Science.gov

Sample records for activities include reading

  1. Student-Centered Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, James; Wagner, Betty Jane

    1991-01-01

    Offers student-centered reading activities designed to bring students to reading maturity and involvement in literature. Discusses partner reading, dramatizing and performing texts, transforming texts, journal writing, discussion, and writing. (PRA)

  2. Creative Reading Activities for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Sylva

    The purpose of creative activities in the classroom and the part creativity should have in the reading program are discussed. Both the gifted and not-so-gifted child can be motivated, challenged, and provided with enriching experiences through creative activities planned and encouraged by a resourceful teacher. Suggestions given include the…

  3. Inquiry Science and Active Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2011-01-01

    Pairing an inquiry lesson with a traditional reading activity creates a jarring philosophical mismatch between the interaction, deep thinking, and scientific reasoning that drives meaningful inquiry instruction and the "scan the text, copy the answers" response often obtained from elementary nonfiction readers. Realizing that there must be a…

  4. Hey! Somebody Read to Me! Ten Easy Ways to Include Reading Every Day. Family Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmen, Marie Christine

    2005-01-01

    If a child does not learn to read in the early grades, there are few opportunities for them to catch up. Therefore, the extent of a child's exposure to reading before the early school years is not only important, but critical. In this column, the author suggests ten easy ways to make reading a part of every young child's day: (1) Read and reread…

  5. 77 FR 3500 - Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...] Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment Services... Powder Coatings, Inc., Reading, Pennsylvania. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of powder coatings. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76...

  6. Writing Composition Activities to Enhance Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Janet T.

    A program of written composition based on reading comprehension can help students gain greater in-depth understanding of reading materials. Once the reading comprehension skill has been clearly defined for the class, the writing activity can provide clarification by allowing for analysis of the definition through written manipulation of language.…

  7. Open the Door for Reading (Motivational Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Designed to help elementary teachers motivate students to read, this illustrated booklet presents a store of classroom ideas that promote and enrich reading. Materials presented include (1) instructions for making a "bookworm" bookmark for each student; (2) various animated bulletin board games intended to accompany the reading process and to help…

  8. Reading cinnamon activates olfactory brain regions.

    PubMed

    González, Julio; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Meseguer, Vanessa; Sanjuán, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Avila, César

    2006-08-15

    Some words immediately and automatically remind us of odours, smells and scents, whereas other language items do not evoke such associations. This study investigated, for the first time, the abstract linking of linguistic and odour information using modern neuroimaging techniques (functional MRI). Subjects passively read odour-related words ('garlic', 'cinnamon', 'jasmine') and neutral language items. The odour-related terms elicited activation in the primary olfactory cortex, which include the piriform cortex and the amygdala. Our results suggest the activation of widely distributed cortical cell assemblies in the processing of olfactory words. These distributed neuron populations extend into language areas but also reach some parts of the olfactory system. These distributed neural systems may be the basis of the processing of language elements, their related conceptual and semantic information and the associated sensory information.

  9. Children's Caravan: A Reading Activities Idea Book for Use with Children. A Fun with Reading Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Judith A.

    Intended for elementary school teachers and librarians, this book was designed to help in the development of reading programs for young children. Five sections are included: (1) planning ahead, which includes getting organized, making decorations, collecting "junque" (craft materials and other items needed for craft activities); (2) conducting…

  10. Adults' Reading Practices and Activities: Age, Educational and Occupational Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Stahl, Norman A.

    Interest in adults' everyday reading practices has a lengthy history in the study of the psychology of reading. Several studies have examined the extent of, and variability in, adults' reading activities. Different social contexts have been shown to influence the type of reading performed. The present study examined the reading patterns and…

  11. Enhancing the Lives of Nursing Home Patients through Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Terry

    This study investigated the use of reading activities in the enhancement of the lives of nursing-home patients. A special reading group was led by a reading specialist in weekly sessions. Patients voluntarily attended the one-hour sessions and read short selections supplied by the reading specialist. Patients ranged in age from 54 to 91. The…

  12. Active Reading Experience Questionnaire: Development and Validation of an Instrument for Studying Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The increasing adoption of mobile platforms and digital textbooks in university classrooms continues to have a profound impact on higher education. Advocates believe that providing students digital textbooks with built-in annotation features and interactive study tools will improve learning by facilitating active reading, a task essential to…

  13. Acquisition Activities in Intensive Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenghua, Xu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses four possible ways to conduct language-acquisition activities in the foreign-language classroom: (1) vivid linking; (2) story retelling; (3) self-directed statement; and (4) role playing. (Author/VWL)

  14. Read*Write*Now!: Actividades para Divertirse Leyendo y Escribiendo (Activities for Reading and Writing Fun).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venezky, Dick, Ed.; And Others

    Developed by national reading experts for "reading partners" to use with children, ages birth to grade 6, this Spanish-language booklet presents activities that help very young children to get ready for reading and writing, and guide older children to expand their reading and writing interests and skills. The booklet has three sections,…

  15. The Relationship between Students' Reading Orientations and Their Strategic Activity during a Collaborative Reading Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dennis S.; Neitzel, Carin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the connection between middle school students' beliefs about reading and their use of comprehension strategies during a collaborative reading activity. Seventy-one fifth- and sixth-grade students were videotaped while they worked in small groups to read and discuss short texts describing the reading habits and abilities of four…

  16. Sports Splash: A Handbook of Reading Activities for Use with Children. A Fun with Reading Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carol H.

    Intended for individuals involved in teaching children to read--parents, teachers, librarians, and reading specialists--this handbook provides activities and resources to supplement programs designed to encourage children's enjoyment of books. The reading activities presented in this handbook have been developed around a sports theme. The…

  17. Active Reading Procedures for Moderating the Effects of Poor Highlighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gier, Vicki S.; Herring, Daniel; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Kreiner, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated two active reading techniques intended to eliminate the negative effect on reading comprehension of preexisting, inappropriate highlighting. College students read passages in three highlighting conditions: no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, and inappropriate highlighting. In Experiment 1, 30 students read the passages while…

  18. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  19. Ready--Set--Read (For Families): Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for National Service.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide part of the kit presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close…

  20. Reading under the Skin: Physiological Activation during Reading in Children with Dyslexia and Typical Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…

  1. The Effects of Pre-Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Nahid Nemati; Mahmoudi, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (movie-watching, vocabulary presentation, and pre-reading summarization) on the reading comprehension of 76 elementary-level EFL Iranian learners. The participants were randomly assigned to one control and three experimental conditions and then a pretest was given to…

  2. Understanding Children's Reading Activities: Reading Motivation, Skill and Child Characteristics as Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…

  3. Active Reading Documents (ARDs): A Tool to Facilitate Meaningful Learning through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubas, Justin M.; Toledo, Santiago A.

    2015-01-01

    Presented here is a practical tool called the Active Reading Document (ARD) that can give students the necessary incentive to engage with the text/readings. By designing the tool to incrementally develop student understanding of the material through reading using Marzano's Taxonomy as a framework, the ARD offers support through scaffolding as they…

  4. Mothers' Reading-Related Activities at Home and Learning to Read during Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Parrila, Rauno; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates how the reading-related activities of mothers at home relate to the development of reading skills among their kindergarten children. A total of 1,529 children (5-to-6-year-olds) were tested on word reading twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of a kindergarten year. The mothers of the children (n =…

  5. Reading Aloud Activity in L2 and Cerebral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the cerebral mechanism of reading aloud activities in L2 learners. These activities have been widely used in L2 learning and teaching, and its effect has been reported in various Asian L2 learning contexts. However, the reasons for its effectiveness have not been examined. In order to fill in this gap, two studies using a…

  6. Independent Activities for Accelerated Students: Individualized Reading Instruction for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapides Parish School Board, Alexandria, LAa.

    The teaching guide for use with accelerated elementary school students contains suggestions for independent reading activities, a list of independent reading books for beginning readers, and suggestions for creative activities. Stressed is the value of sharing enthusiasm about books to spur independent reading. Suggestions are given for talking…

  7. Do You Read Me? Business and Office: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension…

  8. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  9. SPECIAL MOTIVATIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR PROMOTING CERTAIN PROBLEM AREAS IN READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAWSON, MARVIN; SPENCER, GARY D.

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE PRODUCED AT AN INSERVICE TRAINING COURSE ON "PROBLEMS IN TEACHING READING" BY TEACHERS FROM CARROLL COUNTY SCHOOLS, GEORGIA, IN THE SPRING OF 1966 IS PRESENTED. IT OFFERS GENERAL MOTIVATIONAL READING ACTIVITIES WHICH PROMOTE GROWTH IN CERTAIN PROBLEM AREAS IN READING. RECOGNIZING THAT THERE CAN BE NO EFFECTIVE LEARNING…

  10. Translating Frank Smith's Reading Theory into Practice: A Reading Activity for an Exam-Driven Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keh, Claudia L.

    1988-01-01

    Smith's approach to reading comprehension is used as the basis of an activity related to the Use of English Exam in Hong Kong. The eight-step activity is described and shown to combine sound reading theory with an academic, test-oriented syllabus. (3 references) (LB)

  11. Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2012-01-01

    No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

  12. The Use of Pre-Reading Activities in Reading Skills Achievement in Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Aboagye Michael; Liang, Qing Jing; Natalia, Ihnatushchenko; Stephen, Mensah Abrampah

    2016-01-01

    Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals' mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle…

  13. Relationships between Reading Activities and Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Van Dongen, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Noting that the ways children encounter and use print in the classroom can be examined as surface and organizing content of curriculum, this article provides descriptions of innovative uses of print in the kindergarten and elementary school classroom. Curriculum "surface content" includes activities, use of classroom space, display, and…

  14. El Reto: A Leer America! A Leer Y Escribir Ya! Como Divertirse Leyendo Y Escribiendo. (America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now! Activities for Reading and Writing Fun)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameenui, Edward J.; Simmons, Deborah C.

    Developed by national reading experts for the "America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now!" initiative and translated into Spanish, this booklet provides 45 ideas for families, teachers, librarians, and other learning partners to use with all children--including those with disabilities--to help them read well and independently by the end of…

  15. Automobile Maintenance. Reading and Language Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessman, William A.

    Designed primarily for special needs students in a vocational program in automobile maintenance, this book was written to refine the basic skills of following directions, reading comprehension, vocabulary building, spelling, word usage, and word recognition, while relating these skills to some of the tasks a beginning student in the program must…

  16. Neuroimaging of Reading Intervention: A Systematic Review and Activation Likelihood Estimate Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barquero, Laura A.; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  17. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention.

  18. Including English Learners in a Multitiered Approach to Early Reading Instruction and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, Hank; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Baker, Scott K.; Chaparro, Erin; Baker, Doris Luft; Preciado, Jorge A.

    2011-01-01

    Delivering high-quality reading instruction to English language learners (ELLs) in the early grades is one of the most challenging issues facing schools. The report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth (NLP; August & Shanahan, 2006) defined "English language learners" as students who come from language backgrounds…

  19. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…

  20. Influence of mono-axis random vibration on reading activity.

    PubMed

    Bhiwapurkar, M K; Saran, V H; Harsha, S P; Goel, V K; Berg, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on train passengers' activities found that many passengers were engaged in some form of work, e.g., reading and writing, while traveling by train. A majority of the passengers reported that their activities were disturbed by vibrations or motions during traveling. A laboratory study was therefore set up to study how low-frequency random vibrations influence the difficulty to read. The study involved 18 healthy male subjects of 23 to 32 yr of age group. Random vibrations were applied in the frequency range (1-10 Hz) at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m/s(2) rms amplitude along three directions (longitudinal, lateral and vertical). The effect of vibration on reading activity was investigated by giving a word chain in two different font types (Times New Roman and Arial) and three different sizes (10, 12 and 14 points) of font for each type. Subjects performed reading tasks under two sitting positions (with backrest support and leaning over a table). The judgments of perceived difficulty to read were rated using 7-point discomfort judging scale. The result shows that reading difficulty increases with increasing vibration magnitudes and found to be maximum in longitudinal direction, but with leaning over a table position. In comparison with Times New Roman type and sizes of font, subjects perceived less difficulty with Arial type for all font sizes under all vibration magnitude.

  1. Specific cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Gizewski, Elke R; Timmann, Dagmar; Forsting, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The traditional view that the cerebellum is involved only in the control of movements has been changed recently. It has been suggested that the human cerebellum is involved in cognition and language. Likewise, besides cortical activity in sensorimotor and visual areas, an increased global activation of the cerebellum has been revealed during Braille reading in blind subjects. Our purpose was to investigate whether there is cerebellar activation during Braille reading by blind subjects other than sensorimotor activation related to finger movements. Early blind and normal sighted subjects were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during Braille reading, tactile discrimination of nonsense dots, dots forming symbols, and finger tapping. The experiments were done in block design. Echo planar imaging sequences were carried out on a 1.5-T MR scanner. All blind individuals reading Braille showed robust activation of the posterior and lateral aspects of cerebellar hemispheral lobules Crus I bilaterally but more predominately on the right side. Additionally, activation was present in the medial cerebellum within lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominantly on the right. Discriminating nonsense dots did not reveal any activation of Crus I, but did reveal activation within the medial part of lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominately on the right. Analysis of sighted subjects during reading of printed text revealed activation of the posterolateral cerebellar hemisphere in Crus I bilaterally, predominantly on the right. Tactile analysis of dots representing symbols revealed an activation in lobules IV and VIII and in right Crus II but not in Crus I. In conclusion, parts of cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects (i.e., within lobules IV, V, and VIII) overlap with the known hand representation within the cerebellum and are likely related to the sensorimotor part of the task. Cerebellar activation during Braille reading within bilateral Crus I

  2. Teaching students to read the primary literature using POGIL activities.

    PubMed

    Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to read, interpret, and evaluate articles in the primary literature are important skills that science majors will use in graduate school and professional life. Because of this, it is important that students are not only exposed to the primary literature in undergraduate education, but also taught how to read and interpret these articles. To achieve this objective, POGIL activities were designed to use the primary literature in a majors biochemistry sequence. Data show that students were able to learn content from the literature without separate activities or lecture. Students also reported an increase in comfort and confidence in approaching the literature as a result of the activities.

  3. Activating Background Knowledge in Reading Comprehension Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Rayford, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a broad age range of students can use some purpose questions as cues to activate background knowledge. Suggest topic familiarity, amount of information presented, and the presence of genre clues as text features affecting schema activation. (NKA)

  4. RIF Book of Ideas: Activities to Motivate Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Readily adaptable to classrooms, youth service organizations, and other groups that serve young people, the motivation activities in this book were set up for Reading is Fundamental projects and field tested by the organization's volunteers. Following an introduction to the characteristics of a good motivational activity and some guidelines for…

  5. Quasars and Active Galaxies: A Reading List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    Contains the annotated bibliographies of introductory books and sections of books, recent introductory articles, more advanced articles, and more advanced books dealing with quasars and active galaxies. (CW)

  6. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  7. The Use of Multiple Slate Devices to Support Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nicholas Yen-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    Reading activities in the classroom and workplace occur predominantly on paper. Since existing electronic devices do not support these reading activities as well as paper, users have difficulty taking full advantage of the affordances of electronic documents. This dissertation makes three main contributions toward supporting active reading…

  8. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes.

  9. A Judicious Lesson: A Whole-Learning Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Describes a unique language learning activity using the whole language approach in a tertiary level lower advanced reading and speaking course. Following a semester long theme on crime and punishment, students were introduced to an authentic, idiomatic text dealing with a famous murder case in U.S. history. (Author/VWL)

  10. Using Document Reading Activity Packets (DRAP) in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomanis, James F.; Schulz, Constance

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a Document Reading Activity Packet (DRAP) revolving around the "Fort Washington Incident" of the War of 1812 and the resulting court martial of Captain Samuel T. Dyson. Explains this exercise is designed to stimulate students' interest in their own state histories as well as stimulate their curiosity for further research. (BSR)

  11. Learning Activities: The America's Cup Challenge. Meter Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronk, Rob; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two learning activities: (1) high school students design and construct a wind powered monohull vessel to travel a predetermined distance in the least amount of time; and (2) sixth graders learn about energy by doing gas and electric meter reading. (Author/JOW)

  12. Predicting reading and mathematics from neural activity for feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task predicted reading and mathematics performance 2 years later. The results indicated that feedback learning performance predicted both reading and mathematics performance. Activity during feedback learning in left superior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) predicted reading performance, whereas activity in presupplementary motor area/anterior cingulate cortex (pre-SMA/ACC) predicted mathematical performance. Moreover, left superior DLPFC and pre-SMA/ACC activity predicted unique variance in reading and mathematics ability over behavioral testing of feedback learning performance alone. These results provide valuable insights into the relationship between laboratory-based learning tasks and learning in school settings, and the value of neural assessments for prediction of school performance over behavioral testing alone. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Masked Primes Activate Feature Representations in Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Roon, Kevin D.; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Theories of reading aloud are silent about the role of subphonemic/subsegmental representations in translating print to sound. However, there is empirical evidence suggesting that feature representations are activated in speech production and visual word recognition. In the present study, we sought to determine whether masked primes activate…

  14. Brain Activity with Reading Sentences and Emoticons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.

  15. Promoting Active Participation in Book Reading for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Veronica P.; Miramontez, Shane Herriott; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Schwartz, Ilene S.

    2014-01-01

    A common literacy practice in early childhood classrooms is reading aloud to children. Little is known, however, about the quality of engagement in shared reading activities for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dialogic reading is one method of shared reading in which adults encourage children to actively participate in the…

  16. Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Gutierrez, Tiana; Levin, Joel R.; Japuntich, Sandra; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Indexical Hypothesis suggests a new method for enhancing children's reading comprehension. Young readers may not consistently "index," or map, words to the objects the words represent. Consequently, these readers fail to derive much meaning from the text. The instructional method involves manipulating toy objects referred to in the…

  17. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Jasińska, Kaja K.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain’s functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children’s (age 6–10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading–related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes. PMID:27551971

  18. Independence and Elaboration Day: Activities to Enhance Student Reading in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry; Smith, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Describes an activity approach (Independence and Elaboration Day, I & E Day) which is intended to help high school social studies students become independent readers and learners by reading social studies material other than textbooks. Suggested materials include newspapers, minutes of political and legislative meetings, and magazines. (DB)

  19. Literature Links: Thematic Units Linking Read-Alouds and Computer Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary Susan; Park Prior, Miri; Hubbard, Betty P.; Ryan, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    This book gives the reader ideas for providing primary-grade students with literacy learning opportunities that integrate conventional literacies, such as phonics and comprehension, with new literacies, such as multimedia composition and hyperlink navigation. The reader will find a variety of linked activities, including reading children's books,…

  20. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities as Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramaarachchi, Thilina Indrajie

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as "prw tasks") in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were…

  1. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  2. Variants in the DYX2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in reading-related brain regions in subjects with reading disability.

    PubMed

    Cope, Natalie; Eicher, John D; Meng, Haiying; Gibson, Christopher J; Hager, Karl; Lacadie, Cheryl; Fulbright, Robert K; Constable, R Todd; Page, Grier P; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2012-10-15

    Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP, have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP and exhaustive reading measures, we first tested for association with reading performance in 82 parent-offspring families (326 individuals). Next, we determined the association of these variants with activation of sixteen brain regions of interest during four functional magnetic resonance imaging-reading tasks. We nominally replicated associations between reading performance and variants of DCDC2 and KIAA0319. Furthermore, we observed a number of associations with brain activation patterns during imaging-reading tasks with all three genes. The strongest association occurred between activation of the left anterior inferior parietal lobe and complex tandem repeat BV677278 in DCDC2 (uncorrected p=0.00003, q=0.0442). Our results show that activation patterns across regions of interest in the brain are influenced by variants in the DYX2 locus. The combination of genetic and functional imaging data show a link between genes and brain functioning during reading tasks in subjects with RD. This study highlights the many advantages of imaging data as an endophenotype for discerning genetic risk factors for RD and other communication disorders and underscores the importance of integrating neurocognitive, imaging, and genetic data in future investigations.

  3. Variants in the DYX2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in reading-related brain regions in subjects with reading disability

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Natalie; Eicher, John D.; Meng, Haiying; Gibson, Christopher J.; Hager, Karl; Lacadie, Cheryl; Fulbright, Robert K.; Constable, R. Todd; Page, Grier P.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP, have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in DCDC2, KIAA0319, and TTRAP and exhaustive reading measures, we first tested for association with reading performance in 82 parent-offspring families (326 individuals). Next, we determined the association of these variants with activation of sixteen brain regions of interest during four functional magnetic resonance imaging-reading tasks. We nominally replicated associations between reading performance and variants of DCDC2 and KIAA0319. Furthermore, we observed a number of associations with brain activation patterns during imaging-reading tasks with all three genes. The strongest association occurred between activation of the left anterior inferior parietal lobe and complex tandem repeat BV677278 in DCDC2 (uncorrected p=0.00003, q=0.0442). Our results show that activation patterns across regions of interest in the brain are influenced by variants in the DYX2 locus. The combination of genetic and functional imaging data show a link between genes and brain functioning during reading tasks in subjects with RD. This study highlights the many advantages of imaging data as an endophenotype for discerning genetic risk factors for RD and other communication disorders and underscores the importance of integrating neurocognitive, imaging, and genetic data in future investigations. PMID:22750057

  4. Read Alouds and Beyond: The Effects of Read Aloud Extension Activities on Vocabulary in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Rebecca; Crandell, Jennifer DiBara; Carlis, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in 26 Head Start classrooms with 264 children to compare the effect of a read aloud plus extension activities intervention over a control group to the effect of a read aloud only intervention over a control group on preschool children's vocabulary. Children were assessed before and after the intervention on target vocabulary…

  5. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  6. The Effect of a Timed Reading Activity on EFL Learners: Speed, Comprehension, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S

    2010-01-01

    To develop reading fluency, a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students' reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Students'…

  7. Note Launchers: Promoting Active Reading of Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Josh W.; Helms, Kimberly Turner

    2010-01-01

    Note launchers, an instructor-designed reading guide, model how to select, decide, and focus upon what textbook material is important to learn. Reading guides are specially-designed study aids that can steer students through difficult parts of assigned readings (Bean, 1996) while encouraging advance preparation. As an example of a reading guide,…

  8. The Role of Parents in Adolescents' Reading Motivation and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Parent support for reading is one of the many elements that may play a role in the development and sustainment of children's reading motivation; to date, however, research has focused much more on the role that parents play in their preschool and primary-grade children's reading than in their older children's reading. Thus, this paper examines the…

  9. Can Reading Questions Foster Active Learning? A Study of Six College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koontz, T. M.; Plank, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors strive to encourage student reading outside of class and active learning in class. One pedagogical tool, structured reading questions, can help do both. Using examples from question sets across six courses, the authors illustrate how reading questions can help students achieve the six active-learning principles described by…

  10. The Genomic Scrapheap Challenge; Extracting Relevant Data from Unmapped Whole Genome Sequencing Reads, Including Strain Specific Genomic Segments, in Rats

    PubMed Central

    van der Weide, Robin H.; Simonis, Marieke; Hermsen, Roel; Toonen, Pim; Cuppen, Edwin; de Ligt, Joep

    2016-01-01

    Unmapped next-generation sequencing reads are typically ignored while they contain biologically relevant information. We systematically analyzed unmapped reads from whole genome sequencing of 33 inbred rat strains. High quality reads were selected and enriched for biologically relevant sequences; similarity-based analysis revealed clustering similar to previously reported phylogenetic trees. Our results demonstrate that on average 20% of all unmapped reads harbor sequences that can be used to improve reference genomes and generate hypotheses on potential genotype-phenotype relationships. Analysis pipelines would benefit from incorporating the described methods and reference genomes would benefit from inclusion of the genomic segments obtained through these efforts. PMID:27501045

  11. The Genomic Scrapheap Challenge; Extracting Relevant Data from Unmapped Whole Genome Sequencing Reads, Including Strain Specific Genomic Segments, in Rats.

