Science.gov

Sample records for activities include work

  1. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF MARSICAL WORKS CONDENSERS INCLUDING QUICKSILVER COLLECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF MARSICAL WORKS CONDENSERS INCLUDING QUICKSILVER COLLECTION CHANNEL AND COLLECTION BOX, CENTER FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH, SOUTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  2. VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS AND ORE BIN FOUNDATION ABOVE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  3. 18. VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS, AND ORE BIN FOUNDATION ABOVE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  4. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  5. How physical activity can work?

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This review examines how physical activity can work for health during childhood and adolescence. Special emphasis is put on weight control and prevention of obesity-related morbidity. Both low sedentary and high exercise activities contribute to increased energy expenditure, improved weight control and prevention of obesity. Exercise, if intensity is at least moderate, has also a positive effect on fat distribution by decreasing the proportion of abdominal or visceral fat. The prevalence of clustered (multiple) cardiovascular risk factors is lower in children and adolescents, who are physically active or fit. However, the risks of obesity are greater than those from being sedentary, i.e., high physical activity reduces, but does not totally offset risks related to obesity. Good health in youth is easily lost by an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. An additional benefit of childhood physical activity is that it increases the likelihood of physical activity later in adulthood. PMID:18278627

  6. Getting Students to Work Actively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stan; Harrell, J. W.; Horton, C. E.

    2007-05-01

    As researchers learn better ways to promote student learning in introductory physics, students learn better ways of circumventing these strategies. Many students remain motivated primarily to find the lowest energy output required to pass a course rather than to actually work at learning physics. We are redesigning our introductory courses, which are taught in a studio format, under the assumption that most students will do only the things they get credit for. By offering incentives for students to participate actively in the learning process, we expect to see an improvement in student performance. This poster describes both the studio format and the teaching strategies being implemented.

  7. Performance indicators of work activity.

    PubMed

    Lahoz, Manoela de Assis; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of performance is a current topic in the management of people in companies, used as a parameter of effectiveness of processes and operations of production. The methods and models of the indicators of current use in the production have concentrated in the assessment of people's performance as determinative resource of the organizational success in the search for the competitiveness. Associated with the classic indicators of performance assessment of the production proceeding, other indicators are used in the assessment of risks and hazards, however with methods focused in the tasks, without connection with the real work activity. The present article explores literature on the models of performance measurement in use in companies and a field research to understand how companies interpret and use indicators that relate health and work, to direct future studies on the subject. Regarding the literature review, one can see that health indicators can be basically divided into two major groups: the legal and managerial indicators. When conducting case studies, it can be realized that companies do not have precisely the concept of health indicator, or were unable to define which of the indicators could be considered indicators of health, considering that absenteeism was the indicator mentioned by the four companies.

  8. 40 CFR 35.4140 - What must be included in my group's work plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... work plan? 35.4140 Section 35.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... Tag § 35.4140 What must be included in my group's work plan? (a) Your scope of work must clearly... community. (b) Your scope of work must also clearly explain your project's milestones and the schedule...

  9. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  10. Does Working Memory Training Transfer? A Meta-Analysis Including Training Conditions as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwaighofer, Matthias; Fischer, Frank; Bühner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken to reexamine near- and far-transfer effects following working-memory training and to consider potential moderators more systematically. Forty-seven studies with 65 group comparisons were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed near-transfer effects to short-term and working-memory skills that were sustained at…

  11. 30 CFR 250.1933 - What procedures must be included for reporting unsafe working conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1933 What procedures must be included for... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What procedures must be included for reporting unsafe working conditions? 250.1933 Section 250.1933 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1933 - What procedures must be included for reporting unsafe working conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1933 What procedures must be included for... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What procedures must be included for reporting unsafe working conditions? 250.1933 Section 250.1933 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND...

  13. Antiradical activity of gallic acid included in lipid interphases.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, C L; Frías, M A; Cutro, A C; Nazareno, M A; Disalvo, E A

    2014-10-01

    Polyphenols are well known as antioxidant agents and by their effects on the hydration layers of lipid interphases. Among them, gallic acid and its derivatives are able to decrease the dipole potential and to act in water as a strong antioxidant. In this work we have studied both effects on lipid interphases in monolayers and bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. The results show that gallic acid (GA) increases the negative surface charges of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and decreases the dipole potential of the lipid interphase. As a result, positively charged radical species such as ABTS(+) are able to penetrate the membrane forming an association with GA. These results allow discussing the antiradical activity (ARA) of GA at the membrane phase which may be taking place in water spaces between the lipids.

