962-01-01

    Spontaneous or electrically stimulated activity of the uterus is measured isometrically in vitro by integrating tension against time. Uterine contractions move the operating rod of a potentiometer transducer, the output voltage from which is coupled to an electrical integrator motor and a servo recorder. Several parameters of uterine activity can be expressed in a single measurement, and a record of isometric contractions is obtained simultaneously. Oxytocin can be assayed accurately and the effect of drugs on uterine motility can be measured. PMID:13918066

  5. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  6. Impact on quality activities of measurement systems meeting an L:1 rule

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, M. S.; Burkhardt, J. H.

    2015-04-30

    This study considers the impact of a measurement system that meets an L:1 rule on various quality activities. These activities include inspection, acceptance sampling, and control charting. A measurement system that meets a 10:1 rule performs much better than one that meets a 4:1 rule. R code is provided so that the practitioner is able to evaluate these activities to his or her particular situation.

  7. Impact on quality activities of measurement systems meeting an L:1 rule

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hamada, M. S.; Burkhardt, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    This study considers the impact of a measurement system that meets an L:1 rule on various quality activities. These activities include inspection, acceptance sampling, and control charting. A measurement system that meets a 10:1 rule performs much better than one that meets a 4:1 rule. R code is provided so that the practitioner is able to evaluate these activities to his or her particular situation.

  8. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  9. Resin {sup 90}Y microsphere activity measurements for liver brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dezarn, William A.; Kennedy, Andrew S.

    2007-06-15

    The measurement of the radioactivity administered to the patient is one of the major components of {sup 90}Y microsphere liver brachytherapy. The activity of {sup 90}Y microspheres in a glass delivery vial was measured in a dose calibrator. The calibration value to use for {sup 90}Y in the dose calibrator was verified using an activity calibration standard provided by the microsphere manufacturer. This method allowed for the determination of a consistent, reproducible local activity standard. Additional measurements were made to determine some of the factors that could affect activity measurement. The axial response of the dose calibrator was determined by the ratio of activity measurements at the bottom and center of the dose calibrator. The axial response was 0.964 for a glass shipping vial, 1.001 for a glass V-vial, and 0.988 for a polycarbonate V-vial. Comparisons between activity measurements in the dose calibrator and those using a radiation survey meter were found to agree within 10%. It was determined that the dose calibrator method was superior to the survey meter method because the former allowed better defined measurement geometry and traceability of the activity standard back to the manufacturer. Part of the preparation of resin {sup 90}Y microspheres for patient delivery is to draw out a predetermined activity from a shipping vial and place it into a V-vial for delivery to the patient. If the drawn activity was placed in a glass V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a glass V-vial was 4% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. If the drawn activity was placed in a polycarbonate V-vial, the activity measured in the dose calibrator with a polycarbonate V-vial activity was 20% higher than the drawn activity from the shipping vial standard. Careful characterization of the local activity measurement standard is recommended instead of simply accepting the calibration value of the dose calibrator manufacturer.

  10. Charged fusion product loss measurements using nuclear activation.

    PubMed

    Bonheure, G; Hult, M; González de Orduña, R; Arnold, D; Dombrowski, H; Laubenstein, M; Wieslander, E; Vermaercke, P; Murari, A; Popovichev, S; Mlynar, J

    2010-10-01

    In ITER, α particle loss measurements will be required in order to understand the alpha particle physics. Techniques capable of operating in a fusion reactor environment need further development. Recent experimental studies on JET demonstrated the potential of nuclear activation to measure the flux of escaping MeV ions. New results from MeV ion induced activation of metallic, ceramic, and crystal samples placed near the plasma edge are reported. Activation products were measured as function of orientation with respect to the magnetic field as well as function of the distance to the plasma. Sample activity was measured using ultralow-level gamma-ray spectrometry. Distribution of 14.68 MeV fusion proton induced activation products is strongly anisotropic in agreement with simulations and falls off sharply with increasing distance to the plasma. Prospects for using the technique in ITER are discussed. PMID:21058458

  11. Antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV includes both cytolytic and non-cytolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Chiara; Castilletti, Concetta; Cimini, Eleonora; Romanelli, Antonella; Lapa, Daniele; Quartu, Serena; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe central nervous system infection in humans, primarily in the elderly and immunocompromised subjects. Human γδ T-cells play a critical role in the immune response against viruses, and studies of WNV meningoencephalitis in laboratory mice described a role of γδ T-cells in the protective immune response. Aim of this study was to analyze the cytolytic and non-cytolytic antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV replication. The anti-WNV activity of soluble factor released by zoledronic acid (ZA)-activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and the cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 T-cell lines against WNV-infected cells were tested in vitro. The activation of Vδ2 T-cell lines was able to inhibit WNV replication through the release of soluble factors. IFN-γ is massively released by activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and is involved in the anti-WNV activity. Moreover, the Vδ2 T-cell lines can efficiently kill WNV-infected cells possibly through perforin-mediated mechanism. Altogether, our results provide insight into the effector functions of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV. The possibility to target these cells by ZA, a commercially available drug used in humans, could potentially offer a new immunotherapeutic strategy for WNV infection. PMID:27196553

  12. Method for measuring surface activity of silicon nitride powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanno, Y.; Imai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous, alpha-, and beta-Si3N4 powders were activated by vibration ball milling in purified MeOH, and the surface activity of ground powders was determined by the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method using NH3 gas. The concentration of active sites with a potential energy equivalent to the peak temperature in the spectrum increased was markedly by ball milling the amorphous Si3N4. The alpha- and beta-Si3N4 also had active sites produced by ball milling. The concentration of active site increased with increased ball milling time. A method for measuring surface activity of ceramic raw materials by TPD is proposed.

  13. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  14. Ice nucleus activity measurements of solid rocket motor exhaust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The ice Nucleus activity of exhaust particles generated from combustion of Space Shuttle propellant in small rocket motors has been measured. The activity at -20 C was substantially lower than that of aerosols generated by unpressurized combustion of propellant samples in previous studies. The activity decays rapidly with time and is decreased further in the presence of moist air. These tests corroborate the low effectivity ice nucleus measurement results obtained in the exhaust ground cloud of the Space Shuttle. Such low ice nucleus activity implies that Space Shuttle induced inadvertent weather modification via an ice phase process is extremely unlikely.

  15. A radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Dorow, R G; Seidler, J; Schneider, H H

    1982-01-01

    1 A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. 2 The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1 mg lormetazepam (Noctamid, 2 mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol, and 10 mg diazepam (Valium, and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154 h after treatment. 3 Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines on vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r = 0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. 4 Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8 +/- 1 ng/ml at 2 h after lormetazepam, 7.2 +/- 1.8 ng/ml at 8 h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9 +/- 2.7 ng/ml at 15 h after diazepam. Plasma elimination half-lives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63 h, respectively. 5 Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites. PMID:6121579

  16. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  17. Measuring Physical Activity in Older Adults with and without Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Amber S.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Loskutova, Natalia; Johnson, David K.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    We compared subjective reports of physical activity with objective measures of physical fitness including cardiorespiratory capacity, body composition, and physical performance in 146 older adults with and without early stage Alzheimer’s disease (ESAD). Respondents reported primarily unstructured and low-intensity activities, including walking and housework. Individuals with ESAD participated in fewer and lower intensity physical activities than those without ESAD. In those without ESAD, housework was related to lower body mass index, leisure walking was related to faster speed on a timed walking test, and participation in sports was related to higher peak oxygen intake. In individuals with ESAD, reported physical activities did not predict any of the physical fitness, body composition, or physical performance measures. We conclude that measures of physical activity require expansion of unstructured and low intensity activities to improve sensitivity in sedentary populations, especially in older adults with ESAD. PMID:24062599

  18. Upstream stimulatory factor activates the vasopressin promoter via multiple motifs, including a non-canonical E-box.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Judy M; Edgson, Jodie L; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V; Mulgrew, Robert; Quinn, John P; Woll, Penella J

    2003-01-01

    We have described previously a complex E-box enhancer (-147) of the vasopressin promoter in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) extracts [Coulson, Fiskerstrand, Woll and Quinn, (1999) Biochem. J. 344, 961-970]. Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) heterodimers were one of the complexes binding to this site in vitro. We now report that USF overexpression in non-SCLC (NSCLC) cells can functionally activate vasopressin promoter-driven reporters that are otherwise inactive in this type of lung cancer cell. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis demonstrate that although the -147 E-box contributes, none of the previously predicted E-boxes (-147, -135, -34) wholly account for this USF-mediated activation in NSCLC. 5' Deletion showed the key promoter region as -52 to +42; however, USF-2 binding was not reliant on the -34 E-box, but on a novel adjacent CACGGG non-canonical E-box at -42 (motif E). This mediated USF binding in both SCLC and USF-2-transfected NSCLC cells. Mutation of motif E or the non-canonical TATA box abolished activity, implying both are required for transcriptional initiation on overexpression of USF-2. Co-transfected dominant negative USF confirmed that binding was required through motif E for function, but that the classical activation domain of USF was not essential. USF-2 bound motif E with 10-fold lower affinity than the -147 E-box. In NSCLC, endogenous USF-2 expression is low, and this basal level appears to be insufficient to activate transcription of arginine vasopressin (AVP). In summary, we have demonstrated a novel mechanism for USF activation, which contributes to differential vasopressin expression in lung cancer. PMID:12403649

  19. The Improved Physical Activity Index for Measuring Physical Activity in EPIC Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40–0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33–0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC. PMID:24642812

  20. Chitosan-Based Film of Tyrothricin for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Common Skin Pathogens Including Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Duk; Sung, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-05-28

    Chitosan-based film-forming gel is regarded as a promising vehicle for topical delivery of antimicrobial agents to skin wounds, since it protects from microbial infection and the cationic polymer itself possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, possible synergistic interaction against common skin pathogens between the cationic polymer and tyrothricin (TRC), a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic, was investigated, by determining the concentration to inhibit 90% of bacterial isolates (MIC). The addition of the polysaccharide to TRC dramatically reduced the MIC values of TRC by 1/33 and 1/4 against both methicillin-resistant and methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The synergism of TRC and chitosan combination against both strains was demonstrated by the checkerboard method, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index below 0.5. Moreover, co-treatment of TRC and chitosan exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the antibacterial activity of chitosan, whereas TRC itself did not inhibit the gram-negative bacterial growth. These findings suggested that the use of chitosan-based film for topical delivery of TRC could be an alternative to improve TRC antimicrobial activity against strains that are abundant in skin wounds. PMID:26907760

  1. The Azorhizobium caulinodans nifA gene: identification of upstream-activating sequences including a new element, the 'anaerobox'.

    PubMed Central

    Nees, D W; Stein, P A; Ludwig, R A

    1988-01-01

    From nucleotide sequencing analyses, the A. caulinodans nifA gene seems to be under dual control by the Ntr (in response to available N) and Fnr (in response to available O2) transcriptional activation/repression systems. Because it fixes N2 in two contexts, the Ntr system might regulate A. caulinodans nif gene expression ex planta, while the Fnr system might similarly regulate in planta. As nifA upstream-activating elements, we have identified: (i) a gpNifA binding site allowing autogenous nifA regulation, (ii) an Ntr-dependent transcription start, presumably the target of gpNifA activation, and (iii) an "anaerobox" tetradecameric nucleotide sequence that is precisely conserved among O2 regulated enteric bacterial genes controlled by the gpFnr transcriptional activator. Because it is precisely positioned upstream of enteric bacterial transcriptional starts, the "anaerobox" sequence may constitute the gpFnr DNA binding site. If so, then a second, Ntr-independent nifA transcription start may exist. We have also deduced the A. caulinodans nifA open reading frame and have compared the gene product (gpNifA) with those of other N2-fixing organisms. These proteins exhibit strongly conserved motifs: (i) sites conserved among ATP-binding proteins, (ii) an interdomain linker region, and (iii) a C-terminal alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix DNA binding site. PMID:3186446

  2. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  3. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574316

  4. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA-Dependent Tel1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Daichi; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Shima, Hiroki; Higashide, Mika; Terasawa, Masahiro; Gasser, Susan M; Shinohara, Miki

    2016-03-01

    Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity. PMID:26990569

  5. Age-related changes in trunk neuromuscular activation patterns during a controlled functional transfer task include amplitude and temporal synergies.

    PubMed

    Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (p<.0125) group interactions were found for all PC scores. Post hoc analysis revealed that relative to younger adults, older adults recruited higher agonist and antagonistic activity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. PMID:25457424

  6. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  7. Earthworm Biomass Measurement: A Science Activity for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Jonathan; Levine, Elissa; Carey, Pauline B.; Niepold III, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity on biomass measurement which, in this case, is the weight of a group of living things in a given area. The earthworm activity gives students a greater understanding of ecology, practical math applications, and the scientific method. (ASK)

  8. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  9. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  10. Should soil testing services measure soil biological activity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health of agricultural soils depends largely on conservation management to promote soil organic C accumulation. Total soil organic C changes slowly, but active fractions are more dynamic. A key indicator of healthy soil is potential biological activity, which could be measured rapidly with soil te...

  11. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    This work presents the development and application of an active control approach for reduction of both vibration and noise induced by helicopter rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI). Control is implemented through single or dual actively controlled flaps (ACFs) on each blade. Low-speed helicopter flight is prone to severe BVI, resulting in elevated vibration and noise levels. Existing research has suggested that when some form of active control is used to reduce vibration, noise will increase and vice versa. The present research achieves simultaneous reduction of noise and vibration, and also investigates the physical sources of the observed reduction. The initial portion of this work focused on developing a tool for simulating helicopter noise and vibrations in the BVI flight regime. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades was developed and combined with an enhanced free-wake model and an acoustic prediction tool with provisions for blade flexibility. These elements were incorporated within an aeroelastic analysis featuring fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. Subsequently, control algorithms were developed that were effective for reducing noise and vibration even in the nonlinear BVI flight regime; saturation limits were incorporated constraining flap deflections to specified limits. The resulting simulation was also validated with a wide range of experimental data, achieving excellent correlation. Finally, a number of active control studies were performed. Multi-component vibration reductions of 40--80% could be achieved, while incurring a small noise penalty. Noise was reduced using an onboard feedback microphone; reductions of 4--10 dB on the advancing side were observed on a plane beneath the rotor when using dual flaps. Finally, simultaneous noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of about 5 dB in noise on the advancing side combined with a 60% reduction in vibration was

  12. LOFT experimental measurements uncertainty analyses. Volume XX. Fluid-velocity measurement using pulsed-neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.; Taylor, D.J.N.

    1982-08-01

    Analyses of uncertainty components inherent in pulsed-neutron-activation (PNA) measurements in general and the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) system in particular are given. Due to the LOFT system's unique conditions, previously-used techniques were modified to make the volocity measurement. These methods render a useful, cost-effective measurement with an estimated uncertainty of 11% of reading.

  13. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  14. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L.; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C.; Tyner, Stuart D.

    2014-01-01

    Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance

  15. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  16. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation. PMID:19728074

  17. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  18. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  19. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  20. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  1. MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

    2004-01-01

    MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented. PMID:16012640

  2. Solar irradiance measurements - Minimum through maximum solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Gibson, M. A.; Shivakumar, N.; Wilson, R.; Kyle, H. L.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-9 spacecraft solar monitors were used to measure the total solar irradiance during the period October 1984 to December 1989. Decreasing trends in the irradiance measurements were observed as sunspot activity decreased to minimum levels in 1986; after 1986, increasing trends were observed as sunspot activity increased. The magnitude of the irradiance variability was found to be approximately 0.1 percent between sunspot minimum and maximum (late 1989). When compared with the 1984 to 1989 indices of solar magnetic activity, the irradiance trends appear to be in phase with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Both irradiance series yielded 1,365/sq Wm as the mean value of the solar irradiance, normalized to the mean earth/sun distance. The monitors are electrical substitution, active-cavity radiometers with estimated measurement precisions and accuracies of less than 0.02 and 0.2 percent, respectively.

  3. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  4. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  5. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  6. Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement. II - Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Yungel, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Reported here for the first time is the use of a single airborne instrument to make concurrent measurements of oceanic chlorophyll concentration by (1) laser-induced fluorescence, (2) passive upwelling radiance, and (3) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Results from field experiments conducted with the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the New York Bight demonstrate the capability of a single active-passive instrument to perform new and potentially important ocean color studies related to (1) active lidar validation of passive ocean color in-water algorithms, (2) chlorophyll a in vivo fluorescence yield variability, (3) calibration of active multichannel lidar systems, (4) effect of sea state on passive and active ocean color measurements, (5) laser/solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence investigations, and (6) subsequent improvement of satellite-borne ocean color scanners. For validation and comparison purposes a separate passive ocean color sensor was also flown along with the new active-passive sensor during these initial field trials.

  7. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  8. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  9. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  10. Comparative Validity of Physical Activity Measures in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    COLBERT, LISA H.; MATTHEWS, CHARLES E.; HAVIGHURST, THOMAS C.; KIM, KYUNGMANN; SCHOELLER, DALE A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the validity of various physical activity measures with doubly labeled water (DLW)–measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in free-living older adults. Methods Fifty-six adults aged ≥65 yr wore three activity monitors (New Lifestyles pedometer, ActiGraph accelerometer, and a SenseWear (SW) armband) during a 10-d free-living period and completed three different surveys (Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS), Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), and a modified Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (modPASE)). Total energy expenditure was measured using DLW, resting metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry, the thermic effect of food was estimated, and from these, estimates of PAEE were calculated. The degree of linear association between the various measures and PAEE was assessed, as were differences in group PAEE, when estimable by a given measure. Results All three monitors were significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.48–0.60, P < 0.001). Of the questionnaires, only CHAMPS was significantly correlated with PAEE (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). Statistical comparison of the correlations suggested that the monitors were superior to YPAS and modPASE. Mean squared errors for all correlations were high, and the median PAEE from the different tools was significantly different from DLW for all but the YPAS and regression-estimated PAEE from the ActiGraph. Conclusions Objective devices more appropriately rank PAEE than self-reported instruments in older adults, but absolute estimates of PAEE are not accurate. Given the cost differential and ease of use, pedometers seem most useful in this population when ranking by physical activity level is adequate. PMID:20881882

  11. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals’ trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time. PMID:27213027

  12. Measurement of the components of nonexercise activity thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Levine, J; Melanson, E L; Westerterp, K R; Hill, J O

    2001-10-01

    Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) accounts for the vast majority of nonresting metabolic rate and changes in NEAT-predicted susceptibility to fat gain with overfeeding. Measuring physical activity and its components in free-living humans has been a long-standing challenge. In this study, we combine information about lightweight sensors that capture data on body position and motion with laboratory measures of energy expenditure to calculate nonfidgeting NEAT. This measurement of nonfidgeting NEAT was compared with total NEAT measured in a room calorimeter in 11 healthy subjects. The measurement of nonfidgeting NEAT accounted for 85 +/- 9% of total NEAT measured in the room calorimeter. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the two methods was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.56, 0.96; P < 0.05). This suggests that 86% of the variance is attributable to between-subject variance and 14% to between-method disagreement. These instruments are applicable to free-living subjects; they are stand-alone, are lightweight, and allow normal daily activities. This novel technology has potential application for not only assessing NEAT but also tracking physical activity in free-living humans. PMID:11551842

  13. Selective Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of Human DNA Methyltransferases Active in Cancer Including in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are important enzymes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression and represent valuable targets in cancer chemotherapy. A number of nucleoside DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi) have been studied in cancer, including in cancer stem cells, and two of them (azacytidine and decitabine) have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, only a few non-nucleoside DNMTi have been identified so far, and even fewer have been validated in cancer. Through a process of hit-to-lead optimization, we report here the discovery of compound 5 as a potent non-nucleoside DNMTi that is also selective toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Compound 5 was potent at single-digit micromolar concentrations against a panel of cancer cells and was less toxic in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than two other compounds tested. In mouse medulloblastoma stem cells, 5 inhibited cell growth, whereas related compound 2 showed high cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, 2 and 5 are the first non-nucleoside DNMTi tested in a cancer stem cell line. PMID:24387159

  14. Methodological considerations for measuring spontaneous physical activity in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    When exploring biological determinants of spontaneous physical activity (SPA), it is critical to consider whether methodological factors differentially affect rodents and the measured SPA. We determined whether acclimation time, sensory stimulation, vendor, or chamber size affected measures in rodents with varying propensity for SPA. We used principal component analysis to determine which SPA components (ambulatory and vertical counts, time in SPA, and distance traveled) best described the variability in SPA measurements. We compared radiotelemetry and infrared photobeams used to measure SPA and exploratory activity. Acclimation time, sensory stimulation, vendor, and chamber size independently influenced SPA, and the effect was moderated by the propensity for SPA. A 24-h acclimation period prior to SPA measurement was sufficient for habituation. Principal component analysis showed that ambulatory and vertical measurements of SPA describe different dimensions of the rodent's SPA behavior. Smaller testing chambers and a sensory attenuation cubicle around the chamber reduced SPA. SPA varies between rodents purchased from different vendors. Radiotelemetry and infrared photobeams differ in their sensitivity to detect phenotypic differences in SPA and exploratory activity. These data highlight methodological considerations in rodent SPA measurement and a need to standardize SPA methodology. PMID:24598463

  15. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-02-09

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 M{Omega}) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

  16. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  17. Photospheric Magnetic Diffusion by Measuring Moments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photospheric magnetic surface diffusion is an important constraint for the solar dynamo. The HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) program automatically identify all magnetic regions above a certain flux. In our study we measure the moments of ARs that are no longer actively emerging and can thereby give us good statistical constraints on photospheric diffusion. We also present the diffusion properties as a function of latitude, flux density, and single polarity (leading or following) within each HARP.