    PubMed

    van der Weide, Robin H; Simonis, Marieke; Hermsen, Roel; Toonen, Pim; Cuppen, Edwin; de Ligt, Joep

    2016-01-01

    Unmapped next-generation sequencing reads are typically ignored while they contain biologically relevant information. We systematically analyzed unmapped reads from whole genome sequencing of 33 inbred rat strains. High quality reads were selected and enriched for biologically relevant sequences; similarity-based analysis revealed clustering similar to previously reported phylogenetic trees. Our results demonstrate that on average 20% of all unmapped reads harbor sequences that can be used to improve reference genomes and generate hypotheses on potential genotype-phenotype relationships. Analysis pipelines would benefit from incorporating the described methods and reference genomes would benefit from inclusion of the genomic segments obtained through these efforts.

  12. Relationship between Computer-Based Reading Activities and Reading Achievements among Hong Kong and U.S. Students: A Comparative Study Using PIRLS 2011 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dan; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Reading for personal interest and acquiring and using information using various reading processes are important parts of reading literacy that students need to develop in order to progress successfully through their schooling and fully function in the information society. Computer assisted reading instructional activities are assumed useful in…

  13. Principles and Implementation of Reading Activities in Primary School English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinxiu, Jing; Zhengping, Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Reading is an important skill in learning English. However, reading class is not emphasized in some primary schools in China, and there are various problems with the reading activities, which inadequately just focus on teaching of words, sentences separately from texts. This paper aims to bring out a whole system of principles in designing…

  14. The Reading of Older Americans Who View Learning as a Lifelong Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngandu, Kathleen M.

    A study examined the reading behavior of 101 older adults enrolled in a summer "elderhostel" program offered by a small eastern college. Each subject responded to a questionnaire concerning reading habits, interests, attitudes, and motivations. Results showed that the older adults had a wide range of reading interests, including mysteries,…

  15. Reading Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  16. An Analysis of Specialized Reading Instruction in High School English Classes for Students with Disabilities Included in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Kathy Rosvold

    2010-01-01

    This study is a qualitative case study that examined and analyzed the instructional strategies implemented by high school English teachers when teaching reading to students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Ten teachers who teach high school English on collaborative teams made up of a general and a special educator participated in the…

  17. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  18. Ready, Set, Read! Hundreds of Exciting, Skill-Appropriate Ready-To-Use Reading Readiness Activities. Pre-K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jean R.

    Designed to be useful for teachers, students, and parents, this resource book contains skill-appropriate, easy-to-follow activities for emergent readers. Noting that helping children become successful readers by developing reading readiness skills and a love for literature requires careful planning and instruction, the book states that children…

  19. Elevating Baseline Activation Does Not Facilitate Reading of Unattended Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Kouchi, Scott; Ruthruff, Eric; Lachter, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed the extent to which people extract meaning from words presented outside the focus of spatial attention. The present study, examined a possible explanation for such discrepancies, inspired by attenuation theory: unattended words can be read more automatically when they have a high baseline level of activation (e.g., due to frequent repetition or due to being expected in a given context). We presented a brief prime word in lowercase, followed by a target word in uppercase. Participants indicated whether the target word belonged to a particular category (e.g., "sport"). When we drew attention to the prime word using a visual cue, the prime produced substantial priming effects on target responses (i.e., faster responses when the prime and target words were identical or from the same category than when they belonged to different categories). When prime words were not attended, however, they produced no priming effects. This finding replicated even when there were only 4 words, each repeated 160 times during the experiment. Even with a very high baseline level of activation, it appears that very little word processing is possible without spatial attention.

  20. Teaching Students to Read the Primary Literature Using POGIL Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to read, interpret, and evaluate articles in the primary literature are important skills that science majors will use in graduate school and professional life. Because of this, it is important that students are not only exposed to the primary literature in undergraduate education, but also taught how to read and interpret these…

  1. Rethinking Middle School Reading Instruction: A Basic Literacy Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, William E.; Wood, Karen D.; Taylor, D. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Research on subject matter instruction across the 20th century (e.g., Stevens, 1912; Bellack, 1966; Hoetker & Ahlbrand; 1969; Gall, 1970; Langer, 1999; Mehan, 1979; Nystrand, 1997;) reveals a preponderance of teacher-directed lecture, recitation, and round-robin reading of text in place of instruction that focuses on reading-to-learn, thinking,…

  2. The role of reading activity on the modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand in Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, A; Wassermann, E M; Sadato, N; Hallett, M

    1995-12-01

    We studied the cortical motor output maps of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of both hands and the abductor digiti minimi of the reading hand in 6 blind proficient Braille readers. The maps were generated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. We compared the maps obtained on a day in which they worked as Braille proofreaders (reading Braille for approximately 6 hours) with the maps obtained on a day they took off from work. On the work day, the maps for the FDI of the reading hand were significantly larger after the working shift than in the morning after having been off work for 2 days. These changes were not seen for the same muscle on the day off work or on any of the 2 days in the other two muscles studied. These results illustrate the rapid modulation in motor cortical outputs in relation to preceding activity and emphasize the importance of precise timing in studies of the neurophysiological correlates of skill acquisition.

  3. Learning from texts: activation of information from previous texts during reading.

    PubMed

    Beker, Katinka; Jolles, Dietsje; Lorch, Robert F; van den Broek, Paul

    Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts (experiment 2). In both experiments, texts with inconsistent target sentences were preceded by texts that either did or did not contain explanations that resolved the inconsistencies. In experiment 1, the reading times of the target sentences introducing inconsistencies were faster if the preceding text contained an explanation for the inconsistency than if it did not. This result demonstrates that relevant information from a prior text is spontaneously activated when the target sentence is read. In experiment 2 free recall was used to gain insight into the representation after reading. The reading time results for experiment 2 replicated the reading time results for experiment 1. However, the effects on reading times did not translate to measurable differences in text representations after reading. This research extends our knowledge about the processes involved in multiple text comprehension: Prior text information is spontaneously activated during reading, thereby enabling integration between different texts.

  4. Going Blended with a Triple-Entry Activity: Students' Online Discussions of Assigned Readings Using "Marginalia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanevsky, Lannie; Xin, Cindy; Ram, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and investigate small group discussions of assigned readings in an online version of a "triple-entry activity" in a blended course used an annotation tool, "Marginalia". We wondered if students would interact in this structured, critical, reflective reading activity as effectively online as they had…

  5. The Effect of Project-Based Activities on Intermediate EFL Students' Reading Comprehension Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiraz, Mona Poorverdi; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezati

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the use of Project-based activities and intermediate EFL students' reading comprehension. The study addresses the questions of whether students' reading comprehension differs after implementing Project-based activities, and whether different projects lead to different degrees of reading…

  6. The Contribution of Early Home Literacy Activities to First Grade Reading and Writing Achievements in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Korat, Ofra; Hassunah-Arafat, Safieh

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the literacy development of native Arabic-speaking children from kindergarten to the end of first grade, focusing on the role of home literacy activities (mother-child shared book reading and joint writing). The contribution of these activities in kindergarten to children's reading and writing at the end of…

  7. Comparing Effects of Different Writing Activities on Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Michael; Simpson, Amy; Graham, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to determine: (1) if different writing activities were more effective than others in improving students' reading comprehension, and (2) if obtained differences among writing activities was related to how reading comprehension was measured? Meta-analysis was used to examine these questions across studies involving…

  8. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  9. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  10. Executive Control Modulates Cross-Language Lexical Activation during L2 Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated…

  11. Learning from Texts: Activation of Information from Previous Texts during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beker, Katinka; Jolles, Dietsje; Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; van den Broek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts…

  12. The Main Sources of Intersubject Variability in Neuronal Activation for Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kherif, Ferath; Josse, Goulven; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the most prominent source of intersubject variability in neuronal activation for reading familiar words aloud. To this end, we collected functional imaging data from a large sample of subjects (n = 76) with different demographic characteristics such as handedness, sex, and age, while reading. The…

  13. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  14. Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6?12: A Toolkit of Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Help struggling readers understand content area texts with research-based, innovative classroom tools that foster lifelong reading comprehension habits. This book presents easy-to-use activities organized around six habits of reading comprehension: (1) Organizing text information by sculpting the main idea and summarizing; (2) Connecting to…

  15. The Reading Habits of Church Active Mormon Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Marianne; Cranney, A. Garr

    Data from 149 female members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) were used to construct a composite of the reading habits and their relation to other characterisitics of this group. The typical respondent was a married woman between 26 and 40 years old who had attended college but remained at home to care for children under…

  16. Parafoveal Lexical Activation Depends on Skilled Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The boundary paradigm was used to investigate individual differences in the extraction of lexical information from the parafovea in sentence reading. The preview of a target word was manipulated so that it was identical (e.g., "sped"), a higher frequency orthographic neighbor ("seed"), a nonword neighbor ("sted"), or…

  17. Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

  18. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  19. Coaching Reading Buddies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theurer, Joan Leikam; Schmidt, Kathy Burson

    2008-01-01

    Reading buddies have been used by teachers for many years. The practice and benefits of having older students reading with younger students on a regular basis has been well documented. This article provides suggestions for teachers as they begin a reading buddy program and includes ideas for meaningful follow-up activities that will help keep…

  20. Arizona Reading Journal, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Karen, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The two issues of the 1999-2000 "Arizona Reading Journal" provides information about reading in general and about the activities of the Arizona Reading Association. The Fall 1999 issue includes the following articles: "IRA Resolution on Class Size"; "Teaching Reading in Social Studies" (Marlow Ediger); "Examining the Role of Student-Written Texts…

  1. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C

    2014-08-01

    For many students at risk for reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a learning disability. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of time kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties actively engaged in reading print during Tier I reading instruction, and the extent to which time in reading print was related to end-of-year reading achievement. Findings revealed the amount of time students were engaged in reading print predicted end-of-year reading achievement, although time engaged in reading print during Tier I was limited overall. Student and teacher level factors and their relationship to the amount of time students engage in reading print is also examined.

  2. Activity Supplement for Puedo Leer: Teacher's Guide and Use of Charts. Program for Initial Reading in Spanish for Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Sara

    This activity supplement is intended to accompany the Puedo Leer/I Can Read Teacher's Guide for initial reading in Spanish for bilingual children. The supplement, which consists of a teacher's guide and a set of charts on card stock, provides suggestions for a wide variety of pre-reading activities and approaches, which expand on the activities…

  3. Information and Experience: Audio-Visual Observations of Reading Activities in Swedish Comprehensive School Classrooms 1967-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolatkhah, Mats; Hampson Lundh, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates reading activities in Swedish primary school classrooms during the late 1960s. Sound and video recordings of 223 Swedish lessons held between 1967 and 1969 are used to analyse the activity of reading as taught and performed. The results indicate that the practice of informational reading, often based on finding…

  4. Helping Children with Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, Ruth; And Others

    Intended for parents helping their children with reading disabilities, the book describes specific activities in eight areas. The eight areas include general suggestions for the study period, hand and eye coordination activities, phonics training, ear training, reading, relaxation activities, muscle memory, writing, and spelling. Thirteen…

  5. Monster Magic: A Reading Activities Idea Book for Use with Children. A Fun with Reading Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Zinita

    Intended as a usable resource for librarians and teachers in planning and implementing a program for young library users and students, this book was developed to stimulate children to use the library. The introduction contains opening comments--including an explanation of how the theme of "monster magic" inspires creativity, specific goals, and a…

  6. Using Technology and Creative Reading Activities to Increase Pleasure Reading among High School Students in Resource Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Katherine B.

    This applied dissertation was designed to encourage resource students to read more books for pleasure. Resource students in the writer's high school did not read many books for pleasure. Students had short attention spans and found it difficult to finish school assignments without encouragement. They also found reading difficult and often said…

  7. A Study of Student Engagement Activities, Discipline Referrals, and Student Achievement in Reading First Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Shelly Lynette

    2013-01-01

    High quality student engagement activities are essential if students are to be successful learners. Over the years, many instructional strategies and models have been devised to encourage teachers to develop student engagement activities that result in high achievement. The Reading First Model initiative was introduced as a part of the No Child…

  8. Elementary School Recess: Selected Readings, Games, and Activities for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Rhonda L., Ed.

    Based upon the principle that all children have a right to play and to experience the benefits of recess, this book assists elementary school teachers and parents in offering children in preschool through Grade 6 appropriate recess games and activities and provides a variety of readings that support the need for recess activities. The book is…

  9. Effects of Three Forms of Reading-Based Output Activity on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of three forms of output activity on EFL learners' recognition and recall of second language (L2) vocabulary. To this end, three groups of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) were instructed to employ the following three output activities after reading two narrative texts: (1) summarizing the…

  10. Reading the Rocks. A Fall Activity Packet for Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on various geological…

  11. Fiches pratiques: Le Corps, cet inconnu; Lire une depeche; Lire une oeuvre integrale; Lire l image (Practical Ideas: The Body Unknown; Reading a Headline; Reading a Whole Work; Reading Pictures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Coudar, Corinne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four instructional activities for language learning are described, including a unit on body-related vocabulary and expressions using the names of body parts, reading headlines, reading an entire literary work, and "reading" pictures. (MSE)

  12. Which Book and Why: Using Book Bands and Book Levels for Guided Reading in Key Stage 1 [Includes CD-ROM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodman, Sue, Ed.; Franklin, Glen, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    We want all children to love reading, and Which Book and Why demonstrates how effective guided reading for children in Foundation Stage and Key Stage 1 can help teachers make this happen. Balancing theory and practice, this book explores how schools and teachers can implement guided reading more confidently and more effectively. Which Book and Why…

  13. Dynamic Assessment of Reading Difficulties: Predictive and Incremental Validity on Attitude toward Reading and the Use of Dialogue/Participation Strategies in Classroom Activities

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; Lara, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed. PMID:28243215

  14. Dynamic Assessment of Reading Difficulties: Predictive and Incremental Validity on Attitude toward Reading and the Use of Dialogue/Participation Strategies in Classroom Activities.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-José; Lara, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Assessment (DA) has been shown to have more predictive value than conventional tests for academic performance. However, in relation to reading difficulties, further research is needed to determine the predictive validity of DA for specific aspects of the different processes involved in reading and the differential validity of DA for different subgroups of students with an academic disadvantage. This paper analyzes the implementation of a DA device that evaluates processes involved in reading (EDPL) among 60 students with reading comprehension difficulties between 9 and 16 years of age, of whom 20 have intellectual disabilities, 24 have reading-related learning disabilities, and 16 have socio-cultural disadvantages. We specifically analyze the predictive validity of the EDPL device over attitude toward reading, and the use of dialogue/participation strategies in reading activities in the classroom during the implementation stage. We also analyze if the EDPL device provides additional information to that obtained with a conventionally applied personal-social adjustment scale (APSL). Results showed that dynamic scores, obtained from the implementation of the EDPL device, significantly predict the studied variables. Moreover, dynamic scores showed a significant incremental validity in relation to predictions based on an APSL scale. In relation to differential validity, the results indicated the superior predictive validity for DA for students with intellectual disabilities and reading disabilities than for students with socio-cultural disadvantages. Furthermore, the role of metacognition and its relation to the processes of personal-social adjustment in explaining the results is discussed.

  15. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  16. Toward Semantics in the Wild: Activation to Manipulable Nouns in Naturalistic Reading

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonil; Lai, Vicky T.

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of language processing, in the context of naturalistic reading of connected text, is a crucial but largely unexplored area. Here we combined functional MRI and eye tracking to examine the reading of text presented as whole paragraphs in two experiments with human subjects. We registered high-temporal resolution eye-tracking data to a low-temporal resolution BOLD signal to extract responses to single words during naturalistic reading where two to four words are typically processed per second. As a test case of a lexical variable, we examined the response to noun manipulability. In both experiments, signal in the left anterior inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior temporal gyrus and sulcus was positively correlated with noun manipulability. These regions are associated with both action performance and action semantics, and their activation is consistent with a number of previous studies involving tool words and physical tool use. The results show that even during rapid reading of connected text, where semantics of words may be activated only partially, the meaning of manipulable nouns is grounded in action performance systems. This supports the grounded cognition view of semantics, which posits a close link between sensory–motor and conceptual systems of the brain. On the methodological front, these results demonstrate that BOLD responses to lexical variables during naturalistic reading can be extracted by simultaneous use of eye tracking. This opens up new avenues for the study of language and reading in the context of connected text. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The study of language and reading has traditionally relied on single word or sentence stimuli. In fMRI, this is necessitated by the fact that time resolution of a BOLD signal much lower than that of cognitive processes that take place during natural reading of connected text. Here, we propose a method that combines eye tracking and fMRI, and can extract word-level information from the

  17. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor‐preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface‐based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory‐motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory‐motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M‐I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784–2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061771

  18. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps.

    PubMed

    Sood, Mariam R; Sereno, Martin I

    2016-08-01

    Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor-preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface-based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory-motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory-motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M-I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784-2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her...) Other market promotion activities. Credit-Back shall be granted for market promotion other than...

  20. Automatic activation of phonology in silent reading is parallel: evidence from beginning and skilled readers.

    PubMed

    Alario, F-Xavier; De Cara, Bruno; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2007-07-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm was used to shed new light on the debate concerning slow serial versus fast parallel activation of phonology in silent reading. Prereaders, beginning readers (Grades 1-4), and adults named pictures that had words printed on them. Words and pictures shared phonology either at the beginnings of words (e.g., DOLL-DOG) or at the ends of words (e.g., FOG-DOG). The results showed that phonological overlap between primes and targets facilitated picture naming. This facilitatory effect was present even in beginning readers. More important, from Grade 1 onward, end-related facilitation always was as strong as beginning-related facilitation. This result suggests that, from the beginning of reading, the implicit and automatic activation of phonological codes during silent reading is not serial but rather parallel.

  1. Tuberculosis screening and compliance with return for skin test reading among active drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Malotte, C K; Rhodes, F; Mais, K E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the independent and combined effects of different levels of monetary incentives and a theory-based educational intervention on return for tuberculosis (TB) skin test reading in a sample of active injection drug and crack cocaine users. Prevalence of TB infection in this sample was also determined. METHODS: Active or recent drug users (n = 1004), recruited via street outreach techniques, were skin tested for TB. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 levels of monetary incentive ($5 and $10) provided at return for skin test reading, alone or in combination with a brief motivational education session. RESULTS: More than 90% of those who received $10 returned for skin test reading, in comparison with 85% of those who received $5 and 33% of those who received no monetary incentive. The education session had no impact on return for skin test reading. The prevalence of a positive tuberculin test was 18.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives dramatically increase the return rate for TB skin test reading among drug users who are at high risk of TB infection. PMID:9585747

  2. Shared vs. specific brain activation changes in dyslexia after training of phonology, attention, or reading.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Brinkhaus, Moti; Grande, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia has received substantial attention, only little is known about the processes in the brain during remediation. This holds in particular in light of recent findings on cognitive subtypes of dyslexia which suggest interactions between individual profiles, training methods, and also the task in the scanner. Therefore, we trained three groups of German dyslexic primary school children in the domains of phonology, attention, or visual word recognition. We compared neurofunctional changes after 4 weeks of training in these groups to those in untrained normal readers in a reading task and in a task of visual attention. The overall reading improvement in the dyslexic children was comparable over groups. It was accompanied by substantial increase of the activation level in the visual word form area (VWFA) during a reading task inside the scanner. Moreover, there were activation increases that were unique for each training group in the reading task. In contrast, when children performed the visual attention task, shared training effects were found in the left inferior frontal sulcus and gyrus, which varied in amplitude between the groups. Overall, the data reveal that different remediation programmes matched to individual profiles of dyslexia may improve reading ability and commonly affect the VWFA in dyslexia as a shared part of otherwise distinct networks.

  3. Reading, Writing, and Revolution: Facilitating Social Activism in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Janelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how teachers can develop a sense of social activism in students through critical multiculturalism. Drawing upon data from a nine-month participant observation study of a first-grade public charter school classroom in central California, this article highlights how teachers can integrate critical multiculturalism within an…

  4. Predicting Reading and Mathematics from Neural Activity for Feedback Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sabine; Van der Meulen, Mara; Zanolie, Kiki; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies use feedback learning paradigms to study the process of learning in laboratory settings, little is known about their relevance for real-world learning settings such as school. In a large developmental sample (N = 228, 8-25 years), we investigated whether performance and neural activity during a feedback learning task…

  5. Reading-Related Literacy Activities of American Adults: Time Spent, Task Types, and Cognitive Skills Used

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida; Chen, Jing; Forsyth, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data on the types and duration of reading-related activities reported by a volunteer sample of 400 adults (demographically similar to the U.S. adult population age 20 and older in terms of race, ethnicity, education, and working status) in the 2005 Real-World Tasks Study. This diary study revealed that adults spent, on…

  6. Literature-Based Reading: Children's Books and Activities To Enrich the K-5 Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Mildred Knight; Swisher, Claudia Lisman

    This book helps teachers and media directors to use children's literature to enrich elementary reading programs and to pursue sound educational objectives as they share the books and stories. It provides activities designed to expand and enrich the opportunities for children to become literate. It is a tool which addresses the need for children to…

  7. Automatic Activation of Phonology in Silent Reading Is Parallel: Evidence from Beginning and Skilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alario, F.-Xavier; De Cara, Bruno; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2007-01-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm was used to shed new light on the debate concerning slow serial versus fast parallel activation of phonology in silent reading. Prereaders, beginning readers (Grades 1-4), and adults named pictures that had words printed on them. Words and pictures shared phonology either at the beginnings of words (e.g.,…

  8. Reading Actively Online: An Exploratory Investigation of Online Annotation Tools for Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jingyan; Deng, Liping

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to design and facilitate active reading among secondary school students with an online annotation tool--Diigo. Two classes of different academic performance levels were recruited to examine their annotation behavior and perceptions of Diigo. We wanted to determine whether the two classes differed in how they used Diigo; how they…

  9. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  10. Marvels of Math: Fascinating Reads and Awesome Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Kendall F.