  14. Heritability of working memory brain activation.

    PubMed

    Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; McMahon, Katie L; Thompson, Paul M; Martin, Nicholas G; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J

    2011-07-27

    Although key to understanding individual variation in task-related brain activation, the genetic contribution to these individual differences remains largely unknown. Here we report voxel-by-voxel genetic model fitting in a large sample of 319 healthy, young adult, human identical and fraternal twins (mean ± SD age, 23.6 ± 1.8 years) who performed an n-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at a high magnetic field (4 tesla). Patterns of task-related brain response (BOLD signal difference of 2-back minus 0-back) were significantly heritable, with the highest estimates (40-65%) in the inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri, left supplementary motor area, precentral and postcentral gyri, middle cingulate cortex, superior medial gyrus, angular gyrus, superior parietal lobule, including precuneus, and superior occipital gyri. Furthermore, high test-retest reliability for a subsample of 40 twins indicates that nongenetic variance in the fMRI brain response is largely due to unique environmental influences rather than measurement error. Individual variations in activation of the working memory network are therefore significantly influenced by genetic factors. By establishing the heritability of cognitive brain function in a large sample that affords good statistical power, and using voxel-by-voxel analyses, this study provides the necessary evidence for task-related brain activation to be considered as an endophenotype for psychiatric or neurological disorders, and represents a substantial new contribution to the field of neuroimaging genetics. These genetic brain maps should facilitate discovery of gene variants influencing cognitive brain function through genome-wide association studies, potentially opening up new avenues in the treatment of brain disorders. PMID:21795540

  15. Conditions for Apprentices' Learning Activities at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apprentices' learning activities at work can be fostered. This is a crucial issue as learning at work enhances apprentices' competence development and prepares them for professional development on the job. Therefore, we conducted a study with 70 apprentices in the German dual system and examined the…

  16. Design of check-out systems including laser scanners for sitting work posture.

    PubMed

    Hinnen, U; Läubli, T; Guggenbühl, U; Krueger, H

    1992-06-01

    Forty-six laser scanner operators were compared with 106 cashiers operating conventional cash registers. The influence of job rotation on the two groups was evaluated, and several design features were examined. For this purpose the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was determined by means of a questionnaire and a physical examination. In addition, a three-dimensional movement analysis system was employed. Work postures were analyzed with the Ovako working analysis system. The results indicate that a beneficial effect on the musculoskeletal system is achieved by combining the operation of a laser scanner with job rotation. The study also points out the need for better equipment, including flat scanners and smaller keyboards, and a change in the angle between the scanner and the take-off belt running up to the cashier.

  17. [Return to work of the cardiac patient: work fitness evaluation in Occupational Medicine Division including an Occupational Cardiology Unit and Work-Physiology Lab in Bergamo].

    PubMed

    Borleri, D; Seghizzi, P; Manfredini, F; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in working age still represent a major cause of morbidity and account for a number of fitness to work certificates expressing several limitations and prescriptions. To present the medical assessment conducted in an Occupational Medicine Division including an Occupational Cardiology Unit and work-physiology lab. It is described the history and the structure of the Occupational Cardiology Unit. Our almost forty years long-lasting experience allow us to point out the precious contribution of the Occupational Cardiology Unit to the Occupational Medicine Division, due to a highly specialised and qualified assessment of cardiac patients.

  18. [Evolution of work duties in manufacturing activities].

    PubMed

    Guerra, F

    2001-01-01

    The present work deals with duties' evolution according to the aspect of the investment's increase in facilities and equipment for employ, of industry-wide agreement, of cost accounting, of added value, of plant lay-out, of job competence and of production technologies. The mutual relation between duties and risk of cumulative trauma disorders is studied in qualitative and quantitative way making use of active and waiting labour time allotment during the labour cycle, rest and fatigue factor, labour losses, collective and individual breaks, high repeated work and worked items' variability. In conclusion the paper presents elements and examples about investments in automation and organisation with relay-out.

  19. The Influence of Acute Physical Activity on Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Zach, Sima; Shalom, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent. PMID:27166321

  20. The Influence of Acute Physical Activity on Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Zach, Sima; Shalom, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent.