  18. Alternative Medications for Medications Included in the Use of High-Risk Medications in the Elderly and Potentially Harmful Drug–Disease Interactions in the Elderly Quality Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Joseph T.; Semla, Todd P.; Schmader, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and the Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) use the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria to designate the quality measure Use of High-Risk Medications in the Elderly (HRM). The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) use the HRM measure to monitor and evaluate the quality of care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. NCQA additionally uses the AGS Beers Criteria to designate the quality measure Potentially Harmful Drug–Disease Interactions in the Elderly. Medications included in these measures may be harmful to elderly adults, negatively affect a health care plan’s quality ratings, and be denied as a health care plan drug benefit. Prescribers, pharmacists, patients, and health care plans may benefit from evidence-based alternative medication treatments to avoid these problems. Therefore the goal of this work was to develop a list of alternative medications to those included in the two measures. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review for 2000 to 2014 and a search of their personal files. From the evidence, they prepared a list of drug-therapy alternatives with supporting references. A reference list of non-pharmacological approaches was also provided when appropriate. NCQA, PQA, the 2015 AGS Beers Criteria panel, and the Executive Committee of the AGS reviewed the drug therapy alternatives and nonpharmacological approaches. Recommendations by these groups were incorporated into the final list of alternatives. The final product of drug-therapy alternatives to medications included in the two quality measures and some nonpharmacological resources will be useful to health professionals, consumers, payers, and health systems that care for older adults. PMID:26447889

  19. Spectrometric measurements of radioisotope activity in the thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osko, Jakub; Golnik, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    The results of measurements of iodine 131I and technetium 99mTc uptake in human thyroid, performed with scintillation or semiconductor detectors can exhibit a considerable uncertainty due to the differences in the thyroid position in the patient's neck. Basic physical laws of radiation attenuation and scattering show that the final shape of the registered spectrum should depends on the thyroid position in the neck and on the thickness of the tissue between the thyroid and the detector. The use of the spectrometric measuring method is proposed in this work for determination of the iodine gathering effective depth. The performed studies showed that the measurements results can be used for improving the accuracy of the iodine 131I activity in thyroid measurements and for selection of the group of patients for whom the anatomical position of the thyroid or the spatial distribution of the iodine gathering is much different than the standard one, assumed during the calibration of the counters. The results of the measurements were in agreement with Monte-Carlo calculations of the detector response. The method was used in routine monitoring of occupationally exposed persons, using the thyroid counter. A group of six persons with measurable internal contamination was selected and the measurements were performed on consecutive days, so the results could be registered at decreasing iodine activities in the thyroid. Larger series of measurements were performed at Brodno Regional Hospital in Warsaw, for a group of 95 patients after diagnostic administration of iodine 131I.

  20. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil. PMID:25953787

  1. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  2. High-resolution ionospheric observations and modeling over Belgium during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 including first results of ionospheric tilt and plasma drift measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2016-06-01

    The ionospheric behavior over Belgium during the partial solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 is analyzed based on high-resolution solar radio flux, vertical incidence sounding, and GPS TEC measurements. First results of ionosonde-based ionospheric plasma drift and tilt observations are presented and analyzed, including some traveling ionospheric disturbances caused by the eclipse. Also, collocated ionosonde and GPS measurements are used to reconstruct the time evolution of the vertical electron density distribution using the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) ionospheric specification system, called Local Ionospheric Electron Density profile Reconstruction (LIEDR).

  3. Calculated and measured stresses in simple panels subject to intense random acoustic loading including the near noise field of a turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, Leslie W; Hess, Robert W

    1958-01-01

    Flat 2024-t3 aluminum panels measuring 11 inches by 13 inches were tested in the near noise fields of a 4-inch air jet and turbojet engine. The stresses which were developed in the panels are compared with those calculated by generalized harmonic analysis. The calculated and measured stresses were found to be in good agreement. In order to make the stress calculations, supplementary data relating to the transfer characteristics, damping, and static response of flat and curved panels under periodic loading are necessary and were determined experimentally. In addition, an appendix containing detailed data on the near pressure field of the turbojet engine is included.

  4. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw. PMID:22678836

  5. Examining the construct validity of affective judgments of physical activity measures.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Michael; Sala, Margarita; Tang, Rui; Baldwin, Austin

    2016-09-01

    Affective judgments of physical activity have emerged as important predictors of physical activity and interventions targeting affective judgments are a promising approach to improving regular physical activity. Currently, measures assessing a variety of potentially distinct constructs are treated as interchangeable assessments of affective judgments of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the construct validity of the purported measures of this construct. We review several components of construct validity; highlighting their importance for health psychology research. Then, we examine the construct validity of a wide variety of affective judgment of physical activity measures in MTurk and student samples. Cronbach's alpha for the included measures was uniformly high; however, several scales contained excessively redundant items that ultimately lessen their construct validity. Moreover, dependability estimates for the majority of measures was poor, indicating high levels of transient measurement error. The included measures significantly predicted levels of physical activity; however, their relative predictive power was strongly associated with their dependability. In general, the affective judgment measures demonstrated poor convergent validity suggesting they are not interchangeable and best viewed as assessing distinct, albeit related, constructs. Another important limitation of these measures is that they exhibited poor discriminant validity from exercise self-efficacy, which represents an important theoretical and empirical issue for the field of health behavior research. Overall, the current findings indicate the available affective judgments of physical activity measures are suboptimal, have considerable construct validity limitations, and thereby prevent the further advancement of science, theory, and intervention development in this promising area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537007

  6. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  7. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  8. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  9. Measuring Perceived Benefits and Perceived Barriers for Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Seth A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the psychometric properties and relationship to physical activity levels of the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) among college students. Methods: A total of 398 college students completed the EBBS and a measure of self-efficacy, the Physical Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. In addition, a subsample of 275 students also…

  10. Measurement of the Construct of Attitude Toward Student Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joel A.; And Others

    The study measures individual differences in attitude toward student activism on an 18-item Likert type scale. A validity comparison of a known extreme group with a sample from the general student population yielded a significant difference between the means of the groups. Construct validity was evaluated by first testing the differences between…

  11. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  12. Measurement for Work. Teaching Guide and Sample Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Margo; Bolton, Chris

    This document is intended to help Australian technical and further education instructors in New South Wales (TAFE NSW) identify teaching principles and learning activities that they can use to help adult learners master the mathematics processes, knowledge, and skills needed to perform basic measurement tasks in today's workplace. The materials…

  13. Measurement of Perceived School Climate for Active Travel in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the development of an original scale that measures perceived school climate for active travel in fourth- and fifth-grade girls and boys. Methods: The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide evidence of factorial validity, factorial invariance, and construct validity. Results: The CFA supported…

  14. DIAL with heterodyne detection including speckle noise: Aircraft/shuttle measurements of O3, H2O, and NH3 with pulsed tunable CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, P.; Hess, R. V.; Staton, L. D.; Bair, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Atmospheric trace constituent measurements with higher vertical resolution than attainable with passive radiometers are discussed. Infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which depends on Mie scattering from aerosols, has special advantages for tropospheric and lower stratospheric applications and has great potential importance for measurements from shuttle and aircraft. Differential absorption lidar data reduction involves comparing large amplitude signals which have small differences. The accuracy of the trace constituent concentration inferred from DIAL measurements depends strongly on the errors in determining the amplitude of the signals. Thus, the commonly used SNR expression (signal divided by noise in the absence of signal) is not adequate to describe DIAL measurement accuracy and must be replaced by an expression which includes the random coherent (speckle) noise within the signal. A comprehensive DIAL computer algorithm is modified to include heterodyne detection and speckle noise. Examples for monitoring vertical distributions of O3, H2O, and NH3 using a ground-, aircraft-, or shuttle-based pulsed tunable CO2 laser DIAL system are given.

  15. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward.

    PubMed

    Novak, Colleen M; Burghardt, Paul R; Levine, James A

    2012-03-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems-including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors-that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. PMID:22230703

  16. Self-reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Adults with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Grace E.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Helenowski, Irene; Semanik, Pamela A.; Song, Jing; Ainsworth, Barbara; Chang, Rowland W.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Objective Most estimates of physical activity (PA) patterns in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are based on subjective self-report measures prone to error. The aims of this study were to obtain objective measurements of PA using an accelerometer and estimates of energy expenditure based on the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and to describe their relationship. Methods The “Activity in Lupus To Energize and Renew” (ALTER) study, a cross-sectional study of PA, included 129 persons with SLE. Accelerometer measures over 7 days included total daily activity counts and minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Each person completed the IPAQ via telephone interview. Spearman correlations (r) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) assessed associations between accelerometer and IPAQ. Results Daily PA means (SD) from accelerometer measures were total daily activity counts, 502,910 (118,755) and MVPA, 40 (30) minutes. The median (interquartile range) MET-min per day for IPAQ intensities were: total 400 (159–693); walking, 83 (26–184); and moderate-vigorous, 231 (77–514), and domains were: work 0 (0–73); active transportation 28 (0–85); domestic and garden 77 (26–231); and leisure 57 (0–213). Associations between accelerometer measures and IPAQ were: 1) total daily count vs. IPAQ total, r=0.21, 95% CI: (0.03, 0.37); and 2) MVPA vs. IPAQ moderate-vigorous, r=0.16, 95% CI: (-0.02, 0.33). Conclusion Accelerometer measures and IPAQ energy expenditure estimates were moderately correlated. IPAQ provided descriptive PA data whereas accelerometers captured all daily activities and can help assess guideline attainment. The choice of IPAQ versus accelerometer measure should consider the purpose for which PA is measured. PMID:25251755

  17. A direct measurement of strontium-89 activity in bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Ben-Josef, E; Maughan, R L; Vasan, S; Porter, A T

    1995-06-01

    The total absorbed dose after systemic administration of 89Sr has been determined by measuring directly its activity in bone metastases. Autoradiography was performed on sections of bones obtained from patients treated with 89Sr to study the pattern of deposition. Discs of 5 and 8 mm diameter were cut from metastatic sites and normal bone. The beta-ray activity was determined with a scintillation counter, which was calibrated using similar bovine cancellous bone discs, onto which a known activity of 89Sr was transferred by pipette. From the activity measured, the initial activity (at the time of 89Sr administration) was calculated. The absorbed dose was estimated using the methodology described in NCRP Report No. 58. The estimated initial activity of 89Sr in the bone metastases varied from 2.3 to 240 MBq kg-1, with a mean value of 31 +/- 27 MBq kg-1. The total absorbed dose ranged from 1.3 to 64 Gy, with a mean of 18 +/- 16 Gy. The average total dose to normal bone sites was 1.1 +/- 0.4 Gy. The metastases to normal bone dose ratio in individual samples varied from 8 +/- 4 to 40 +/- 25. These estimates are in agreement with those obtained previously by indirect methods. PMID:7675358

  18. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children. PMID:26573442

  19. Colourimetric and fluorometric substrates for measurement of pullulanase activity.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; Mangan, David; McKie, Vincent; Cornaggia, Claudio; Ivory, Ruth; Rooney, Edward

    2014-07-01

    Specific and highly sensitive colourimetric and fluorometric substrate mixtures have been prepared for the measurement of pullulanase and limit-dextrinase activity and assays employing these substrates have been developed. These mixtures comprise thermostable α- and β-glucosidases and either 4,6-O-benzylidene-2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-β-maltotriosyl (1-6) α-maltotrioside (BzCNPG3G3, 1) as a colourimetric substrate or 4,6-O-benzylidene-4-methylumbelliferyl-β-maltotriosyl (1-6) α-maltotrioside (BzMUG3G3, 2) as a fluorometric substrate. Hydrolysis of substrates 1 and 2 by exo-acting enzymes such as amyloglucosidase, β-amylase and α-glucosidase is prevented by the presence of the 4,6-O-benzylidene group on the non-reducing end D-glucosyl residue. The substrates are not hydrolysed by any α-amylases studied, (including those from Aspergillus niger and porcine pancreas) and are resistant to hydrolysis by Pseudomonas sp. isoamylase. On hydrolysis by pullulanase, the 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-β-maltotrioside (3) or 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-maltotrioside (4) liberated is immediately hydrolysed to D-glucose and 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol or 4-methylumbelliferone. The reaction is terminated by the addition of a weak alkaline solution leading to the formation of phenolate ions in solution whose concentration can be determined using either spectrophotometric or fluorometric analysis. The assay procedure is simple to use, specific, accurate, robust and readily adapted to automation. PMID:24938640

  20. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volmert, Ben; Pantelias, Manuel; Mutnuru, R. K.; Neukaeter, Erwin; Bitterli, Beat

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  1. Measurements of the PLT and PDX device activation

    SciTech Connect

    Stavely, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of the activation levels around the PLT and PDX tokamaks have been made using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer and a Geiger counter. The activation results from radiation induced in the plasma by 14 MeV neutrons from the d(t,n)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 14.7 MeV protons from the d(/sup 3/He,p)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 10 ..-->.. 20 MeV hard x-rays from runaway electron induced bremmstrahlung, and 2.5 MeV neutrons from the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction. The magnitude of the activation is compared to that predicted for PDX on the basis of one-dimensional activation codes.

  2. Measuring In Vitro ATPase Activity for Enzymatic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rule, Chelsea S; Patrick, Marcella; Sandkvist, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes, or ATPases, play a critical role in a diverse array of cellular functions. These dynamic proteins can generate energy for mechanical work, such as protein trafficking and degradation, solute transport, and cellular movements. The protocol described here is a basic assay for measuring the in vitro activity of purified ATPases for functional characterization. Proteins hydrolyze ATP in a reaction that results in inorganic phosphate release, and the amount of phosphate liberated is then quantitated using a colorimetric assay. This highly adaptable protocol can be adjusted to measure ATPase activity in kinetic or endpoint assays. A representative protocol is provided here based on the activity and requirements of EpsE, the AAA+ ATPase involved in Type II Secretion in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The amount of purified protein needed to measure activity, length of the assay and the timing and number of sampling intervals, buffer and salt composition, temperature, co-factors, stimulants (if any), etc. may vary from those described here, and thus some optimization may be necessary. This protocol provides a basic framework for characterizing ATPases and can be performed quickly and easily adjusted as necessary. PMID:27584824

  3. Measuring Cysteine Cathepsin Activity to Detect Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Repnik, Urška; Česen, Maruša Hafner; Turk, Boris

    2016-01-01

    During lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), lysosomal lumenal contents can be released into the cytosol. Small molecules are more likely to be released, and cysteine cathepsins, with mature forms possessing a mass of 25-30 kDa, are among the smallest lumenal lysosomal enzymes. In addition, specific substrates for cysteine cathepsins are available to investigators, and therefore the measurement of the cathepsin activity as a hallmark of LMP works well. Here, we present a protocol for measuring the activity of these enzymes after selective plasma membrane permeabilization with a low concentration of digitonin and after total cell membrane lysis with a high concentration of digitonin. A fluorogenic substrate can be added either directly to the well with lysed cells to show LMP or to the cell-free extract to show that the lysosomal membrane has been sufficiently destabilized to allow the translocation of lysosomal enzymes. Although the content of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins differs between cell lines, this method has general applicability, is sensitive, and has high throughput. The presented protocol shows how to measure cysteine cathepsin activity in the presence of lysed cells and also in cell-free extracts. Depending on the aim of the study, one or both types of measurements can be performed. PMID:27140915

  4. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  5. Calculating Capstone depleted uranium aerosol concentrations from beta activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Szrom, Frances; Falo, Gerald A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Alberth, David P

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the DU source term for the subsequent Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Values for the equilibrium fraction ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92. This paper describes the process used and adjustments necessary to calculate uranium mass from proportional counting measurements. PMID:19204483

  6. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  7. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  8. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  9. Correlation between pedometer and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire on physical activity measurement in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593

  10. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  11. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  12. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  13. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  14. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  15. Measurement of Daily Activity in Restrictive Type Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ann M.; McAlpine, Donald E.; Shirbhate, Rashmi; Manohar, Chinmay U.; Levine, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The assessment of daily activity in patients with restrictive type anorexia nervosa is limited by an absence of accurate and precise technology. We wanted to test a daily activity detecting device named, the Physical Activity Monitoring System (PAMS). Method Women participants with restrictive type anorexia nervosa (n = 8, 36 ± 11 years, 17 ± 2 kg/m2) and healthy women participants (n = 8, 30 ± 11 years, 27 ± 7 kg/m2) were asked to lie, sit and stand motionless, and walk at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mph whilst wearing PAMS. Results For all restrictive type anorexia nervosa and healthy participants, body posture was correctly detected for all measurements (300/300). There was excellent correlation of an individual’s body acceleration with walking velocity and walking energy expenditure (r2> 0.99). Conclusions The PAMS technology could serve as a tool for lending insight into the pathophysiology of restrictive type anorexia nervosa; and potentially measuring compliance with activity recommendations for medical professionals treating individuals with restrictive type anorexia nervosa. PMID:18004719

  16. Calculating Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Concentrations from Beta Activity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Szrom, Fran; Falo, Gerald A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Alberth, David P.

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the depleted uranium (DU) source term for the subsequent human health risk assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Correction factors for the disrupted equilibrium ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92.

  17. A NEW COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASURE USING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Denney, K. D.; Vestergaard, M.; Davis, T. M.

    2011-10-20

    Accurate distances to celestial objects are key to establishing the age and energy density of the universe and the nature of dark energy. A distance measure using active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been sought for more than 40 years, as they are extremely luminous and can be observed at very large distances. We report here the discovery of an accurate luminosity distance measure using AGNs. We use the tight relationship between the luminosity of an AGN and the radius of its broad-line region established via reverberation mapping to determine the luminosity distances to a sample of 38 AGNs. All reliable distance measures up to now have been limited to moderate redshift-AGNs will, for the first time, allow distances to be estimated to z {approx} 4, where variations of dark energy and alternate gravity theories can be probed.

  18. Including food 25-hydroxyvitamin D in intake estimates may reduce the discrepancy between dietary and serum measures of vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christine L; Patterson, Kristine Y; Roseland, Janet M; Wise, Stephen A; Merkel, Joyce M; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2014-05-01

    The discrepancy between the commonly used vitamin D status measures-intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations--has been perplexing. Sun exposure increases serum 25(OH)D concentrations and is often used as an explanation for the higher population-based serum concentrations in the face of apparently low vitamin D intake. However, sun exposure may not be the total explanation. 25(OH)D, a metabolite of vitamin D, is known to be present in animal-based foods. It has been measured and reported only sporadically and is not currently factored into U.S. estimates of vitamin D intake. Previously unavailable preliminary USDA data specifying the 25(OH)D content of a subset of foods allowed exploration of the potential change in the reported overall vitamin D content of foods when the presence of 25(OH)D was included. The issue of 25(OH)D potency was addressed, and available commodity intake estimates were used to outline trends in projected vitamin D intake when 25(OH)D in foods was taken into account. Given the data available, there were notable increases in the total vitamin D content of a number of animal-based foods when potency-adjusted 25(OH)D was included, and in turn there was a potentially meaningful increase (1.7-2.9 μg or 15-30% of average requirement) in vitamin D intake estimates. The apparent increase could reduce discrepancies between intake estimates and serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The relevance to dietary interventions is discussed, and the need for continued exploration regarding 25(OH)D measurement is highlighted. PMID:24623845

  19. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other.

  20. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-05-01

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  1. Protein Translation Activity: A New Measure of Host Immune Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Seedhom, Mina O; Hickman, Heather D; Wei, Jiajie; David, Alexandre; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2016-08-15

    We describe the in vivo ribopuromycylation (RPM) method, which uses a puromycin-specific Ab to fluorescently label ribosome-bound puromycylated nascent chains, enabling measurement of translational activity via immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry. Tissue staining provides a unique view of virus-induced activation of adaptive, innate, and stromal immune cells. RPM flow precisely quantitates virus-induced activation of lymphocytes and innate immune cells, and it provides a unique measure of immune cell deactivation and quiescence. Using RPM we find that high endothelial cells in draining lymph nodes rapidly increase translation in the first day of vaccinia virus infection. We also find a population of constitutively activated splenic T cells in naive mice and further that most bone marrow T cells activate 3 d after vaccinia virus infection. Bone marrow T cell activation is nonspecific, IL-12-dependent, and induces innate memory T cell phenotypic markers. Thus, RPM measures translational activity to uniquely identify cell populations that participate in the immune response to pathogens, other foreign substances, and autoantigens. PMID:27385780

  2. Information Technology Measurement and Testing Activities at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Michael D.; Carnahan, Lisa J.; Carpenter, Robert J.; Flater, David W.; Fowler, James E.; Frechette, Simon P.; Gray, Martha M.; Johnson, L. Arnold; McCabe, R. Michael; Montgomery, Douglas; Radack, Shirley M.; Rosenthal, Robert; Shakarji, Craig M.