    Any topic, math included, becomes more accessible and understandable when human stories are related about the development of the subject. Stories make subjects real and purposeful. They provide a foundation from which students can understand and appreciate mathematics rather than merely memorize a series of rote exercises. This book presents 16…

  11. Redesigning Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay

    2000-01-01

    All students, including struggling readers, need opportunities to make choices in their reading. Schools should shun round-robin oral reading and basal readers, prioritize reading time, allocate resources for varied reading materials keyed to student interests, and develop better reading teachers, not better reading programs. (Contains 20…

  12. Decoding and disrupting left midfusiform gyrus activity during word reading

    PubMed Central

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Ward, Michael J.; Fiez, Julie A.; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the visual representation for words has been fiercely debated for over 150 y. We used direct brain stimulation, pre- and postsurgical behavioral measures, and intracranial electroencephalography to provide support for, and elaborate upon, the visual word form hypothesis. This hypothesis states that activity in the left midfusiform gyrus (lmFG) reflects visually organized information about words and word parts. In patients with electrodes placed directly in their lmFG, we found that disrupting lmFG activity through stimulation, and later surgical resection in one of the patients, led to impaired perception of whole words and letters. Furthermore, using machine-learning methods to analyze the electrophysiological data from these electrodes, we found that information contained in early lmFG activity was consistent with an orthographic similarity space. Finally, the lmFG contributed to at least two distinguishable stages of word processing, an early stage that reflects gist-level visual representation sensitive to orthographic statistics, and a later stage that reflects more precise representation sufficient for the individuation of orthographic word forms. These results provide strong support for the visual word form hypothesis and demonstrate that across time the lmFG is involved in multiple stages of orthographic representation. PMID:27325763

  13. Reading stories activates neural representations of visual and motor experiences.

    PubMed

    Speer, Nicole K; Reynolds, Jeremy R; Swallow, Khena M; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2009-08-01

    To understand and remember stories, readers integrate their knowledge of the world with information in the text. Here we present functional neuroimaging evidence that neural systems track changes in the situation described by a story. Different brain regions track different aspects of a story, such as a character's physical location or current goals. Some of these regions mirror those involved when people perform, imagine, or observe similar real-world activities. These results support the view that readers understand a story by simulating the events in the story world and updating their simulation when features of that world change.

  14. Reading Stories Activates Neural Representations of Visual and Motor Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Speer, Nicole K.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.; Swallow, Khena M.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    To understand and remember stories, readers integrate their knowledge of the world with information in the text. Here we present functional neuroimaging evidence that neural systems track changes in the situation described by a story. Different brain regions track different aspects of a story, such as a character’s physical location or current goals. Some of these regions mirror those involved when people perform, imagine, or observe similar real-world activities. These results support the view that readers understand a story by simulating the events in the story world and updating their simulation when features of that world change. PMID:19572969

  15. What makes the dorsomedial frontal cortex active during reading the mental states of others?

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Masaki; Noritake, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM) or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC) constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others' intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others' actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others' actions. PMID:24367287

  16. The Kids' Book Club: Lively Reading and Activities for Grades 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Desiree; Shropshire, Sandy

    Children learn to love reading by sharing quality books. Intended for children's librarians, media specialists, teachers, day care providers, and parents, this book will make it easy and fun to conduct book club meetings with little preparation time. Everything needed to start a weekly book club at school or at the library is included--detailed…

  17. Promoting active learning of graduate student by deep reading in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ren

    2017-01-06

    To promote graduate students' active learning, deep reading of high quality papers was done by graduate students enrolled in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum offered by college of life science, Jiangxi Normal University from 2013 to 2015. The number of graduate students, who participated in the course in 2013, 2014, and 2015 were eleven, thirteen and fifteen, respectively. Through deep reading of papers, presentation, and group discussion in the lecture, these graduate students have improved their academic performances effectively, such as literature search, PPT document production, presentation management, specialty document reading, academic inquiry, and analytical and comprehensive ability. The graduate students also have increased their understanding level of frontier research, scientific research methods, and experimental methods. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  18. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  19. Nuclear actin activates human transcription factor genes including the OCT4 gene.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shota; Yamamoto, Koji; Tokunaga, Makio; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    RNA microarray analyses revealed that nuclear actin activated many human transcription factor genes including OCT4, which is required for gene reprogramming. Oct4 is known to be activated by nuclear actin in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings imply that this process of OCT4 activation is conserved in vertebrates and among cell types and could be used for gene reprogramming of human cells.

  20. Reading Aloud--Suggestions for Classroom Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rews, Alun L. W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an introductory summary in defense of "reading aloud" in the English as a foreign language classroom and a more substantial section offering practical suggestions for handling it. The defense centers on a clarification of the purpose of reading aloud. Descriptions of different reading activities are included along with methods of…

  1. Reading for Mastery: An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Savannah Miller

    This guide provides a description of a mastery learning reading program based on a language approach to teaching reading. All suggested activities stress the use of skills to obtain meaning from reading as the main goal of instruction. Sections include a discussion of the elements of this mastery learning instructional program that notes the need…

  2. Reading Habit Promotion in ASEAN Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangkaeo, Somsong

    This paper describes the activities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) libraries have undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. First, factors limiting reading habits in ASEAN libraries are addressed, including: we are not a reading society, but a chatting society; the management of "3…

  3. Let Animals Teach Your Students to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1986-01-01

    Offers a plan for organizing and implementing a schoolwide reading week entitled, "Drop Everything Else, Read" (DEER). Presents explanations and directions for eight reading activities which focus on animals. Includes materials that can be duplicated and used by students as bookmarks and certificates. (ML)

  4. Relation between waking sport activities, reading, and dream content in sport students and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    The continuity hypothesis in its general form states that dreams reflect waking life: concerns, thoughts, and experiences (G. W. Domhoff, 1996; M. Schredl, 1999; I. Strauch & B. Meier, 1996). For example, athletes and sport students dream about sports more often than do psychology students, presumably reflecting their engagement in sport activities and sport theory (D. Erlacher & M. Schredl, 2004). In the present study, the authors tested the previously unexamined hypothesis that differences in dream content would directly reflect individuals' differing amounts of waking sport activities. As expected, the amount of time that individuals spent engaged in an activity (sports or reading) was directly related to their percentage of corresponding dreams. Also, individuals reported reading dreams less frequently than they did sport dreams, although reading was more prominent in their waking lives than were sport activities. The findings also indicated that other factors such as emotional involvement and associated worries might be of importance in explaining the relation between waking activities and dream events. Future studies using longitudinal designs would shed more light on this relation and would help derive a more precise formulation of the continuity hypothesis.

  5. The Style of Reading and Reading in Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    2007-01-01

    Adult read aloud book activities, including literature selections, have significant impact on children's language learning opportunities. The style in which books are orally shared with children is also important. Detailed examination of adult-child book reading conversations has demonstrated a variety of teaching and learning approaches in the…

  6. Print-specific multimodal brain activation in kindergarten improves prediction of reading skills in second grade.

    PubMed

    Bach, Silvia; Richardson, Ulla; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Brem, Silvia

    2013-11-15

    Children who are poor readers usually experience troublesome school careers and consequently often suffer from secondary emotional and behavioural problems. Early identification and prediction of later reading problems thus are critical in order to start targeted interventions for those children with an elevated risk for emerging reading problems. In this study, behavioural precursors of reading were assessed in nineteen (aged 6.4 ± 0.3 years) non-reading kindergarteners before training letter-speech sound associations with a computerized game (Graphogame) for eight weeks. The training aimed to introduce the basic principles of letter-speech sound correspondences and to initialize the sensitization of specific brain areas to print. Event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded during an explicit word/symbol processing task after the training. Reading skills were assessed two years later in second grade. The focus of this study was on clarifying whether electrophysiological and fMRI data of kindergarten children significantly improve prediction of future reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Based on evidence from previous studies demonstrating the importance of initial print sensitivity in the left occipito-temporal visual word form system (VWFS) for learning to read, the first pronounced difference in processing words compared to symbols in the ERP, an occipito-temporal negativity (N1: 188-281 ms) along with the corresponding functional activation in the left occipito-temporal VWFS were defined as potential predictors. ERP and fMRI data in kindergarteners significantly improved the prediction of reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Together with the behavioural measures they explained up to 88% of the variance. An additional discriminant analysis revealed a remarkably high accuracy in classifying normal (n=11) and poor readers (n=6). Due to the key limitation of the study

  7. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  8. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  9. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  10. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading.

  11. Reading As a Survival Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Patricia E.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a technique for the development of survival reading activity packets for the science classroom. The reading packets described include labels from different food and medicine products and from magazine and newspaper articles. Three types of questions were used with each packet: factual, interpretive, and application. (DS)

  12. Children Can Love Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibart, Rosemary

    1980-01-01

    Describes the Reading Is Fundamental Program (RIF), whose reading motivation concept is simple: young people who get the opportunity to freely choose and to own books may begin to experience reading as a pleasurable activity. (Author/LLS)

  13. The Effects of Word Walls and Word Wall Activities on the Reading Fluency of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Joanne; Schiesl, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency is the ability to read orally with speed and efficiency, including word recognition, decoding, and comprehension (Chard & Pikulski, 2005). Able readers achieve fluency as they recognize words with speed and build upon them to aid in comprehension (Pumfrey & Elliott, 1990). One way to help students achieve fluency is through the use…

  14. Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  15. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 7-8: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 7 and 8. The objectives listed are correlated to the…

  16. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades K-3. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  17. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 4-6: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 4-6. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  18. Cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, psychosocial adjustment, reading and writing in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chuang, I-Ching; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A parent-report questionnaire, the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Chinese version (DCDQ-C), was used to screen first to third graders from 13 mainstream schools in Taipei. Two standardized motor tests were then administered to those who scored below 10% on the DCDQ-C. Tests of activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment were then administered to this sample. Thirty-eight children identified as DCD, 32 as suspect for DCD and 82 as normal comparison were included in the final sample. Multivariate analysis of variance comparing the three groups (DCD, suspect DCD, and comparison) revealed that both children with DCD and suspect for DCD obtained significantly poorer scores on measures of attention and reading, and were more hyperactive than comparison children. Children with DCD and suspect for DCD were also reported to have more internalizing and social problems than children without motor problems. No significant differences, however, were noted between children with different degree of motor coordination problems (categorized as DCD and suspect for DCD) on any measure. Furthermore, a high percentage of children in both the DCD and suspect groups fell in the clinical range of attention, activity level and psychosocial adjustment problems. The results revealed a high risk for these problems in nonreferred children with motor coordination problems. The high percentage of clinical range behavioral problems warrants attention of clinicians who work with children with motor coordination difficulties to the need to promote early identification and referral.

  19. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  20. Read Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

  1. Neural activity tied to reading predicts individual differences in extended-text comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension depends on neural processes supporting the access, understanding, and storage of words over time. Examinations of the neural activity correlated with reading have contributed to our understanding of reading comprehension, especially for the comprehension of sentences and short passages. However, the neural activity associated with comprehending an extended text is not well-understood. Here we describe a current-source-density (CSD) index that predicts individual differences in the comprehension of an extended text. The index is the difference in CSD-transformed event-related potentials (ERPs) to a target word between two conditions: a comprehension condition with words from a story presented in their original order, and a scrambled condition with the same words presented in a randomized order. In both conditions participants responded to the target word, and in the comprehension condition they also tried to follow the story in preparation for a comprehension test. We reasoned that the spatiotemporal pattern of difference-CSDs would reflect comprehension-related processes beyond word-level processing. We used a pattern-classification method to identify the component of the difference-CSDs that accurately (88%) discriminated good from poor comprehenders. The critical CSD index was focused at a frontal-midline scalp site, occurred 400–500 ms after target-word onset, and was strongly correlated with comprehension performance. Behavioral data indicated that group differences in effort or motor preparation could not explain these results. Further, our CSD index appears to be distinct from the well-known P300 and N400 components, and CSD transformation seems to be crucial for distinguishing good from poor comprehenders using our experimental paradigm. Once our CSD index is fully characterized, this neural signature of individual differences in extended-text comprehension may aid the diagnosis and remediation of reading comprehension deficits. PMID

  2. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  3. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  4. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  5. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  6. Modifying Physical Activities to Include Individuals with Disabilities: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Effectively including individuals with disabilities in a physical activity setting can often be a challenge due to constraints related to equipment, class size, curriculum, and the various ability levels of individuals with and without disabilities. However, there are ways the instructor can control the environment and tasks to meet the needs of…

  7. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  8. Augmenting Paper-Based Reading Activity with Direct Access to Digital Materials and Scaffolded Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Teng, Daniel Chia-En; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kinshuk

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension is the goal of reading. However, students often encounter reading difficulties due to the lack of background knowledge and proper reading strategy. Unfortunately, print text provides very limited assistance to one's reading comprehension through its static knowledge representations such as symbols, charts, and graphs. Integrating…

  9. Techniques for writing and reading data on an optical disk which include formation of holographic optical gratings in plural locations on the optical disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi (Inventor); Psaltis, Demetri (Inventor); Mok, Fai H. (Inventor); Zhou, Gan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An optical memory for storing and/or reading data on an optical disk. The optical disk incorporates a material in which holographic gratings can be created, and subsequently detected, at plural locations within the disk by an electro-optical head. Creation and detection of holographic gratings with variable diffraction efficiency is possible with the electro-optical head. Multiple holographic gratings can also be created at each one of the plural locations via a beam of light which has a different wavelength or point of focus. These data elements can be read by the electro-optical head using a beam of light sequentially varied in wavelength or point of focus to correspond to the multiple holographic gratings to be recorded.

  10. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-02-01

    In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw control is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.

  11. Mimetics of caloric restriction include agonists of lipid-activated nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Corton, J Christopher; Apte, Udayan; Anderson, Steven P; Limaye, Pallavi; Yoon, Lawrence; Latendresse, John; Dunn, Corrie; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Voss, Kenneth A; Swanson, Cynthia; Kimbrough, Carie; Wong, Jean S; Gill, Sarjeet S; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Stulnig, Thomas M; Steffensen, Knut R; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mehendale, Harihara M

    2004-10-29

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized countries is associated with increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and certain types of cancer. In animal models, caloric restriction (CR) suppresses these diseases as well as chemical-induced tissue damage. These beneficial effects of CR overlap with those altered by agonists of nuclear receptors (NR) under control of the fasting-responsive transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha). In a screen for compounds that mimic CR effects in the liver, we found statistically significant overlaps between the CR transcript profile in wild-type mice and the profiles altered by agonists of lipid-activated NR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), liver X receptor, and their obligate heterodimer partner, retinoid X receptor. The overlapping genes included those involved in CVD (lipid metabolism and inflammation) and cancer (cell fate). Based on this overlap, we hypothesized that some effects of CR are mediated by PPARalpha. As determined by transcript profiling, 19% of all gene expression changes in wild-type mice were dependent on PPARalpha, including Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14, involved in fatty acid omega-oxidation, acute phase response genes, and epidermal growth factor receptor but not increases in PGC-1alpha. CR protected the livers of wild-type mice from damage induced by thioacetamide, a liver toxicant and hepatocarcinogen. CR protection was lost in PPARalpha-null mice due to inadequate tissue repair. These results demonstrate that PPARalpha mediates some of the effects of CR and indicate that a pharmacological approach to mimicking many of the beneficial effects of CR may be possible.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of soy has been demonstrated to reduce circulating cholesterol levels, most notably reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The component or components that might be responsible for this effect is still a matter of debate or controversy among many researchers. Candidate agents include an activity of soy protein itself, bioactive peptides produced during the digestive process, or the soy isoflavones. Although soy intake may provide other health benefits including preventative or remediative effects on cancer, osteoporosis and symptoms of menopause, this review will focus on isoflavones as agents affecting lipid metabolism. Isoflavones were first discovered as a bioactive agent disrupting estrogen action in female sheep, thereby earning the often-used term 'phytoestrogens'. Subsequent work confirmed the ability of isoflavones to bind to estrogen receptors. Along with the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy intake, research that is more recent has pointed to a beneficial antidiabetic effect of soy intake, perhaps mediated by soy isoflavones. The two common categories of antidiabetic drugs acting on nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are the fibrates and glitazones. We and others have recently asked the research question 'do the soy isoflavones have activities as either "phytofibrates" or "phytoglitazones"?' Such an activity should be able to be confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. In both the in vivo and in vitro cases, this action has indeed been confirmed. Further work suggests a possible action of isoflavones similar to the nonestrogenic ligands that bind the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Recently, these receptors have been demonstrated to contribute to lipolytic processes. Finally, evaluation of receptor activation studies suggests that thyroid receptor activation may provide additional clues explaining the metabolic action of isoflavones. The recent

  13. [Spatio-Temporal Bioelectrical Brain Activity Organization during Reading Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Collocations by Students with Different Foreign Language Proficiency].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, L V; Cherkasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Texts or words/pseudowords are often used as stimuli for human verbal activity research. Our study pays attention to decoding processes of grammatical constructions consisted of two-three words--collocations. Russian and English collocation sets without any narrative were presented to Russian-speaking students with different English language skill. Stimulus material had two types of collocations: paradigmatic and syntagmatic. 30 students (average age--20.4 ± 0.22) took part in the study, they were divided into two equal groups depending on their English language skill (linguists/nonlinguists). During reading brain bioelectrical activity of cortex has been registered from 12 electrodes in alfa-, beta-, theta-bands. Coherent function reflecting cooperation of different cortical areas during reading collocations has been analyzed. Increase of interhemispheric and diagonal connections while reading collocations in different languages in the group of students with low knowledge of foreign language testifies of importance of functional cooperation between the hemispheres. It has been found out that brain bioelectrical activity of students with good foreign language knowledge during reading of all collocation types in Russian and English is characterized by economization of nervous substrate resources compared to nonlinguists. Selective activation of certain cortical areas has also been observed (depending on the grammatical construction type) in nonlinguists group that is probably related to special decoding system which processes presented stimuli. Reading Russian paradigmatic constructions by nonlinguists entailed increase between left cortical areas, reading of English syntagmatic collocations--between right ones.

  14. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  15. Identification and characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus open reading frame 11 promotor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Open reading frame 11 (ORF11) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus belongs to a herpesviral homologous protein family shared by some members of the gamma- herpesvirus subfamily. Little is known about this ORF11 homologous protein family. We have characterized an unknown open reading frame, ORF11, located adjacent and in the opposite orientation to a well-characterized viral IL-6 gene. Northern blot analysis reveals that ORF11 is expressed during the KSHV lytic cycle with delayed-early transcription kinetics. We have determined the 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated region of the unspliced ORF11 transcript and identified both the transcription start site and the transcription termination site. Core promoter region, representing ORF11 promoter activity, was mapped to a 159nt fragment 5{prime} most proximal to the transcription start site. A functional TATA box was identified in the core promoter region. Interestingly, we found that ORF11 transcriptional activation is not responsive to Rta, the KSHV lytic switch protein. We also discovered that part of the ORF11 promoter region, the 209nt fragment upstream of the transcription start site, was repressed by phorbol esters. Our data help to understand transcription regulation of ORF11 and to elucidate roles of ORF11 in KSHV pathogenesis and life cycle.

  16. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  17. Reading as active sensing: a computational model of gaze planning in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    WE OFFER A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF GAZE PLANNING DURING READING THAT CONSISTS OF TWO MAIN COMPONENTS: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting.

  18. Reading as Active Sensing: A Computational Model of Gaze Planning in Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting. PMID:20577589

  19. Roads to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Ralph C.

    This book is a collection of ideas that have been used in many countries for the encouragement of reading. Its purposes are to provide information about reading and the reading habit; to put forward examples of local, national, and international reading promotion activities selected as useful, representative of different approaches, and adaptable…

  20. Novel Endorna-like viruses, including three with two open reading frames, challenge the membership criteria and taxonomy of the Endornaviridae.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jamie W L; Li, Hua; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jones, Michael G K; Wylie, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    Viruses associated with wild orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi are poorly studied. Using a shotgun sequencing approach, we identified eight novel endornavirus-like genome sequences from isolates of Ceratobasidium fungi isolated from pelotons within root cortical cells of wild indigenous orchid species Microtis media, Pterostylis sanguinea and an undetermined species of Pterostylis in Western Australia. They represent the first endornaviruses to be described from orchid mycorrhizal fungi and from the Australian continent. Five of the novel endornaviruses were detected from one Ceratobasidium isolate collected from one Pterostylis plant. The partial and complete viral replicases shared low (9-30%) identities with one another and with endornaviruses described from elsewhere. Four had genome lengths greater than those of previously described endornaviruses, two resembled ascomycete-infecting endornaviruses, and unlike currently described endornaviruses, three had two open reading frames. The unusual features of these new viruses challenge current taxonomic criteria for membership of the family Endornaviridae.

  1. Big Read, Big ROI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…

  2. Individual Differences in Skilled Adult Readers Reveal Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity Associated with Component Processes of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior…

  3. Reading and Writing to Learn in Secondary Education: Online Processing Activity and Written Products in Summarizing and Synthesizing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateos, Mar; Martin, Elena; Villalon, Ruth; Luna, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The research reported here employed a multiple-case study methodology to assess the online cognitive and metacognitive activities of 15-year-old secondary students as they read informational texts and wrote a new text in order to learn, and the relation of these activities to the written products they were asked to generate. To investigate the…

  4. Open Your Cupboards to Learning Center Games: Activities for Reinforcing Math and Reading Skills for Teacher and Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Martha A.; Peterson, Nancy M.

    This book has been developed to furnish teachers and parents with ideas for activities and games which aid children in the transition from oral language to printed language for reading and math. These games are designed to provide children with activities and experiences that increase vocabularies and make them useful in communication, language…

  5. Reading the dyslexic brain: multiple dysfunctional routes revealed by a new meta-analysis of PET and fMRI activation studies

    PubMed Central

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Danelli, Laura; Berlingeri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia has been the focus of much functional anatomical research. The main trust of this work is that typical developmental dyslexics have a dysfunction of the phonological and orthography to phonology conversion systems, in which the left occipito-temporal cortex has a crucial role. It remains to be seen whether there is a systematic co-occurrence of dysfunctional patterns of different functional systems perhaps converging on the same brain regions associated with the reading deficit. Such evidence would be relevant for theories like, for example, the magnocellular/attentional or the motor/cerebellar ones, which postulate a more basic and anatomically distributed disorder in dyslexia. We addressed this issue with a meta-analysis of all the imaging literature published until September 2013 using a combination of hierarchical clustering and activation likelihood estimation methods. The clustering analysis on 2360 peaks identified 193 clusters, 92 of which proved spatially significant. Following binomial tests on the clusters, we found left hemispheric network specific for normal controls (i.e., of reduced involvement in dyslexics) including the left inferior frontal, premotor, supramarginal cortices and the left infero-temporal and fusiform regions: these were preferentially associated with reading and the visual-to-phonology processes. There was also a more dorsal left fronto-parietal network: these clusters included peaks from tasks involving phonological manipulation, but also motoric or visuo-spatial perception/attention. No cluster was identified in area V5 for no task, nor cerebellar clusters showed a reduced association with dyslexics. We conclude that the examined literature demonstrates a specific lack of activation of the left occipito-temporal cortex in dyslexia particularly for reading and reading-like behaviors and for visuo-phonological tasks. Additional deficits of motor and attentional systems relevant for reading may be associated

  6. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  7. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.623 How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  8. Innovations in the Classroom: Motivating the Unmotivated to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criscuolo, Nicholas P.