  1. Activity at work, innovation and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Béguin, P; Duarte, F; Lima, F; Pueyo, V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss a French-Brazilian project (CAPES-COFECUB) centered on the relations between sustainable development, innovation and changes in work activities that accompany these innovations for sustainable development. Sustainable development calls for an integrated approach of three dimensions: social equity, economic viability and environmental sustainability. In order to achieve this integration, considerable innovations efforts are required. However, the work, understood as a productive act, is deeply lacking in the current researches. Starting from the idea that work is a "fundamental need" the goal of this project is to propose innovative methods that can be used for designing production systems from the perspective of sustainable development. PMID:22316705

  2. 75 FR 9442 - AK Steel Corporation, Mansfield Works Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-71,375 AK Steel Corporation, Mansfield Works Division, Including... impacted employment at AK Steel Corporation, Mansfield Works Division, Mansfield, Ohio. The survey of the... Corporation, Mansfield Works Division, including on-site leased workers from Time Customized...

  3. Including Narrative Concepts in Social Work Practice Classes: Teaching to Client Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquin, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Strengths-based social work practice has become a major approach to working with clients. The social constructivist perspective is a foundation of this approach. Narrative treatment is one form of strengths-based practice arising from a social constructive perspective. The demands of time and material needing to be covered in the social work…

  4. Where's the Evidence that Active Learning Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Calls for reforms in the ways we teach science at all levels, and in all disciplines, are wide spread. The effectiveness of the changes being called for, employment of student-centered, active learning pedagogy, is now well supported by evidence. The relevant data have come from a number of different disciplines that include the learning sciences,…

  5. Optimal design of active and semi-active suspensions including time delays and preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hac', A.; Youn, I.

    1993-10-01

    Several control laws for active and semi-active suspension based on a linear half car model are derived and investigated. The strategies proposed take full advantage of the fact that the road input to the rear wheels is a delayed version of that to the front wheels, which in turn can be obtained either from the measurements of the front wheels and body motions or by direct preview of road irregularities if preview sensors are available. The suspension systems are optimized with respect to ride comfort, road holding and suspension rattle space as expressed by the mean-square-values of body acceleration (including effects of heave and pitch), tire deflections and front and rear suspension travels. The optimal control laws that minimize the given performance index and include passivity constraints in the semi-active case are derived using calculus of variation. The optimal semi-active suspension becomes piecewise linear, varying between passive and fully active systems and combinations of them. The performances of active and semi-active systems with and without preview were evaluated by numerical simulation in the time and frequency domains. The results show that incorporation of time delay between the front and rear axles in controller design improves the dynamic behavior of the rear axle and control of body pitch motion, while additional preview improves front wheel dynamics and body heave.

  6. GIS WORK GROUP: AN OVERVIEW (INCLUDES GIS-QA AND AUDITING GIS DATABASE SYSTEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to promote cooperation in the implementation of GIS in regional offices, a GIS Regional Workgroup was established by the ten Regions in 1989. Since that time the GIS Work Group evolved and now consists of members from each of the ten EPA Regional Offices, the Office of A...

  7. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  8. Integrating Counselling, Psychotherapy and Healing: An Inquiry into Counsellors and Psychotherapists Whose Work Includes Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, William

    1997-01-01

    A qualitative study of 30 counselors or psychotherapists revealed numerous themes. These major themes include the following: transition by the practitioner toward the use of healing; the taboo over talking about spiritual and healing experiences; the nature of healing as distinct from therapy; supervision difficulties; and the concept of spiritual…

  9. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK WORKS BOTH WAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, P.-C.; Middelberg, E.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Norris, R. P.

    2013-09-01

    Simulations of galaxy growth need to invoke strong negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to suppress the formation of stars and thus prevent the over-production of very massive systems. While some observations provide evidence for such negative feedback, other studies find either no feedback or even positive feedback, with increased star formation associated with higher AGN luminosities. Here we report an analysis of several hundred AGNs and their host galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South using X-ray and radio data for sample selection. Combined with archival far-infrared data as a reliable tracer of star formation activity in the AGN host galaxies, we find that AGNs with pronounced radio jets exhibit a much higher star formation rate (SFR) than the purely X-ray-selected ones, even at the same X-ray luminosities. This difference implies that positive AGN feedback plays an important role, too, and therefore has to be accounted for in all future simulation work. We interpret this to indicate that the enhanced SFR of radio-selected AGNs arises because of jet-induced star formation, as is suggested by the different jet powers among our AGN samples, while the suppressed SFR of X-ray selected AGN is caused by heating and photo-dissociation of molecular gas by the hot AGN accretion disk.