    2001-01-01

    Our high technology society continues to rely more and more upon sophisticated measurements, technical standards, and associated testing activities. This was true for the industrial society of the 20th century and remains true for the information society of the 21st century. Over the last half of the 20th century, information technology (IT) has been a powerful agent of change in almost every sector of the economy. The complexity and rapidly changing nature of IT have presented unique technical challenges to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and to the scientific measurement community in developing a sound measurement and testing infrastructure for IT. This measurement and testing infrastructure for the important non-physical and non-chemical properties associated with complex IT systems is still in an early stage of development. This paper explains key terms and concepts of IT metrology, briefly reviews the history of the National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NBS/NIST) in the field of IT, and reviews NIST’s current capabilities and work in measurement and testing for IT. It concludes with a look at what is likely to occur in the field of IT over the next ten years and what metrology roles NIST is likely to play. PMID:27500026

  3. Measurement bias in activation-recovery intervals from unipolar electrograms.

    PubMed

    Western, David; Hanson, Ben; Taggart, Peter

    2015-02-15

    The activation-recovery interval (ARI) calculated from unipolar electrograms is regularly used as a convenient surrogate measure of local cardiac action potential durations (APD). This method enables important research bridging between computational studies and in vitro and in vivo human studies. The Wyatt method is well established as a theoretically sound method for calculating ARIs; however, some studies have observed that it is prone to a bias error in measurement when applied to positive T waves. This article demonstrates that recent theoretical and computational studies supporting the use of the Wyatt method are likely to have underestimated the extent of this bias in many practical experimental recording scenarios. This work addresses these situations and explains the measurement bias by adapting existing theoretical expressions of the electrogram to represent practical experimental recording configurations. A new analytic expression for the electrogram's local component is derived, which identifies the source of measurement bias for positive T waves. A computer implementation of the new analytic model confirms our hypothesis that the bias is systematically dependent on the electrode configuration. These results provide an aid to electrogram interpretation in general, and this work's outcomes are used to make recommendations on how to minimize measurement error. PMID:25398981

  4. Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by Triaxial Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Edimar Pedrosa; Reboredo, Maycon Moura; Carvalho, Erich Vidal; Teixeira, Daniel Rodrigues; Carvalho, Laís Fernanda Caldi d'Ornellas; Filho, Gilberto Francisco Ferreira; de Oliveira, Julio César Abreu; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady; Chebli, Júlio Maria Fonseca; de Paula, Rogério Baumgratz; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle

    2015-01-01

    Different factors can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among hemodialysis (HD) patients, including the period they spend on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in this population by using an accurate triaxial accelerometer and to correlate these characteristics with physiological variables. Nineteen HD patients were evaluated using the DynaPort accelerometer and compared to nineteen control individuals, regarding the time spent in different activities and positions of daily life and the number of steps taken. HD patients were more sedentary than control individuals, spending less time walking or standing and spending more time lying down. The sedentary behavior was more pronounced on dialysis days. According to the number of steps taken per day, 47.4% of hemodialysis patients were classified as sedentary against 10.5% in control group. Hemoglobin level, lower extremity muscle strength, and physical functioning of SF-36 questionnaire correlated significantly with the walking time and active time. Looking accurately at the patterns of activity in daily life, HDs patients are more sedentary, especially on dialysis days. These patients should be motivated to enhance the physical activity. PMID:26090432

  5. Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by Triaxial Accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Edimar Pedrosa; Reboredo, Maycon Moura; Carvalho, Erich Vidal; Teixeira, Daniel Rodrigues; Carvalho, Laís Fernanda Caldi d'Ornellas; Filho, Gilberto Francisco Ferreira; de Oliveira, Julio César Abreu; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady; Chebli, Júlio Maria Fonseca; de Paula, Rogério Baumgratz; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle

    2015-01-01

    Different factors can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among hemodialysis (HD) patients, including the period they spend on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in this population by using an accurate triaxial accelerometer and to correlate these characteristics with physiological variables. Nineteen HD patients were evaluated using the DynaPort accelerometer and compared to nineteen control individuals, regarding the time spent in different activities and positions of daily life and the number of steps taken. HD patients were more sedentary than control individuals, spending less time walking or standing and spending more time lying down. The sedentary behavior was more pronounced on dialysis days. According to the number of steps taken per day, 47.4% of hemodialysis patients were classified as sedentary against 10.5% in control group. Hemoglobin level, lower extremity muscle strength, and physical functioning of SF-36 questionnaire correlated significantly with the walking time and active time. Looking accurately at the patterns of activity in daily life, HDs patients are more sedentary, especially on dialysis days. These patients should be motivated to enhance the physical activity. PMID:26090432

  6. A Method to Measure Hydrolytic Activity of Adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases)

    PubMed Central

    Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The detection of small amounts (nanomoles) of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases), that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III) oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis) to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening. PMID:23472215

  7. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  8. Calibrating a novel multi-sensor physical activity measurement system

    PubMed Central

    John, D; Liu, S; Sasaki, J E; Howe, C A; Staudenmayer, J; Gao, R X; Freedson, P S

    2011-01-01

    Advancing the field of physical activity (PA) monitoring requires the development of innovative multi-sensor measurement systems that are feasible in the free-living environment. The use of novel analytical techniques to combine and process these multiple sensor signals is equally important. This paper, describes a novel multi-sensor ‘Integrated PA Measurement System’ (IMS), the lab-based methodology used to calibrate the IMS, techniques used to predict multiple variables from the sensor signals, and proposes design changes to improve the feasibility of deploying the IMS in the free-living environment. The IMS consists of hip and wrist acceleration sensors, two piezoelectric respiration sensors on the torso, and an ultraviolet radiation sensor to obtain contextual information (indoors vs. outdoors) of PA. During lab-based calibration of the IMS, data were collected on participants performing a PA routine consisting of seven different ambulatory and free-living activities while wearing a portable metabolic unit (criterion measure) and the IMS. Data analyses on the first 50 adult participants are presented. These analyses were used to determine if the IMS can be used to predict the variables of interest. Finally, physical modifications for the IMS that could enhance feasibility of free-living use are proposed and refinement of the prediction techniques is discussed. PMID:21813941

  9. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  10. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Andrew P.; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures. PMID:25988109

  11. Body Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, K. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)

  12. The solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) for improved scientific understanding of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Activity Measurements Experiments (SAMEX) mission is described. It is designed to provide a look at the interactions of magnetic fields and plasmas that create flares and other explosive events on the sun in an effort to understand solar activity and the nature of the solar magnetic field. The need for this mission, the instruments to be used, and the expected benefits of SAMEX are discussed.

  13. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. PMID:22394016

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of anterior cruciate ligament tears: reevaluation of quantitative parameters and imaging findings including a simplified method for measuring the anterior cruciate ligament angle.

    PubMed

    Mellado, J M; Calmet, J; Olona, M; Giné, J; Saurí, A

    2004-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for predicting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears using both quantitative parameters and nonquantitative imaging findings. MRI examinations were retrospectively evaluated in a group of patients with arthroscopically confirmed complete ACL tear and in a control group with arthroscopically confirmed intact ACL. We evaluated multiple MRI features to compare their sensitivity and specificity for detecting ACL tears. Particular emphasis is put on the evaluation of three different quantitative parameters, including a simplified method for measuring the ACL angle. With a threshold value of 45 degrees the ACL angle reached a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for detecting ACL tears. With a threshold value of 0 degrees the Blumensaat angle had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 98%. Finally, a threshold value of 115 degrees gave the posterior cruciate ligament angle a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 82%. Discontinuity was found to be the most useful of the ACL abnormalities. Of the secondary findings anterior tibial displacement was the best predictor of ligamentous injury. However, ACL abnormalities and secondary findings, alone or combined, failed to surpass the diagnostic value of the ACL angle for predicting ACL tears. Quantitative parameters are thus good predictors of ACL tears and may increase the overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI. The ACL angle may be confidently measured in a single MRI section and can be considered to be the most reliable quantitative parameter for detecting ACL tears. PMID:14530852

  15. Recent volcanic activity on Venus - Evidence from radiothermal emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Cordula A.; Wood, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Radiothermal emissivity measurements are analyzed in order to study large volcanic constructs on Venus and to correlate details of the reflectivity/emissivity patterns with geological landforms and stratigraphy visible in corresponding SAR images. There appears to be a correlation between locations on Venus where high emissivity at high altitudes and low emissivity at low altitudes are observed. These phenomena are attributed here to relatively recent volcanic activity: the former to summit eruptions that have not had time to weather to the low-emissivity state, the latter to continuing emission of volcanic gases from neighboring small plains volcanoes. The pattern of reflectivity and emissivity on Maat Mons is examined in the light of these findings. It is concluded that Maat Mons has undergone the most recent episode of volcanic activity of all the volcanoes studied here.

  16. Effect of fluorocarbons on acetylcholinesterase activity and some counter measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An isolated vagal sympathetic heart system has been successfully used for the study of the effect of fluorocarbons (FCs) on cardiac performance and in situ enzyme activity. Dichlorodifluoromethane sensitizes this preparation to sympathetic stimulation and to exogenous epinephrine challenge. Partial and complete A-V block and even cardiac arrest have been induced by epinephrine challenge in the FC sensitized heart. Potassium chloride alone restores the rhythmicity but not the normal contractility of the heart in such a situation. Addition of glucose will, however, completely restore the normal function of the heart which is sensitized by dichlorodifluoromethane. The ED 50 values of acetylcholinesterase activity which are used as a measure of relative effectiveness of fluorocarbons are compared with the maximum permissible concentration. Kinetic studies indicate that all the fluorocarbons tested so far are noncompetitive.

  17. Improved installation prototype for measurement of low argon-37 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    On-site Inspection (OSI) is a key element of verification of State Parties' compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An on-site inspection is launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out. One of the most significant evidence of n underground nuclear explosion (UNE) is detection above background concentrations of argon-37 in near surface air. Argon-37 is formed in large amounts at interaction of neutrons of UNE with the potassium which is a part of the majority of rocks. Its estimated contents for the 100th days after explosion with a energy of 1000 t of TNT near a surface can vary from 1 to 1000 mBq/m3. The background concentrations of argon-37 in subsoil air vary 1 do100 mBq/m3. Traditionally, for argon-37 activity measurement the gas-proportional counters are used. But at Khlopin Radium institute the developments of the new type of highly sensitive and low-background installation capable to provide the required range of measurements of the argon-37 concentration are conducted. The liquid scintillation method of the registration of the low-energetic argon-37 electrons is the basic installation principle and as scintillator, the itself condensed air argon sample is used. Registration of scintillations of liquid argon is made by means of system from 3 PMT which cathodes are cooled near to the temperature of liquid nitrogen together with the measuring chamber in which placed the quartz glass ampule, containing the measured sample of the liquefied argon. For converse the short wavelength photons (λ = 127 nm) of liquid argon scintillations to more long-wave, corresponding to the range of PMT sensitivity, the polymer film with tetra-phenyl-butadiene (TPB) is provided. Even the insignificant impurities of nitrogen, oxygen and others gaseous in the liquid argon samples can to cause the quenching of scintillation, especially their slow components. To account this effect and it influence on change of registration

  18. THE COLD SHOULDER: EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.

    2012-09-10

    The coronal heating mechanism for active region core loops is difficult to determine because these loops are often not resolved and cannot be studied individually. Rather, we concentrate on the 'inter-moss' areas between loop footpoints. We use observations from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer and the X-Ray Telescope to calculate the emission measure distributions of eight inter-moss areas in five different active regions. The combined data sets provide both high- and low-temperature constraints and ensure complete coverage in the temperature range appropriate for active regions. For AR 11113, the emission can be modeled with heating events that occur on timescales less than the cooling time. The loops in the core regions appear to be close to equilibrium and are consistent with steady heating. The other regions studied, however, appear to be dominated by nanoflare heating. Our results are consistent with the idea that active region age is an important parameter in determining whether steady or nanoflare heating is primarily responsible for the core emission, that is, older regions are more likely to be dominated by steady heating, while younger regions show more evidence of nanoflares.

  19. Active calibration target for bistatic radar cross-section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienaar, M.; Odendaal, J. W.; Joubert, J.; Cilliers, J. E.; Smit, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Either passive calibration targets are expensive and complex to manufacture or their bistatic radar cross section (RCS) levels are significantly lower than the monostatic RCS levels of targets such as spheres, dihedral, and trihedral corner reflectors. In this paper the performance of an active calibration target with relative high bistatic RCS values is illustrated as a reference target for bistatic RCS measurements. The reference target is simple to manufacture, operates over a wide frequency range, and can be configured to calibrate all four polarizations (VV, HH, HV, and VH). Bistatic RCS measurements of canonical targets, performed in a controlled environment, are calibrated with the reference target and the results are compared to simulated results using FEKO.

  20. Active doublet method for measuring small changes in physical properties

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Peter M.; Fehler, Michael C.; Johnson, Paul A.; Phillips, W. Scott

    1994-01-01

    Small changes in material properties of a work piece are detected by measuring small changes in elastic wave velocity and attenuation within a work piece. Active, repeatable source generate coda wave responses from a work piece, where the coda wave responses are temporally displaced. By analyzing progressive relative phase and amplitude changes between the coda wave responses as a function of elapsed time, accurate determinations of velocity and attenuation changes are made. Thus, a small change in velocity occurring within a sample region during the time periods between excitation origin times (herein called "doublets") will produce a relative delay that changes with elapsed time over some portion of the scattered waves. This trend of changing delay is easier to detect than an isolated delay based on a single arrival and provides a direct measure of elastic wave velocity changes arising from changed material properties of the work piece.

  1. Development of the equipment measuring the degree of the mental activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Miao, Tiejun; Takada, Shigeki

    2013-10-01

    In order to measure the mental activity, people measured the subject's oral consultation data, cardiac beats, a pulse wave, brain waves, an electromyogram, action patterns, and so on, together with analyzed data. Regarding the vital signs are the information on a complexity system, we were treating a slight change of vital signs as an error. However, very important information was included in this error. The degree of mental activity which is the information on the complexity system was not able to be solved by the conventional method. In this paper, nonlinear analysis of the pulse wave of a fingertip was conducted, and the fluctuation value was computed. Furthermore, the simulation of a mathematical model and the experiment of anesthesia proved that the value had the information on a central system. The apparatus which can measure the degree of mental activity was developed using this.

  2. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  3. Detection limit for activation measurements in ultralow background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius; Chesneanu, D.; Margineanu, R.; Pantelica, A.; Ghita, D. G.; Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2014-09-01

    We used 12C +13C fusion at the beam energies E = 6, 7 and 8 MeV to determine the sensitivity and the limits of activation method measurements in ultralow background sites. A 13C beam of 0.5 μA from the 3 MV Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH impinged on thick graphite targets. After about 24 hrs of irradiation targets were measured in two different laboratories: one with a heavy shielded Ge detector in the institute (at the surface) and one located underground in the microBequerel laboratory, in the salt mine of Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The 1369- and 2754 keV peaks from 24Na deactivation were clearly observed in the γ-ray spectra obtained for acquisitions lasting a few hours, or a few days. Determination of the detection limit in evaluating the cross sections for the target irradiated at Ec . m = 3 MeV indicates the fact that it is possible to measure gamma spectrum in underground laboratory down to Ec . m = 2 . 6 MeV. Cleaning the spectra with beta-gamma coincidences and increasing beam intensity 20 times will take as further down. The measurements are motivated by the study of the 12 C +12 C reaction at astrophysical energies.

  4. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  5. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  6. Design and Validation of a Novel Method to Measure Cross-Sectional Area of Neck Muscles Included during Routine MR Brain Volume Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kilgour, Alixe H. M.; Subedi, Deepak; Gray, Calum D.; Deary, Ian J.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Starr, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Low muscle mass secondary to disease and ageing is an important cause of excess mortality and morbidity. Many studies include a MR brain scan but no peripheral measure of muscle mass. We developed a technique to measure posterior neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) on volumetric MR brain scans enabling brain and muscle size to be measured simultaneously. Methods We performed four studies to develop and test: feasibility, inter-rater reliability, repeatability and external validity. We used T1-weighted MR brain imaging from young and older subjects, obtained on different scanners, and collected mid-thigh MR data. Results After developing the technique and demonstrating feasibility, we tested it for inter-rater reliability in 40 subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between raters were 0.99 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.98–1.00) for the combined group (trapezius, splenius and semispinalis), 0.92 (CI 0.85–0.96) for obliquus and 0.92 (CI 0.85–0.96) for sternocleidomastoid. The first unrotated principal component explained 72.2% of total neck muscle CSA variance and correlated positively with both right (r = 0.52, p = .001) and left (r = 0.50, p = .002) grip strength. The 14 subjects in the repeatability study had had two MR brain scans on three different scanners. The ICC for between scanner variation for total neck muscle CSA was high at 0.94 (CI 0.86–0.98). The ICCs for within scanner variations were also high, with values of 0.95 (CI 0.86–0.98), 0.97 (CI 0.92–0.99) and 0.96 (CI 0.86–0.99) for the three scanners. The external validity study found a correlation coefficient for total thigh CSA and total neck CSA of 0.88. Discussion We present a feasible, valid and reliable method for measuring neck muscle CSA on T1-weighted MR brain scans. Larger studies are needed to validate and apply our technique with subjects differing in age, ethnicity and geographical location. PMID:22509305

  7. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  8. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  9. Measurement of Cysteine Dioxygenase Activity and Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Stipanuk, Martha H.; Dominy, John E.; Ueki, Iori; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.

    2009-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is an iron (Fe2+)-dependent thiol dioxygenase that uses molecular oxygen to oxidize the sulfhydryl group of cysteine to generate 3-sulfinoalanine (commonly called cysteinesulfinic acid). Cysteine dioxygenase activity is routinely assayed by measuring cysteinesulfinate formation from substrate L-cysteine at pH 6.1 in the presence of ferrous ions to saturate the enzyme with metal cofactor, a copper chelator to diminish substrate oxidation, and hydroxylamine to inhibit pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent degradation of product. The amount of cysteine dioxygenase may be measured by immunoblotting. Upon SDS-PAGE, cysteine dioxygenase can be separated into two major bands, with the upper band representing the 23-kDa protein and the lower band representing the mature enzyme that has undergone formation of an internal thioether cross link in the active site. Formation of this cross link is dependent upon the catalytic turnover of substrate and produces an enzyme with a higher catalytic efficiency and catalytic half-life. PMID:19885389

  10. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  11. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  12. Calcium II K Line as a Measure of Activity: Meshing Sac Peak and Solis Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, Elana; Earley, J.; Keil, S.

    2012-05-01

    The Calcium II K line is an important indicator of solar and stellar activity. Disk integrated Ca K measurements have been taken at the Evans Solar Facility at Sacramento Peak Observatory since 1976. This instrument will be shut down by the end of the year, and the observations will be continued by the Solis Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer (ISS), which has been taking measurements since 2006. We attempt to regress the measurements from Sacramento Peak and ISS. In addition, we compare the Ca K measurements with disk averaged line of sight magnetic field measurements, which will help us predict the magnetic field of other stars. We also compare the measurements with Lyman α, allowing us to use Ca K as an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) proxy. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) [or Research Experiences for Teachers (RET)] site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the National Science Foundation REU/RET Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  13. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  14. Measurement of physiological parameters during brain activation usingfMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ching-Mei Janet

    The changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) are correlated with the changes in blood deoxyhemoglobin content that determine the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Both CBF and CBV have been widely measured and well understood by previous studies, while CMRO2 measurement is still in development. The central hypothesis of the proposed study is that those physiological parameters can be simulated by biophysical models with fixed parameters and measured directly. The goal of this proposal is to test the central hypothesis. In summary, this dissertation focused on measurements of physiological parameters in two image modalities. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) were studied in chapters II to IV. It is going to help to understand human brain metabolism during neuronal activity. Chapter V compared two image modalities---MR and PET and furthermore determine beta* in existing MR model for clinic use. This dissertation shows that the characteristics of BOLD signal can be examined by balloon model in both block-designed and event-related designed paradigm. The dynamic change of CMRO2 and OER using event-related fMRI can be measured using existing biophysical model proposed by Kim and his coworker in 1999. Furthermore, PET experiment was used to determine the parameters contained in Kim's model. This dissertation verify the central hypothesis that we made early on and we expect CMRO2 model with fixed parameters will bring a big impact in research and clinical use.

  15. Uncertainty in Measurement: A Review of Monte Carlo Simulation Using Microsoft Excel for the Calculation of Uncertainties Through Functional Relationships, Including Uncertainties in Empirically Derived Constants

    PubMed Central

    Farrance, Ian; Frenkel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (usually referred to as the GUM) provides the basic framework for evaluating uncertainty in measurement. The GUM however does not always provide clearly identifiable procedures suitable for medical laboratory applications, particularly when internal quality control (IQC) is used to derive most of the uncertainty estimates. The GUM modelling approach requires advanced mathematical skills for many of its procedures, but Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be used as an alternative for many medical laboratory applications. In particular, calculations for determining how uncertainties in the input quantities to a functional relationship propagate through to the output can be accomplished using a readily available spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The MCS procedure uses algorithmically generated pseudo-random numbers which are then forced to follow a prescribed probability distribution. When IQC data provide the uncertainty estimates the normal (Gaussian) distribution is generally considered appropriate, but MCS is by no means restricted to this particular case. With input variations simulated by random numbers, the functional relationship then provides the corresponding variations in the output in a manner which also provides its probability distribution. The MCS procedure thus provides output uncertainty estimates without the need for the differential equations associated with GUM modelling. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ease with which Microsoft Excel (or a similar spreadsheet) can be used to provide an uncertainty estimate for measurands derived through a functional relationship. In addition, we also consider the relatively common situation where an empirically derived formula includes one or more ‘constants’, each of which has an empirically derived numerical value. Such empirically derived ‘constants’ must also have associated uncertainties which propagate through the functional

  16. Minimum Detectable Activity in gamma spectrometry and its use in low level activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Ioan, M-R

    2016-08-01

    In this paper there are described three different algorithms of Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) calculus, and its use in high resolution gamma spectrometry. In the first part, few introductive theoretical aspects related to the MDA are presented. Further, the theory was applied to real gamma rays spectrometry measurements and the results were compared with the activities reference values. Two different gamma spectrometry systems, both of them using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, but having different efficiencies, were used. Samples having different geometries and radionuclides content were measured. The measured samples were made by dissolving of some acids containing anthropogenic radionuclides in water, obtaining a density of 1g/cm(3). Choosing this type of matrix was done because of its high homogeneity. PMID:27172893

  17. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  18. Interpretation of Spectrometric Measurements of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, D.; Wade, G.

    2014-09-01

    Over 5000 visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrometric measurements of active geostationary satellites have been collected with the National Research Council (NRC) 1.8m Plaskett telescope located at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, Canada. The objective of this ongoing experiment is to study how reflectance spectroscopy can be used to reliably identify specific material types on the surface of artificial Earth-orbiting objects. Active geostationary satellites were selected as the main subjects for this experiment since their orientation is stable and can be estimated to a high-level of confidence throughout a night of observation. Furthermore, for most geostationary satellites, there is a wide variety of sources that can provide some level of information as to their external surface composition. Notwithstanding the high number of measurements that have been collected to date, it was assumed that the experimenters would have a much greater success rate in material identification given the choice experimental subjects. To date, only the presence of aluminum has been confidently identified in some of the reflectance spectra that have been collected. Two additional material types, namely photovoltaic cells and polyimide film, the first layer of multi-layer insulation (MLI), have also been possibly identified. However uncertainties in the reduced spectral measurements prevent any definitive conclusion with respect to these materials at this time. The surprising lack of results with respect to material identification have forced the experimenters to use other data interpretation methods to characterize the spectral scattering characteristics of the studied satellites. The results from this study have already led to improvements in the ways that reflectance spectra from spacecraft are collected and analysed. Equally important, the data interpretation techniques elaborated over the course of this experiment will also serve to increase the body of

  19. Microelectrode Measurements of the Activity Distribution in Nitrifying Bacterial Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, D.; van den Heuvel, J. C.; Ottengraf, S. P. P.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrodes for ammonium, oxygen, nitrate, and pH were used to study nitrifying aggregates grown in a fluidized-bed reactor. Local reactant fluxes and distribution of microbial activity could be determined from the microprofiles. The interfacial fluxes of the reactants closely reflected the stoichiometry of bacterial nitrification. Both ammonium consumption and nitrate production were localized in the outer shells, with a thickness of approximately 100 to 120 μm, of the aggregates. Under conditions in which ammonium and oxygen penetrated the whole aggregate, nitrification was restricted to this zone; oxygen was consumed in the central parts of the aggregates as well, probably because of oxidation of dead biomass. A sudden increase of the oxygen concentration to saturation (pure oxygen) was inhibitory to nitrification. The pH profiles showed acidification in the aggregates, but not to an inhibitory level. The distribution of activity was determined by the penetration depth of oxygen during aggregate development in the reactor. Mass transfer was significantly limited by the boundary layer surrounding the aggregates. Microelectrode measurements showed that the thickness of this layer was correlated with the diffusion coefficient of the species. Determination of the distribution of nitrifying activity required the use of ammonium or nitrate microelectrodes, whereas the use of oxygen microelectrodes alone would lead to erroneous results. Images PMID:16348875

  20. Comparison of Mercury Measurement Methods Using Two Active Filter Measurement Methods and a Tekran Speciation Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Gustin, M. S.; Huang, J.; Heidecorn, K.