    1988-01-01

    Describes ten activities designed to motivate students to read, including: (1) writing movie and television reviews, then reading newspaper reviews of the same movie or program; (2) maintaining a "clipping file" of newspaper and magazine articles, which can encourage further reading about the article topics; and (3) forming a committee…

  9. Added Value of Dialogic Parent-Child Book Readings: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Suzanne E.; Bus, Adriana G.; de Jong, Maria T.; Smeets, Daisy J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Book reading has been demonstrated to promote vocabulary. The current study was conducted to examine the added value of an interactive shared book reading format that emphasizes active as opposed to noninteractive participation by the child. Studies that included a dialogic reading intervention group and a reading-as-usual control group, and that…

  10. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  11. Reading a Suspenseful Literary Text Activates Brain Areas Related to Social Cognition and Predictive Inference

    PubMed Central

    Lehne, Moritz; Engel, Philipp; Rohrmeier, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc.) is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's “The Sandman”) subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus), lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference. PMID:25946306

  12. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans including syndecan-3 modulate BMP activity during limb cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie C; Li, Yingcui; Seghatoleslami, M Reza; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in multiple aspects of limb development including regulation of cartilage differentiation. Several BMPs bind strongly to heparin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix have recently been implicated as modulators of BMP signaling in some developing systems. Here we have explored the role of HSPGs in regulating BMP activity during limb chondrogenesis by evaluating the effects of exogenous heparan sulfate (HS), heparitinase treatment, and overexpression of the HSPG syndecan-3 on the ability of BMP2 to modulate the chondrogenic differentiation of limb mesenchymal cells in micromass culture. Exogenous HS dramatically enhances the ability of BMP2 to stimulate chondrogenesis and cartilage specific gene expression, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to stimulate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, HS stimulates BMP2-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8, transcriptional mediators of BMP2 signaling, indicating that HS enhances the interaction of BMP2 with its receptors. Pretreatment of micromass cultures with heparitinase to degrade endogenous HSPGs also enhances the chondrogenic activity of BMP2, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together these results indicate that exogenous HS or heparitinase enhance the chondrogenic activity of BMP2 by interfering with its interaction with endogenous HSPGs that would normally restrict its interaction with its receptors. Consistent with the possibility that HSPGs are negative modulators of BMP signaling during chondrogenesis, we have found that overexpression of syndecan-3, which is one of the major HSPGs normally expressed during chondrogenesis, greatly impairs the ability of BMP2 to promote cartilage differentiation. Furthermore, retroviral overexpression of syndecan-3 inhibits BMP2-mediated Smad phosphorylation in the regions of the cultures in which chondrogenesis is

  13. The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) and the Traditional Approach Using Tales of Virtue Based on His Majesty the King's Teaching Concepts in Seventh Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaemsai, Rungruedee; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the English reading comprehension and ethical awareness of 7th grade students, when using either a directed reading-thinking activity (DR-TA), or a more traditional approach, involving tales of virtue based on His Majesty the King's teaching concepts. A randomized control group pretest-posttest design was used for the study,…

  14. Shining Stars: Preschoolers Get Ready to Read--How Parents Can Help Their Preschoolers Get Ready to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Elizabeth; Adler, C. Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Parents are their child's first and most important teacher. This booklet introduces parents to techniques for helping their preschoolers learn to read. Included is a story about how one mother and father encourage their children to read, a sample reading activity, and a checklist for parents of preschoolers. This brochure is based on "A Child…

  15. Shining Stars: Toddlers Get Ready to Read--How Parents Can Help Their Toddlers Get Ready to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, C. Ralph; Goldman, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Parents are their child's first and most important teacher. This booklet introduces parents to techniques for helping their toddlers learn to read. Included is a story about how one mother encourages her son to read, a sample reading activity, and a checklist for parents of toddlers. This brochure is based on "A Child Becomes a Reader--Birth to…

  16. Shining Stars--Kindergartners Learn to Read: How Parents Can Help Their Kindergartners Learn to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, C. Ralph; Goldman, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Parents are their child's first and most important teacher. This booklet, written for parents of kindergartners, includes activities to help build their child's reading skills and tells a Parent's Story of how a mom or dad helps a child learn to read. It includes a checklist listing skills usually developed when a child is is kindergarten which…

  17. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  18. Reading Salt Activates Gustatory Brain Regions: fMRI Evidence for Semantic Grounding in a Novel Sensory Modality

    PubMed Central

    González, Julio; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Costumero, Víctor; Parcet, María Antonia; Ávila, César

    2012-01-01

    Because many words are typically used in the context of their referent objects and actions, distributed cortical circuits for these words may bind information about their form with perceptual and motor aspects of their meaning. Previous work has demonstrated such semantic grounding for sensorimotor, visual, auditory, and olfactory knowledge linked to words, which is manifest in activation of the corresponding areas of the cortex. Here, we explore the brain basis of gustatory semantic links of words whose meaning is primarily related to taste. In a blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging design, Spanish taste words and control words matched for a range of factors (including valence, arousal, imageability, frequency of use, number of letters and syllables) were presented to 59 right-handed participants in a passive reading task. Whereas all the words activated the left inferior frontal (BA44/45) and the posterior middle and superior temporal gyri (BA21/22), taste-related words produced a significantly stronger activation in these same areas and also in the anterior insula, frontal operculum, lateral orbitofrontal gyrus, and thalamus among others. As these areas comprise primary and secondary gustatory cortices, we conclude that the meaning of taste words is grounded in distributed cortical circuits reaching into areas that process taste sensations. PMID:22123940

  19. Modelling of an activated primary settling tank including the fermentation process and VFA elutriation.

    PubMed

    Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2002-10-01

    A complete model of a primary settler including both sedimentation and biological processes is presented. It is a one-dimensional model based on the solids flux concept and the conservation of mass that uses the Takács model for the settling velocity, which is corrected by a compression function in the lower layers. The biological model is based on the ASM2 and enlarged with the fermentation model proposed by this research group. The settler was split in ten layers and the flux terms in the mass balance for each layer is obtained by means of the settling model. A pilot plant has been operated to study the primary sludge fermentation and volatile fatty acids (VFA) elutriation in a primary settler tank. The model has been tested with pilot plant experimental data with very good results. It has been able to simulate the VFA production in the settler and their elutriation with the influent wastewater for all the studied experiments. The developed model is easily applicable to secondary settlers and thickeners, also taking into account biological activity inside them.

  20. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  1. Examining the delivery modes of metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons in a college nonmajors introductory biology course.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kendra M; Brözel, Volker S; Heiberger, Greg A

    2014-05-01

    Current research supports the role of metacognitive strategies to enhance reading comprehension. This study measured the effectiveness of online versus face-to-face metacognitive and active reading skills lessons introduced by Biology faculty to college students in a nonmajors introductory biology course. These lessons were delivered in two lectures either online (Group 1: N = 154) or face to face (Group 2: N = 152). Previously validated pre- and post- surveys were used to collect and compare data by paired and independent t-test analysis (α = 0.05). Pre- and post- survey data showed a statistically significant improvement in both groups in metacognitive awareness (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively) and reading comprehension (p < 0.001 for both groups). When comparing the delivery mode of these lessons, no difference was detected between the online and face-to-face instruction for metacognitive awareness (pre- p = 0.619, post- p = 0.885). For reading comprehension, no difference in gains was demonstrated between online and face-to-face (p = 0.381); however, differences in pre- and post- test scores were measured (pre- p = 0.005, post- p = 0.038). This study suggests that biology instructors can easily introduce effective metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons into their course, either through online or face-to-face instruction.

  2. Examining the Delivery Modes of Metacognitive Awareness and Active Reading Lessons in a College Nonmajors Introductory Biology Course†

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kendra M.; Brözel, Volker S.; Heiberger, Greg A.

    2014-01-01

    Current research supports the role of metacognitive strategies to enhance reading comprehension. This study measured the effectiveness of online versus face-to-face metacognitive and active reading skills lessons introduced by Biology faculty to college students in a nonmajors introductory biology course. These lessons were delivered in two lectures either online (Group 1: N = 154) or face to face (Group 2: N = 152). Previously validated pre- and post- surveys were used to collect and compare data by paired and independent t-test analysis (α = 0.05). Pre- and post- survey data showed a statistically significant improvement in both groups in metacognitive awareness (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively) and reading comprehension (p < 0.001 for both groups). When comparing the delivery mode of these lessons, no difference was detected between the online and face-to-face instruction for metacognitive awareness (pre- p = 0.619, post- p = 0.885). For reading comprehension, no difference in gains was demonstrated between online and face-to-face (p = 0.381); however, differences in pre- and post- test scores were measured (pre- p = 0.005, post- p = 0.038). This study suggests that biology instructors can easily introduce effective metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons into their course, either through online or face-to-face instruction. PMID:24839509

  3. Setting Standards for Basic Skills Reading Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremer, John; Dwyer, Carol A.

    State and school district testing activities involving basic reading competency requirements are discussed. The purposes of minimum competency testing in reading include the identification of students who need remedial assistance, and the evaluation of secondary school students regarding graduation requirements. Important considerations regarding…

  4. Making the Reading, Writing, Social Studies Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen-Esmaili, Karen

    1990-01-01

    Suggests incorporating reading, writing, and social studies within the context of literature. Includes reading lists and activities for teaching about the Victorian period in a two-month social studies unit that incorporates science fiction, mysteries, and fairy tales. Children discuss old photographs, examine artifacts, visit a Victorian mansion,…

  5. Mission Possible: READ! Teens Produce Their Own Summer Reading Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellicker, Patricia; Warren, Jesse Cole

    1998-01-01

    Describes "Mission Possible," a summer reading game with an espionage theme developed by young adult readers and the Boulder (Colorado) Public Library. Highlights include instructions for playing the game, sample activity sheets, beginning and culminating activities, daily record keeping, prizes, player evaluations of the game, and…

  6. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  7. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  8. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  9. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  10. Parental Involvement in School Activities and Reading Literacy: Findings and Implications from PIRLS 2011 Data. Policy Brief No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Klemencic, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief presents evidence demonstrating a positive association between parental involvement in school activities and student performance in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2011. This association, which was evident in most of the 54 education systems analyzed, indicates that students enrolled in schools with…

  11. Associations among Preschool Children's Classroom Literacy Environment, Interest and Engagement in Literacy Activities, and Early Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…

  12. Preschoolers' Acquisition of Scientific Vocabulary through Repeated Read-Aloud Events, Retellings, and Hands-on Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored 3- and 4-year-old children's development of scientific vocabulary from participation in repeated interactive read-aloud events and retellings of three informational picture books about light and color, followed by hands-on science activities. Thirty-two children attending a YWCA preschool were matched by age and general…

  13. The Relationship of Oral Reading, Dramatic Activities, and Theatrical Production to Student Communication Skills, Knowledge, Comprehension, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…

  14. Extensive Reading in the EFL Classroom: Benefits of a Face-to-Face Collaboration Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is an approach to language education that has shown great promise for foreign language learners to acquire language; however, implementation reveals difficulty in maintaining student motivation to read over long periods of time. This study investigates students' experience of face-to-face talk about books in an extensive reading…

  15. Activating Student Background Knowledge in a Take Charge Approach to Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly J.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the immediate needs of language teachers who want to develop their students' reading skills but have not been provided with the instructional information necessary to do so. It suggests a methodological sequence for using the students' background knowledge and strategy training for foreign language reading using authentic texts. (33…

  16. Activating Student Background Knowledge in a Take Charge Approach to Foreign Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dolly Jesusita

    A guide for teachers of second language reading offers ideas for using authentic texts as instructional materials. The guide focuses on how to teach students to become strategic readers and use their background knowledge to enhance comprehension. Schema theory is proposed as a framework for approaching reading tasks, by providing relevant pre- and…

  17. The Effects of Authentic Reading Activities on the Written Production of Novice College Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capanegra, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have researched reading-to-writing relations, some of which found reading to be an effective enhancer of writing (Al-Jarf, 2004; Asencior, 2006; Lee, 1986a; Lee & Riley, 1990; Perez-Sotelo & Gonzalez-Bueno, 2003; Shang, 2007). Similar beginner college student samples were used previously by Asencior (2006), Perez-Sotelo and…

  18. A Study of the Effects of Self-Directed Activity Upon Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Responses in a Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Warner

    Many behavioral theorists have suggested that self-directed activity is central to the learning process (e.g., Dewey, Piaget, Wertheimer). Accordingly, it was predicted that such activity bears a significant positive relationship to the quantity, quality, and variety of responses in a reading lesson. Moreover, it was expected that selected…

  19. Assessing Motivation to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP), which assesses children's self-concepts as readers and the value they see in reading. Discusses its development and offers suggestions for its use with elementary students. Includes the MRP. (SR)

  20. Teen Summer Reading Program, 1999. Read around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Library, Richmond.

    This guide for the 1999 Virginia teen summer reading program for public libraries, "Read around the World," includes the following chapters: (1) "Reading and Teens," including serving the underserved, tips for teens, and a recipe for choosing a book to read for fun; (2) "Programming and Teens," including "The Why…

  1. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2008-09-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to have potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of such particles, and ignore interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we develop a new parameterization framework that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler Theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frankel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory, and i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH for which activation into cloud droplets is not possible, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. Parameterization formulations are developed for sectional and lognormal aerosol size distribution functions. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2 ~0.98.

  2. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  3. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  4. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  5. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  6. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  7. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  8. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  9. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  10. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  11. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  12. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  13. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  14. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  15. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  16. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.

  17. Reading(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

    Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

  18. Reading Experience: A Phenomenological Inquiry into Reading as "Not a Reader"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Meredith N.

    2013-01-01

    For many high school students, being "not a reader" means lack of engagement in school-based literacy activities, including reading and writing, and a subsequent lack of academic success. Most importantly, the "not a reader" identity often comes with a particular understanding of reading, one that is limited to information…

  19. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  20. The magical activation of left amygdala when reading Harry Potter: an fMRI study on how descriptions of supra-natural events entertain and enchant.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M; Altmann, Ulrike; Conrad, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Literature containing supra-natural, or magical events has enchanted generations of readers. When reading narratives describing such events, readers mentally simulate a text world different from the real one. The corresponding violation of world-knowledge during this simulation likely increases cognitive processing demands for ongoing discourse integration, catches readers' attention, and might thus contribute to the pleasure and deep emotional experience associated with ludic immersive reading. In the present study, we presented participants in an MR scanner with passages selected from the Harry Potter book series, half of which described magical events, while the other half served as control condition. Passages in both conditions were closely matched for relevant psycholinguistic variables including, e.g., emotional valence and arousal, passage-wise mean word imageability and frequency, and syntactic complexity. Post-hoc ratings showed that readers considered supra-natural contents more surprising and more strongly associated with reading pleasure than control passages. In the fMRI data, we found stronger neural activation for the supra-natural than the control condition in bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left fusiform gyrus, and left amygdala. The increased activation in the amygdala (part of the salience and emotion processing network) appears to be associated with feelings of surprise and the reading pleasure, which supra-natural events, full of novelty and unexpectedness, brought about. The involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri likely reflects higher cognitive processing demand due to world knowledge violations, whereas increased attention to supra-natural events is reflected in inferior frontal gyri and inferior parietal lobules that are part of the fronto-parietal attention network.

  1. The Magical Activation of Left Amygdala when Reading Harry Potter: An fMRI Study on How Descriptions of Supra-Natural Events Entertain and Enchant

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Altmann, Ulrike; Conrad, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Literature containing supra-natural, or magical events has enchanted generations of readers. When reading narratives describing such events, readers mentally simulate a text world different from the real one. The corresponding violation of world-knowledge during this simulation likely increases cognitive processing demands for ongoing discourse integration, catches readers’ attention, and might thus contribute to the pleasure and deep emotional experience associated with ludic immersive reading. In the present study, we presented participants in an MR scanner with passages selected from the Harry Potter book series, half of which described magical events, while the other half served as control condition. Passages in both conditions were closely matched for relevant psycholinguistic variables including, e.g., emotional valence and arousal, passage-wise mean word imageability and frequency, and syntactic complexity. Post-hoc ratings showed that readers considered supra-natural contents more surprising and more strongly associated with reading pleasure than control passages. In the fMRI data, we found stronger neural activation for the supra-natural than the control condition in bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left fusiform gyrus, and left amygdala. The increased activation in the amygdala (part of the salience and emotion processing network) appears to be associated with feelings of surprise and the reading pleasure, which supra-natural events, full of novelty and unexpectedness, brought about. The involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri likely reflects higher cognitive processing demand due to world knowledge violations, whereas increased attention to supra-natural events is reflected in inferior frontal gyri and inferior parietal lobules that are part of the fronto-parietal attention network. PMID:25671315

  2. Reading and Writing Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jana M., Ed.

    This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

  3. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  4. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  5. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, intrahepatic cholestasis, and other cholestatic conditions. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of the disease pathophysiology, our understanding of the effects of UDCA remains unclear. Possibly underlying its cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative effects, UDCA was reported to regulate the expression of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines. However, it is not known if this effect involves also modulation of ADAM family of metalloproteinases, which are responsible for release of ectodomains of inflammatory cytokines from the cell surface. We hypothesized that UDCA modulates ADAM17 activity, resulting in amelioration of cholestasis in a murine model of bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The effect of UDCA on ADAM17 activity was studied using the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Untransfected cells or cells ectopically expressing human ADAM17 were cultured with or without UDCA and further activated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The expression and release of ADAM17 substrates, TNFα, TGFα, and c-Met receptor (or its soluble form, sMet) were evaluated using ELISA and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Immunoblotting analyses were conducted to evaluate expression and activation of ADAM17 as well as the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after UDCA treatment. The regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) by UDCA was studied using zymography and qRT-PCR. A mouse model of acute cholestasis was induced by common BDL technique, during which mice received daily orogastric gavage with either UDCA or vehicle only. Liver injury was quantified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP), relative liver weight, and confirmed by histological analysis. ADAM17 substrates in sera were assessed using a bead multiplex assay. Results UDCA decreases amount of shed TNFα, TGFα, and sMet in cell culture media and the phosphorylation of

  6. A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cangiani, A; Natalini, R

    2010-12-21

    We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.

  7. Reading Ourselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherriff, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Describes how reading and art have taught the author to slow down. Discusses how she wants her students to leave the third-grade classroom reading--reading words, reading pictures, and reading their world. Considers how one student slows down her reading, pays attention to her thinking, and begins to see the pictures and connections that poems…

  8. The Effect of Individual Differences in the Inner and Outer States of ICT on Engagement in Online Reading Activities and PISA 2009 Reading Literacy: Exploring the Relationship between the Old and New Reading Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Wu, Jiun-Yu

    2012-01-01

    With the prevalence of ICT, the concept of reading literacy has evolved to encompass both online reading and printed texts. This study clarifies the relationship between reading printed texts and online electronic texts from the perspective of individual differences in the inner and outer phases of ICT in a partial mediation model. We used the…

  9. The Teaching of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Ralph C., Ed.

    Designed as a sourcebook, this volume considers reading instruction as a complex, intellectual task rather than as just a matter of pronunciation of words. It is designed for both teachers and parents interested in developing the language and concepts of children. Contents include "Reading in Today's World" by Ralph C. Staiger, "Learning to Read"…

  10. THE TEACHING OF READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WARDEBERG, HELEN L.

    CONTAINED IN THE GUIDE IS INFORMATION ON THE BASIC SKILLS TO BE INCLUDED IN ANY INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN READING, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GUIDED PROGRAM FOR INDIVIDUAL AND PERSONAL READING, AND ON THE EVALUATION OF A READING PROGRAM. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO HELP EACH CHILD BECOME AS EFFICIENT AND DIVERSIFIED A READER AS HIS ABILITIES PERMIT. NO LESSON…

  11. Reading and the Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    For each student to achieve optimally, a quality reading program must provide for individual differences. To guide students to learn as much as possible individually, selected philosophies of reading instruction may be used. These include: (1) experimentalism with its stress placed upon students reading to solve problems; (2) measurably stated…

  12. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  13. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  14. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  15. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  16. [Development of asymmetric synthesis of optically active compounds including fluoroorganic molecules].

    PubMed

    Iseki, K

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis of chiral fluorinated molecules is important in the biological and medicinal chemistry fields in view of the influence of fluorine's unique properties on biological activity. In recent years, we have studied asymmetric synthesis focussing on such optically active compounds. This review describes 1) diastereoselective trifluoromethylation of chiral N-acyloxazolidinones, 2) catalytic enantioselective aldol reactions of fluorine-substituted ketene silyl acetals, and 3) catalytic enantioselective allylation of aldehydes mediated by chiral Lewis bases. The trifluoromethylation of lithium enolates of N-acyloxazolidinones with iodotrifluoromethane is mediated by triethylborane to give the corresponding trifluoromethylated products with up to 86% diastereomeric excess. The stereoselective reaction is considered to proceed through the attack of the trifluoromethyl radical on the less hindered face of the lithium imide. Difluoroketene and bromofluoroketene trimethylsilyl ethyl acetals react with various aldehydes in the presence of chiral Lewis acids to afford the corresponding desired aldols with up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee). It is noteworthy that the aldol reactions of the fluorine-substituted acetals at -78 degrees C and at higher temperatures (-45 or -20 degrees C) provide the (+)- and (-)-aldols, respectively, with excellent-to-good enantioselectivity. Chiral phosphoramides newly prepared from (S)-proline were found to catalyze the allylation and crotylation of aromatic aldehydes with allylic trichlorosilanes in good enantioselective yields (up to 90% ee). (S,S)-Bis(alpha-methylbenzyl)formamide developed as an efficient catalyst for the allylation and crotylation of aliphatic aldehydes mediates the enantioselective addition with the assistance of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% ee.

  17. Does early reading failure decrease children's reading motivation?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Cordray, David S; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure in learning to read. Second, they evaluated whether increasing the word reading ability of 15 at-risk children would lead to gains in their motivation to read. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest marked differences in both motivation and reading practice between skilled and unskilled readers. However, bolstering at-risk children's word reading ability did not yield evidence of a causal relationship between early reading failure and decreased motivation to engage in reading activities. Instead, hierarchical regression analyses indicate a covarying relationship among early reading failure, poor motivation, and avoidance of reading.

  18. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  19. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  20. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  1. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  2. The Effects of Reading Only vs. Reading plus Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Learning and Production of Iranian Pre-University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad; Kassaian, Zohreh

    2010-01-01

    The present research was conducted to examine the relative effectiveness of two instructional approaches to second language vocabulary learning: the "Reading Only" (RO) approach and the "Reading Plus" (RP) approach. To carry out this study, sixty EFL students from Shahed Pre-University Center of Isfahan were selected and…

  3. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  4. Addressing the Gender Gap in Boys' Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welldon, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that boys have a tougher time that girls learning to read, and they score lower in reading achievement tests. The school literacy initiative was to help reduce the gender gap in reading and get boys in grades 4-6 excited about reading. To achieve this goal, the Cool Guys Reading Club, promoting reading as a cool activity, was born.…

  5. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities; modifications. 440.11 Section 440.11 Aeronautics and... Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted...

  6. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students at Risk of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…

  7. Idea Sharing: The Use of Read-Share-Act to Promote Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charumanee, Nisakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

  8. Teachers' Role in Fostering Reading Skill: Effective and Successful Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, G. Rexlin; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2011-01-01

    Reading bestows enjoyment and enlightenment. It unlocks the unknown. It is a complex cognitive activity that is indispensable for the kind of knowledge society. So the students of today's world must know how to learn from reading and to enter the present literate society. One who reads can lead others to light. People who read can be free because…

  9. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  10. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 9-12: Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 9-12. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  11. Chinese Americans Past and Present; A Collection of Chinese American Readings and Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Don; Collier, Irene Dea

    This work consists of twenty reading selections, fiction and non-fiction. It is intended for use in grades 4 through 6 (9-12 year olds), and covers topics dealing with the history of the Chinese in America and contemporary Chinese American experience. These selections emphasize particularly the role the Chinese played in the development of the…

  12. Elementary School EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning: The Effects of Post-Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atay, Derin; Kurt, Gokce

    2006-01-01

    As language learning involves the acquisition of thousands of words, teachers and learners alike would like to know how vocabulary learning can be fostered, especially in EFL settings where learners frequently acquire impoverished lexicons, despite years of formal study. Research indicates that reading is important but not sufficient for…

  13. Effect of Specialized In-Service Professional Development Activities on Elementary School Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Christy; Evans, Cay; Dai, Yong; Williams, Debbie; Rogers, Keitha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there was a significant increase in the reading achievement during second- and third-grade of the 12 students who attended Midway Elementary Professional Development School (PDS) from kindergarten through fifth grade. Additionally, the study was seeking a possible relationship between the in-service…

  14. Anticipation Guides: Ready-to-Use Guides & Fun Activities to Boost Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Joanne I; Vincent, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Anticipation guides--work sheets that students complete before reading a book--can be invaluable tools for building prediction skills and helping students learn where to focus their attention. In this book, veteran teachers Joanne I. Hines and Pamela J. Vincent offer classroom-tested anticipation guides for a variety of trade books sure to engage…

  15. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  16. Purified recombinant hypothetical protein coded by open reading frame Rv1885c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibits a monofunctional AroQ class of periplasmic chorismate mutase activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Prachee; Aruna, Bandi; Sardesai, Abhijit A; Hasnain, Seyed E

    2005-05-20

    Naturally occurring variants of the enzyme chorismate mutase are known to exist that exhibit diversity in enzyme structure, regulatory properties, and association with other proteins. Chorismate mutase was not annotated in the initial genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) because of low sequence similarity between known chorismate mutases. Recombinant protein coded by open reading frame Rv1885c of Mtb exhibited chorismate mutase activity in vitro. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the recombinant protein suggests its resemblance to the AroQ class of chorismate mutases, prototype examples of which include the Escherichia coli and yeast chorismate mutases. We also demonstrate that unlike the corresponding proteins of E. coli, Mtb chorismate mutase does not have any associated prephenate dehydratase or dehydrogenase activity, indicating its monofunctional nature. The Rv1885c-encoded chorismate mutase showed allosteric regulation by pathway-specific as well as cross-pathway-specific ligands, as evident from proteolytic cleavage protection and enzyme assays. The predicted N-terminal signal sequence of Mtb chorismate mutase was capable of functioning as one in E. coli, suggesting that Mtb chorismate mutase belongs to the AroQ class of chorismate mutases. It was evident that Rv1885c may not be the only enzyme with chorismate mutase enzyme function within Mtb, based on our observation of the presence of chorismate mutase activity displayed by another hypothetical protein coded by open reading frame Rv0948c, a novel instance of the existence of two monofunctional chorismate mutases ever reported in any pathogenic bacterium.

  17. Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading…

  18. Reading in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching English, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The topic of discussion of this issue of the journal "Teaching English" is reading instruction in the secondary school. Articles include "Reading in the Primary School" (Alastair Hendry), "Patterns of Progress" (Fergus McBride), "Teaching Reading--Whose Business?" (James Maxwell), "A Reading Policy for the Secondary School" (Iain McGillivray),…

  19. [Weldon Elementary School Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clovis Unified School District, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 485 white and Spanish-speaking students in K-6. In the program, begun in 1970, state-mandated basal reading series are supplemented by four locally developed programs: Levels Design Letter Readiness, Rebus Reading, Project Read, and Great Studies. The Levels Design Letter…

  20. Patterns of Thinking in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The reading teacher needs to be well versed in the teaching of reading, which includes different patterns of thinking in each student. A skilled reader develops patterns of thinking pertaining to content read. Identified patterns of thinking need to be analyzed and incorporated as objectives for student attainment in reading. This paper discusses…

  1. Prose reading in neglect.

    PubMed

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  2. How to Help Kids Enjoy Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Because reading for pleasure faces such stiff competition from other activities, one Minnesota elementary principal instituted rewarding and enjoyable reading activities: DEAR (Drop Everything and Read) Time, principal's book club, "I love to read" month, RIOT (Reading Instead of Television) Time, celebrity readers, T-shirt logos, and…

  3. Assuring Competency in Reading: Resources for Reading Reform. Presentations Compiled from the Assuring Competency in Reading Advisory Conference (Vancouver, Washington, February 25-26, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Literacy, Language, and Communication Program.

    This publication on reading assessment and evaluation is an outgrowth of the "Assuring Competency in Reading Advisory Conference." It features abstracts, presentations, handouts, and activities from the conference. Following a short introduction, Section One, "Promising Practices", includes the following articles: "Tips…

  4. More Than Facilitator: A Principal's Job in Educating New and Experienced Reading Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, R. Kay

    The principal's role in educating reading teachers exceeds the scheduling of an occasional inservice activity with the area reading coordinator. The principal's role must include the following: (1) becoming familiar with the area of reading; (2) committing time and effort to the program through staff development and through participation in…

  5. Story Reading with Limited English Speaking Children in the Regular Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Ruth A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes strategies for using story reading to help language minority students in grades one through six acquire language proficiency. Discusses ways to make story reading effective, including frequent reading, the use of cueing strategies, and the use of follow-up activities. (FL)

  6. Teaching the Brain to Read: Strategies for Improving Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Neurologist and middle school teacher Judy Willis connects what you do in the classroom to what happens in the brain when students learn how to read, including: (1) Why a classroom has to be safe and supportive in order to overcome barriers to reading fluency; (2) How to jumpstart students who are not well prepared for reading with activities that…

  7. Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-01-01

    Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is to demonstrate how the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816

  8. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  9. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  10. Reading Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    The Ogden, Utah schools have used the mandates of the federal Reading First grant program to transform reading instruction and student achievement in low-performing schools. Reading First was approved by Congress in 2001 under the No Child Left Behind Act to bring scientifically based reading methods and materials to struggling schools. The $1…

  11. Optically readout write once read many memory with single active organic layer

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-18

    An optically readable write once read many memory (WORM) in Ag/Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH PPV)/ITO is demonstrated in this work. Utilising characteristics of the organic light emitting diode structure of Ag/MEH PPV/ITO and electrochemical metallization of Ag, a WORM with light emitting capability can be realised. The simple fabrication process and multifunction capability of the device can be useful for future wearable optoelectronics and photomemory applications, where fast and parallel readout can be achieved by photons.

  12. Optically readout write once read many memory with single active organic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-01

    An optically readable write once read many memory (WORM) in Ag/Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH PPV)/ITO is demonstrated in this work. Utilising characteristics of the organic light emitting diode structure of Ag/MEH PPV/ITO and electrochemical metallization of Ag, a WORM with light emitting capability can be realised. The simple fabrication process and multifunction capability of the device can be useful for future wearable optoelectronics and photomemory applications, where fast and parallel readout can be achieved by photons.

  13. Entrepreneurship Education: Supplementary Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Thomas J.; And Others

    This third volume in the Entrepreneurship Education curriculum materials includes readings and suggested additional resources which complement the instructional strategies contained in the first two volumes. Three sections are included in the guide: critical incidents, readings in entrepreneurial skills, and management skill area resources.…

  14. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  15. Reading Instructional Management System (RIMS), Citrus Heights, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves an unselected cross section fo 793 students in K-6. The program is designed to provide classroom teachers with information about the needs and progress of each student in order to enable teachers to diagnose reading problems and prescribe activities to correct them. The…

  16. A Read-Aloud for Science (Read It Aloud).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)

  17. Promoting the Necessity to Read: A Guide for Instructors of the Disabled Reader in the Teaching of Survival Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Jennifer S.

    Designed to meet the needs of older nonreaders, this booklet provides teaching suggestions and classroom activities for functional or survival reading skills. The topics covered include using the telephone; figuring the cost of a purchase; following directions; survival vocabulary for public signs; vocabulary for the medicine chest; reading the…

  18. "Capture Silk": Reading Aloud Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Considers the benefits and impact that come from reading texts aloud with other persons. Provides a plan by which partners can read books together aloud. Claims that this is a vital and habit-forming activity. (HB)

  19. Where, when and why brain activation differs for bilinguals and monolinguals during picture naming and reading aloud.

    PubMed

    Parker Jones, Oiwi; Green, David W; Grogan, Alice; Pliatsikas, Christos; Filippopolitis, Konstantinos; Ali, Nilufa; Lee, Hwee Ling; Ramsden, Sue; Gazarian, Karine; Prejawa, Susan; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

    2012-04-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that when bilinguals named pictures or read words aloud, in their native or nonnative language, activation was higher relative to monolinguals in 5 left hemisphere regions: dorsal precentral gyrus, pars triangularis, pars opercularis, superior temporal gyrus, and planum temporale. We further demonstrate that these areas are sensitive to increasing demands on speech production in monolinguals. This suggests that the advantage of being bilingual comes at the expense of increased work in brain areas that support monolingual word processing. By comparing the effect of bilingualism across a range of tasks, we argue that activation is higher in bilinguals compared with monolinguals because word retrieval is more demanding; articulation of each word is less rehearsed; and speech output needs careful monitoring to avoid errors when competition for word selection occurs between, as well as within, language.

  20. Family Reading Night: A How to Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehmer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    A family reading night is the ideal way to introduce the library media center and actively involve parents in their child's reading success. This event is an opportunity to explain how a reading program works and provide parents with strategies to encourage further reading at home. Parents can sit down with their children and read in the library,…

  1. Teaching Reading and the At Risk Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    At risk students need to experience a reading curriculum which offers success in learning to read; appropriate sequence of reading activities; feedback regarding what has been accomplished in reading; rewards for doing well when comparing past with present achievement records; intrinsic motivation in wanting to read; help and guidance to achieve…

  2. An application of CCD read-out technique to neutron distribution measurement using the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Kurihara, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Soichiro; Tokunaga, Masaaki; Uno, Heita; Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Koba, Yusuke; Fukunaga, Junichi; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ohga, Saiji

    2016-10-01

    In our previous paper, the self-activation of an NaI scintillator had been successfully utilized for detecting photo-neutrons around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine; individual optical pulses from the self-activated scintillator are read-out by photo sensors such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). In the present work, preliminary observations have been performed in order to apply a direct CCD read-out technique to the self-activation method with a CsI scintillator plate using a Pu-Be source and a 10-MV linac. In conclusion, it has been revealed that the CCD read-out technique is applicable to neutron measurement around a high-energy X-ray radiotherapy machine with the self-activation of a CsI plate. Such application may provide a possibility of novel method for simple neutron dose-distribution measurement.

  3. Speed Reading Courses and Their Effect on Reading Authentic Texts: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2010-01-01

    Fluent reading is essential for successful comprehension. One dimension of reading fluency is reading rate, or reading speed. Because of the importance of reading fluency, fluency development activities should be incorporated into classroom practice. One activity that meets the fluency development conditions proposed by Nation (2007) is speed…

  4. Motivating Interest in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association. Utah Council.

    This yearbook is a collection of articles on the topic of motivating interest in reading. The articles are: "An Introduction to Recreational Reading in the Classroom" by Floyd Sucher, which discusses objectives, materials, setting, scheduling, and sharing activities; "New Words and New Meaning for Old Words" by Vermont Harward, Dan Bird, and Edith…

  5. Read Naturally. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Read Naturally" is designed to improve reading fluency using a combination of books, audio-tapes, and computer software. This program includes three main strategies: (1) repeated reading of English text for oral reading fluency development; (2) teacher modeling of story reading; and (3) systematic monitoring of student progress by…

  6. The influence of a semi-reclined seated posture on head and neck kinematics and muscle activity while reading a tablet computer.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Ethan C; Gallagher, Kaitlin M

    2017-04-01

    Increased tablet computer usage calls for a proper understanding of potential injury risks from these devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tablet computer reading postures on head and neck flexion and muscle activity. Nineteen participants completed read a tablet computer in four different postures (standard computer monitor, tablet on a desk, tablet in the lap, semi-reclined with tablet in the lap). Reading the tablet in a semi-reclined trunk posture with the tablet in one's lap increased (p < 0.001) neck flexion angle (71.6%ROM) relative to reading from the standard computer monitor (6.39%ROM). Head flexion in the semi-reclined posture (19.7%ROM) and muscle activity (8.88%MVC) were similar to when reading from a standard computer monitor. Despite potentially reducing the gravitational moment produced by the head, the semi-reclined position could still compromise the force capabilities of the neck extensor musculature and result in increased strain on the passive tissues of the spine. Future work should assess how the semi-reclined position influences cervical intervertebral angles and passive tissue properties of the cervical spine. Overall, more research needs to be conducted on thoracic spine kinematics while reading a tablet computer.

  7. Using Web-Based Activities to Promote Reading: An Exploratory Study with Teenagers (Uso de actividades en la red para promover la lectura: un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rátiva Velandia, Marlén; Pedreros Torres, Andrés Leonardo; Núñez Alí, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    It is considered valuable to take advantage of web activities to improve and qualify the English teaching and learning processes, especially in the promotion of reading comprehension. In this article we share the process and results of a study that focused on some activities based on web materials that were designed and used with 10th grade…

  8. Capturing User Reading Behaviors for Personalized Document Summarization

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua; Jiang, Hao; Lau, Francis

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new personalized document summarization method that observes a user's personal reading preferences. These preferences are inferred from the user's reading behaviors, including facial expressions, gaze positions, and reading durations that were captured during the user's past reading activities. We compare the performance of our algorithm with that of a few peer algorithms and software packages. The results of our comparative study show that our algorithm can produce more superior personalized document summaries than all the other methods in that the summaries generated by our algorithm can better satisfy a user's personal preferences.

  9. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  10. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

  11. Learning to read shapes the activation of neural lexical representations in the speech recognition pathway.

    PubMed

    Schild, Ulrike; Röder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K

    2011-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that written and spoken language processing are tightly linked. Here we focus on the development of this relationship at the time children start reading and writing. We hypothesize that the newly acquired knowledge about graphemes shapes lexical access in neural spoken word recognition. A group of preliterate children (six years old) and two groups of beginning readers (six and eight years old) were tested in a spoken word identification task. Using word onset priming we compared behavioural and neural facilitation for target words in identical prime-target pairs (e.g., mon-monster) and in prime target pairs that varied in the first speech sound (e.g., non-monster, Variation condition). In both groups of beginning readers priming was less effective in the Variation condition than in the Identity condition. This was indexed by less behavioural facilitation and enhanced P350 amplitudes in the event related potentials (ERPs). In the group of preliterate children, by contrast, both conditions did not differ. Together these results reveal that lexical access in beginning readers is based on more acoustic detail than lexical access in preliterate children. The results are discussed in the light of bidirectional speech and print interactions in readers.

  12. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  13. Tutoring Reading--Valued Youth as Reading Helpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Juanita C.

    2004-01-01

    The teacher wondered how her group of middle school tutors would react to reading predictable children's books to their elementary "tutees." Would they enjoy the books or would they think they were too mature to do the activities in the lesson? She wondered if the tutors would enjoy being read to as she modeled the dramatic reading of a children's…

  14. Read-Alouds: Do They Enhance Students' Ability To Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terblanche, Leezill

    Teachers can greatly extend a child's literacy development through the use of interactive read-alouds. When a story is read aloud to children a number of opportunities arise for extended activities that are related to the story and further literacy support. Children are able to learn about literacy through an adult modeling good reading behavior.…

  15. Reading, Risk, and Reality: College Students and Reading for Pleasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Julie; Fister, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    News reports and well-publicized government studies have led to a popular perception that reading is an endangered activity, particularly among youth. In this study we surveyed college students, librarians, and college writing instructors about students' attitudes toward reading for pleasure, examine barriers to voluntary reading among college…

  16. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  17. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes.

  18. SchemaOnRead Manual

    SciTech Connect

    North, Michael J.

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  19. Enhancing Preschoolers' Executive Functions through Embedding Cognitive Activities in Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, S. J.; Powell, T.; Vasseleu, E.; Johnstone, S.; Melhuish, E.

    2017-01-01

    Given evidence that early executive functioning sets the stage for a broad range of subsequent outcomes, researchers have sought to identify ways to foster these cognitive capacities. The current series of studies sought to design, develop, and provide evidence for the efficacy of embedding cognitive activities in a commonplace activity--shared…

  20. Learning to Read through Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Conservation Center, Jamestown, CA.

    One of the twelve exemplary programs summarized in the Introduction to Right to Read's "Effective Reading Programs: Summaries of 222 Selected Programs" (CS001934), this program attempts to raise the reading skills of inmates of the Sierra Conservation Center to the level needed for training in conservation work while in prison, or for…

  1. How to Read in "English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1978-01-01

    Teachers of the Newark, Delaware, school district developed Project C.A.R.E. (Content Area Reading Enrichment) to make reading a part of math, science, social studies, English and survival instruction. Project C.A.R.E. English activities are designed to make certain that reading is truly a part of all language arts by reinforcing five reading…

  2. Read Me a Song: Teaching Reading Using Picture Book Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routier, Wanda J.

    This paper provides information about the beginnings of literacy in young children and the skills they need for reading readiness. The paper also describes what is meant by a "quality early literacy instruction" and reading skill development in early childhood settings. It outlines early reading behaviors, including phonemic awareness,…

  3. Childern, Books and Reading. Perspectives in Reading, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Mildred, Ed.

    The need to develop in children a desire to read and an appreciation of worthwhile reading materials is discussed. Each chapter is written by an authority and covers a different aspect of children's library book reading. Topics discussed include: the courage and valor of characters in books and the importance of these to children; the authors of…

  4. Reading Research Anthology: The Why? of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc., Emeryville, CA.

    This collection of articles provides background information about reading and includes the research base that has defined best practices in teaching reading. Section 1 of the collection, "The Big Picture," contains the following articles: "Reading the Right Way" (Bill Honig); "Statement of Dr. G. Reid Lyon, April 28,…

  5. The "Enigma" Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Frances Greenberg; Banas, Norma

    1985-01-01

    Approaches are discussed for constructing and implementing the ENIGMA (Engineering Individual Growth Through Manipulative Associations) reading program, a language-based activity using teacher-made puzzles and stories in a manipulative-associative manner. (CL)

  6. Home for the Holidays... Reading Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    Noting that reading well is at the heart of all learning, this guide suggests reading activities that will prevent a decline in children's reading skills over winter vacation, and the guide encourages parents to spend time with their children through these activities. The guide provides links to the following suggested reading lists: the American…

  7. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    PubMed

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  8. All about Reading and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbal, Harold, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The central theme in this journal issue is the use of the computer in teaching reading. The following articles are included: "The Use of Computers in the Reading Program: A District Approach" by Nora Forester; "Reading and Computers: A Partnership" by Dr. Martha Irwin; "Rom, Ram and Reason" by Candice Carlile; "Word Processing: Practical Ideas and…

  9. Reading and the English Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this issue, articles deal with various aspects of the relationship between reading and the English teacher. Titles include "Literary Humor" by Wilmer Lamar and "200 Adolescent Novels Worth Reading" by Ken Donelson; both suggest reading materials. Practical teaching tips are provided in "Comprehension Is Comprehension, Is . . ." by Jerry Walker,…

  10. Reading Attitude as a Mediator between Contextual Factors and Reading Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Bong, Mimi; Woo, Yeon-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the factors known to influence reading development and performance, attitude toward reading is shown to be particularly critical for developing learners. Reading attitude (McKenna, 1994; McKenna et al., 1995) enhances independent reading, levels of engagement in classroom reading activities, and the amount and variety of topics…

  11. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  12. Developmental reading disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... important. Many students with learning disabilities have poor self-esteem. Psychological counseling may be helpful. ... Problems in school, including behavior problems Loss of self-esteem Reading problems that continue Problems with job performance

  13. Art Criticism and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edmund Burke; Woods, Don

    1981-01-01

    The authors review a body of theory and accumulating evidence which suggests that critical study of the arts facilitates the development of cognitive skills, including those essential to reading. (Author/SJL)

  14. Phonological and Semantic Activation in Reading Two-Kanji Compound Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Aiko; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether phonological information was activated automatically in processing two kanji compound words. In one experiment, participants judged whether pairs of words were homophones, while others judged whether pairs were synonyms. In the second, participants were asked to make one of the two judgments, as in experiment one. Findings support…

  15. Using a Reading Strategy To Foster Active Learning in Content Area Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that using K-W-L as an active learning strategy in a traditional lecture classroom setting can facilitate interaction between professor, students and subject matter. Considers how this method fosters a sense of community between professor, the discipline, and students even in large classes. Concludes that one of the advantages of active…

  16. A Dual Read-Out Assay to Evaluate the Potency of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ollinger, Juliane; Bailey, Mai Ann; Moraski, Garrett C.; Casey, Allen; Florio, Stephanie; Alling, Torey; Miller, Marvin J.; Parish, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for discovery and development of new treatments, but this can only be accomplished through rapid and reproducible M. tuberculosis assays designed to identify potent inhibitors. We developed an automated 96-well assay utilizing a recombinant strain of M. tuberculosis expressing a far-red fluorescent reporter to determine the activity of novel compounds; this allowed us to measure growth by monitoring both optical density and fluorescence. We determined that optical density and fluorescence were correlated with cell number during logarithmic phase growth. Fluorescence was stably maintained without antibiotic selection over 5 days, during which time cells remained actively growing. We optimized parameters for the assay, with the final format being 5 days’ growth in 96-well plates in the presence of 2% w/v DMSO. We confirmed reproducibility using rifampicin and other antibiotics. The dual detection method allows for a reproducible calculation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), at the same time detecting artefacts such as fluorescence quenching or compound precipitation. We used our assay to confirm anti-tubercular activity and establish the structure activity relationship (SAR) around the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides, a promising series of M. tuberculosis inhibitors. PMID:23593234

  17. Reading, Writing, and Thinking about Disability Issues: Five Activities for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tammie M.; Menten, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share five practical teaching activities for introducing disability into the secondary English curriculum that also address NCTE/IRA objectives for the English language arts. They have used these lessons to help students better analyze the language/rhetoric of disability, understand how disability is represented in…

  18. Impact of Activity-Based Mathematics Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yüksel, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of activity-based mathematics instruction on mathematics performance and investigate those factors, which contribute to the mathematics performance of a sample of children aged between 10 and 12 years. The study was designed to consider the impact of prior knowledge, self-regulation, prior attitude,…

  19. Teacher Language Scaffolds the Development of Independent Strategic Reading Activities and Metacognitive Awareness in Emergent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Polly A.; Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of teacher language related to a specific network of strategies for problem solving, self-monitoring, and self-correcting on (a) the development and use of independent strategic activities and (b) metacognitive awareness variables in emergent readers. Descriptive analyses of 120 individual lessons conducted…

  20. Reading Readiness. A UKRA (United Kingdom Reading Assn.) Teaching of Reading Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John; Thackray, Derek

    The research being published in Britain regarding reading readiness is reviewed in this monograph. The factors teachers should take into account when planning prereading programs and determining when a child is ready to read are presented. The various aspects of reading readiness that are discussed include: (1) physiological factors, such as…

  1. Miraculous Readings: Using Fantasy Novels about Reading to Reflect on Reading the Bible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the vivid images of reading presented in several popular fantasy novels, including "The Spiderwick Chronicles," "The Great Good Thing," and "The Neverending Story." It suggests that these images can be used to help children, youth, and adults reflect on the nature of reading and the potential power of reading sacred texts.…

  2. High Stakes Testing and Reading Assessment. National Reading Conference Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This National Reading Conference Policy Brief provides information related to high stakes reading tests and reading assessment. High stakes reading tests are those with highly consequential outcomes for students, teachers, and schools. These outcomes may include student promotion or retention, student placement in reading groups, school funding…

  3. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  4. Read, Play, and Learn! Storybook Activities for Young Children. The Transdisciplinary Play-Based Curriculum. Collection 2: Modules 9-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Toni W.