    2014-12-01

    Three active mercury (Hg) measurement methods were operated side by side at an urban site (University of Nevada, Reno College of Agriculture Greenhouse facility, elev. 1370 m) in Reno, and at a high elevation site (Peavine Peak, elev. 2515 m) adjacent to Reno from December 2013 to October 2014. A model 602 BetaPlus Teledyne Advanced Pollution Instrumentation (TAPI, San Diego, CA USA) particulate measurement system was used to collect particulate matter on a 47 mm diameter cation exchange membrane (CEM, PN# MSTGS3R Mustang S, Pall Corp. Port Washington, NY) at a rate of 16.7 lpm for 24 hours to four days. Particulate concentrations were calculated using beta attenuation across the filters (non-destructive to filter material); the CEM filters were then analyzed for total Hg on a Tekran Total Hg Analysis system (model 2600, Tekran Instruments Corp. Knoxville, TN, USA). Concurrently, samples were collected on an active Hg membrane system. The active Hg membrane system consisted of 3 CEM filters sampling at a rate of 1 lpm for one to two weeks. CEM filters were then analyzed on the Tekran 2600. A Tekran speciation unit (model 1130, 1135, 2537) was also in operation and ambient air samples were analyzed for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate bound Hg (PBM). Both the 602 BetaPlus system and the active Hg membrane system should collect RM on the CEM filters. The active Hg membrane system most likely captures mainly GOM based on previous tests with the Teflon inlet setup that indicated there was high static electricity effective in removing particulate matter. Flow rate and length of measurement (24 hours vs. four days) affected the Hg concentrations on the 602 BetaPlus system. Based on these measurements we hypothesize that, due to the high flow rate, and therefore short retention time, the 602 BetaPlus only captured PBM. It is also possible that there was loss of Hg to inlet walls due to the longer inlet on the 602 BetaPlus system

  1. A helium gas scintillator active target for photoreaction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Annand, John R. M.; Adler, Jan-Olof; Akkurt, Iskender; Buchanan, Emma; Brudvik, Jason; Fissum, Kevin; Gardner, Simon; Hamilton, David J.; Hansen, Kurt; Isaksson, Lennart; Livingston, Kenneth; Lundin, Magnus; McGeorge, John C.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; MacRae, Roderick; Middleton, Duncan G.; Reiter, Andreas J. H.; Rosner, Günther; Schröder, Bent; Sjögren, Johan; Sokhan, Daria; Strandberg, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    A multi-cell He gas scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 g/cm3 at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of N2 to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has a timing resolution of around 1 ns and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in 4He, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response.

  2. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  3. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    PubMed Central

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  4. Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, James; Alaiti, Amer; Goldvasser, Dov; Scarborough, Donna; Freiberg, Andrew; Rubash, Harry; Malchau, Henrik; Harris, William; Krebs, David

    2006-01-01

    Background There is currently a paucity of devices available for continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion. Non-invasive, inexpensive devices capable of recording human activity and joint motion have many applications for medical research. Such a device could be used to quantify range of motion outside the gait laboratory. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the modified Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) in measuring knee flexion angles, to detect different physical activities, and to quantify how often healthy subjects use deep knee flexion in the ambulatory setting. Methods We compared Biomotion Laboratory (BML) "gold standard" data to simultaneous IDEEA measures of knee motion and gait, step up/down, and stair descent in 5 healthy subjects. In addition, we used a series of choreographed physical activities outside the BML to confirm the IDEEA's ability to accurately measure 7 commonly-performed physical activities. Subjects then continued data collection during ordinary activities outside the gait laboratory. Results Pooled correlations between the BML and IDEEA knee flexion angles were .97 +/- .03 for step up/down, .98 +/- .02 for stair descent, and .98 +/- .01 for gait. In the BML protocol, the IDEEA accurately identified gait, but was less accurate in identifying step up/down and stair descent. During sampling outside the BML, the IDEEA accurately detected walking, running, stair ascent, stair descent, standing, lying, and sitting. On average, subjects flexed their knees >120° for 0.17% of their data collection periods outside the BML. Conclusion The modified IDEEA system is a useful clinical tool for evaluating knee motion and multiple physical activities in the ambulatory setting. These five healthy subjects rarely flexed their knees >120°. PMID:16970818

  5. Ideas: Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovchik, Robert; Meconi, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents measurement activities for K-3, 4-6, 5-6, and 7-8 grade levels. Activities include a measurement scavenger hunt, using a clinometer to measure angles of elevation, estimating the age of trees, measuring the height of a tree, and measuring objects at a distance. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  6. Measurement of nitrous oxide reductase activity in aquatic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.; Paulsen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Denitrification in aquatic sediments was measured by an N/sub 2/O reductase assay. Sediments consumed small added quantities of N/sub 2/O over short periods (a few hours). In experiments with sediment slurries, N/sub 2/O reductase activity was inhibited by 0/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, heat treatment, and by high levels of nitrate (1 mM) or sulfide (10 mM). However, ambient levels of nitrate (<100 ..mu..M) did not influence activity, and moderate levels (about 150 ..mu..M) induced only a short lag before reductase activity began. Moderate levels of sulfide (<1 mM) had no effect on N/sub 2/O reductase activity. Nitrous oxide reductase displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in sediments from freshwater, estuarine, and alkaline-saline environments. An in situ assay was devised in which a solution of N/sub 2/O was injected into sealed glass cores containing intact sediment. Two estimates of net rates of denitrification in San Francisco Bay under approximated in situ conditions were 0.009 and 0.041 mmol of N/sub 2/O per m/sup 2/ per h. Addition of chlorate to inhibit denitrification in these intact-core experiments (to estimate gross rates of N/sub 2/O consumption) resulted in approximately a 14% upward revision of estimates of net rates. These results were comparable to an in situ estimate of 0.022 mmol of N/sub 2/O per m/sup 2/ per h made with the acetylene block assay.

  7. Use of an Activated Beta-Catenin to Identify Wnt Pathway Target Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Including a Subset of Collagen Genes Expressed in Late Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Belinda M.; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W.; Eisenmann, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin−dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle. PMID:24569038

  8. Association of proximity and density of parks and objectively measured physical activity in the United States: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Carolyn; Joshi, Spruha; Rundle, Andrew; Hutson, Malo; Chong, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher C; Genkinger, Jeanine; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina

    2015-08-01

    One strategy for increasing physical activity is to create and enhance access to park space. We assessed the literature on the relationship of parks and objectively measured physical activity in population-based studies in the United States (US) and identified limitations in current built environment and physical activity measurement and reporting. Five English-language scholarly databases were queried using standardized search terms. Abstracts were screened for the following inclusion criteria: 1) published between January 1990 and June 2013; 2) US-based with a sample size greater than 100 individuals; 3) included built environment measures related to parks or trails; and 4) included objectively measured physical activity as an outcome. Following initial screening for inclusion by two independent raters, articles were abstracted into a database. Of 10,949 abstracts screened, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five articles reported a significant positive association between parks and physical activity. Nine studies found no association, and six studies had mixed findings. Our review found that even among studies with objectively measured physical activity, the association between access to parks and physical activity varied between studies, possibly due to heterogeneity of exposure measurement. Self-reported (vs. independently-measured) neighborhood park environment characteristics and smaller (vs. larger) buffer sizes were more predictive of physical activity. We recommend strategies for further research, employing standardized reporting and innovative study designs to better understand the relationship of parks and physical activity. PMID:26043433

  9. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  10. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  11. An activity-based probe for high-throughput measurements of triacylglycerol lipases.

    PubMed

    Tam, John; Henault, Martin; Li, Lianhai; Wang, Zhaoyin; Partridge, Anthony W; Melnyk, Roman A

    2011-07-15

    Modulating the activity of lipases involved in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins is an attractive approach for developing lipid raising/lowering therapies to treat cardiovascular disease. Identifying small molecule inhibitors for these membrane-active enzymes, however, is complicated by difficulties associated with measuring lipase activity and inhibition at the water-membrane interface; substrate and compound dynamics at the particle interface have the potential to confound data interpretation. Here, we describe a novel ELISA-based lipase activity assay that employs as "bait" a biotinylated active-site probe that irreversibly binds to the catalytic active-site serine of members of the triacylglycerol lipase family (hepatic lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and endothelial lipase) in solution with high affinity. Detection of "captured" (probe-enzyme) complexes on streptavidin-coated plates using labeled secondary antibodies to specific primary antibodies offers several advantages over conventional assays, including the ability to eliminate enzyme-particle and compound-particle effects; specifically measure lipase activity in complex mixtures in vitro; preferentially identify active-site-directed inhibitors; and distinguish between reversible and irreversible inhibitors through a simple assay modification. Using EL as an exemplar, we demonstrate the versatility of this assay both for high-throughput screening and for compound mechanism-of-action studies. PMID:21397586

  12. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  13. A review of physical activity measures used among U.S. Latinos: Guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Elder, John

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. population continues to grow and diversify, there is a need for progressive physical activity measurement and cross-cultural research. Studies suggest that U.S.-Latinos are among the most sedentary of ethnic groups compared to others; however, study findings may be biased given that some measures may not be culturally sensitive for assessing behaviors that are not characterized as leisure time physical activity. The primary objective of this review was to identify and evaluate measures used to quantify physical activity among U.S. Latinos. A review of the literature was performed and studies examining levels of physical activity among Spanish and English speaking Latinos were documented. This process involved identifying existing guidelines for the purpose of culturally adapting and/or translating [into Spanish] physical activity measures for the Latino population. These guidelines were used as the minimal criteria for the evaluation of the 13 identified measures of physical activity. Of these 13 measures, four were available in English and nine were available in Spanish. One English measure met the guidelines for being culturally adapted for assessing physical activity among Latinos. There were no Spanish measures that met all the guidelines for physical activity assessment among Spanish speaking Latinos. Lastly, the identified guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures were improved to advance physical activity measurement among ethnic and cultural groups. Future research should merit the use of culturally appropriate guidelines to increase the understanding of physical activity patterns in the U.S. PMID:18855091

  14. NASA's Potential Contributions to Avalanche Forecasting Using Active and Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using active and passive microwave measurements acquired from NASA satellites to improve USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Forest Service forecasting of avalanche danger. Regional Avalanche Centers prepare avalanche forecasts using ground measurements of snowpack and mountain weather conditions. In this Solution, range of the in situ observations is extended by adding remote sensing measurements of snow depth, snow water equivalent, and snowfall rate acquired by satellite missions that include Aqua, CloudSat, future GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), and the proposed SCLP (Snow and Cold Land Processes). Measurements of snowpack conditions and time evolution are improved by combining the in situ and satellite observations with a snow model. Recurring snow observations from NASA satellites increase accuracy of avalanche forecasting, which helps the public and the managers of public facilities make better avalanche safety decisions.

  15. Solubilities of biologically active phenolic compounds: measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Queimada, António J; Mota, Fátima L; Pinho, Simão P; Macedo, Eugénia A

    2009-03-19

    Aqueous solubilities of natural phenolic compounds from different families (hydroxyphenyl, polyphenol, hydroxybenzoic, and phenylpropenoic) were experimentally obtained. Measurements were performed on tyrosol and ellagic, protocatechuic, syringic, and o-coumaric acids, at five different temperatures (from 288.2 to 323.2 K), using the standard shake-flask method, followed by compositional analysis using UV spectrophotometry. To verify the accuracy of the spectrophotometric method, some data points were measured by gravimetry, and in general, the values obtained with the two methods are in good agreement (deviations lower than 11%). To adequately understand the solubilization process, melting properties of the pure phenolics were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and apparent acid dissociation constants were measured by potentiometry titration. The aqueous solubilities followed the expected general exponential trend. The melting temperatures did not follow the same solubility tendency, and for tyrosol and ellagic acid, not only the size and extent of hydrogen bonding, but also the energy associated with their crystal structures, determine the solubility. For these binary systems, acid dissociation is not important. Approaches for modeling the measured data were evaluated. These included an excess Gibbs energy equation, the modified UNIQUAC model, and the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state. Particularly for the CPA approach, a new methodology that explicitly takes into account the number and nature of the associating sites and the prediction of the pure-component parameters from molecular structure is proposed. The results indicate that these are appropriate tools for representing the water solubilities of these molecules. PMID:19243119

  16. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods

    SciTech Connect

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2010-07-01

    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  17. Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation.

    PubMed

    Phelps, E A; O'Connor, K J; Cunningham, W A; Funayama, E S; Gatenby, J C; Gore, J C; Banaji, M R

    2000-09-01

    We used fMRI to explore the neural substrates involved in the unconscious evaluation of Black and White social groups. Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. In Experiment 1, White American subjects observed faces of unfamiliar Black and White males. The strength of amygdala activation to Black-versus-White faces was correlated with two indirect (unconscious) measures of race evaluation (Implicit Association Test [IAT] and potentiated startle), but not with the direct (conscious) expression of race attitudes. In Experiment 2, these patterns were not obtained when the stimulus faces belonged to familiar and positively regarded Black and White individuals. Together, these results suggest that amygdala and behavioral responses to Black-versus-White faces in White subjects reflect cultural evaluations of social groups modified by individual experience. PMID:11054916

  18. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Its Association With Adiponectin and Other Novel Metabolic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Brad S.; Jeffery, Alison N.; Hosking, Joanne; Voss, Linda D.; Sattar, Naveed; Wilkin, Terence J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Recent evidence suggests that, in children, traditional markers of metabolic disturbance are related only weakly to physical activity. We therefore sought to establish the corresponding relationships with newer metabolic markers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a nonintervention longitudinal study of 213 healthy children recruited from 54 schools in Plymouth, U.K. MTI accelerometers were used to make objective 7-day recordings of physical activity at ages 5 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD), 6, 7, and 8 years. Overall physical activity was taken as the average of the four annual time points. The metabolic markers at 8 years were adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Potential confounders included percent body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and diet measured by food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS—Whereas physical activity did not correlate with insulin resistance (r = −0.01), leptin (r = +0.04), or hsCRP (r = +0.01) independently of percent body fat, it did correlate with adiponectin, but inversely (r = −0.18, P = 0.02). This unexpected inverse relationship was strongest among the less active children (physical activity < median: r = −0.30, P = 0.01) but negligible in the more active children (physical activity > median: r = +0.04, P = 0.76). Adiponectin was significantly higher (0.52 SD, P < 0.01) in the least active tertile compared with the other two tertiles. Insulin resistance, however, did not differ across the physical activity tertiles (P = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS—Adiponectin levels in children are highest among those who are least active, but their insulin resistance is no different. Adiponectin has a known insulin-sensitizing effect, and our findings are consistent with a selective effect at low levels of physical activity. PMID:19033408

  19. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  20. Measuring Chitinase and Protease Activity in Cultures of Fungal Entomopathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Peter; Glare, Travis R; Rostás, Michael; Haines, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi produce a variety of destructive enzymes and metabolites to overcome the unique defense mechanisms of insects. In a first step, fungal chitinases and proteinases need to break down the insect's cuticle. Both enzyme classes support the infection process by weakening the chitin barrier and by producing nutritional cleavage products for the fungus. In a second step, the pathogen can now mechanically penetrate the weakened cuticle and reach the insect's hemolymph where it starts proliferating. The critical enzymes chitinase and proteinase are also excreted into the supernatants of fungal cultures and can be used as indicators of virulence. Chromogenic assays adapted for 96-well microtiter plates that measure these enzymes provide a sensitive, fast, and easy screening method for evaluating the potential biocontrol activity of fungal isolates and may be considered as an alternative to laborious and time-consuming bioassays. Furthermore, monitoring fungal enzyme production in dependence of time, nutrient sources, or other factors can facilitate in establishing optimal growth and harvesting conditions for selected isolates with the aim of achieving maximum biocontrol activity. PMID:27565500

  1. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Brain Volumetric Measurements in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Hubbard, Elizabeth A.; Motl, Robert W.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Wetter, Nathan C.; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Little is known about physical activity and its association with volumes of whole brain gray matter and white matter and deep gray matter structures in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose. This study examined the association between levels of physical activity and brain volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in MS. Method. 39 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and underwent a brain MRI. Normalized GM volume (NGMV), normalized WM volume (NWMV), and deep GM structures were calculated from 3D T1-weighted structural brain images. We conducted partial correlations (pr) controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly associated with NGMV (pr = 0.370, p < 0.05), NWMV (pr = 0.433, p < 0.01), hippocampus (pr = 0.499, p < 0.01), thalamus (pr = 0.380, p < 0.05), caudate (pr = 0.539, p < 0.01), putamen (pr = 0.369, p < 0.05), and pallidum (pr = 0.498, p < 0.01) volumes, when controlling for sex, age, clinical course of MS, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. There were no associations between sedentary and light physical activity with MRI outcomes. Conclusion. Our results provide the first evidence that MVPA is associated with volumes of whole brain GM and WM and deep GM structures that are involved in motor and cognitive functions in MS. PMID:26146460

  2. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Robert R.; Bode, Peter; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.

    2011-03-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière — Métrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance — Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  3. New Measurements of Activation Volume in Olvine Under Anhydrous Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, W.; Mei, S; Kohlstedt, D; Wang, L; Dixon, N

    2009-01-01

    A new cell assembly for the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) shows promise for limiting the water content of samples and providing a more mechanically stable environment for deformation. The 6-mm cubic cell consists of a 6-mm diameter mullite sphere cradled in a web of unfired pyrophyllite. The pyrophyllite flows during initial compression of the D-DIA to form gaskets between the six anvils while the mullite flows to become a nearly cubic-shaped pressure medium. Measurements on olivine indicate more than one order of magnitude drop in water content to <40 ppm H/Si compared with the boron-epoxy medium. Improved mechanical stability is achieved by elimination of the thermocouple from the assembly and determination of temperature from calibration curves of furnace power vs. temperature. Three samples of polycrystalline orthopyroxene-buffer San Carlos olivine have been deformed in high-temperature creep in the new cell, at pressures of 2.7-4.9 GPa and temperatures near 1473 K. Strength is consistent with that measured in the gas-apparatus at lower pressures. Over the pressure range investigated we resolve an activation volume for creep of dry olivine of V* = 9.5 {+-} 7 x 10-6 m3/mol.

  4. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  5. Brain mechanical property measurement using MRE with intrinsic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-11-01

    , termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MRE to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination.