    Read, Play, and Learn is a play-based curriculum designed to promote growth across all of the areas of development important to a young child. With a school-year's worth of ready-to-use lessons or modules, the curriculum provides story-related activities centered around themes such as enjoying seasonal festivities, sharing emotions, making…

  5. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  6. Read, Play, and Learn! Storybook Activities for Young Children. The Transdisciplinary Play-Based Curriculum. Collection 1: Modules 1-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Toni W.

    Read, Play, and Learn is a play-based curriculum designed to promote growth across all of the areas of development important to a young child. With a school-year's worth of ready-to-use lessons or modules, the curriculum provides story-related activities centered around themes such as enjoying seasonal festivities, sharing emotions, making…

  7. Effects of At-Home Reading Activities and Parental Involvement on Classroom Communication Arts Assessments: Focus on the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, George

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation was written collaboratively by Cynthia Warren, Linetta Carter, and George Edwards with the exception of chapter 4 which is the individual effort of the aforementioned researchers. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of at-home reading activities and parental involvement on classroom communication arts assessments…

  8. Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.

  9. Indiana Reading Diagnostic Assessment: Resource & Intervention Guide, Kindergarten. Additional Activities and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The materials included in this manual are organized according to the Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts. In each section teachers will find: (1) Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts Assessments: Black Line Masters of diagnostic/practice pages for skill areas, checklists, and rubrics;…

  10. Active Lip Contour Using Hue Characteristics Energy Model for A Lip Reading System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogoshi, Yasuhiro; Ide, Hisato; Araki, Chikahiro; Kimura, Haruhiko

    Active contour model (SNAKES) is very used as one of the powerful technique in a contour extraction that utilizes principle of energy-minimizing. Performing extraction of lip contour with the lip image that has strong edges or noises on the lips and oral cavity is an important problem. This paper proposes a new energy model of SNAKES based on hue characteristics of lip images.

  11. Metacognitive Theory Applied: Strategic Reading Instruction in the Current Generation of Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Hopkins, Carol J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the content of eight basal reading series (published in 1989) to determine how and the extent to which lessons and activities that promote metacomprehension behaviors necessary for independent reading were included. Finds that basal authors made considerable efforts to incorporate activities and lessons that promote or foster strategic…

  12. A Classroom Teacher's Guide to Reading Improvement in Middle School Science. Resource Monograph No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Lucy, Ed.

    The reading improvement activities in this handbook are intended for use by middle school science teachers. Focusing on study skills, vocabulary development, and comprehension development, the activities include (1) surveying science texts and science content area reading materials, (2) outlining, (3) spelling, (4) syllabication, (5) word…

  13. What We Know About: Reading at the Middle and High School Levels--Building Active Readers across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth A.

    Based on research findings, informed opinions contained in the professional literature, and examples from school personnel of "what works," this report focuses on strategies that educators can use to improve secondary school students' reading skills and enhance interest in reading. Many of the strategies in the report are applicable…

  14. Reading Hamlet. The NCTE Chalkface Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Bronwyn

    This book, for grades 9-12, contains a wealth of ideas and practical activities for studying Shakespeare's "Hamlet." The first section, "Revenge Tragedy," provides background materials to help prepare students to read "Hamlet," including a discussion of revenge tragedies, comparisons to other plays from the period,…

  15. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  16. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  17. Conformational Changes in the Activation Loop of Mitochondrial Glutaminase C: A Direct Fluorescence Read-Out that Distinguishes the Binding of Allosteric Inhibitors from Activators.

    PubMed

    Stalnecker, Clint A; Erickson, Jon W; Cerione, Richard A

    2017-02-14

    The first step in glutamine catabolism is catalyzed by the mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase, with a specific isoform, glutaminase C (GAC), being highly expressed in cancer cells. GAC activation requires the formation of homo-tetramers, promoted by anionic allosteric activators such as inorganic phosphate. This leads to the proper orientation of a flexible loop proximal to the dimer-dimer interface that is essential for catalysis (i.e. the activation loop). A major class of allosteric inhibitors of GAC, with the prototype being BPTES (bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide), and the related molecule CB-839, binds to the activation loop and induces the formation of an inactive tetramer (2 inhibitors bound per active tetramer). Here, we describe a direct readout for monitoring the dynamics of the activation loop of GAC in response to these allosteric inhibitors, as well as allosteric activators, through the substitution of phenylalanine at position 327 with tryptophan (F327W). The tryptophan fluorescence of the GAC(F327W) mutant undergoes a marked quenching upon the binding of BPTES or CB-839, yielding titration profiles that make it possible to measure the binding affinities of these inhibitors for the enzyme. Allosteric activators like phosphate induce the opposite effect (i.e. a fluorescence enhancement). These results describe direct read-outs for the binding of the BPTES-class of allosteric inhibitors, as well as for inorganic phosphate and related activators of GAC, which should facilitate screening for additional modulators of this important metabolic enzyme.

  18. Nothing in Evolution Makes Sense Except in the Light of Genomics: Read-Write Genome Evolution as an Active Biological Process.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, James A

    2016-06-08

    The 21st century genomics-based analysis of evolutionary variation reveals a number of novel features impossible to predict when Dobzhansky and other evolutionary biologists formulated the neo-Darwinian Modern Synthesis in the middle of the last century. These include three distinct realms of cell evolution; symbiogenetic fusions forming eukaryotic cells with multiple genome compartments; horizontal organelle, virus and DNA transfers; functional organization of proteins as systems of interacting domains subject to rapid evolution by exon shuffling and exonization; distributed genome networks integrated by mobile repetitive regulatory signals; and regulation of multicellular development by non-coding lncRNAs containing repetitive sequence components. Rather than single gene traits, all phenotypes involve coordinated activity by multiple interacting cell molecules. Genomes contain abundant and functional repetitive components in addition to the unique coding sequences envisaged in the early days of molecular biology. Combinatorial coding, plus the biochemical abilities cells possess to rearrange DNA molecules, constitute a powerful toolbox for adaptive genome rewriting. That is, cells possess "Read-Write Genomes" they alter by numerous biochemical processes capable of rapidly restructuring cellular DNA molecules. Rather than viewing genome evolution as a series of accidental modifications, we can now study it as a complex biological process of active self-modification.

  19. Looking for Lizard Music: The Internet as a Reading Motivation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosalia, Stephanie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Internet as a reading motivation tool for independent reading. Topics include why independent reading is important; why students stop reading; how the Internet can be used to motivate independent reading; and relevant Web resources. (LRW)

  20. Why Should I Read?--A Cross-Cultural Investigation into Adolescents' Reading Socialisation and Reading Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-01-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading…

  1. When deaf signers read English: do written words activate their sign translations?

    PubMed

    Morford, Jill P; Wilkinson, Erin; Villwock, Agnes; Piñar, Pilar; Kroll, Judith F

    2011-02-01

    Deaf bilinguals for whom American Sign Language (ASL) is the first language and English is the second language judged the semantic relatedness of word pairs in English. Critically, a subset of both the semantically related and unrelated word pairs were selected such that the translations of the two English words also had related forms in ASL. Word pairs that were semantically related were judged more quickly when the form of the ASL translation was also similar whereas word pairs that were semantically unrelated were judged more slowly when the form of the ASL translation was similar. A control group of hearing bilinguals without any knowledge of ASL produced an entirely different pattern of results. Taken together, these results constitute the first demonstration that deaf readers activate the ASL translations of written words under conditions in which the translation is neither present perceptually nor required to perform the task.

  2. Open reading frame UL26 of human cytomegalovirus encodes a novel tegument protein that contains a strong transcriptional activation domain.

    PubMed

    Stamminger, Thomas; Gstaiger, Matthias; Weinzierl, Konstanze; Lorz, Kerstin; Winkler, Michael; Schaffner, Walter

    2002-05-01

    A selection strategy, the activator trap, was used in order to identify genes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) that encode strong transcriptional activation domains in mammalian cells. This approach is based on the isolation of activation domains from a GAL4 fusion library by means of selective plasmid replication, which is mediated in transfected cells by a GAL4-inducible T antigen gene. With this screening strategy, we were able to isolate two types of plasmids encoding transactivating fusion proteins from a library of random HCMV DNA inserts. One plasmid contained the exon 3 of the HCMV IE-1/2 gene region, which has previously been identified as a strong transcriptional activation domain. In the second type of plasmid, the open reading frame (ORF) UL26 of HCMV was fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain. By quantitative RNA mapping using S1 nuclease analysis, we were able to classify UL26 as a strong enhancer-type activation domain with no apparent homology to characterized transcriptional activators. Western blot analysis with a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a prokaryotic UL26 fusion protein revealed that two protein isoforms of 21 and 27 kDa are derived from the UL26 ORF in both infected and transfected cells. Both protein isoforms, which arise via alternative usage of two in-frame translational start codons, showed a nuclear localization and could be detected as early as 6 h after infection of primary human fibroblasts. By performing Western blot analysis with purified virions combined with fractionation experiments, we provide evidence that pUL26 is a novel tegument protein of HCMV that is imported during viral infection. Furthermore, we observed transactivation of the HCMV major immediate-early enhancer-promoter by pUL26, whereas several early and late promoters were not affected. Our data suggest that pUL26 is a novel tegument protein of HCMV with a strong transcriptional activation domain that could play an important role during initiation of

  3. Against Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

  4. Bilingual Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

    This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

  5. Reading Remixed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  6. EGFR-activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Heike N; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H; Sequist, Lecia V; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-10-15

    In patients with lung cancer whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGF receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared with wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of cross-linker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2-M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR-mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer.

  7. Exploring Poetry: The Reading and Writing Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Connecting reading and writing has become an important trend in teaching the language arts. Poetry, as a salient facet of the reading curriculum, integrates well with different purposes in writing. Poetry read aloud to students can assist learners to enjoy reading activities and develop the feeling and aesthetic dimension of learning, among other…

  8. Hypertext Fiction Reading: Haptics and Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Reading is a multi-sensory activity, entailing perceptual, cognitive and motor interactions with whatever is being read. With digital technology, reading manifests itself as being extensively multi-sensory--both in more explicit and more complex ways than ever before. In different ways from traditional reading technologies such as the codex,…

  9. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  10. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  11. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  12. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  13. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  14. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  15. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... licensed launch or permitted activities is sufficiently small that financial responsibility is no...

  16. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  17. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading…

  18. Similarities and differences in brain activation and functional connectivity in first and second language reading: evidence from Chinese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Young Kim, Say; Liu, Yanni; Liu, Li

    2014-10-01

    It has been evidenced that both similarities and differences exist in the brain network involved in second language reading in comparison to the first language reading. However, very few studies have been done to compare functional connectivity in L1 and L2 reading. Brain activation and functional connectivity during English pseudoword rhyming judgment in a group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CE group) were compared to a Chinese word rhyming judgment task in another group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CC group). Brain activation analyses revealed that the two groups engaged a similar network and that the only significant group difference was greater involvement of the right middle occipital gyrus in the CC group than in the CE group, due to greater holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. English pseudowords can be read using the same network as Chinese characters, whereas psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed different connectivity within the reading network between the two groups. Greater functional connectivity was found between three visuo-orthographic seed regions and the right precentral gyrus in the CC group, suggesting that the sensorimotor patterns of Chinese syllables are activated during Chinese word rhyming judgment. In contrast, we found greater connectivity between the three seed regions and the left postcentral gyrus in the CE group. In addition, the connectivity between one of the three seed regions (i.e. the right middle occipital gyrus) and the left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with English proficiency in the CE group. This suggests that somatosensory feedback plays a key role in processing the foreign phonemes of English pseudowords and those highly proficient bilinguals tend to rely on this information to a greater degree. We also found that within the CE group, the connectivity between the right middle occipital gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule was positively

  19. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  20. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Open Reading Frame 50/Rta Protein Activates the Entire Viral Lytic Cycle in the HH-B2 Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cell Line†

    PubMed Central

    Gradoville, Lyndle; Gerlach, Jennifer; Grogan, Elizabeth; Shedd, Duane; Nikiforow, Sarah; Metroka, Craig; Miller, George

    2000-01-01

    Rta, the gene product of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encoded mainly in open reading frame 50 (ORF50), is capable of activating expression of viral lytic cycle genes. What was not demonstrated in previous studies was whether KSHV Rta was competent to initiate the entire viral lytic life cycle including lytic viral DNA replication, late-gene expression with appropriate kinetics, and virus release. In HH-B2, a newly established primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell line, KSHV ORF50 behaved as an immediate-early gene and autostimulated its own expression. Expression of late genes, ORF65, and K8.1 induced by KSHV Rta was eliminated by phosphonoacetic acid, an inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase. Transfection of KSHV Rta increased the production of encapsidated DNase-resistant viral DNA from HH-B2 cells. Thus, introduction of an ORF50 expression plasmid is sufficient to drive the lytic cycle to completion in cultured PEL cells. PMID:10846108

  1. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  2. Andre Can Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmgren, Rene L.

    1985-01-01

    Allowing a fifth grader who caused problems in regular classrooms to exert control over some learning activities led to the student's involvement in the activities, his commitment to their completion, and the development of a situation that made learning to read desirable and acceptable to him. (PGD)

  3. Reading, Writing and Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Mary

    This monograph presents classroom activities that were designed to encourage children to read and write in a self-reliant and responsible manner. The activities were chosen for their relevance to the children involved and because the vocabulary involved was interesting, familiar, and worth remembering and using again. The topics are arranged in…

  4. Functional MRI in Medulloblastoma Survivors Supports Prophylactic Reading Intervention during Tumor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ping; Conklin, Heather M.; Scoggins, Matthew A.; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Jones, Melissa M.; Palmer, Shawna L.; Gajjar, Amar; Ogg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Development of reading skills is vulnerable to disruption in children treated for brain tumors. Interventions, remedial and prophylactic, are needed to mitigate reading and other learning difficulties faced by survivors. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to investigate long-term effects of a prophylactic reading intervention administered during radiation therapy in children treated for medulloblastoma. Methods The fMRI study included 19 reading-intervention (age 11.7±0.6 years) and 21 standard-of-care (age 12.1±0.6 years) medulloblastoma survivors, and 21 typically developing children (age 12.3±0.6 years). The survivors were 2.5 [1.2, 5.4] years after completion of tumor therapies and reading-intervention survivors were 2.9 [1.6, 5.9] years after intervention. Five fMRI tasks (Rapid Automatized Naming, Continuous Performance Test using faces and letters, orthographic and phonological processing of letter pairs, implicit word reading, and story reading) were used to probe reading-related neural activation. Woodcock-Johnson Reading Fluency, Word Attack, and Sound Awareness subtests were used to evaluate reading abilities. Results At the time of fMRI, Sound Awareness scores were significantly higher in the reading-intervention group than in the standard-of-care group (p = 0.046). Brain activation during the fMRI tasks was detected in left inferior frontal, temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and subcortical regions, and differed among the groups (p<0.05, FWE). The pattern of group activation differences, across brain areas and tasks, was a normative trend in the reading-intervention group. Conclusions Standardized reading scores and patterns of brain activation provide evidence of long-term effects of prophylactic reading intervention in children treated for medulloblastoma. PMID:25967954

  5. Functional MRI in medulloblastoma survivors supports prophylactic reading intervention during tumor treatment.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ping; Conklin, Heather M; Scoggins, Matthew A; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Jones, Melissa M; Palmer, Shawna L; Gajjar, Amar; Ogg, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Development of reading skills is vulnerable to disruption in children treated for brain tumors. Interventions, remedial and prophylactic, are needed to mitigate reading and other learning difficulties faced by survivors. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to investigate long-term effects of a prophylactic reading intervention administered during radiation therapy in children treated for medulloblastoma. The fMRI study included 19 reading-intervention (age 11.7 ± 0.6 years) and 21 standard-of-care (age 12.1 ± 0.6 years) medulloblastoma survivors, and 21 typically developing children (age 12.3 ± 0.6 years). The survivors were 2.5 [1.2, 5.4] years after completion of tumor therapies and reading-intervention survivors were 2.9 [1.6, 5.9] years after intervention. Five fMRI tasks (Rapid Automatized Naming, Continuous Performance Test using faces and letters, orthographic and phonological processing of letter pairs, implicit word reading, and story reading) were used to probe reading-related neural activation. Woodcock-Johnson Reading Fluency, Word Attack, and Sound Awareness subtests were used to evaluate reading abilities. At the time of fMRI, Sound Awareness scores were significantly higher in the reading-intervention group than in the standard-of-care group (p = 0.046). Brain activation during the fMRI tasks was detected in left inferior frontal, temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and subcortical regions, and differed among the groups (p < 0.05, FWE). The pattern of group activation differences, across brain areas and tasks, was a normative trend in the reading-intervention group. Standardized reading scores and patterns of brain activation provide evidence of long-term effects of prophylactic reading intervention in children treated for medulloblastoma.

  6. Neural division of labor in reading is constrained by culture: a training study of reading Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaoyi; Frost, Stephen J; Sun, Wan; Fang, Shin-Yi; Mencl, W Einar; Pugh, Kenneth R; Shu, Hua; Rueckl, Jay G

    2014-04-01

    Word reading in alphabetic language involves a cortical system with multiple components whose division of labor depends on the transparency of the writing system. To gain insight about the neural division of labor between phonology and semantics subserving word reading in Chinese, a deep non-alphabetic writing system, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the effects of phonological and semantic training on the cortical circuitry for oral naming of Chinese characters. In a training study, we examined whether a training task that differentially focused readers' attention on the phonological or semantic properties of a Chinese character changes the patterns of cortical activation that was evoked by that character in a subsequent naming task. Our imaging results corroborate that the cortical regions underlying reading in Chinese largely overlap the left-hemisphere reading system responsible for reading in alphabetic languages, with some cortical regions in the left-hemisphere uniquely recruited for reading in Chinese. However, in contrast to findings from studies of English word naming, we observed considerable overlap in the neural activation patterns associated with phonological and semantic training on naming Chinese characters, which we suggest may reflect a balanced neural division of labor between phonology and semantics in Chinese character reading. The equitable division of labor for Chinese reading might be driven by the special statistical structure of the writing system, which includes equally systematic mappings in the correspondences between written forms and their pronunciations and meanings.

  7. The complete sequence of a 10.8 kb segment distal of SUF2 on the right arm of chromosome III from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals seven open reading frames including the RVS161, ADP1 and PGK genes.

    PubMed

    Skala, J; Purnelle, B; Goffeau, A

    1992-05-01

    We have entirely sequenced a 10,835 bp segment of the right arm from chromosome III contained in the J11D and J11D-K3B GF clones. The segment contains seven open reading frames longer then 100 amino acids. Three of them, RVS161 (Urdaci et al., 1990; Crouzet et al., 1991), ADP1 (Purnelle et al., 1991) and PGK1 (Hitzeman et al., 1982) have been described previously. YCR10C encodes a putative membrane protein. YCR8W (encoding a putative protein kinase) and YCR14C extend inside the D10H (Skala et al., 1991) and 62B5-2D clones respectively. Four ARS elements previously reported by Palzkill et al. (1986) are located between RVS161 and YCR10C.

  8. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials with activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiruveedhula, V.V.N. Phani Babu; Witzigmann, Christopher M.; Verma, Ranjit; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Rott, Marc; Schwan, William R.; Medina-Bielski, Sara; Lane, Michelle; Close, William; Polanowski, Rebecca L.; Sherman, David; Monte, Aaron; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Cook, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase in bacterial resistance over the last decade along with a dramatic decrease in new treatments for infections has led to problems in the healthcare industry. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths per year. A world-wide threat with HIV co-infected with multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of TB has emerged. In this regard, herein, novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives were synthesized in simple, efficient routes and evaluated as potential agents against several Mycobacterium species. These were synthesized via a stereospecific process for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays indicated that esters 12, 13, and 20 exhibited greater in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis than rifampin, one of the current, first-line anti-mycobacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Based on these studies the acrylic ester 20 has been developed as a potential lead compound which was found to have an MIC value of 0.4 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The SAR and biological activity of this series is presented; a Michael – acceptor mechanism appears to be important for potent activity of this series of analogs. PMID:24200931

  9. Autonomic control network active in Aplysia during locomotion includes neurons that express splice variants of R15-neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; McKay, Natasha; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Koester, John

    2007-01-01

    Splice-variant products of the R15 neuropeptide gene are differentially expressed within the CNS of Aplysia. The goal of this study was to test whether the neurons in the abdominal ganglion that express the peptides encoded by this gene are part of a common circuit. Expression of R15 peptides had been demonstrated previously in neuron R15. Using a combination of immunocytochemical and analytical methods, this study demonstrated that R15 peptides are also expressed in heart exciter neuron RB(HE), the two L9(G) gill motoneurons, and L40--a newly identified interneuron. Mass spectrometric profiling of individual neurons that exhibit R15 peptide-like immunoreactivity confirmed the mutually exclusive expression of two splice-variant forms of R15 peptides in different neurons. The L9(G) cells were found to co-express pedal peptide in addition to the R15 peptides. The R15 peptide-expressing neurons examined here were shown to be part of an autonomic control circuit that is active during fictive locomotion. Activity in this circuit contributes to implementing a central command that may help to coordinate autonomic activity with escape locomotion. Chronic extracellular nerve recording was used to determine the activity patterns of a subset of neurons of this circuit in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using shared patterns of neuropeptide expression as a guide for neural circuit identification.

  10. Deconnable self-reading pocket dosimeter containment with self-contained light

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Robyn L.; Arnold, Greg N.; McBride, Ryan G.

    1996-01-01

    A container for a self-reading pocket dosimeter includes a transparent tube for receiving the self-reading pocket dosimeter, a light source mounted at one end of the transparent tube, and an eyepiece mounted on an opposite end of the transparent tube for viewing a read-out of the self-reading pocket dosimeter. The container may further include an activation device for selectively supplying power to the light source. The container both protects the dosimeter from being contaminated and provides a light source for viewing the dosimeter.

  11. The RIF Guide to Encouraging Young Readers. A Fun-filled Sourcebook of over 200 Favorite Reading Activities of Kids and Parents from Across the Country, Plus an Annotated List of Books and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Ruth, Ed.

    Based on the notion that reading is both fun and fundamental, this book contains a stimulating array of activities that parents can use to engage their children in reading from the toddler stage through primary school. The first section provides information on how to use the guide, and some tips for encouraging young readers. The second and major…

  12. An Intramolecular Silylene Borane Capable of Facile Activation of Small Molecules, Including Metal-Free Dehydrogenation of Water.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhenbo; Szilvási, Tibor; Zhou, Yu-Peng; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    The first single-component N-heterocyclic silylene borane 1 (LSi-R-BMes2 ; L=PhC(N(t) Bu)2 ; R=1,12-xanthendiyl spacer; Mes=2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 ), acting as a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) in small-molecule activation, can be synthesized in 65 % yields. Its HOMO is largely localized at the silicon(II) atom and the LUMO has mainly boron 2p character. In small-molecule activation 1 allows access to the intramolecular silanone-borane 3 featuring a Si=O→B interaction through reaction with O2 , N2 O, or CO2 , and formation of silanethione borane 4 from reaction with S8 . The Si(II) center in 1 undergoes immediate hydrogenation if exposed to H2 at 1 atm pressure in benzene, affording the silane borane 5-H2 , L(H2 )Si-R-BMes2 . Remarkably, no H2 activation occurs if the single silylene LSiPh and Mes3 B intermolecularly separated are exposed to dihydrogen. Unexpectedly, the pre-organized Si-B separation in 1 enables a metal-free dehydrogenation of H2 O to give the silanone-borane 3 as reactive intermediate.

  13. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  14. Learning to Read, Reading to Learn; Proceedings from the Transmountain Far West Regional Reading Conference (2nd, Victoria, B.C., 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollila, Lloyd O., Ed.; And Others

    Nineteen of the papers presented on the theme "Learning to Read, Reading to Learn," are included in this report. Articles on basic considerations in reading instruction are "Children's View of Language,""Early Reading from a Biological Perspective,""Pygmalion in the Reading Circle,""Dealing with…

  15. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  16. Predicted residual activity of rilpivirine in HIV-1 infected patients failing therapy including NNRTIs efavirenz or nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Theys, K; Camacho, R J; Gomes, P; Vandamme, A M; Rhee, S Y

    2015-06-01

    Rilpivirine is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) currently indicated for first-line therapy, but its clinical benefit for HIV-1 infected patients failing first-generation NNRTIs is largely undefined. This study quantified the extent of genotypic rilpivirine resistance in viral isolates from 1212 patients upon failure of efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing antiretroviral treatment, of whom more than respectively 80% and 90% showed high-level genotypic resistance to the failing NNRTI. Of all study patients, 47% showed a rilpivirine resistance-associated mutation (RPV-RAM), whereas preserved residual rilpivirine activity was predicted in half of the patients by three genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms. An NNRTI-dependent impact on rilpivirine resistance was detected. Compared with the use of nevirapine, the use of efavirenz was associated with a 32% lower risk of having a RPV-RAM and a 50% lower risk of predicted reduced rilpivirine susceptibility. Most prevalent RPV-RAMs after nevirapine experience were Y181C and H221Y, whereas L100I+K103N, Y188L and K101E occurred most in efavirenz-experienced patients. Predicted rilpivirine activity was not affected by HIV-1 subtype, although frequency of individual mutations differed across subtypes. In conclusion, this genotypic resistance analysis strongly suggests that the latest NNRTI, rilpivirine, may retain activity in a large proportion of HIV-1 patients in whom resistance failed while they were on an efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing regimen, and may present an attractive option for second-line treatment given its good safety profile and dosing convenience. However, prospective clinical studies assessing the effectiveness of rilpivirine for NNRTI-experienced patients are warranted to validate knowledge derived from genotypic and phenotypic drug resistance studies.

  17. The Development of Reading Comprehension Skills in Children Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Orly; Siegel, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a multi-dimensional process that includes the reader, the text, and factors associated with the activity of reading. Most research and theories of comprehension are based primarily on research conducted with monolingual English speakers (L1). The present study was designed to investigate the cognitive and linguistic…

  18. Australian Children Catch the Bug: Motivating Young Children to Engage in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Beryl

    2007-01-01

    Concerned by a report that a number of seven-year-olds in their school were at risk for literacy difficulties, a team of teachers devised a low-budget program to promote reading at school and at home. After researching reading motivation, two of the authors conceived a catch phrase, a mascot, and gimmicks, including all-school activities, to…

  19. It's Never Too Soon: Building a Firm Foundation for Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Kathy; Benelli, Cecilia; Gudt, Pamela Terry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses emergent literacy development, which includes meaningful literacy-related activities involving oral language, reading, and writing. Offers suggestions for fostering children's development in each area, such as the use of picture books and puppets for vocabulary development; reading aloud and discussing children's literature; and…

  20. Born To Read: How To Nurture a Baby's Love of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Carole, Comp.

    Library and health care professionals team up in the Born to Read partnerships in Florida to empower at-risk expectant and new parents to take an active role in the health and education of their children. Designed for Born to Read workshop participants, this manual contains the following sections: (1) General Information, including workshop…

  1. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  2. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  3. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared three theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody and a bidirectional relation between text reading prosody and reading comprehension. Further, we controlled for autoregressive effects and included decoding efficiency as a measure of general reading skill. Participants were 99 Dutch children, followed longitudinally, from fourth- to sixth-grade. Structural equation modeling showed that the bidirectional relation provided the best fitting model. In fifth-grade, text reading prosody was related to prior decoding and reading comprehension, whereas in sixth-grade, reading comprehension was related to prior text reading prosody. As such, the results suggest that the relation between text reading prosody and reading comprehension is reciprocal, but dependent on grade level.

  4. "To Read or Not to Read": Responses to the New NEA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark; Munson, Lynne; Prehoda, Lauren; Stotsky, Sandra; Greene, Jay P.; O'Connor, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Americans are reading less; comprehension is eroding. And where reading intersects with academic achievement and participation in civic matters and cultural activities, the results are dire. Thus concludes the new National Endowment for the Arts study, "To Read or Not To Read: A Question of National Consequence". A divergent group of experts…

  5. A Classroom Teacher's Guide to Reading Improvement in Middle School Social Studies. Revised Edition. Resource Monograph No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttinger, Hellen I., Ed.

    The reading improvement activities in this handbook are intended for use by middle school social studies teachers. Focusing on study skills, vocabulary development, and comprehension development, the activities include (1) surveying social studies texts and content area reading materials, (2) outlining, (3) spelling, (4) syllabication, (5) word…

  6. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  7. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  8. SUPPLEMENTARY TEACHING ASSISTANCE IN READING. PROJECT STAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE SECOND MEETING OF A READING CLINIC FOR PARENTS OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IS DESCRIBED. AT THE READING CLINIC THE PARENTS WERE INTRODUCED TO SEVERAL ACTIVITIES WHICH THEIR CHILDREN MIGHT TRY AT HOME IN CONNECTION WITH NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, THE TV GUIDE, AND OTHER SUCH READING MATERIALS. THE ACTIVITIES INCLUDED…

  9. Do Your Students Think When They Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Denise

    1989-01-01

    A widely used technique for teaching reading, Directed Reading Activity (DRA), contributes to the development of passive readers rather than thinking readers. This article describes an alternative approach, Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA), contrasts DRTA with DRA, gives an example of DRTA in action, and provides tips for switching to…

  10. Reading Disorders:

    PubMed Central

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon.

  11. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) in Developmental Dyslexia: Activation during Reading in a Surface and Deep Dyslexic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The exploratory study examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in a surface and a deep dyslexic during reading. Significant differences in gray matter blood flow were found between subjects and normal controls. Also differences existed between the surface and deep dyslexic in the distribution of cortical perfusion. (Author/DB)

  12. From Professional Teacher to Activities Manager: The Changing Role of the Teacher in Reading Teachers' Guides, 1920-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Arthur

    A study examined the changing role and status of the elementary school teacher as projected in the teachers' guides that accompany reading textbooks. Twelve fifth-grade teachers' guides for each decade since 1920 were analyzed by scrutinizing every sixth chapter, story, or lesson for (1) physical characteristics, (2) testing components, (3) number…

  13. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  14. Rewards for Reading: Their Effects on Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pin-Hwa; Wu, Jen-Rung

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many Taiwanese elementary schools have implemented extensive reading activities in their respective campuses. In order to motivate pupils to read, teachers and parents would offer pupils contingent rewards. As we know, the use of rewards in educational settings as a way to improve motivation is a controversial issue. Previous…

  15. 3 CFR 8633 - Proclamation 8633 of March 1, 2011. Read Across America Day, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the challenges of tomorrow by making reading a key component of classroom activities. Our Nation’s... areas of knowledge, including the subjects of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics....

  16. Welcome to the Wonderful World of Science and Agriculture: How to Read a Fertilizer Label.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Presents an activity that enables students to learn how to read a fertilizer label, to understand the components of fertilizers, and to compare natural and man-made fertilizers. Includes background information and student worksheets. (DDR)

  17. Mind Wandering, Noncontingent Processing, and Recall in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa; Khangura, Milandeep

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, we attempted to manipulate noncontingent processing in reading, that is, mental activities not dependent on processing the words of the text. An important class of noncontingent processing is mind wandering, but noncontingent processing may include other task-related activities as well. In our study, participants read…

  18. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  19. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  20. Increasing Reading Compliance and Metacognitive Strategies in Border Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culver, Tiffany F.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to increase reading compliance and active reading strategies, quizzes and reading guides were given to 100 participants in four psychology courses. Each participant was given four weeks of reading quizzes and four weeks of reading guides. Participants consisted of students (freshman through senior level) from two colleges along the…

  1. Oral Reading in Social Studies: Use and Misuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Cecilia H.

    1980-01-01

    Criticizes use of round-robin oral reading and suggests ways in which oral reading can be effective. Some uses of oral reading in the social studies classroom are during class discussion and after silent reading for comprehension, with captioned filmstrips, for vocabulary development activities, and for expressive, audience-oriented reading. (KC)

  2. How Can I Get My Teenager to Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winebrenner, Rosemary

    The main barriers to teenage reading are lack of reading skills, lack of reading materials, and lack of time for reading. The school has often unconsciously contributed to the teenager's not reading by overloading him with homework and providing too many after-school activities. Another important factor that affects the child's attitude toward…

  3. A Kindergartner's Emergent Strategy Use during Wordless Picture Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaker, Judith; Hopper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in emergent reading demonstrate that children don't come to print reading as if it were a completely new activity. Emergent reading practices such as wordless book reading are often seen as precursors to the meaning making that comes later during print reading. Yet often, the specific strategies noted in children's emergent…

  4. Measuring the Effects of Reading Assistance Dogs on Reading Ability and Attitudes in Elementary Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Dawn; McCobb, Emily; Diurba, Amanda; Linder, Deborah; Freeman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Reading assistance dogs can be incorporated into reading programs to increase a child's desire and ability to read. However, more data is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of such programs. A 5-week reading assistance dog program was implemented to assess feasibility and effectiveness. Participants included 18 children entering the 2nd grade…

  5. Shining Stars: Kindergartners Learn to Read. How Parents Can Help Their Kindergartners Learn to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, C. Ralph; Goldman, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This guide begins with a story about the parents of twin kindergartners. The story models ways in which the parents of Mike and Chris help them learn to read, such as reading the newspaper together with them and asking them questions about the books they are reading. Included is another short story parents can read with their child, and a list of…

  6. Cortical activation during Braille reading is influenced by early visual experience in subjects with severe visual disability: a correlational fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Melzer, P; Morgan, V L; Pickens, D R; Price, R R; Wall, R S; Ebner, F F

    2001-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on blind adults resting and reading Braille. The strongest activation was found in primary somatic sensory/motor cortex on both cortical hemispheres. Additional foci of activation were situated in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes where visual information is processed in sighted persons. The regions were differentiated most in the correlation of their time courses of activation with resting and reading. Differences in magnitude and expanse of activation were substantially less significant. Among the traditionally visual areas, the strength of correlation was greatest in posterior parietal cortex and moderate in occipitotemporal, lateral occipital, and primary visual cortex. It was low in secondary visual cortex as well as in dorsal and ventral inferior temporal cortex and posterior middle temporal cortex. Visual experience increased the strength of correlation in all regions except dorsal inferior temporal and posterior parietal cortex. The greatest statistically significant increase, i.e., approximately 30%, was in ventral inferior temporal and posterior middle temporal cortex. In these regions, words are analyzed semantically, which may be facilitated by visual experience. In contrast, visual experience resulted in a slight, insignificant diminution of the strength of correlation in dorsal inferior temporal cortex where language is analyzed phonetically. These findings affirm that posterior temporal regions are engaged in the processing of written language. Moreover, they suggest that this function is modified by early visual experience. Furthermore, visual experience significantly strengthened the correlation of activation and Braille reading in occipital regions traditionally involved in the processing of visual features and object recognition suggesting a role for visual imagery.

  7. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  8. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  9. Recreational Reading: 20 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Mangieri, John N.

    2002-01-01

    Determines elementary teachers' knowledge of: current children's literature; children's books in six literary genres; and activities to promote students' recreational reading. Replicates a 1981 study to determine the level of knowledge possessed by today's teachers concerning children's literature and methods of increasing students' reading for…

  10. How Close Is Close Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saccomano, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Close Reading is a strategy that can be used when reading challenging text. This strategy requires teachers to provide scaffolding, and create opportunities for think-alouds and rereading of text in order to help students become active readers who focus on finding text-based support for their answers. In addition, teachers must also be aware of…

  11. Adult Memories of Early Reading Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Shirley A.; Bruder, Mary N.

    1987-01-01

    Structured interviews with 128 poor readers and nonreaders probed subjects' early reading experiences and attitudes about those experiences. Topics covered include subjects' perception of personal reading ability, family environment, and school experience. Findings indicate poor self-images result from bad reading experiences, including reading…

  12. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  13. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  14. Reading homophone puns: Evidence from eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Jared, Debra; Bainbridge, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    We investigated how readers make sense of homophone puns (e.g., The butcher was very glad we could meat up) by tracking their eye movements as they read. Comparison sentences included homophone-error sentences in which the presented homophone was also not correct (e.g., The lawyer was very glad we could meat up) and sentences in which the homophone was correct for the context (e.g., The butcher was very glad to chop meat up for the stew). An effect of the frequency of the unpresented homophone mate (e.g., meet) was found on first-pass reading times for homophones, indicating that participants activated the meaning of the homophone mate through shared phonology. First-fixation and gaze durations on the homophones were longer in puns than in correct-context sentences, indicating that participants immediately noticed that the homophone was incongruous with the adjacent context (e.g., glad we could meat) in puns, but total reading times did not differ, suggesting that the incongruity was quickly resolved. Immediate reading times on homophone in puns and homophone-error sentences did not differ, but total reading times did, suggesting that the impact of the critical context word (e.g., butcher) is delayed. Further analyses examined the resolution process in more detail. Ratings of the funniness of the puns were most strongly related to the strength of the association between the homophone and the critical context word (e.g., butcher). (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Conversations on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Dottie; Parker, Emelie; Cuda, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Three highly acclaimed teachers from Virginia elementary schools reflect on how they have put research into practice to the benefit of their students, discussing their experiences in teaching reading and presenting information on how their school encourages the type of professional-development activities that provide for the careful examination of…

  16. Learning to Read Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jennifer

    1978-01-01

    In the first part (AA 527 718) of this two part article math expression was discussed as well as student difficulty with translating written symbols into easily verbalized sentences. In this second part comprehension problems are examined and activities are offered to help students overcome these reading difficulties. (Editor/RK)

  17. Reading the Right Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Extensive research and practical experience demonstrate that learning to read comes less naturally than learning to speak. Although half of all children intuit the alphabetic system from exposure to print and context-driven activities, many (particularly dyslexic, low-socioeconomic, and second-language kids) need an organized program that teaches…

  18. Recommended Standards for Professional Preparation in Reading Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Consortium for the Right to Read, Kingston, RI.

    Competencies are specified for each of six roles of personnel in reading education: instructing students in developmental reading, including reading in the content fields; instructing students in remedial reading; providing reading consultant service to school personnel; organizing, managing, budgeting, and developing community support for the…

  19. So You Want to Know More About Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Allen

    1970-01-01

    This comprehensive article discusses the following aspects of reading: the reading process, approaches to beginning reading, readability formulas, rate and flexibility, comprehension and critical reading, locational skills, visually handicapped, reading diagnosis and correction, magazines, and sources of further information. Also included is a…

  20. Read Naturally. Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Read Naturally" is designed to improve reading fluency using a combination of books, audio-tapes, and computer software. This program includes three main strategies: repeated reading of English text for oral reading fluency development, teacher modeling of story reading, and systematic monitoring of student progress by teachers.…

  1. Effect of the Heat-exposure on Peripheral Sudomotor Activity Including the Density of Active Sweat Glands and Single Sweat Gland Output.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2010-10-01

    Tropical inhabitants are able to tolerate heat through permanent residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. The goal of this study was to clarify the peripheral mechanisms involved in thermal sweating pre and post exposure (heat-acclimatization over 10 days) by studying the sweating responses to acetylcholine (ACh), a primary neurotransmitter of sudomotor activity, in healthy subjects (n=12). Ten percent ACh was administered on the inner forearm skin for iontophoresis. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing, after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with ACH, was performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, as well as oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The post exposure activity had a short onset time (p<0.01), higher active sweat rate [(AXR (p<0.001) and DIR (p<0.001)], higher sweat output per gland (p<0.001) and higher transepidermal water loss (p<0.001) compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The activated sweat rate in the sudomotor activity increased the output for post-exposure compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The results suggested that post-exposure activity showed a higher active sweat gland output due to the combination of a higher AXR (DIR) sweat rate and a shorter onset time. Therefore, higher sudomotor responses to ACh receptors indicate accelerated sympathetic nerve responsiveness to ACh sensitivity by exposure to environmental conditions.

  2. Do the Patients Read the Informed Consent?

    PubMed Central

    Özhan, Mehmet Özgür; Süzer, Mehmet Anıl; Çomak, İlker; Çaparlar, Ceyda Özhan; Aydın, Gözde Bumin; Eşkin, Mehmet Burak; Atik, Bülent; Ergin, Atilla; Çekmen, Nedim; Kurt, Ercan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Informed consent is a process which consists of informing the patient about the medical interventions planned to be applied to the patient’s body and making the patient active in the decision making process. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the patients read the informed consent document or not and if not, to determine why they did not read it. This was achieved via a questionnaire administered at the pre-anaesthetic visit to assess the perception of patients to the informed consent process. Study Design: Survey study. Methods: The patients were given a questionnaire after signing the informed consent document at the pre-anaesthetic visit. We studied whether the patients read the informed consent document or not and asked for their reasons if they did not. Results: A total of 522 patients were included during the two month study (mean age: 38.1 years; 63.8% male, 36.2% female). Overall, 54.8% of patients reported that they did not read the informed consent. Among them, 50.3% did not care about it because they thought they would have the operation anyway, 13.4% did not have enough time to read it, 11.9% found it difficult to understand, 5.9% could not read because they had no glasses with them, and 5.2% found it frightening and gave up reading. Inpatients, older patients and patients with co-morbidities were less likely to read the informed consent document than outpatients, and younger and healthy patients (p<0.05). Also, 57.9% of parents whose children would be operated on had read the document. Conclusion: This study shows that the majority of our patients did not understand the importance of the informed consent. It is therefore concluded that informed consent documents should be rearranged to be easily read and should be supported with visual elements such as illustrations or video presentations, as informed consent is a process rather than just simply signing a form. PMID:25207184

  3. Partial Restoration of Antibacterial Activity of the Protein Encoded by a Cryptic Open Reading Frame (cyt1Ca) from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Itsko, Mark; Manasherob, Robert; Zaritsky, Arieh

    2005-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis belong to two unrelated toxin families: receptor-specific Cry toxins against insects and Cyt toxins that lyse a broad range of cells, including bacteria, via direct binding to phospholipids. A new cyt-like open reading frame (cyt1Ca) encoding a 60-kDa protein, has recently been discovered (C. Berry et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:5082-5095, 2002). Cyt1Ca displays the structure of a two-domain fusion protein: the N-terminal moiety resembles the full-length Cyt toxins, and the C-terminal moiety is similar to the receptor-binding domains of several ricin-like toxins, such as Mtx1. Neither the larvicidal activity of cyt1Ca expressed in Escherichia coli nor the hemolytic effect of His-tagged purified Cyt1Ca has been observed (R. Manasherob et al., unpublished). This was attributed to five amino acid differences between the sequences of its N-terminal moiety and Cyt1Aa. The 3′ end of cyt1Ca was truncated (removing the ricin-binding domain of Cyt1Ca), and six single bases were appropriately changed by site-directed mutagenesis, sequentially replacing the noncharged amino acids by charged ones, according to Cyt1Aa, to form several versions. Expression of these mutated cyt1Ca versions caused loss of the colony-forming ability of the corresponding E. coli cells to different extents compared with the original gene. In some mutants this antibacterial effect was associated by significant distortion of cell morphology and in others by generation of multiple inclusion bodies spread along the cell envelope. The described deleterious effects of mutated cyt1Ca versions against E. coli may reflect an evolutionary relationship between Cyt1Aa and Cyt1Ca. PMID:16159771

  4. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  5. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  6. Reading: Tales for Two Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Judith M.