  6. Brain Mechanical Property Measurement Using MRE with Intrinsic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation, termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MR elastography to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination. PMID:23079508

  7. Review of Measures of Worksite Environmental and Policy Supports for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Reeds, Dominic N.; van Bakergem, Margaret A.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Pamulapati, Surya C.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). Methods We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Results Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. Conclusion This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development. PMID:25950572

  8. Ciliary motility activity measurement using a dense optical flow algorithm.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Eduardo; Armengot, Miguel; Mata, Manuel; Cortijo, Julio; Riera, Jaime; Hueso, José L; Moratal, David

    2013-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. In this study, an automatic method has been established to determine the ciliary motility activity from cell cultures by means of optical flow computation, and has been applied to 136 control cultures and to 144 RSV-infected cultures. The control group presented an average of cell surface with cilia motility per field of 41 ± 15 % (mean ± standard deviation), while the infected group presented a 11 ± 5 %, t-Student p<0.001. The cutoff value to classify a infected specimen was <17.89 % (sensitivity 0.94, specificity 0.93). This methodology has proved to be a robust technique to evaluate cilia motility in cell cultures. PMID:24110720

  9. Magnetic field measurements in and above a limb active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Judge

    2013-07-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of a limb active region (NOAA 11302) obtained on September 22nd 2011 using the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Stokes profiles including lines of Si I 1028.7 nm and He I 1083 nm were obtained in three scans over a 45"x75" area. Simultaneous narrow band Ca II K and G-band intensity data were acquired with a cadence of 5s at the DST. The He I data show not only typical active region polarization signatures, but also signatures in plumes -- cool post flare loops -- which extend many Mm into the corona across the visible limb. The plumes have remarkably uniform brightness, and the plume plasma is significantly Doppler shifted as it drains from the corona. Using carefully constructed observing and calibration sequences and applying Principal Component Analysis to remove instrumental artifacts, we achieved a polarization sensitivity approaching 0.02%. With this sensitivity we attempt to diagnose the vector magnetic fields and plasma properties of chromospheric and cool coronal material in and above NOAA 11302. Inversions using various radiative transfer models in the HAZEL code are remarkably consistent with the idea that plume spectra are formed in a simple, slab-like geometry, but that the ``disk'' spectra are formed under more traditional models (Milne-Eddington). The inverted magnetic data of He I lines are compared with photospheric inversions of DST Si I and Fe I data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  10. A History of In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis in Measurement of Aluminum in Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Hedieh K; Chettle, David R

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum, as an abundant metal, has gained widespread use in human life, entering the body predominantly as an additive to various foods and drinking water. Other major sources of exposure to aluminum include medical, cosmetic, and occupational routes. As a common environmental toxin, with well-known roles in several medical conditions such as dialysis encephalopathy, aluminum is considered a potential candidate in the causality of Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum mostly accumulates in the bone, which makes bone an indicator of the body burden of aluminum and an ideal organ as a proxy for the brain. Most of the techniques developed for measuring aluminum include bone biopsy, which requires invasive measures, causing inconvenience for the patients. There has been a considerable effort in developing non-invasive approaches, which allow for monitoring aluminum levels for medical and occupational purposes in larger populations. In vivo neutron activation analysis, a method based on nuclear activation of isotopes of elements in the body and their subsequent detection, has proven to be an invaluable tool for this purpose. There are definite challenges in developing in vivo non-invasive techniques capable of detecting low levels of aluminum in healthy individuals and aluminum-exposed populations. The following review examines the method of in vivo neutron activation analysis in the context of aluminum measurement in humans focusing on different neutron sources, interference from other activation products, and the improvements made in minimum detectable limits and patient dose over the past few decades. PMID:26890739

  11. REPRODUCIBILITY OF INTRA-ABDOMINAL PRESSURE MEASURED DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES VIA A WIRELESS VAGINAL TRANSDUCER

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Marlene J.; Hamad, Nadia M.; Hitchcock, Robert W.; Coleman, Tanner J.; Shaw, Janet M.; Hsu, Yvonne; Nygaard, Ingrid E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims In the urodynamics laboratory setting, a wireless pressure transducer, developed to facilitate research exploring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and pelvic floor disorders, was highly accurate. We aimed to study reproducibility of IAP measured using this transducer in women during activities performed in an exercise science laboratory. Methods Fifty seven women (mean ± SD: age 30.4 ±9.3 years; body mass index=22.4 ± 2.68 kg/m2) completed two standardized activity sessions using the same transducer at least three days apart. Pressure data for 31 activities were transmitted wirelessly to a base station and analyzed for mean net maximal IAP, area under the curve (AUC) and first moment of the area (FMA.) Activities included typical exercises, lifting 13.6 to 18.2 kg, and simulated household tasks. Analysis for test-retest reliability included Bland-Altman plots with absolute limits of agreement (ALOA), Wilcoxon signed rank tests to assess significant differences between sessions, intraclass correlations, and kappa statistics to assess inter-session agreement in highest vs. other quintiles of maximal IAP. Results Few activities exhibited significant differences between sessions in maximal IAP, or in AUC and FMA values. For 13 activities, the agreement between repeat measures of maximal IAP was better than ± 10 cm H20; for 20 activities, better than ± 15 cm H20. ALOA increased with mean IAP. The highest quintile of IAP demonstrated fair/substantial agreement between sessions in 25 of 30 activities. Conclusion Reproducibility of IAP depends on the activity undertaken. Interventions geared towards lowering IAP should account for this, and maximize efforts to improve IAP reproducibility. PMID:25730430

  12. Physical activity and maternal-fetal circulation measured by Doppler ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nghia C.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Savitz, David A.; Chu, Haitao; Thorp, John M.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of physical activity on maternal-fetal circulation measured by uterine and umbilical artery Doppler flow velocimetry waveforms. Study Design Participants included 781 pregnant women with Doppler ultrasounds of the uterine and umbilical artery and who self-reported past week physical activity. Linear and generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine these associations. Results Moderate-to-vigorous total and recreational activity were associated with higher uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and an increased risk of uterine artery notching as compared to reporting no total or recreational physical activity, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous work activity was associated with lower uterine artery PI and a reduced risk of uterine artery notching as compared to no work activity. No associations were identified with the umbilical circulation measured by the resistance index. Conclusion In this epidemiologic study, recreational and work activity were associated with opposite effects on uterine artery PI and uterine artery notching, though associations were modest in magnitude. PMID:22678142

  13. Three-Dimensional Concentration Measurements around Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.; Webster, D. R.

    2006-11-01

    Many aquatic arthropods locate food, suitable habitats, and mates solely through information extracted by chemical signals in their environment. Chemical plumes detected by larger animals are influenced by turbulence that creates an intermittent and unpredictable chemical stimulus environment. To link the stimulus pattern to behavior, we have developed a measurement system to quantify the instantaneous odor concentration surrounding a freely tracking blue crab through three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF). A blue crab receives chemical stimulus at several locations, including the antennules near the mouth region and the distal tips of the legs and claws. Hence, three-dimensional measurements of the concentration field are required to link behavior to plume structure. During trials, crabs began their search 150 cm downstream of a source, and walking kinematics were recording simultaneously. The crabs were reversibly ``blindfolded'' during tracking to prevent aversive reactions to the intense laser light. Our experiments allow us to examine how hypothesized navigational cues, such as concentration bursts at the antennules and spatial asymmetry in concentration at the distributed chemosensory organs on the legs and claws, results in particular decisions during navigation.

  14. Measuring Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Children: Validation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in elementary school children. The sample consisted of 564 3rd grade students (M age = 8.72 ± .54; 268 male, 296 female) surveyed at the beginning of the fall semester. Results indicated that the PACES displayed good internal consistency and item-total correlations. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional factor structure. Scores on the PACES were significantly correlated with task goal orientation (r = .65, p < .01), athletic competence (r = .23, p < .01), physical appearance (r = .20, p < .01), and self-reported physical activity (r = .16, p < .01). However, results of invariance analysis suggested the factor structure is variant across sex. The present findings suggest support for the validity of the PACES as a valid measure of enjoyment of physical activity in children; nevertheless, further research examining the invariance of the factor structure across sex is warranted. PMID:20209028

  15. Multifractality as a Measure of Complexity in Solar Flare Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Asok K.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we use the notion of multifractality to describe the complexity in H α flare activity during the solar cycles 21, 22, and 23. Both northern and southern hemisphere flare indices are analyzed. Multifractal behavior of the flare activity is characterized by calculating the singularity spectrum of the daily flare index time series in terms of the Hölder exponent. The broadness of the singularity spectrum gives a measure of the degree of multifractality or complexity in the flare index data. The broader the spectrum, the richer and more complex is the structure with a higher degree of multifractality. Using this broadness measure, complexity in the flare index data is compared between the northern and southern hemispheres in each of the three cycles, and among the three cycles in each of the two hemispheres. Other parameters of the singularity spectrum can also provide information about the fractal properties of the flare index data. For instance, an asymmetry to the left or right in the singularity spectrum indicates a dominance of high or low fractal exponents, respectively, reflecting a relative abundance of large or small fluctuations in the total energy emitted by the flares. Our results reveal that in the even (22nd) cycle the singularity spectra are very similar for the northern and southern hemispheres, whereas in the odd cycles (21st and 23rd) they differ significantly. In particular, we find that in cycle 21, the northern hemisphere flare index data have higher complexity than its southern counterpart, with an opposite pattern prevailing in cycle 23. Furthermore, small-scale fluctuations in the flare index time series are predominant in the northern hemisphere in the 21st cycle and are predominant in the southern hemisphere in the 23rd cycle. Based on these findings one might suggest that, from cycle to cycle, there exists a smooth switching between the northern and southern hemispheres in the multifractality of the flaring process. This new

  16. A Rapid and Sensitive Method for Measuring N-Acetylglucosaminidase Activity in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Victor; Lotfi, Parisa; Segatori, Laura; Sardiello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB) due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in enzyme replacement

  17. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William S; Peerani, Paolo

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  18. Satellite measurements of recent volcanic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Kervyn, Matthieu; Realmuto, Vince; Abrams, Michael; Hook, Simon J.

    2008-06-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) is the only active volcano in the world that produces natrocarbonatite lava. These carbonate-rich lavas are unique in that they have relatively low temperatures (495-590 °C) and very low viscosity. OL has been erupting intermittently since 1983, mostly with small lava flows, pools and spatter cones (hornitos) confined to the summit crater. Explosive, ash-producing eruptions are rare, however, on September 4, 2007 the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured the first satellite image of an ash plume erupting from OL, which may be indicative of a new phase of more silica-rich products and explosive activity that has not occurred since 1966-1967. In the months prior to the eruption, thermal infrared (TIR) satellite monitoring detected an increasing number of thermal anomalies around OL. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor analyzed with the MODLEN algorithm detected more than 30 hot spots in the last week of August and first week of September 2007, some of which were from bush fires ignited by lava flows or spatter around the volcano. Higher-resolution ASTER data confirmed the location of these burn scars associated with lava flows. ASTER also detected the appearance of an anomalous hot spot at the summit of OL in mid-June with temperatures ~ 440 °C, the presence of several new lava flows in the crater in July and August, and on September 4 measured higher temperatures (~ 550 °C) possibly suggesting a more silicate-rich eruption. ASTER spectral emissivity data were interpreted to indicate a mixture of carbonate and silicate ash in the eruption plume from September 4. Based on the analysis of both ASTER and MODIS data combined with occasional field observations, there appear to have been 2 distinct eruptive events so far in 2007: a typical natrocarbonatite eruption confined to the summit crater in June-July, and a more intense eruption in August-September consisting of

  19. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  20. Beams, brightness, and background: Using active spectroscopy techniques for precision measurements in fusion plasma research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Dan M.

    2012-05-15

    The use of an injected neutral beam-either a dedicated diagnostic beam or the main heating beams-to localize and enhance plasma spectroscopic measurements can be exploited for a number of key physics issues in magnetic confinement fusion research, yielding detailed profile information on thermal and fast ion parameters, the radial electric field, plasma current density, and turbulent transport. The ability to make these measurements has played a significant role in much of our recent progress in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas. The measurements can utilize emission from excited state transitions either from plasma ions or from the beam atoms themselves. The primary requirement is that the beam 'probe' interacts with the plasma in a known fashion. Advantages of active spectroscopy include high spatial resolution due to the enhanced localization of the emission and the use of appropriate imaging optics, background rejection through the appropriate modulation and timing of the beam and emission collection/detection system, and the ability of the beam to populate emitter states that are either nonexistent or too dim to utilize effectively in the case of standard or passive spectroscopy. In addition, some active techniques offer the diagnostician unique information because of the specific quantum physics responsible for the emission. This paper will describe the general principles behind a successful active spectroscopic measurement, emphasize specific techniques that facilitate the measurements and include several successful examples of their implementation, briefly touching on some of the more important physics results. It concludes with a few remarks about the relevance and requirements of active spectroscopic techniques for future burning plasma experiments.

  1. A neutron activation technique for manganese measurements in humans.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, C; Byun, S H; Chettle, D R; Inskip, M J; Prestwich, W V

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for humans, animals, and plants and is required for growth, development, and maintenance of health. Studies show that Mn metabolism is similar to that of iron, therefore, increased Mn levels in humans could interfere with the absorption of dietary iron leading to anemia. Also, excess exposure to Mn dust, leads to nervous system disorders similar to Parkinson's disease. Higher exposure to Mn is essentially related to industrial pollution. Thus, there is a benefit in developing a clean non-invasive technique for monitoring such increased levels of Mn in order to understand the risk of disease and development of appropriate treatments. To this end, the feasibility of Mn measurements with their minimum detection limits (MDL) has been reported earlier from the McMaster group. This work presents improvement to Mn assessment using an upgraded system and optimized times of irradiation and counting for induced gamma activity of Mn. The technique utilizes the high proton current Tandetron accelerator producing neutrons via the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction at McMaster University and an array of nine NaI (Tl) detectors in a 4 π geometry for delayed counting of gamma rays. The neutron irradiation of a set of phantoms was performed with protocols having different proton energy, current and time of irradiation. The improved MDLs estimated using the upgraded set up and constrained timings are reported as 0.67 μgMn/gCa for 2.3 MeV protons and 0.71 μgMn/gCa for 2.0 MeV protons. These are a factor of about 2.3 times better than previous measurements done at McMaster University using the in vivo set-up. Also, because of lower dose-equivalent and a relatively close MDL, the combination of: 2.0 MeV; 300 μA; 3 min protocol is recommended as compared to 2.3 MeV; 400 μA; 45 s protocol for further measurements of Mn in vivo. PMID:25169978

  2. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  3. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  4. The convergence of complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation energies to the complete basis set limit.

    PubMed

    Petersson, George A; Malick, David K; Frisch, Michael J; Braunstein, Matthew

    2006-07-28

    Examination of the convergence of full valence complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation (CASSCF-CISD) energies with expansion of the one-electron basis set reveals a pattern very similar to the convergence of single determinant energies. Calculations on the lowest four singlet states and the lowest four triplet states of N(2) with the sequence of n-tuple-zeta augmented polarized (nZaP) basis sets (n=2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) are used to establish the complete basis set limits. Full configuration-interaction (CI) and core electron contributions must be included for very accurate potential energy surfaces. However, a simple extrapolation scheme that has no adjustable parameters and requires nothing more demanding than CAS(10e(-),8orb)-CISD/3ZaP calculations gives the R(e), omega(e), omega(e)X(e), T(e), and D(e) for these eight states with rms errors of 0.0006 Angstrom, 4.43 cm(-1), 0.35 cm(-1), 0.063 eV, and 0.018 eV, respectively. PMID:16942134

  5. Measurement of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Marker of Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomi, Erkanda; Rothstein, Robin D.; Ehrlich, Adam C.; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Definitive diagnosis of IBD requires endoscopic and pathologic confirmation. These tools are also used to classify disease activity. Our aim was to determine if the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be utilized to screen for IBD and assess for disease activity. Methods We matched weighted IBD cases and controls from the 2009–2010 NHANES dataset. All subjects underwent measurement of FeNO using standardized techniques. We assessed for potential confounders for FeNO measurement including age, height, and asthma. For IBD subjects, we used the presence of diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss as a proxy for IBD activity. Laboratory parameters examined to estimate disease activity included anemia (≤ 10 g/dl), iron deficiency (ferritin ≤ 20 ng/ml), hypoalbuminemia (≤ 3.2 g/dl), and CRP (≥ 1.1 mg/dl). Results The weighted sample represented 199,414,901 subjects. The weighted prevalence of IBD was 2,084,895 (1.0%). IBD subjects had nearly the same FeNO level as those without IBD (17.0 ± 16.2 vs. 16.7 ± 14.5 ppb). The odds of a FeNO > 25 ppb was half (OR=0.501; 95% CI 0.497–0.504) for subjects with IBD compared to those without IBD after controlling for confounders. The AUROC curve for FeNO was 0.47 (0.35–0.59). FeNO levels were not higher in patients with laboratory values suggestive of active disease. FeNO levels were higher in IBD patients with diarrhea, rectal urgency, and fatigue but were lower in those with unintentional weight loss. Conclusion Measurement of FeNO does not appear to be useful to screen for IBD or assess disease activity. PMID:27398403

  6. A Comparison between Lightning Activity and Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kevin, Driscoll T.; Hugh, Christian J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    A recent examination of data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) suggests that storm with the highest frequency of lightning also possess the most pronounced microwave scattering signatures at 37 and 85 GHz. This study demonstrates a clear dependence between lightning and the passive microwave measurements, and accentuates how direct the relationship really is between cloud ice and lightning activity. In addition, the relationship between the quantity of ice content and the frequency of lightning (not just the presence of lightning) , is consistent throughout the seasons in a variety of regimes. Scatter plots will be presented which show the storm-averaged brightness temperatures as a function of the lightning density of the storms (L/Area) . In the 85 GHz and 37 GHz scatter plots, the brightness temperature is presented in the form Tb = k1 x log10(L/Area) + k2, where the slope of the regression, k1, is 58 for the 85 GHz relationship and 30.7 for the 37 GHz relationship. The regression for both these fits showed a correlation of 0.76 (r2 = 0.58), which is quite promising considering the simple procedure used to make the comparisons, which have not yet even been corrected for the view angle differences between the instruments, or the polarization corrections in the microwave imager.

  7. Measurement, time-stamping, and analysis of electrodermal activity in fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyser, Christopher; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Rainville, Pierre; Bechara, Antione; Razavi, Mehrdad; Mehta, Sonya; Eaton, Brent L.; Bolinger, Lizann

    2002-04-01

    A low cost fMRI-compatible system was developed for detecting electrodermal activity without inducing image artifact. Subject electrodermal activity was measured on the plantar surface of the foot using a standard recording circuit. Filtered analog skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded with a general purpose, time-stamping data acquisition system. A conditioning paradigm involving painful thermal stimulation was used to demonstrate SCR detection and investigate neural correlates of conditioned autonomic activity. 128x128 pixel EPI-BOLD images were acquired with a GE 1.5T Signa scanner. Image analysis was performed using voxel-wise multiple linear regression. The covariate of interest was generated by convolving stimulus event onset with a standard hemodynamic response function. The function was time-shifted to determine optimal activation. Significance was tested using the t-statistic. Image quality was unaffected by the device, and conditioned and unconditioned SCRs were successfully detected. Conditioned SCRs correlated significantly with activity in the right anterior insular cortex. The effect was more robust when responses were scaled by SCR amplitude. The ability to measure and time register SCRs during fMRI acquisition enables studies of cognitive processes marked by autonomic activity, including those involving decision-making, pain, emotion, and addiction.

  8. Grip pressure measurements during activities of daily life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Joe; Young, Carolyn; Popa, Dan; Bugnariu, Nicoleta; Patterson, Rita

    2014-06-01

    Research has expanded human-machine communication methods past direct programming and standard hand- held joystick control. Individual force sensors have been used as a simple means of providing environmental information to a robot and research has shown that more advanced sensitive skins can be viable input devices. These touch sensitive surfaces allow for additional modes of interaction between machines in open, undefined environments. These interactions include object detection for navigation and safety but can also be used for recognition of users command gestures by their machine partner. Key to successful implementation of these gestures is the understanding of varied strategies used for communication and interaction and the development of performance limits. Data of dominant hand grip forces was collected using a Tekscan Grip VersaTek Pressure Measurement System during opening of a door. Analysis of data from 10 male and female subjects is presented. The results of qualitative and quantitative analysis of these data show variability in hand configurations between users. Average data over the cohort is reported. These data will be used in future work to provide human metrology constraints and limits for use in simulation and design of new, physical human-robot interaction systems.

  9. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  10. A novel method for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources.

    PubMed

    Stanga, D; De Felice, P; Keightley, J; Capogni, M; Ioan, M R

    2016-03-01

    A novel method has been developed for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources. It makes use of two emission rate measurements and is based on the weak dependence between the source activity and the activity distribution for a given value of transmission coefficient. The method was checked experimentally by measuring the activity of two ((60)Co and (137)Cs) large-area reference sources constructed from anodized aluminum foils. Measurement results were compared with the activity values measured by gamma spectrometry. For each source, they agree within one standard uncertainty and also agree within the same limits with the certified values of the source activity. PMID:26701656

  11. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size. PMID:23637685

  12. Active sensor/actuator assemblies for vibration damping, compensation, measurement, and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryaboy, Vyacheslav M.; Kasturi, Prakash S.

    2010-04-01

    The vibration control module known as IQ damper had been developed as part of active vibration damping system for optical tables and other precision vibration isolated platforms. The present work describes steps to expand the application of these units to other tasks, namely, (1) dynamic testing of structures and (2) compensation of forced vibration in local areas. The sensor-actuator assembly, including signal conditioning circuits, is designed as a compact dynamically symmetric module with mechanical interface to an optical table. The test data show that the vibration control modules can be used to measure dynamic compliance characteristics of optical tables with precision comparable to that of dedicated vibration measurement systems. Stable concerted work of active vibration control modules compensating forced harmonic vibration is demonstrated experimentally.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  14. Measuring activity in the ubiquitin-proteasome system: From large scale discoveries to single cells analysis

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Adam T.; Woss, Gregery S.; Park, Jessica H.; Waters, Marcey L.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the primary pathway responsible for the recognition and degradation of misfolded, damaged, or tightly regulated proteins in addition to performing essential roles in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, cell migration, and the immune response. While traditional biochemical techniques have proven useful in the identification of key proteins involved in this pathway, the implementation of novel reporters responsible for measuring enzymatic activity of the UPS have provided valuable insight into the effectiveness of therapeutics and role of the UPS in various human diseases such as multiple myeloma and Huntington’s disease. These reporters, usually consisting of a recognition sequences fused to an analytical handle, are designed to specifically evaluate enzymatic activity of certain members of the UPS including the proteasome, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). This review highlights the more commonly used reporters employed in a variety of scenarios ranging from high-throughput screening of novel inhibitors to single cell microscopy techniques measuring E3 ligase or proteasome activity. Finally, recent work is presented highlighting the development of novel degron-based substrate designed to overcome the limitations of current reporting techniques in measuring E3 ligase and proteasome activity in patient samples. PMID:23686610

  15. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients. PMID:26920105

  16. Automated MRI Cerebellar Size Measurements Using Active Appearance Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Price, Mathew; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Although the human cerebellum has been increasingly identified as an important hub that shows potential for helping in the diagnosis of a large spectrum of disorders, such as alcoholism, autism, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, the high costs associated with manual segmentation, and low availability of reliable automated cerebellar segmentation tools, has resulted in a limited focus on cerebellar measurement in human neuroimaging studies. We present here the CATK (Cerebellar Analysis Toolkit), which is based on the Bayesian framework implemented in FMRIB’s FIRST. This approach involves training Active Appearance Models (AAM) using hand-delineated examples. CATK can currently delineate the cerebellar hemispheres and three vermal groups (lobules I–V, VI–VII, and VIII–X). Linear registration with the low-resolution MNI152 template is used to provide initial alignment, and Point Distribution Models (PDM) are parameterized using stellar sampling. The Bayesian approach models the relationship between shape and texture through computation of conditionals in the training set. Our method varies from the FIRST framework in that initial fitting is driven by 1D intensity profile matching, and the conditional likelihood function is subsequently used to refine fitting. The method was developed using T1-weighted images from 63 subjects that were imaged and manually labeled: 43 subjects were scanned once and were used for training models, and 20 subjects were imaged twice (with manual labeling applied to both runs) and used to assess reliability and validity. Intraclass correlation analysis shows that CATK is highly reliable (average test-retest ICCs of 0.96), and offers excellent agreement with the gold standard (average validity ICC of 0.87 against manual labels). Comparisons against an alternative atlas-based approach, SUIT (Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Template), that registers images with a high-resolution template of the cerebellum, show that our AAM

  17. Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale across Active and Non-Active Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

  18. Accurate frequency domain measurement of the best linear time-invariant approximation of linear time-periodic systems including the quantification of the time-periodic distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louarroudi, E.; Pintelon, R.; Lataire, J.