    1979-01-01

    The author explains how she changes folk tales into simple two-actor plays geared to the oral reading ability of her remedial reading students. Two of her plays are included in this article: "A Halloween Tale" and "The Three Wishes." (SJL)

  7. Reading List in Classification Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Phyllis A.

    The reading list contains 180 references and serves as an introduction to classification research literature. While the list includes major viewpoints on basic work in the field of classification as well as related areas, it excludes critical literature. The major divisions of the reading list are: (1) Definition: What is Classification, (2)…

  8. Getting Along With Reading Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Sara Innis

    1970-01-01

    Some of the stated needs of reading teachers include: more books where students can find them at arm's length, more open Door" hours, more help and time for individual students, more flexibility in borrowing rules, more books and other media relevant to the reading specialists, and more storytelling by librarians. (MF)

  9. Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Bill; Diamond, Linda; Gutlohn, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The "Teaching Reading Sourcebook, Second Edition" is a comprehensive reference about reading instruction. Organized according to the elements of explicit instruction (what? why? when? and how?), the "Sourcebook" includes both a research-informed knowledge base and practical sample lesson models. It teaches the key elements of an effective reading…

  10. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  11. Evaluation in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Huberta V., Ed.

    Evaluation in reading must be a continuous process. The assessment of readiness, progress, and mastery in the development of skills, concepts, and behaviors must be an ongoing process if the best decisions are to be made for each learner. The articles included in this yearbook offer a variety of assessment techniques, using both objective and…

  12. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen…

  13. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  14. Model Reading Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Nancy; Dworkin, Yehoash

    The 1978 Summer Reading Institute, which served 58 Washington, D.C., elementary school children, is described in this paper. Major characteristics of the program model are first identified, along with elements that were added to the model in the preplanning stage. Numerous aspects of the program are then described, including the make-up of the…

  15. Terrorism: Current Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sherbini, Magda

    1990-01-01

    Presents selected readings published in the English language on the subject of terrorism dating from 1985 to the present. Materials covered include books, periodicals, encyclopedias and dictionaries, directories, bibliographies, and online databases that cover definitions of terrorism, psychological and religious aspects of terrorism, and how to…

  16. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

    1991-01-01

    To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

  17. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  18. Functional anatomy of listening and reading comprehension during development.

    PubMed

    Berl, Madison M; Duke, Elizabeth S; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R; Moore, Erin N; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J; Gaillard, William Davis

    2010-08-01

    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being left-lateralized activation along the superior temporal sulcus. Functionally, this conjunction has a role in semantic and syntactic processing, leading us to refer to this conjunction as "comprehension cortex." Different from adults, supramodal areas for children include less extensive inferior frontal gyrus but more extensive right cerebellum and right temporal pole. Broader neuroanatomical pathways are recruited for reading, reflecting the more active processing and larger set of cognitive demands needed for reading compared to listening to stories. ROI analyses reveal that reading is a less lateralized language task than listening in inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, which likely reflects the difficulty of the task as children in this study are still developing their reading skills. For listening to stories, temporal activation is stable by age four with no correlations with age, neuropsychological skills or post-task performance. In contrast, frontal activation during listening to stories occurs more often in older children, and frontal activation is positively correlated with better performance on comprehension questions, suggesting that the activation of frontal networks may reflect greater integration and depth of story processing.

  19. Kindergarten Reading Curriculum: Reading Abilities, Not Reading Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ida Santos

    1985-01-01

    Addresses attitudes toward reading resulting in beginning reading instruction in the kindergarten and preschool curriculum. Argues that previously accepted notions of the necessity of reading readiness are no longer viable and encourages home and classroom support for the acquisition of reading abilities through written and oral language. (DST)

  20. Reading Words and Reading Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    The research and practical questions about the internal lexicon, the associated network of internal representation basic to word meaning, boil down to whether in reading English the phonological route is obligatory or optional. Since the English writing system is morphophonemic, not phonetic, access to the internal lexicon cannot and should not…

  1. Activation of Lexical and Semantic Representations without Intention along GPC-Sublexical and Orthographic-Lexical Reading Pathways in a Stroop Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Kathryn F.; Gould, Layla; Borowsky, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Dual route models of reading suggest there are 2 pathways for reading words: an orthographic-lexical pathway, used to read familiar regular words and exception words, and a grapheme-to-phoneme-conversion-(GPC)-sublexical pathway, used to read unfamiliar regular words, pseudohomophones (PHs), and nonwords. It is unclear, however, whether PHs…

  2. The neural substrates of natural reading: a comparison of normal and nonword text using eyetracking and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonil; Desai, Rutvik H; Henderson, John M

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies investigating the neural correlates of reading have presented text using serial visual presentation (SVP), which may not fully reflect the underlying processes of natural reading. In the present study, eye movements and BOLD data were collected while subjects either read normal paragraphs naturally or moved their eyes through "paragraphs" of pseudo-text (pronounceable pseudowords or consonant letter strings) in two pseudo-reading conditions. Eye movement data established that subjects were reading and scanning the stimuli normally. A conjunction fMRI analysis across natural- and pseudo-reading showed that a common eye-movement network including frontal eye fields (FEF), supplementary eye fields (SEF), and intraparietal sulci was activated, consistent with previous studies using simpler eye movement tasks. In addition, natural reading versus pseudo-reading showed different patterns of brain activation: normal reading produced activation in a well-established language network that included superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), angular gyrus (AG), inferior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus, whereas pseudo-reading produced activation in an attentional network that included anterior/posterior cingulate and parietal cortex. These results are consistent with results found in previous single-saccade eye movement tasks and SVP reading studies, suggesting that component processes of eye-movement control and language processing observed in past fMRI research generalize to natural reading. The results also suggest that combining eyetracking and fMRI is a suitable method for investigating the component processes of natural reading in fMRI research.

  3. The neural substrates of natural reading: a comparison of normal and nonword text using eyetracking and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonil; Desai, Rutvik H.; Henderson, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies investigating the neural correlates of reading have presented text using serial visual presentation (SVP), which may not fully reflect the underlying processes of natural reading. In the present study, eye movements and BOLD data were collected while subjects either read normal paragraphs naturally or moved their eyes through “paragraphs” of pseudo-text (pronounceable pseudowords or consonant letter strings) in two pseudo-reading conditions. Eye movement data established that subjects were reading and scanning the stimuli normally. A conjunction fMRI analysis across natural- and pseudo-reading showed that a common eye-movement network including frontal eye fields (FEF), supplementary eye fields (SEF), and intraparietal sulci was activated, consistent with previous studies using simpler eye movement tasks. In addition, natural reading versus pseudo-reading showed different patterns of brain activation: normal reading produced activation in a well-established language network that included superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), angular gyrus (AG), inferior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus, whereas pseudo-reading produced activation in an attentional network that included anterior/posterior cingulate and parietal cortex. These results are consistent with results found in previous single-saccade eye movement tasks and SVP reading studies, suggesting that component processes of eye-movement control and language processing observed in past fMRI research generalize to natural reading. The results also suggest that combining eyetracking and fMRI is a suitable method for investigating the component processes of natural reading in fMRI research. PMID:25566039

  4. Neurally dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Boukrina, Olga; Barrett, A. M.; Alexander, Edward J.; Yao, Bing; Graves, William W.

    2015-01-01

    According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling), phonological (sound), and semantic (meaning) information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here, we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (<=5 weeks post-stroke). Patients completed tasks assessing cognitive components of reading such as semantics (matching picture or word choices to a target based on meaning), phonology (matching word choices to a target based on rhyming), and orthography (a two-alternative forced choice of the most plausible non-word). They also read aloud pseudowords and words with high or low levels of usage frequency, imageability, and spelling-sound consistency. As predicted by the cognitive model, when averaged across patients, the influence of semantics was most salient for low-frequency, low-consistency words, when phonological decoding is especially difficult. Qualitative subtraction analyses revealed lesion sites specific to phonological processing. These areas were consistent with those shown previously to activate for phonology in healthy participants, including supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, middle temporal, inferior frontal gyri, and underlying white matter. Notable divergence between this analysis and previous functional imaging is the association of lesions in the mid-fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal lobe with phonological reading deficits. This study represents progress toward identifying brain lesion-deficit relationships in the cognitive components of reading. Such correspondences are expected to help not only better understand the neural mechanisms of reading, but may also help tailor reading therapy to individual neurocognitive

  5. Neurally dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Boukrina, Olga; Barrett, A M; Alexander, Edward J; Yao, Bing; Graves, William W

    2015-01-01

    According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling), phonological (sound), and semantic (meaning) information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here, we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (<=5 weeks post-stroke). Patients completed tasks assessing cognitive components of reading such as semantics (matching picture or word choices to a target based on meaning), phonology (matching word choices to a target based on rhyming), and orthography (a two-alternative forced choice of the most plausible non-word). They also read aloud pseudowords and words with high or low levels of usage frequency, imageability, and spelling-sound consistency. As predicted by the cognitive model, when averaged across patients, the influence of semantics was most salient for low-frequency, low-consistency words, when phonological decoding is especially difficult. Qualitative subtraction analyses revealed lesion sites specific to phonological processing. These areas were consistent with those shown previously to activate for phonology in healthy participants, including supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, middle temporal, inferior frontal gyri, and underlying white matter. Notable divergence between this analysis and previous functional imaging is the association of lesions in the mid-fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal lobe with phonological reading deficits. This study represents progress toward identifying brain lesion-deficit relationships in the cognitive components of reading. Such correspondences are expected to help not only better understand the neural mechanisms of reading, but may also help tailor reading therapy to individual neurocognitive

  6. Reading Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

  7. Accentuating Literacy Today: A Reading Consultant's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry, Comp.; And Others

    This handbook presents brief descriptions of various aspects of reading instruction and related lesson plans and class activities. Sections of the handbook discuss readiness, word recognition, developing vocabulary skills, reading in the content area, and reading comprehension. The handbook also offers brief biographies on Emmett Betts, Guy Bond,…

  8. Wait…This Counts as Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Many sixth grade students think they are telling the truth when they complain, "Reading is boring." However, they don't realize what sort of activities encompass reading. As a teacher with a few years of experience, I am finding new ways to engage reluctant readers and show them reading can take many different forms. In this essay, I…

  9. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Dialogic reading is an interactive shared picture-book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and questioner.…

  10. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Dialogic Reading" is an interactive shared picture book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and…

  11. A Kindergartner Learns to Read for Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bonnie L.

    Six weeks were spent working with a five-year-old kindergarten child who had an excellent understanding of sound/symbol relationships but did not know how to read for meaning. A variety of techniques was used to help the child develop reading strategies and increase confidence: directed reading-thinking activity in week one; student retelling of a…

  12. Reading Research 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodacre, Elizabeth J.

    The reading research contributions discussed in this survey are arranged under the following headings: reading standards and tests, dyslexia and specific reading retardation, remedial and reading provision, reading development, and materials and reading interests. Each section summarizes research and findings in that area of study during 1975.…

  13. Promoting a Reading Culture in School Community: How to Engage Reading Activities Cross Curricula, Directors, Teachers, Students, Parents, Administrative Services, Local Authorities, Public Libraries and Other Partners--Relating a Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Ana Bela; Marques, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present how an intensive collaboration between the National Portuguese Reading Plan and the School Libraries Network Programme plays an important role in the promotion of reading literacy as a baseline to develop all kinds of other literacy abilities and empower the role of school libraries and the…

  14. Girls, Boys and Early Reading: Parents' Gendered Views about Literacy and Children's Attitudes towards Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Gulsah; Hill, Susan; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between children's attitudes towards reading and their parents' gendered views about literacy (GVL). It was assumed that parents may have GVL by favouring girls in reading activities, which could limit boys' enjoyment in reading activities. This study was conducted with 31 five-year-old children in first…

  15. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiping; Lester, Robert L; Dickson, Robert C

    2005-06-17

    The Pkh1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes. Phytosphingosine (PHS), a sphingoid long chain base, is hypothesized to be a lipid activator of Pkh1 and thereby controls the activity of Ypk1/2. Here we present biochemical evidence supporting this hypothesis, and in addition we demonstrate that PHS also stimulates autophosphorylation and activation of Ypk1/2. Greatest stimulation of Ypk1/2 phosphorylation and activity are achieved by inclusion of both PHS and Pkh1 in an in vitro kinase reaction. We also demonstrate for the first time that Pkh1 phosphorylates the Sch9 protein kinase in vitro and that such phosphorylation is stimulated by PHS. This is the first biochemical demonstration of Sch9 activators, and the results further support roles for long chain bases in heat stress resistance in addition to implying roles in chronological aging and cell size determination, since Sch9 functions in these processes. Thus, our data support a model in which PHS, rather than simply being an upstream activator of Pkh1, also activates kinases that are downstream targets of Pkh1 including Ypk1/2 and Sch9.

  16. Meaning Construction in Early Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Léger, Paul David; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2013-01-01

    The authors' interest in the associations between beginners' reading and writing performance led them to devise an index of children's meaning construction in reading by increasing the specificity of the Reading Miscue Inventory meaning change index to include finer discriminations between superficial and meaning disruptive miscues potentially…

  17. News Book in Reading Instruction: Series I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra M., Ed.

    The "Right to Read" goal set by James E. Allen, Jr., former United States Commissioner of Education, is evaluated through a series of interviews with 25 leading authorities in reading. Allen's address is included in its entirety. The comments of the reading authorities, who often disagree among themselves, reflect the impact that the…

  18. Practicing What We Know: Informed Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Constance, Ed.

    Offering 33 essays that represent the best in current reading instruction, this book offers detailed insight into key issues and topics in the teaching of reading, including phonics and word skills, reading strategies, miscue analysis, the use of literature, cultural and linguistic diversity, and the needs of special populations. After an…

  19. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  20. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  1. Rehearsed Oral Reading: Providing Authentic Reading Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Karl A.

    A two-part study investigated the prevalence of unrehearsed oral reading and compared reading fluency for rehearsed and unrehearsed reading passages. In the first part of the study, a total of 21 teachers were interviewed and 24 classrooms were observed. Results indicated that by far the most prevalent practice in basal reading programs is the…

  2. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  3. Adopting a Districtwide Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Washington school district's eight-step process leading to the adoption of a districtwide reading program. Includes data collection, research analysis, skill tracing, and field-testing. (PKP)

  4. Recreational Reading for Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangieri, John N.; Isaacs, Carolyn W.

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography lists approximately 100 works (1974-82) of fiction, biography, poetry, fantasy/science fiction, picture books, and mystery/adventure for gifted elementary children's recreational reading. Citations include information on author, approximate grade level, and publisher. (CL)

  5. College and Adult Reading XIV: The Fourteenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kay E., Ed.; Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Containing selections from the 1987 and 1988 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "The Effects of a Secondary Reading Methods Course on Undergraduate Students' Awareness of Reading Skills"…

  6. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  7. Neural basis of dyslexia: a comparison between dyslexic and nondyslexic children equated for reading ability.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Hernandez, Arvel; McMillon, Glenn; Taylor-Hill, Heather; Martindale, Jennifer L; Meyler, Ann; Keller, Timothy A; Siok, Wai Ting; Deutsch, Gayle K; Just, Marcel Adam; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2006-10-18

    Adults and children with developmental dyslexia exhibit reduced parietotemporal activation in functional neuroimaging studies of phonological processing. These studies used age-matched and/or intelligence quotient-matched control groups whose reading ability and scanner task performance were often superior to that of the dyslexic group. It is unknown, therefore, whether differences in activation reflect simply poorer performance in the scanner, the underlying level of reading ability, or more specific neural correlates of dyslexia. To resolve this uncertainty, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, with a rhyme judgment task, in which we compared dyslexic children with two control groups: age-matched children and reading-matched children (younger normal readers equated for reading ability or scanner-performance to the dyslexic children). Dyslexic children exhibited reduced activation relative to both age-matched and reading-matched children in the left parietotemporal cortex and five other regions, including the right parietotemporal cortex. The dyslexic children also exhibited reduced activation bilaterally in the parietotemporal cortex when compared with children equated for task performance during scanning. Nine of the 10 dyslexic children exhibited reduced left parietotemporal activation compared with their individually selected age-matched or reading-matched control children. Additionally, normal reading fifth graders showed more activation in the same bilateral parietotemporal regions than normal-reading third graders. These findings indicate that the activation differences seen in the dyslexic children cannot be accounted for by either current reading level or scanner task performance, but instead represent a distinct developmental atypicality in the neural systems that support learning to read.

  8. Adventures in Ecological Reading, Language Arts (Experimental); 5365.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mary, Charlotta B.

    Presented is a reading-discussion, activities-experiences course with group and individual projects and experiments especially recommended for students interested in ecology and/or related sciences. Special emphasis is placed on Marine Science. Several texts, including Rachel Carson's "The Edge of the Sea,""The Sea Around Us,"…

  9. The Social Side of Engaged Reading for Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights, though examples from research, the social dimensions of reading for young adolescents in classroom communities that are centrally focused on engagement. Included are the positive social consequences of engagement and suggestions for teachers interested in arranging for productive social activity inside of texts and outside…

  10. Cooperative Learning in College Reading and Study Skills Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radebaugh, Muriel Rogie; Kazemek, Francis E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how current insights into literacy, teaching, and learning as social, collaborative processes can be incorporated into college reading and study skills classes. Suggests several cooperative activities and strategies, including small group discussion, forming permanent study groups, and sharing study habits. (MM)

  11. Panda-Monium at the Library: 1995 Arizona Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    Panda bears are the theme of this guide which includes many reading-related activities, crafts, and programs on a broad range of topics, and which can be expanded to other theme approaches such as endangered species, bears in general, and the concept of black and white. The program begins with a general definition and discussion of goals,…

  12. Classroom Communication: Collected Readings for Effective Discussion and Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Rose Ann, Ed.; Weimer, Maryellen, Ed.

    This collection is intended to help teachers encourage active learning by involving students in classroom learning and to encourage teachers to cultivate critical thinking through thought-provoking questions. The readings include: (1) "The Dreaded Discussion: Ten Ways To Start" (Peter Frederick); (2) "Classroom Structures Which Encourage Student…

  13. Reading prosody in Spanish dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Martínez, Cristina; García, Noemí; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic representations of words, it is possible that their use of prosody when reading differs from that of typical readers. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the reading prosody of Spanish-speaking dyslexics differs from that of typical Spanish readers. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment involved 36 children (18 with dyslexia), and the second involved 46 adults (23 with dyslexia). Participants were asked to read aloud a text which included declarative, exclamatory and interrogative sentences. Data on pausing and reading rate (number of pauses, duration of pauses and utterances), pitch changes, intensity changes and syllable lengthening were extracted from the recordings. We found that dyslexic people read more slowly than typical readers and they also made more inappropriate and longer pauses, even as adults with considerable reading experience. We also observed that dyslexics differed from skilled readers in their use of some prosodic features, particularly pitch changes at the end of sentences. This is probably because they have trouble anticipating some structural features of prose, such as sentence ends.

  14. Reading for All; Proceedings of the IRA (International Reading Association) World Congress on Reading (4th, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 3-5, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in August 1972. The contents of the book are divided into three parts: "Literacy and Literature" includes papers on libraries, books, and reading by Jorge Borges, the future of reading by Theodore Harris, the…

  15. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-09-01

    The authors review research on children's reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children's reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children's reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students' reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  16. New Ways in Teaching Reading. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    This second edition of "New Ways in Teaching Reading" bursts with new activities while retaining many of the features that made the first edition a best seller. The activities chosen for this edition are inspired by state-of-the art trends in teaching reading to English learners. Teachers now find numerous creative, classroom-ready activities in…

  17. Associations between reading achievement and independent reading in early elementary school: a genetically informative cross-lagged study.

    PubMed

    Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A; Dethorne, Laura S; Petrill, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual differences in reading achievement and independent reading at both ages were primarily due to genetic influences. Furthermore, individual differences in independent reading at age 11 partly reflected genetic influences on reading achievement at age 10. These findings suggest that genetic influences that contribute to individual differences in children's reading abilities also influence the extent to which children actively seek out and create opportunities to read.

  18. Replication of CNTNAP2 association with nonword repetition and support for FOXP2 association with timed reading and motor activities in a dyslexia family sample.

    PubMed

    Peter, Beate; Raskind, Wendy H; Matsushita, Mark; Lisowski, Mark; Vu, Tiffany; Berninger, Virginia W; Wijsman, Ellen M; Brkanac, Zoran

    2011-03-01

    Two functionally related genes, FOXP2 and CNTNAP2, influence language abilities in families with rare syndromic and common nonsyndromic forms of impaired language, respectively. We investigated whether these genes are associated with component phenotypes of dyslexia and measures of sequential motor ability. Quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing (QTDT) and linear association modeling were used to evaluate associations with measures of phonological memory (nonword repetition, NWR), expressive language (sentence repetition), reading (real word reading efficiency, RWRE; word attack, WATT), and timed sequential motor activities (rapid alternating place of articulation, RAPA; finger succession in the dominant hand, FS-D) in 188 family trios with a child with dyslexia. Consistent with a prior study of language impairment, QTDT in dyslexia showed evidence of CNTNAP2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association with NWR. For FOXP2, we provide the first evidence for SNP association with component phenotypes of dyslexia, specifically NWR and RWRE but not WATT. In addition, FOXP2 SNP associations with both RAPA and FS-D were observed. Our results confirm the role of CNTNAP2 in NWR in a dyslexia sample and motivate new questions about the effects of FOXP2 in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  19. Reading Workshop Survival Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muschla, Gary Robert

    Intended for reading and classroom teachers, this book, organized in two parts, is a complete, step-by-step guide to setting up and running a reading workshop for grades 5-12 where reading is "the" priority. Part 1, "Management of the Reading Workshop," shows how to create a reading workshop, offers specific tools and…

  20. Parents Teach Reading, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Linda Mixon

    Parents and teachers need to be involved in teaching children to read and to enjoy reading. There are three planks in a platform that will help all parents become involved in their children's learning to read. First, parents must set the example. If they want their children to read, parents must read around them and to them. Secondly, they must…