    2014-10-01

    Time-periodic (TP) phenomena occurring, for instance, in wind turbines, helicopters, anisotropic shaft-bearing systems, and cardiovascular/respiratory systems, are often not addressed when classical frequency response function (FRF) measurements are performed. As the traditional FRF concept is based on the linear time-invariant (LTI) system theory, it is only approximately valid for systems with varying dynamics. Accordingly, the quantification of any deviation from this ideal LTI framework is more than welcome. The “measure of deviation” allows us to define the notion of the best LTI (BLTI) approximation, which yields the best - in mean square sense - LTI description of a linear time-periodic LTP system. By taking into consideration the TP effects, it is shown in this paper that the variability of the BLTI measurement can be reduced significantly compared with that of classical FRF estimators. From a single experiment, the proposed identification methods can handle (non-)linear time-periodic [(N)LTP] systems in open-loop with a quantification of (i) the noise and/or the NL distortions, (ii) the TP distortions and (iii) the transient (leakage) errors. Besides, a geometrical interpretation of the BLTI approximation is provided, leading to a framework called vector FRF analysis. The theory presented is supported by numerical simulations as well as real measurements mimicking the well-known mechanical Mathieu oscillator.

  19. Physical activity in an indigenous Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population as measured using accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Madimenos, Felicia C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Minimal information on physical activity is available for non-Western populations undergoing the transition to a market economy. This is unfortunate given the importance of these data for understanding health issues such as the global obesity epidemic. We consider the utility of using accelerometry technology to examine activity patterns and energy use regulation among indigenous Shuar, an Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population undergoing economic and lifestyle change. We investigate sex differences in Shuar activity patterns and the effects of reproductive status on activity. Finally, we discuss the potential of accelerometry use in human biology research. Methods Physical activity levels were measured using Actical accelerometers in 49 indigenous Shuar adults (23 males, 26 females) from a rural Ecuadorian community. Female participants were in various reproductive states including pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant/non-lactating. Results Activity counts (AC), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and physical activity levels (PAL) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in males than females. Significant differences in energy expenditure were found among pregnant or lactating females and males with pregnant or lactating partners (P < 0.001). Males with pregnant or lactating partners also had significantly higher activity levels than did other men (P < 0.01). Conclusions Shuar activity levels are relatively low compared to other non-Western populations. Despite increasing market integration, pregnant and lactating females seem to be adopting a strategy noted in other subsistence populations where male participation in subsistence activities increases to compensate for their partners’ elevated reproductive costs. Despite certain limitations, use of accelerometry in human biology research shows promise. PMID:21538650

  20. Youth Destinations Associated with Objective Measures of Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cradock, Angie L.; Melly, Steven J; Allen, Joseph G.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited availability of desirable destinations within walkable distances and unsuitable weather may adversely affect physical activity among adolescents on weekends. Methods Students (n=152, 59% male, mean age 13.7 years) from 10 neighborhoods with schools in four communities wore TriTrac-R3D accelerometers recording physical movements on weekends. Minute-by-minute data were summed over 15-minute intervals providing estimates of proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and (log) mean physical activity levels on weekends (n=7506 intervals). Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using geographic information systems including average daily traffic, housing density, open space, and density of employees/ km2 in youth destinations. Linear mixed models were fit examining associations between neighborhood environmental variables and accelerometer measures of physical activity, controlling for time, day, age, BMI, sex of respondent, race/ethnicity, precipitation, and temperature deviation. Results On weekends, greater densities of employees in neighborhood destinations serving youth (β=3.96, p=0.050) was directly associated with MVPA, independent of student characteristics. Conclusions Young people attending schools in neighborhoods characterized by greater densities of employees in destinations for youth are more physically active on weekends. Compared with neighborhoods with lower densities, attending a school in neighborhoods with higher densities of employees in potential destinations for youth may contribute to participation in an additional 30 minutes of MVPA per day on weekends. PMID:19699443

  1. Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and TECK.

    PubMed

    Gosling, J; Dairaghi, D J; Wang, Y; Hanley, M; Talbot, D; Miao, Z; Schall, T J

    2000-03-15

    Searching for new receptors of dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines, we used a combination of techniques to interrogate orphan chemokine receptors. We report here on human CCX CKR, previously represented only by noncontiguous expressed sequence tags homologous to bovine PPR1, a putative gustatory receptor. We employed a two-tiered process of ligand assignment, where immobilized chemokines constructed on stalks (stalkokines) were used as bait for adhesion of cells expressing CCX CKR. These cells adhered to stalkokines representing ELC, a chemokine previously thought to bind only CCR7. Adhesion was abolished in the presence of soluble ELC, SLC (CCR7 ligands), and TECK (a CCR9 ligand). Complete ligand profiles were further determined by radiolabeled ligand binding and competition with >80 chemokines. ELC, SLC, and TECK comprised high affinity ligands (IC50 <15 nM); lower affinity ligands include BLC and vMIP-II (IC50 <150 nM). With its high affinity for CC chemokines and homology to CC receptors, we provisionally designate this new receptor CCR10. PMID:10706668

  2. Development of an instrument for measuring activities of daily living in persons with suspected cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria M; Marcusson, Jan; Wressle, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Background According to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, structured assessment of function and activity has high priority when evaluating suspected cognitive impairment or dementia. Aim/objectives The aim was to develop and psychometrically test an instrument to measure the ability to perform activities of daily living tasks in patients with suspected cognitive impairment. Material and methods The Cognitive Impairment in Daily Life (CID) instrument (for self-reported and informant-based assessments) has been developed in several phases. Content validity was achieved through five expert panels using a Content Validity Index (CVI). The content was tested further in a pilot study of 49 patients and 49 relatives from primary care or a specialist memory clinic. Results Content validity was good with a CVI index of 0.83. All patients considered that the included activities were relevant to them and reflected the difficulties they were experiencing. Most relatives considered the activities included in the instrument as adequate and captured the patients' difficulties in daily life. Some adjustments of the tasks and scale were suggested and these were implicated after each phase. In general, relatives reported that patients had more difficulties performing the activities than the patients reported themselves. Conclusion The CID instrument seems promising in terms of content validity. Further testing of reliability and construct validity is ongoing. PMID:26853384

  3. Factors Affecting The Experimental Line Spread Function (Lsf) Measurement And Modulation Transfer Function (Mtf) Calculation Including Deviation In Characteristic Curve Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, Marcia E.; Haus, Arthur G.

    1980-08-01

    The major potential errors in the slit method measurement of the line spread function (LSF) and the modu-lation transfer function (MTF) of radiographic screen-film systems are reviewed. These errors are compared with the potential error introduced in the LSF due to an erroneous representation of the characteristic curve (sensitometric data). If a deviation in the sensitometric data results in a lower average gradient of the characteristic curve, the MTF will show higher resolution capabilities.

  4. Analysis of Hydrogen Tunneling in an Enzyme Active Site using von Neumann Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    2010-01-01

    We build on our earlier quantum wavepacket study of hydrogen transfer in the biological enzyme, soybean lipoxygenase-1, by using von Neumann quantum measurement theory to gain qualitative insights into the transfer event. We treat the enzyme active site as a measurement device which acts on the tunneling hydrogen nucleus via the potential it exerts at each configuration. A series of changing active site geometries during the tunneling process effects a sequential projection of the initial, reactant state onto the final, product state. We study this process using several different kinds of von Neumann measurements and show how a discrete sequence of such measurements not only progressively increases the projection of the hydrogen nuclear wavepacket onto the product side but also favors proton over deuteron transfer. Several qualitative features of the hydrogen tunneling problem found in wavepacket dynamics studies are also recovered here. These include the shift in the “transition state” towards the reactant as a result of nuclear quantization, greater participation of excited states in the case of deuterium, and presence of critical points along the reaction coordinate that facilitate hydrogen and deuterium transfer and coincide with surface crossings. To further “tailor” the dynamics, we construct a perturbation to the sequence of measurements, that is a perturbation to the dynamical sequence of active site geometry evolution, which leads us to insight on the existence of sensitive regions of the reaction profile where subtle changes to the dynamics of the active site can have an effect on the hydrogen and deuterium transfer process. PMID:22933858

  5. Radioactivity of Potassium Solutions: A Comparison of Calculated Activity to Measured Activity from Gross Beta Counting and Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2005-07-26

    In order to determine if the measured beta activity for a solution containing potassium was exactly as predicted, particularly since the CES gas counter is not calibrated specifically with K-40, an experiment was conducted to compare measured activities from two radioanalytical methods (gamma spectroscopy and gas proportional counting) to calculated activities across a range of potassium concentrations. Potassium, being ubiquitous and naturally radioactive, is a well-known and common interference in gross beta counting methods. By measuring the observed beta activity due to K-40 in potassium-containing solutions across a wide range of concentrations, it was found that the observed beta activity agrees well with the beta activity calculated from the potassium concentration measured by standard inorganic analytical techniques, such as ICP-OES, and that using the measured potassium concentration to calculate the expected beta activity, and comparing this to the observed beta activity to determine if potassium can account for all the observed activity in a sample, is a valid technique. It was also observed that gamma spectroscopy is not an effective means of measuring K-40 activity below approximately 700 pCi/L, which corresponds to a solution with approximately 833 mg/L total potassium. Gas proportional counting for gross beta activity has a much lower detection limit, typically 20-50 picoCi/L for a liquid low in total dissolved solids, which corresponds to a potassium concentration of approximately 30-70 ppm K.

  6. Techniques for measuring vitamin A activity from β-carotene.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guangwen

    2012-11-01

    Dietary β-carotene is the most important precursor of vitamin A. However, the determination of the efficiency of in vivo conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A requires sensitive and safe techniques. It presents the following challenges: 1) circulating β-carotene concentration cannot be altered by eating a meal containing ≤6 mg β-carotene; 2) because retinol concentrations are homeostatically controlled, the conversion of β-carotene into vitamin A cannot be estimated accurately in well-nourished humans by assessing changes in serum retinol after supplementation with β-carotene. In the past half-century, techniques using radioisotopes of β-carotene and vitamin A, depletion-repletion with vitamin A and β-carotene supplements, measurement of postprandial chylomicron fractions after consumption of a β-carotene dose, and finally, stable isotopes as tracers to follow the absorption and conversion of β-carotene in humans have been developed. The reported values for β-carotene to vitamin A conversion showed a wide variation from 2 μg β-carotene to 1 μg retinol (for synthetic pure β-carotene in oil) and 28 μg β-carotene to 1 μg retinol (for β-carotene from vegetables). In recent years, a stable isotope reference method (IRM) was developed that used labeled synthetic β-carotene. The IRM method provided evidence that the conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A is likely dose dependent. With the development of intrinsically labeled plant foods harvested from a hydroponic system with heavy water, vitamin A activity of stable isotope-labeled biosynthetic β-carotene from various foods consumed by humans was studied. The efficacy of plant foods rich in β-carotene, such as natural (spinach, carrots, spirulina), hybrid (high-β-carotene yellow maize), and bioengineered (Golden Rice) foods, to provide vitamin A has shown promising results. The results from these studies will be of practical importance in recommendations for the use of pure β-carotene and foods

  7. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Ti) scintillation detection system for 12 24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems.

  8. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Teleportation of a Superposition of Three Orthogonal States of an Atom without Bell-State Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhi-Rong

    2008-05-01

    A scheme to teleport a superposition of three orthogonal states of an atom without Bell-state measurement in cavity QED is proposed. The scheme based on the resonant interaction of two Λ-type three-level atoms with a bimodal cavity. The detection of atom a collapses atom b to the initial state of atom a with cavity mode left in two-mode vacuum state. The probability of success and the fidelity of this scheme are 0.112 and 0.999, respectively.

  9. SERTS-95 Measurements of Wavelength Shifts in Coronal Emission Lines Across a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffery W.; Thomas, Roger; Davila, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    We used slit spectra from the 1995 flight of Goddard Space Flight Center's Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS-95) to measure wavelength shifts of coronal emission lines in the core of NOAA active region 7870 relative to its immediate surroundings (its "edge"). This method circumvents the unavailability of reliable laboratory rest wavelengths for the observed lines by using wavelengths from the edge spectrum as references. We derived the, SERTS-95 wavelength calibration from measurements of a post-flight laboratory spectrum containing 28 He II and Ne II EUV standard wavelengths known to high accuracy. Wavelength measurements for lines of He I, Ne III, and additional lines of Ne II in the laboratory calibration spectrum provide more accurate values than were previously available, enabling these lines also to serve as future calibration standards. Six solar lines were chosen for this study, namely, He II at 303.78 A, Fe XII at 193.51 A, Fe XIII at 202.05 A, Fe XIV at 211.33 A, Fe XV at 284.15 A, and Fe XVI at 335.41 A. Because these lines are free from known blends in the SERTS-95 spectra and are either intrinsically strong or near the SERTS-95 peak sensitivity, they are our most reliable lines for measuring relative wavelength shifts in the spatially resolved active region core spectra. The iron ions are the hottest ions ever used for this type of analysis. All six lines reveal statistically significant spatial variations in their measured relative wavelength shifts in the active region core, including mixtures of blueshifts and redshifts (each with maximum values corresponding to relative Doppler velocities approximately 15 km/s), indicating a dynamic, turbulent corona. For each of these lines we calculated weighted-average relative Doppler velocities from the wavelength shifts in the spatially resolved core spectra by weighting the shifts in the individual spatial pixels with their respective measurement uncertainties.

  10. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  11. Measurement of TACE Activity in Extracts from Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiuling; Padilla, Mabel T.; Lin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In cigarette smoke–induced and inflammation-associated lung cancer development, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) activates tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion from macrophages. TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE), also known as α-Secretase or ADAM17 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease), is a member of the ADAM family of metalloproteases. TACE mediated ectodomain shedding leads to the conversion of the inactive TNF-α precursor into the active mature pro-inflammatory cytokine. The SensoLyte 520 TACE (α-Secretase) Activity Assay Kit was used to detect TACE activity in CSE-activated macrophages. This assay is reliable, reproducible and easy to carry out in 96 well plate format.

  12. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  13. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  14. Potential Role of Preoperative Conventional MRI Including Diffusion Measurements in Assessing Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Amplification Status in Patients with Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Young, R.J.; Gupta, A.; Shah, A.D.; Graber, J.J.; Schweitzer, A.D.; Prager, A.; Shi, W.; Zhang, Z.; Huse, J.; Omuro, A.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Epidermal growth factor receptor amplification is a common molecular event in glioblastomas. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential usefulness of morphologic and diffusion MR imaging signs in the prediction of epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification status in patients with glioblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS We analyzed pretreatment MR imaging scans from 147 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and correlated MR imaging features with tumor epidermal growth factor receptor amplification status. The following morphologic tumor MR imaging features were qualitatively assessed: 1) border sharpness, 2) cystic/necrotic change, 3) hemorrhage, 4) T2-isointense signal, 5) restricted water diffusion, 6) nodular enhancement, 7) subependymal enhancement, and 8) multifocal discontinuous enhancement. A total of 142 patients had DWI available for quantitative analysis. ADC maps were calculated, and the ADCmean, ADCmin, ADCmax, ADCROI, and ADCratio were measured. RESULTS Epidermal growth factor receptor amplification was present in 60 patients (40.8%) and absent in 87 patients (59.2%). Restricted water diffusion correlated with epidermal growth factor receptor amplification (P = .04), whereas the other 7 morphologic MR imaging signs did not (P > .12). Quantitative DWI analysis found that all ADC measurements correlated with epidermal growth factor receptor amplification, with the highest correlations found with ADCROI (P = .0003) and ADCmean (P = .0007). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest a role for diffusion MR imaging in the determination of epidermal growth factor receptor amplification status in glioblastoma. Additional work is necessary to confirm these results and isolate new imaging biomarkers capable of noninvasively characterizing the molecular status of these tumors. PMID:23811973

  15. Behavior of an inversion-based precipitation retrieval algorithm with high-resolution AMPR measurements including a low-frequency 10.7-GHz channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Xiang, X.; Mugnai, A.; Hood, R. E.; Spencer, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave-based, profile-type precipitation retrieval algorithm has been used to analyze high-resolution passsive microwave measurements over an ocean background, obtained by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on a NASA ER-2 aircraft. The analysis is designed to first determine the improvements that can be gained by adding brightness temperature information from the AMPR low-frequency channel (10.7 GHz) to a multispectral retrieval algorithm nominally run with satellite information at 19, 37, and 85 GHz. The impact of spatial resolution degradation of the high-resolution brightness temperature information on the retrieved rain/cloud liquid water contents and ice water contents is then quantified in order to assess the possible biases inherent to satellite-based retrieval. Careful inspection of the high-resolution aircraft dataset reveals five distinctive brightness temperature features associated with cloud structure and scattering effects that are not generally detectable in current passive microwave satellite measurements. Results suggest that the inclusion of 10.7-GHz information overcomes two basic problems associated with three-channel retrieval. Intercomparisons of retrievals carried out at high-resolution and then averaged to a characteristic satellite scale to the corresponding retrievals in which the brightness temperatures are first convolved down to the satellite scale suggest that with the addition of the 10.7-GHz channel, the rain liquid water contents will not be negatively impacted by special resolution degradation. That is not the case with the ice water contents as they appear ti be quite sensitive to the imposed scale, the implication being that as spatial resolution is reduced, ice water contents will become increasingly underestimated.

  16. Quantitative Measurement of Protease-Activity with Correction of Probe Delivery and Tissue Absorption Effects

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Fred; Tam, Jenny M.; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar

    2009-01-01

    Proteases play important roles in a variety of pathologies from heart disease to cancer. Quantitative measurement of protease activity is possible using a novel spectrally matched dual fluorophore probe and a small animal lifetime imager. The recorded fluorescence from an activatable fluorophore, one that changes its fluorescent amplitude after biological target interaction, is also influenced by other factors including imaging probe delivery and optical tissue absorption of excitation and emission light. Fluorescence from a second spectrally matched constant (non-activatable) fluorophore on each nanoparticle platform can be used to correct for both probe delivery and tissue absorption. The fluorescence from each fluorophore is separated using fluorescence lifetime methods. PMID:20161242

  17. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  18. Evaluating cell-surface expression and measuring activation of mammalian odorant receptors in heterologous cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hanyi; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in olfaction is which odorant receptors (ORs) are activated by a given odorant. A major roadblock to investigate odorant-OR relationship in mammals has been an inability to express ORs in heterologous cells suitable for screening active ligands for ORs. The discovery of the receptor-transporting protein (RTP) family has facilitated the effective cell-surface expression of ORs in heterologous cells. The establishment of a robust heterologous expression system for mammalian ORs facilitates the high-throughput “deorphanization” of these receptors by matching them to their cognate ligands. This protocol details the method used for evaluating the cell-surface expression and measuring the functional activation of ORs of transiently-expressed mammalian odorant receptors in HEK293T cells. The stages of odorant receptor cell-surface expression include cell culture preparation, transfer of cells, transfection, and immunocytochemistry/flow cytometry, odorant stimulation, and luciferase assay. This protocol can be completed in a period of 3 days from transfer of cells to cell-surface expression detection and/or measurement of functional activation. PMID:18772867

  19. A novel live cell assay to measure diacylglycerol lipase α activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Praveen K; Markwick, Rachel; Howell, Fiona V; Williams, Gareth; Doherty, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) hydrolyses DAG to generate the principal endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGLα dependent cannabinoid (CB) signalling has been implicated in numerous processes including axonal growth and guidance, adult neurogenesis and retrograde signalling at the synapse. Recent studies have implicated DAGLα as an emerging drug target for several conditions including pain and obesity. Activity assays are critical to the drug discovery process; however, measurement of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity using its native substrate generally involves low-throughput MS techniques. Some relatively high-throughput membrane based assays utilizing surrogate substrates have been reported, but these do not take into account the rate-limiting effects often associated with the ability of a drug to cross the cell membrane. In the present study, we report the development of a live cell assay to measure DAGLα activity. Two previously reported DAGLα surrogate substrates, p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB) and 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl octanoate (DiFMUO), were evaluated for their ability to detect DAGLα activity in live cell assays using a human cell line stably expressing the human DAGLα transgene. Following optimization, the small molecule chromogenic substrate PNPB proved to be superior by providing lower background activity along with a larger signal window between transfected and parental cells when compared with the fluorogenic substrate DiFMUO. The assay was further validated using established DAGL inhibitors. In summary, the live cell DAGLα assay reported here offers an economical and convenient format to screen for novel inhibitors as part of drug discovery programmes and compliments previously reported high-throughput membrane based DAGL assays. PMID:27013337

  20. A novel live cell assay to measure diacylglycerol lipase α activity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Praveen K.; Markwick, Rachel; Howell, Fiona V.; Williams, Gareth; Doherty, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) hydrolyses DAG to generate the principal endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGLα dependent cannabinoid (CB) signalling has been implicated in numerous processes including axonal growth and guidance, adult neurogenesis and retrograde signalling at the synapse. Recent studies have implicated DAGLα as an emerging drug target for several conditions including pain and obesity. Activity assays are critical to the drug discovery process; however, measurement of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity using its native substrate generally involves low-throughput MS techniques. Some relatively high-throughput membrane based assays utilizing surrogate substrates have been reported, but these do not take into account the rate-limiting effects often associated with the ability of a drug to cross the cell membrane. In the present study, we report the development of a live cell assay to measure DAGLα activity. Two previously reported DAGLα surrogate substrates, p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB) and 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl octanoate (DiFMUO), were evaluated for their ability to detect DAGLα activity in live cell assays using a human cell line stably expressing the human DAGLα transgene. Following optimization, the small molecule chromogenic substrate PNPB proved to be superior by providing lower background activity along with a larger signal window between transfected and parental cells when compared with the fluorogenic substrate DiFMUO. The assay was further validated using established DAGL inhibitors. In summary, the live cell DAGLα assay reported here offers an economical and convenient format to screen for novel inhibitors as part of drug discovery programmes and compliments previously reported high-throughput membrane based DAGL assays. PMID:27013337

  1. Interval shifts in basophil measures correlate with disease activity in chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Oliver, E T; Sterba, P M; Saini, S S

    2015-05-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) significantly impacts the quality of life of those affected through symptoms of pruritus and recurrent skin lesions. In active CSU disease, reduced IgE-mediated basophil histamine release (HR) and basopenia are observed. We sought to examine the relationship between interval changes in basophil measures and shifts in patient-reported disease impairment. Simultaneous symptom and basophil evaluations were completed at two sequential study visits, and interval changes in measures were compared between visits for each subject (n = 38). These measures included Skindex-29, current itch and hives scores, total leukocyte histamine content (an indirect measure of blood basophil presence), and basophil HR in response to anti-IgE and formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine. Overall, interval improvements in disease measures in CSU subjects were associated with increased basophil numbers (total leukocyte histamine content) and IgE-mediated HR. This suggests these measures are potential biomarkers for CSU disease improvement and further implicates a role for basophils in CSU. PMID:25631394

  2. Measuring neutron yield and ρR anisotropies with activation foils at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Cooper, G. W.; Drury, O. B.; Hagmann, C. A.; Knittel, K. M.; Leeper, R. J.; Ruiz, C. L.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2013-11-01

    Neutron yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are measured with a suite of diagnostics, including activation of ˜20-200 g samples of materials undergoing a variety of energy-dependent neutron reactions. Indium samples were mounted on the end of a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM), 25-50 cm from the implosion, to measure 2.45 MeV D-D fusion neutron yield. The 336.2 keV gamma rays from the 4.5 hour isomer of 115mIn produced by (n,n') reactions are counted in high-purity germanium detectors. For capsules producing D-T fusion reactions, zirconium and copper are activated via (n,2n) reactions at various locations around the target chamber and bay, measuring the 14 MeV neutron yield to accuracies on order of 7%. By mounting zirconium samples on ports at nine locations around the NIF chamber, anisotropies in the primary neutron emission due to fuel areal density asymmetries can be measured to a relative precision of 3%.

  3. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: design, analysis, and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, K D; Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Fehl, D L; Chandler, G A; Knapp, P F; Leeper, R J; Nelson, A J; Smelser, R M; Torres, J A

    2014-04-01

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r(2) decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm(2) and is ∼ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects. PMID:24784607

  4. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, K. D. Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Leeper, R. J.

    2014-04-15

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r{sup 2} decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm{sup 2} and is ∼ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

  5. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, K. D.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Leeper, R. J.; Nelson, A. J.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r2 decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm2 and is ˜ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

  6. Simultaneous Measurement of Noise-Activated Middle-Ear Muscle Reflex and Stimulus Frequency Otoacoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions serve as a noninvasive probe of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) elicited by a low-level probe tone may be the optimal type of emission for studying MOC effects because at low levels, the probe itself does not elicit the MOC reflex [Guinan et al. (2003) J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 4:521]. Based on anatomical considerations, the MOC reflex activated by ipsilateral acoustic stimulation (mediated by the crossed olivocochlear bundle) is predicted to be stronger than the reflex to contralateral stimulation. Broadband noise is an effective activator of the MOC reflex; however, it is also an effective activator of the middle-ear muscle (MEM) reflex, which can make results difficult to interpret. The MEM reflex may be activated at lower levels than measured clinically, and most previous human studies have not explicitly included measurements to rule out MEM reflex contamination. The current study addressed these issues using a higher-frequency SFOAE probe tone to test for cochlear changes mediated by the MOC reflex, while simultaneously monitoring the MEM reflex using a low-frequency probe tone. Broadband notched noise was presented ipsilaterally at various levels to elicit probe-tone shifts. Measurements are reported for 15 normal-hearing subjects. With the higher-frequency probe near 1.5 kHz, only 20% of subjects showed shifts consistent with an MOC reflex in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. With the higher-frequency probe near 3.5 kHz, up to 40% of subjects showed shifts in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. However, these responses had longer time courses than expected for MOC-induced shifts, and may have been dominated by other cochlear processes, rather than MOC reflex. These results suggest caution in the interpretation of effects observed using ipsilaterally presented acoustic activators intended to excite the MOC reflex. PMID:16568366

  7. Challenges and solutions in the bioanalysis of BMS-986094 and its metabolites including a highly polar, active nucleoside triphosphate in plasma and tissues using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Lute, John; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Bonnie; Trouba, Kevin J; Arnold, Mark E; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    BMS-986094, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, was withdrawn from clinical trials because of a serious safety issue. To investigate a potential association between drug/metabolite exposure and toxicity in evaluations conducted after the termination of the BMS-986094 development program, it was essential to determine the levels of BMS-986094 and its major metabolites INX-08032, INX-08144 and INX-09054 in circulation and the active nucleoside triphosphate INX-09114 in target and non-target tissues. However, there were many challenges in the bioanalysis of these compounds. The chromatography challenge for the extremely polar nucleoside triphosphate was solved by applying mixed-mode chromatography which combined anion exchange and reversed-phase interactions. The LC conditions provided adequate retention and good peak shape of the analyte and showed good robustness. A strategy using simultaneous extraction but separate LC analysis of the prodrug BMS-986094 and its major circulating metabolites was used to overcome a carryover issue of the hydrophobic prodrug while still achieving good chromatography of the polar metabolites. In addition, the nucleotide analytes were not stable in the presence of endogenous enzymes. Low pH and low temperature were required for blood collection and plasma sample processing. However, the use of phosphatase inhibitor and immediate homogenization and extraction were critical for the quantitative analysis of the active triphosphate, INX-09114, in tissue samples. To alleviate the bioanalytical complexity caused by multiple analytes, different matrices, and various species, a fit-for-purpose approach to assay validation was implemented based on the needs of drug safety assessment in non-clinical (GLP or non-GLP) studies. The assay for INX-08032 was fully validated in plasma of toxicology species. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00ng/mL and the linear curve range was 1.00-500.00ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2

  8. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1). PMID:23498117

  9. A preliminary study of air-pollution measurement by active remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.; Proctor, E. K.; Gasiorek, L. S.; Liston, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollutants are identified, and the needs for their measurement from satellites and aircraft are discussed. An assessment is made of the properties of these pollutants and of the normal atmosphere, including interactions with light of various wavelengths and the resulting effects on transmission and scattering of optical signals. The possible methods for active remote measurement are described; the relative performance capabilities of double-ended and single-ended systems are compared qualitatively; and the capabilities of the several single-ended or backscattering techniques are compared quantitatively. The differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is shown to be superior to the other backscattering techniques. The lidar system parameters and their relationships to the environmental factors and the properties of pollutants are examined in detail. A computer program that models both the atmosphere (including pollutants) and the lidar system is described. The performance capabilities of present and future lidar components are assessed, and projections are made of prospective measurement capabilities for future lidar systems. Following a discussion of some important operational factors that affect both the design and measurement capabilities of airborne and satellite-based lidar systems, the extensive analytical results obtained through more than 1000 individual cases analyzed with the aid of the computer program are summarized and discussed. The conclusions are presented. Recommendations are also made for additional studies to investigate cases that could not be explored adequately during this study.

  10. Magnetic field calculation and measurement of active magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guoping; Zhou, Zude; Hu, Yefa

    2006-11-01

    Magnetic Bearings are typical devices in which electric energy and mechanical energy convert mutually. Magnetic Field indicates the relationship between 2 of the most important parameters in a magnetic bearing - current and force. This paper presents calculation and measurement of the magnetic field distribution of a self-designed magnetic bearing. Firstly, the static Maxwell's equations of the magnetic bearing are presented and a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is found to solve the equations and get post-process results by means of ANSYS software. Secondly, to confirm the calculation results a Lakeshore460 3-channel Gaussmeter is used to measure the magnetic flux density of the magnetic bearing in X, Y, Z directions accurately. According to the measurement data the author constructs a 3D magnetic field distribution digital model by means of MATLAB software. Thirdly, the calculation results and the measurement data are compared and analyzed; the comparing result indicates that the calculation results are consistent with the measurement data in allowable dimension variation, which means that the FEA calculation method of the magnetic bearing has high precision. Finally, it is concluded that the magnetic field calculation and measurement can accurately reflect the real magnetic distribution in the magnetic bearing and the result can guide the design and analysis of the magnetic bearing effectively.

  11. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  12. The Association of Perceived and Objectively Measured Crime With Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McGinn, Aileen P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Herring, Amy H.; Huston, Sara L.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Crime is one aspect of the environment that can act as a barrier to physical activity. The goals of this study were to (1) compare measures of perceived crime with observed crime and (2) examine the association between the independent and combined effects of objective and perceived crime on physical activity. Methods Perceived crime and physical activity were assessed in 1659 persons via telephone survey. Crime was objectively measured in a subset of 303 survey participants. Results For all types of crime, there was low agreement between objective and perceived measures. Both perceived and objectively measured crime were independently associated with leisure activities. Conclusions This study suggests that perceptions and objective measures of crime are both important correlates of leisure physical activity. Evaluating both measures is necessary when examining the relationship between crime and physical activity to develop interventions that will most influence leisure physical activity levels. PMID:18209258

  13. A Comparison of Self-Reported and Objective Physical Activity Measures in Young Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Stefanie; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. Objective To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure—the SenseWear Armband (SWA)—to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Methods Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and

  14. [Initial Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Tablets Containing Trifluridine and Tipiracil Hydrochloride--Safety Measures Devised by a Multidisciplinary Team Including a Pharmaceutical Outpatient Clinic].

    PubMed

    Aimono, Yuka; Kamoshida, Toshiro; Sakamoto, Risa; Nemoto, Masahiko; Saito, Yoshiko; Aoyama, Yoshifumi; Maruyama, Tsunehiko

    2015-07-01

    In May 2014, tablets containing both trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride (Lonsurf® tablets) were launched in Japan ahead of other countries, for the treatment of advanced/relapsed unresectable colorectal cancer. The benefits of these tablets in terms of a new therapeutic option have been demonstrated. However, the manufacturer has requested healthcare professionals to help develop safety measures for the appropriate and safe use of the tablets. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the tablets in 16 patients who received the tablets at our hospital. Among the 4 evaluable patients, none achieved a complete or partial response. One patient (25.0%) had stable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) Guidelines outlined in the General Rules of the Study of Colorectal Cancer (The 8th Edition). Lonsurf® is considered to be a third-line (or later) treatment. Among the 16 cases studied, Lonsurf® was used as a third-, fourth-, and fifth-line treatment in 9, 6, and 1 cases, respectively. Therefore, Grade 3 or worse toxicities were a potential concern. Despite a high incidence of Grade 3 or worse neutropenia (7 of the 16 patients [43.8%]), none of the patients were hospitalized due to neutropenia or other treatment-related adverse events. Pharmacists have made 126 proposals to physicians regarding the use of Lonsurf®, 121 (96.0%) of which have been adopted. All of the adverse reactions experienced by our patients were resolved after supportive therapy. PMID:26197742

  15. Impacts of including forest understory brightness and foliage clumping information from multiangular measurements on leaf area index mapping over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, Jan; Chen, Jing M.; Alikas, Krista; Deng, Feng

    2010-09-01

    A new leaf area index (LAI) data set in 10 day intervals with consideration of the understory reflectance and foliage clumping effects over North America for 1 year is developed. The data set brings effectively together measurements from multiple sensors with complementary capabilities (SPOT-VEGETATION, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, POLDER). First, the temporal consistency analysis indicated the new product is on par with other available LAI data sets currently used by the community. Second, with the removal of the background (understory in forests, moss, litter, and soil) effect on the forest overstory LAI retrieval, slightly different LAI reductions were found between needleleaf and broadleaf forests. This is caused by the more clumped nature of needleleaf forests, especially at higher LAI values, which allows more light to penetrate through the overstory canopy, making the understory more visible for equal LAI as compared to broadleaf forests. This is found over a representative set of 105 CEOS Benchmark Land Multisite Analysis and Intercomparison of Products sites in North America used for indirect validation. Third, the data set was directly validated and compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Collection 5 LAI product using results from the BigFoot project for available forest test sites. This study demonstrates that the fusion of data inputs between multiple sensors can indeed lead to improved products and that multiangle remote sensing can help us to address effectively the issues (separating the signal from the understory and overstory, foliage clumping) that could not be solved via the means of the conventional mono-angle remote sensing.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity in Outdoor Community Recreational Environments: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sydney A.; Stransky, Michelle; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major contributors to escalating health care costs in the USA. Physical activity is an important protective factor against CVD, and the National Prevention Strategy recognizes active living (defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into everyday routines) as a priority for improving the nation’s health. This paper focuses on developing more inclusive measures of physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, specifically parks and trails, to enhance their usability for at-risk populations such as persons with mobility limitations. We develop an integrated conceptual framework for measuring physical activity in outdoor community recreational environments, describe examples of evidence-based tools for measuring physical activity in these settings, and discuss strategies to improve measurement of physical activity for persons with mobility limitations. Addressing these measurement issues is critically important to making progress towards national CVD goals pertaining to active community environments. PMID:26005510

  17. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  18. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  19. "Measuring Me": Using Nutrition Education Curriculum Activities to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sara; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Duffrin, Melani

    2012-01-01

    "Measuring Me" is an introductory activity developed to be used while collecting pre-study anthropometric data for the Food Math and Science Teacher Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative. Using "Measuring Me" as an introductory activity for collecting anthropometric measurements in the classroom was feasible and well received by students…

  20. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions. PMID:26957472

  1. Measurement of multiple drug resistance transporter activity in putative cancer stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Donnenberg, Vera S; Meyer, E Michael; Donnenberg, Albert D

    2009-01-01

    Multiple drug resistance, mediated by the expression and activity of ABC-transporters, is a major obstacle to antineoplastic therapy. Normal tissue stem cells and their malignant counterparts share MDR transporter activity as a major mechanism of self-protection. Although MDR activity is upregulated in response to substrate chemotherapeutic agents, it is also constitutively expressed on both normal tissue stem cells and a subset of tumor cells prior to the initiation of therapy, representing a built-in obstacle to therapeutic ratio. Constitutive and induced MDR activity can be detected in cellular subsets of disaggregated tissues, using the fluorescent substrates Rhodamine 123 and Hoechst 33342 for ABCB1 (also known as P-gp and MDR1) and ABCG2 (BCRP1). In this chapter, we will describe the complete procedure for the detection of MDR activity, including: (1) Preparing single-cell suspensions from tumor and normal tissue specimens; (2) An efficient method to perform cell surface marker staining on large numbers of cells; (3) Flow cytometer setup and controls; (4) Simultaneous measurement of Hoechst 33342 and Rhodamine123 transport; and (5) Data acquisition and analysis. PMID:19582433

  2. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  3. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. PMID:26833148

  4. Gender differences in familial aggregation of objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of health-risk factors have been shown to cluster within families. However, there have been few studies that have assessed the degree of correlation between parent and child physical activity levels. It is also unclear if gender of parent or child influences this relationship. PURPOSE: To d...

  5. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: Challenges, explanations, and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...

  6. Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of Microjets Can we eliminate/minimize flow separation? Is the flow unsteadiness reduced? Guidelines for an active control Search for an appropriate sensor. Examine for means to develop a flow model for identifying the state of flow over the surface Guidelines toward future development of a Simple and Robust control methodology

  7. Measurements of microbial community activities in individual soil macroaggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for ß-glucosidase, N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine...

  8. Survey Measurement of Cognitive Activity during Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Robert P.; And Others

    One hundred seventy-one middle school students participated in a study to assess cognitive activity during television viewing. Students completed a questionnaire about their favorite programs, viewing habits, and social reality beliefs, then viewed a 17-minute professionally edited episode of a family drama and answered a multiple choice…

  9. Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) was calculated from temperature sweeps of cheeses with contrasting characteristics to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Cheddar, Colby, whole milk Mozzarella, low moisture part skim Mozzarella, Parmesan, soft goat, and Queso Fre...

  10. Measurement Properties of the Low Back Activity Confidence Scale (LoBACS).

    PubMed

    Davenport, Todd E; Cleland, Joshua A; Yamada, Kimiko A; Kulig, Kornelia

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the measurement properties of the Low Back Activity Confidence Scale (LoBACS) in individuals with post-acute low back pain (LBP) receiving nonsurgical intervention, including construct validity, factorial validity, and internal consistency reliability. Data were analyzed from an existing randomized clinical trial involving 112 patients with LBP. Evidence for convergent validity was observed through significant correlations between LoBACS subscale scores and other function, pain, and psychobehavioral measures. LoBACS subscales accounted for 36% of the unique variance in dependent variable measurements, suggesting a satisfactory level of statistical divergence between the LoBACS and other psychobehavioral measurements in this study. Cronbach's α ranged from .88 to .92 for LoBACS subscales, and item-total correlations exceeded .6, indicating high internal consistency reliability. Principal axis factoring confirmed the hypothesized three-subscale structure by correctly classifying 14 of the 15 items. These findings indicate the LoBACS is valid and internally consistent to measure domain-specific self-efficacy beliefs. PMID:24686745

  11. Active laser radar (lidar) for measurement of corresponding height and reflectance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Christoph; Mettenleiter, M.; Haertl, F.

    1997-08-01

    For the survey and inspection of environmental objects, a non-tactile, robust and precise imaging of height and depth is the basis sensor technology. For visual inspection,surface classification, and documentation purposes, however, additional information concerning reflectance of measured objects is necessary. High-speed acquisition of both geometric and visual information is achieved by means of an active laser radar, supporting consistent 3D height and 2D reflectance images. The laser radar is an optical-wavelength system, and is comparable to devices built by ERIM, Odetics, and Perceptron, measuring the range between sensor and target surfaces as well as the reflectance of the target surface, which corresponds to the magnitude of the back scattered laser energy. In contrast to these range sensing devices, the laser radar under consideration is designed for high speed and precise operation in both indoor and outdoor environments, emitting a minimum of near-IR laser energy. It integrates a laser range measurement system and a mechanical deflection system for 3D environmental measurements. This paper reports on design details of the laser radar for surface inspection tasks. It outlines the performance requirements and introduces the measurement principle. The hardware design, including the main modules, such as the laser head, the high frequency unit, the laser beam deflection system, and the digital signal processing unit are discussed.the signal processing unit consists of dedicated signal processors for real-time sensor data preprocessing as well as a sensor computer for high-level image analysis and feature extraction. The paper focuses on performance data of the system, including noise, drift over time, precision, and accuracy with measurements. It discuses the influences of ambient light, surface material of the target, and ambient temperature for range accuracy and range precision. Furthermore, experimental results from inspection of buildings, monuments

  12. Using a Simple Apparatus to Measure Direct and Diffuse Photosynthetically Active Radiation at Remote Locations

    PubMed Central

    Cruse, Michael J.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Norman, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant canopy interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) drives carbon dioxide (CO2), water and energy cycling in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Quantifying intercepted PAR requires accurate measurements of total incident PAR above canopies and direct beam and diffuse PAR components. While some regional data sets include these data, e.g. from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites, they are not often applicable to local research sites because of the variable nature (spatial and temporal) of environmental variables that influence incoming PAR. Currently available instrumentation that measures diffuse and direct beam radiation separately can be cost prohibitive and require frequent adjustments. Alternatively, generalized empirical relationships that relate atmospheric variables and radiation components can be used but require assumptions that increase the potential for error. Our goal here was to construct and test a cheaper, highly portable instrument alternative that could be used at remote field sites to measure total, diffuse and direct beam PAR for extended time periods without supervision. The apparatus tested here uses a fabricated, solar powered rotating shadowband and other commercially available parts to collect continuous hourly PAR data. Measurements of total incident PAR had nearly a one-to-one relationship with total incident radiation measurements taken at the same research site by an unobstructed point quantum sensor. Additionally, measurements of diffuse PAR compared favorably with modeled estimates from previously published data, but displayed significant differences that were attributed to the important influence of rapidly changing local environmental conditions. The cost of the system is about 50% less than comparable commercially available systems that require periodic, but not continual adjustments. Overall, the data produced using this apparatus indicates that this instrumentation has the potential to support

  13. Using a simple apparatus to measure direct and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation at remote locations.

    PubMed

    Cruse, Michael J; Kucharik, Christopher J; Norman, John M

    2015-01-01

    Plant canopy interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) drives carbon dioxide (CO2), water and energy cycling in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Quantifying intercepted PAR requires accurate measurements of total incident PAR above canopies and direct beam and diffuse PAR components. While some regional data sets include these data, e.g. from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites, they are not often applicable to local research sites because of the variable nature (spatial and temporal) of environmental variables that influence incoming PAR. Currently available instrumentation that measures diffuse and direct beam radiation separately can be cost prohibitive and require frequent adjustments. Alternatively, generalized empirical relationships that relate atmospheric variables and radiation components can be used but require assumptions that increase the potential for error. Our goal here was to construct and test a cheaper, highly portable instrument alternative that could be used at remote field sites to measure total, diffuse and direct beam PAR for extended time periods without supervision. The apparatus tested here uses a fabricated, solar powered rotating shadowband and other commercially available parts to collect continuous hourly PAR data. Measurements of total incident PAR had nearly a one-to-one relationship with total incident radiation measurements taken at the same research site by an unobstructed point quantum sensor. Additionally, measurements of diffuse PAR compared favorably with modeled estimates from previously published data, but displayed significant differences that were attributed to the important influence of rapidly changing local environmental conditions. The cost of the system is about 50% less than comparable commercially available systems that require periodic, but not continual adjustments. Overall, the data produced using this apparatus indicates that this instrumentation has the potential to support

  14. Double-Knudsen-Cell Apparatus Measures Alloy-Component Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Moore, Warren A.

    1995-01-01

    Double-Knudsen-cell apparatus provides molecular beam from selected one of two Knudsen cells. Both cells maintained at same temperature. Molecular beam directed into mass spectrometer for measurement of vapor pressure of selected material component. Designed to minimize undesired thermal gradients, provides appropriate translation to place selected cell in position for sampling, and minimizes mixing of molecular beams from cells.

  15. A review of OPEX activities and measurement results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbesser-Rastburg, B.

    1991-01-01

    A summary is given of the measurements carried out in the framework of OPEX (OLYMPUS Propagation Experimenters Group). In particular, the progress since mid-1990 is presented. In this period two OPEX meetings were held, OPEX 14 (Oct. 1990) and OPEX 15 (Apr. 1991). The First OPEX Workshop was held at ESTEC on 23-24 April 1991.

  16. Impact of Personalised Feedback about Physical Activity on Change in Objectively Measured Physical Activity (the FAB Study): A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Job G.; Watkinson, Clare; Corder, Kirsten; Marteau, Theresa M.; Sutton, Stephen; Sharp, Stephen J.; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity are a major public health concern, and interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. Whether or not personalised feedback about physical activity following objective measurement motivates behaviour change has yet to be rigorously examined. Methods And Findings: In a parallel group, open randomised controlled trial, 466 healthy adults aged 32 to 54 years were recruited from the ongoing population-based Fenland Study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Participants were randomised to receive either no feedback until the end of the trial (control group, n=120) or one of three different types of feedback: simple, visual, or contextualised (intervention groups, n=346). The primary outcome was physical activity (physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in kJ/kg/day and average body acceleration (ACC) in m/s2) measured objectively using a combined heart rate monitor and accelerometer (Actiheart®). The main secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, intention to increase physical activity, and awareness of physical activity (the agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical activity). At 8 weeks, 391 (83.9%) participants had complete physical activity data. The intervention had no effect on objectively measured physical activity (PAEE: β=-0.92, 95% CI=-3.50 to 1.66, p=0.48 and ACC: β=0.01, 95% CI=-0.00 to 0.02, p=0.21), self-reported physical activity (β=-0.39, 95% CI=-1.59 to 0.81), or intention to increase physical activity (β=-0.05, 95% CI=-0.22 to 0.11). However, it was associated with an increase in awareness of physical activity (OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.05 to 2.89). Results did not differ according to the type of feedback. Conclusions Personalised feedback about physical activity following objective measurement increased awareness but did not result in changes in physical activity in the short term. Measurement and feedback may have a role in promoting behaviour change but are

  17. A coupled observation - modeling approach for studying activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T.; Moore, R. H.; Lathem, T. L.; Nenes, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents an approach to study droplet activation kinetics from measurements of CCN activity by the Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC) and a comprehensive model of the instrument and droplet growth. The model, which can be downloaded from http://nenes.eas.gatech.edu/Experiments/CFSTGC.html , is evaluated against a series of experiments with ammonium sulfate calibration aerosol. Observed and modeled droplet sizes are in excellent agreement for a water vapor uptake coefficient ~0.2, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. The model calculations can be considerably accelerated without significant loss of accuracy by assuming simplified instrument geometry and constant parabolic flow velocity profiles. With these assumptions, the model can be applied to large experimental data sets to infer kinetic growth parameters while fully accounting for water vapor depletion effects and changes in instrument operation parameters such as the column temperature, flow rates, sheath and sample flow relative humidities, and pressure. When the effects of instrument operation parameters, water vapor depletion and equilibrium dry particle properties on droplet size are accounted for, the remaining variations in droplet size are most likely due to non-equilibrium processes such as those caused by organic surface films, slow solute dissociation and glassy or highly viscous particle states. As an example of model application, data collected during a research flight in the ARCTAS 2008 campaign are analyzed. The model shows that water vapor depletion effects can explain changes in the observed average droplet size.

  18. Rasch-Built Measure of Pleasant Touch through Active Fingertip Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Klöcker, Anne; Arnould, Carlyne; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that somatic sensation has a modality for pleasant touch. Objective: To investigate pleasant touch at the fingertip level (i.e., glabrous skin site) through the elaboration of a linear unidimensional scale that measures (i) various materials according to the level of pleasantness they elicit through active fingertip explorations and (ii) subjects according to their pleasantness leniency levels. Subjects: We enrolled 198 healthy subjects without any neurological disease. Methods: Blindfolded subjects actively explored 48 materials with their index fingertips and reported the perceived pleasantness of each on a 4-level scale. The fingertip moisture levels on each subject were measured before the experimental session. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: We elaborated unidimensional linear scale that included 37 materials according to their pleasantness of touch. The pleasantness level of 21 materials was perceived differently, depending on the fingertip moisture levels of the subjects. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we formulated a Pleasant Touch Scale. Fingertip moisture levels appeared to be a major factor for (un)pleasant feelings during active exploration. PMID:22737122

  19. Measuring glottal activity during voiced speech using a tuned electromagnetic resonating collar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R., III; Keenaghan, K.; Desimini, S.

    2005-11-01

    Non-acoustic speech sensors can be employed to obtain measurements of one or more aspects of the speech production process, such as glottal activity, even in the presence of background noise. These sensors have a long history of clinical applications and have also recently been applied to the problem of denoising speech signals recorded in acoustically noisy environments (Ng et al 2000 Proc. Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (Istanbul, Turkey) vol 1, pp 229-32). Recently, researchers developed a new non-acoustic speech sensor based primarily on a tuned electromagnetic resonator collar (TERC) (Brown et al 2004 Meas. Sci. Technol. 15 1291). The TERC sensor measures glottal activity by sensing small changes in the dielectric properties of the glottis that result from voiced speech. This paper builds on the seminal work in Brown et al (2004). The primary contributions of this paper are (i) a description of a new single-mode TERC sensor design addressing the comfort and complexity issues of the original sensor, (ii) a complete description of new external interface systems used to obtain long-duration recordings from the TERC sensor and (iii) more extensive experimental results and analysis for the single-mode TERC sensor including spectrograms of speech containing both voiced and unvoiced speech segments in quiet and acoustically noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrate that the single-mode TERC sensor is able to detect glottal activity up to the fourth harmonic and is also insensitive to acoustic background noise.

  20. Wearable motion sensors to continuously measure real-world physical activities

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Rehabilitation for sensorimotor impairments aims to improve daily activities, walking, exercise, and motor skills. Monitoring of practice and measuring outcomes, however, is usually restricted to laboratory-based procedures and self-reports. Mobile health devices may reverse these confounders of daily care and research trials. Recent findings Wearable, wireless motion sensor data, analyzed by activity pattern-recognition algorithms, can describe the type, quantity, and quality of mobility-related activities in the community. Data transmission from sensors to the cell phone and Internet enable continuous monitoring. Remote access to laboratory-quality data about walking speed, duration and distance, gait asymmetry and smoothness of movements, as well as cycling, exercise, and skills practice, opens new opportunities to engage patients in progressive, personalized therapies with feedback about performance. Clinical trial designs will be able to include remote verification of the integrity of complex physical interventions and compliance with practice, as well as capture repeated, ecologically sound, ratio-scale outcome measures. Summary Given the progressively falling cost of miniaturized wearable gyroscopes, accelerometers, and other physiologic sensors, as well as inexpensive data transmission, sensing systems may become as ubiquitous as cell phones for health care. Neurorehabilitation can develop these mobile health platforms for daily care and clinical trials to improve exercise and fitness, skills learning, and physical functioning. PMID:24136126

  1. Measured Enthalpies of Adsorption of Boron-Doped Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckner, M.; Romanos, J.; Dohnke, E.; Singh, A.; Schaeperkoetter, J.; Stalla, D.; Burress, J.; Jalisatgi, S.; Suppes, G.; Hawthorne, M. F.; Yu, P.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.

    2012-02-01

    There is significant interest in the properties of boron-doped activated carbons for their potential to improve hydrogen storage.ootnotetextMultiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage, P. Pfeifer et al. DOE Hydrogen Program 2011 Annual Progress Report, IV.C.3, 444-449 (2011). Boron-doped activated carbons have been produced using a process involving the pyrolysis of decaborane (B10H14) and subsequent high-temperature annealing. In this talk, we will present a systematic study of the effect of different boron doping processes on the samples' structure, hydrogen sorption, and surface chemistry. Initial room temperature experiments show a 20% increase in the hydrogen excess adsorption per surface area compared to the undoped material. Experimental enthalpies of adsorption will be presented for comparison to theoretical predictions for boron-doped carbon materials. Additionally, results from a modified version of the doping process will be presented.

  2. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  3. Active and passive microwave measurements of soil moisture in FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Gogineni, S. P.; Ampe, J.

    1992-01-01

    During the intensive field campaigns of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) in May-October of 1987, several nearly simultaneous measurements were made with low-altitude flights of the L-band radiometer and C- and X-band scatterometers over two transects in the Konza Prairie Natural Research Area, some 8 km south of Manhattan, Kansas. These measurements showed that although the scatterometers were sensitive to soil moisture variations in most regions under the flight path, the L-band radiometer lost most of its sensitivity in regions unburned for many years. The correlation coefficient derived from the regression between the radar backscattering coefficient and the soil moisture was found to improve with the increase in antenna incidence angle. This is attributed to a steeper falloff of the backscattering coefficient as a function of local incidence at angles near nadir than at angles greater than 30 deg.

  4. Measurement of EMG activity with textile electrodes embedded into clothing.

    PubMed

    Finni, T; Hu, M; Kettunen, P; Vilavuo, T; Cheng, S

    2007-11-01

    Novel textile electrodes that can be embedded into sports clothing to measure averaged rectified electromyography (EMG) have been developed for easy use in field tests and in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity, reliability and feasibility of this new product to measure averaged rectified EMG. The validity was tested by comparing the signals from bipolar textile electrodes (42 cm(2)) and traditional bipolar surface electrodes (1.32 cm(2)) during bilateral isometric knee extension exercise with two electrode locations (A: both electrodes located in the same place, B: traditional electrodes placed on the individual muscles according to SENIAM, n=10 persons for each). Within-session repeatability (the coefficient of variation CV%, n=10) was calculated from five repetitions of 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The day-to-day repeatability (n=8) was assessed by measuring three different isometric force levels on five consecutive days. The feasibility of the textile electrodes in field conditions was assessed during a maximal treadmill test (n=28). Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement within 2SD between the textile and traditional electrodes, demonstrating that the textile electrodes provide similar information on the EMG signal amplitude to the traditional electrodes. The within-session CV ranged from 13% to 21% in both the textile and traditional electrodes. The day-to-day CV was smaller, ranging from 4% to 11% for the textile electrodes. A similar relationship (r(2)=0.5) was found between muscle strength and the EMG of traditional and textile electrodes. The feasibility study showed that the textile electrode technique can potentially make EMG measurements very easy in field conditions. This study indicates that textile electrodes embedded into shorts is a valid and feasible method for assessing the average rectified value of EMG. PMID:17978424

  5. 14. Protective measures for activities in Chernobyl's radioactively contaminated territories.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B

    2009-11-01

    Owing to internally absorbed radionuclides, radiation levels for individuals living in the contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia have been increasing steadily since 1994. Special protective measures in connection with agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing are necessary to protect the health of people in all the radioactively contaminated territories. Among the measures that have proven to be effective in reducing levels of incorporated radionuclides in meat production are food additives with ferrocyanides, zeolites, and mineral salts. Significant decreases in radionuclide levels in crops are achieved using lime/Ca as an antagonist of Sr-90, K fertilizers as antagonists of Cs-137, and phosphoric fertilizers that form a hard, soluble phosphate with Sr-90. Disk tillage and replowing of hayfields incorporating applications of organic and mineral fertilizers reduces the levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 three- to fivefold in herbage grown in mineral soils. Among food technologies to reduce radionuclide content are cleaning cereal seeds, processing potatoes into starch, processing carbohydrate-containing products into sugars, and processing milk into cream and butter. There are several simple cooking techniques that decrease radionuclides in foodstuffs. Belarus has effectively used some forestry operations to create "a live partition wall," to regulate the redistribution of radionuclides into ecosystems. All such protective measures will be necessary in many European territories for many generations. PMID:20002058

  6. Active and passive microwave measurements in Hurricane Allen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, V. E.; Bahn, G. S.; Grantham, W. L.; Harrington, R. F.; Jones, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center analysis of the airborne microwave remote sensing measurements of Hurricane Allen obtained on August 5 and 8, 1980 is summarized. The instruments were the C-band stepped frequency microwave radiometer and the Ku-band airborne microwave scatterometer. They were carried aboard a NOAA aircraft making storm penetrations at an altitude of 3000 m and are sensitive to rain rate, surface wind speed, and surface wind vector. The wind speed is calculated from the increase in antenna brightness temperature above the estimated calm sea value. The rain rate is obtained from the difference between antenna temperature increases measured at two frequencies, and wind vector is determined from the sea surface normalized radar cross section measured at several azimuths. Comparison wind data were provided from the inertial navigation systems aboard both the C-130 aircraft at 3000 m and a second NOAA aircraft (a P-3) operating between 500 and 1500 m. Comparison rain rate data were obtained with a rain radar aboard the P-3. Evaluation of the surface winds obtained with the two microwave instruments was limited to comparisons with each other and with the flight level winds. Two important conclusions are drawn from these comparisons: (1) the radiometer is accurate when predicting flight level wind speeds and rain; and (2) the scatterometer produces well behaved and consistent wind vectors for the rain free periods.

  7. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kari, Jaana T.; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity. PMID:26317865

  8. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the M(w)5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013.

    PubMed

    Sarlis, Nicholas V

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  9. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013

    PubMed Central

    SARLIS, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  10. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor. PMID:26047874

  11. Measurement of xylanase activity with insoluble xylan substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Nummi, M; Perrin, J M; Niku-Paavola, M L; Enari, T M

    1985-01-01

    Insoluble xylan was prepared from ground birch (Betula pubescens) pulp by alkali extraction and precipitation with ethanol. The only sugar detected after acid hydrolysis of the preparation was xylose. The insoluble xylan was used as substrate in a nephelometric assay to determine the xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8, 1,4-beta-D-xylan xylanohydrolase and EC 3.2.1.37, 1,4-beta-D-xylan xylohydrolase) activities of Aspergillus and Trichoderma enzymes. The nephelometric method is reliable in evaluating xylanase hydrolysis of insoluble xylan. PMID:3922355

  12. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  13. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyeva, Victoria; Domergue, Christophe; Destouches, Christophe; Girard, Jean Michel; Philibert, Hervé; Bonora, Jonathan; Thiollay, Nicolas; Lyoussi, Abdallah

    2016-02-01

    The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors) is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI). This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuous improvement process. Recently, two High Efficiency diodes have been integrated to the MADERE platform in order to manage the accurate low level activity measurements (few Bq per sample). This new equipment provides a good level of efficiency over the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. The background continuum is reduced due to the use of a Ultra Low Background (ULB) lead shielding. Relative and absolute X-ray measurement techniques have been improved in order to facilitate absolute rhodium activity measurement (Rh103m) on solid samples. Additional efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of the relative niobium (Nb93m) activity measurement technique. The way of setting up an absolute measurement method for niobium is under investigation. After a presentation of the MADERE's measurement devices, this paper focuses on the technological options taken into account for the design of high efficiency measurement devices. Then, studies performed on X-ray measurement techniques are presented. Some details about the calculation of uncertainties and correction factors are also mentioned. Finally, future research and development axes are exposed.

  14. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  15. Comparing Perceived and Objectively Measured Access to Recreational Facilities as Predictors of Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Cox, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies in recent years have identified both self-report and objectively measured accessibility of recreational facilities as important predictors of physical activity in youth. Yet, few studies have: (1) examined the relationship between the number and proximity of objectively measured neighborhood physical activity facilities and respondents’ perceptions and (2) compared objective and self-report measures as predictors of physical activity. This study uses data on 1,367 6th-grade girls who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) to explore these issues. Girls reported whether nine different types of recreational facilities were easily accessible. These facilities included basketball courts, golf courses, martial arts studios, playing fields, tracks, skating rinks, swimming pools, tennis courts, and dance/gymnastic clubs. Next, geographic information systems (GIS) were used to identify all the parks, schools, and commercial sites for physical activity located within a mile of each girl’s home. These sites were then visited to inventory the types of facilities available. Girls wore accelerometers to measure their weekly minutes of non-school metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA). The number of facilities within a half-mile of girls’ homes strongly predicted the perception of easy access to seven out of nine facility types. Both individual facility perceptions and the total number of facilities perceived were associated with increased physical activity. For each additional facility perceived, girls clocked 3% more metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001). Although girls tended to record 3% more of this kind of physical activity (p < 0.05) per basketball court within a mile of their homes, objective facility measures were otherwise unrelated to physical activity. The results from this study suggest that raising the profile of existing

  16. Measurements, modelling and electron cyclotron heating modification of Alfven eigenmode activity in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zeeland, Michael; Heidbrink, W.; Nazikian, Raffi; Austin, M. E.; Cheng, C Z; Chu, M. S.; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Holcomb, C T; Hyatt, A. W.; Kramer, G.; Lohr, J.T.; Mckee, G. R.; Petty, C C.; Prater, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Spong, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including toroidicity and ellipticity induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE/EAE, respectively) and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAE) as well as their spatial coupling. These modes are studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete current penetration results in a high central safety factor and strong drive due to multiple higher order resonances. It is found that ideal MHD modelling of eigenmode spectral evolution, coupling and structure are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. It is also found that higher radial envelope harmonic RSAEs are clearly observed and agree with modelling. Some discrepancies with modelling such as that due to up/down eigenmode asymmetries are also pointed out. Concomitant with the Alfvenic activity, fast ion (FIDA) spectroscopy shows large reductions in the central fast ion profile, the degree of which depends on the Alfven eigenmode amplitude. Interestingly, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the mode location stabilizes RSAE activity and results in significantly improved fast ion confinement relative to discharges with ECH deposition on axis. In these discharges, RSAE activity is suppressed when ECH is deposited near the radius of the shear reversal point and enhanced with deposition near the axis. The sensitivity of this effect to deposition power and current drive phasing as well as ECH modulation are presented.

  17. Active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system for precision measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kang; Li, Gang; Hu, Hua; Wang, Lijun

    2016-06-01

    Low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play important roles in precision measurements to reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise. Several types of active vibration isolation systems have been developed. However, few researches focus on how to optimize the test mass install position in order to improve the vibration transmissibility. An active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system based on an earlier instrument, the Super Spring, is designed and implemented. The system, which is simple and compact, consists of two stages: a parallelogram-shaped linkage to ensure vertical motion, and a simple spring-mass system. The theoretical analysis of the vibration isolation system is presented, including terms erroneously ignored before. By carefully choosing the mechanical parameters according to the above analysis and using feedback control, the resonance frequency of the system is reduced from 2.3 to 0.03 Hz, a reduction by a factor of more than 75. The vibration isolation system is installed as an inertial reference in an absolute gravimeter, where it improved the scatter of the absolute gravity values by a factor of 5. The experimental results verifies the improved performance of the isolation system, making it particularly suitable for precision experiments. The improved vertical vibration isolation system can be used as a prototype for designing high-performance active vertical isolation systems. An improved theoretical model of this active vibration isolation system with beam-pivot configuration is proposed, providing fundamental guidelines for vibration isolator design and assembling.

  18. The Classic Measure of Disability in Activities of Daily Living Is Biased by Age but an Expanded IADL/ADL Measure Is Not

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate, by age, the performance of 2 disability measures based on needing help: one using 5 classic activities of daily living (ADL) and another using an expanded set of 14 activities including instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), walking, getting outside, and ADL (IADL/ADL). Methods. Guttman and item response theory (IRT) scaling methods are used with a large (N = 25,470) nationally representative household survey of individuals aged 18 years and older. Results. Guttman scalability of the ADL items increases steadily with age, reaching a high level at ages 75 years and older. That is reflected in an IRT model by age-related differential item functioning (DIF) resulting in age-biased measurement of ADL. Guttman scalability of the IADL/ADL items also increases with age but is lower than the ADL. Although age-related DIF also occurs with IADL/ADL items, DIF is lower in magnitude and balances out without causing age bias. Discussion. An IADL/ADL scale measuring need for help is hierarchical, unidimensional, and unbiased by age. It has greater content validity for measuring need for help in the community and shows greater sensitivity by age than the classic ADL measure. As demand for community services is increasing among adults of all ages, an expanded IADL/ADL measure is more useful than ADL. PMID:20100786

  19. Measurement of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and paracetamol in children.

    PubMed

    Sheth, U K; Gupta, K; Paul, T; Pispati, P K

    1980-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen (Brufen) and paracetamol (Crocin) was compared in 22 children with pyrexia who received either ibuprofen or paracetamol in syrup form. Both axillary and rectal temperatures were recorded prior to drug administration and 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 12 hours after dosing. Analysis of the results in terms of rate of temperature decrease and degree and duration of decrease in temperature indicated that both drugs produced significant reduction in temperature and in the rate of temperature decrease. The maximum effect of the two drugs was similar. However, ibuprofen was more effective than paracetamol at 6 and 8 hours after administration, and its duration of action was longer. The associated antipyretic and antiinflammatory features of ibuprofen could provide an advantage in the control of exudative forms of upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:6971880

  20. Empirical measurements of massive galaxy and active galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Richard Jacob

    Using new wide-area galaxy redshift surveys, we explore the evolution of the most massive galaxies and the most luminous quasars in the universe over much of cosmic history. Quasars and massive red galaxies both are extremes; the most luminous high redshift quasars likely play a key role in shaping their nearby environment and the universe as a whole. The most massive galaxies represent the end points of galaxy evolution and contain a fossil record of the galaxy evolution process. Using the AGES redshift survey completed with the MMT and the Hectospec multi- object spectrograph as well as new z -band observations of the NOAO Deep Wide- Field Survey Bootes field, we report the discovery of three new quasars at z > 5. We explore new mid-infrared selection in light of these three new quasars and place constraints on the slope of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function. At lower redshift (0.1< z <0.4) we measure the scatter in red galaxy colors around the optical red-sequence using imaging and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. With our sample of nearly 20,000 massive early-type galaxies ( L [Special characters omitted.] 2.2 L *), we find that the scatter around the color-magnitude relation is quite small in colors studied. Each of three model star formation histories can reproduce the scatter we measure, none of the models produce color distributions matching those observed. We measure the evolution of the LRG luminosity function in the redshift range 0.1< z <0.9. We find that the LRG population has evolved little beyond the passive fading of its stellar populations since z ~ 0.9. The most massive (L > 3 L *) red galaxies have grown by less than 50% (at 99% confidence) since z = 0.9 in stark contrast to the factor of 2 to 4 growth observed in the L * red galaxy population over the same epoch. Finally, we introduce the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS), a new redshift survey aimed at collecting ~300,000 galaxy spectra over 10 deg 2 to z ~ 1. We