  10. Pairing Learners in Pair Work Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Neomy; Aldosari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although pair work is advocated by major theories of second language (L2) learning and research findings suggest that pair work facilitates L2 learning, what is unclear is how to best pair students in L2 classes of mixed L2 proficiency. This study investigated the nature of pair work in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) class in a college in…

  11. Using Reference Materials: An Activity that Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A common complaint of employers of entry-level workers is that those workers have no understanding of how to work as a member of a team. Cooperative learning is a step in that direction. Working together toward a common goal is an admirable quest: however, within this system the wayward student occasionally is allowed to "coast" while the…

  12. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  13. Exploring Work: Fun Activities for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This document contains learning activities to help middle school girls begin the career planning process and resist gender-role stereotyping. The activities are designed for individuals and/or groups of girls either in classroom settings or in organizations such as Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs. A total of 30 activities are organized into 4 sections…

  14. Activity Theory as a Framework for Project Work in Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David W. L.; Wong, Angela F. L.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes activity theory as a framework for student project work that is a form of open-ended contextual activity-based learning emphasizing problem solving as a collaborative effort. Topics include project work from a Vygotskian perspective of activity theory; and the design of a prototype for Web-based project work. (LRW)

  15. 76 FR 29797 - Westpoint Home, Inc., New York Corporate Sales Office, New York, NY, Including Employees Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... 7, 2010 (75 FR 39048). At the request of the State of New York, the Department reviewed the... have occurred involving employees under the control of the New York, New York location of WestPoint... include employees of the ] New York, New York facility of the subject firm working off-site in...

  16. Active microwave users working group program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Bare, J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Childs, L. F.; Dellwig, L. F.; Heighway, J. E.; Joosten, R.; Lewis, A. J.; Linlor, W.; Lundien, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed programmatic and technical development plan for active microwave technology was examined in each of four user activities: (1) vegetation; (2) water resources and geologic applications, and (4) oceanographic applications. Major application areas were identified, and the impact of each application area in terms of social and economic gains were evaluated. The present state of knowledge of the applicability of active microwave remote sensing to each application area was summarized and its role relative to other remote sensing devices was examined. The analysis and data acquisition techniques needed to resolve the effects of interference factors were reviewed to establish an operational capability in each application area. Flow charts of accomplished and required activities in each application area that lead to operational capability were structured.

  17. Why activity-based costing works.

    PubMed

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing. PMID:10169347

  18. Why activity-based costing works.

    PubMed

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing.

  19. Peace Works: Classroom Activities for Peacemaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Classroom activities for examining effects of war and contemplating world peace are derived from the story of Sadako, a Japanese girl who died as a result of atomic bomb radiation. Making paper cranes, as Sadako did, and participating in schoolwide programs are suggested for primary, middle, and upper grades. (SLD)

  20. Including the people with disabilities at work: a case study of the job of bricklayer in civil construction in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined.

  1. A meta-analysis including dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-09-22

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.

  2. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work.

  3. Current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Seta, S

    1996-06-28

    The current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan are described. The selected forensic science disciplines are forensic osteology including specialized technology of skull identification, forensic serology, forensic DNA analysis of poisonous materials, forensic hair and fiber analysis, trace evidence analysis, document analysis, forensic psychology mainly concerned with the so-called lie-detector, forensic image analysis, voice print analysis, fire and explosion analysis, forensic engineering, firearm and toolmark analysis. The current activity of the Training Institute of Forensic Science at the National Research Institute of Police Science is also briefly described with special regard to the education and training course of forensic DNA typing analysis. Instruments for analytical and methodological use are listed according to the availability in evidence sample analyses.

  4. Site Selection for the European ELT: working package included in the European FP6 ``ELT design study'' contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Sarazin, M.; Vernin, J.

    2007-10-01

    The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the European Union (EU), within the ``ELT design study'' proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 ``Site Characterization'', important use has been done of previous work in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, it started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks, working packages WP, whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: to characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore three other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izaña in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a set of standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer. A similar plan is being carried out by the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team. For the sake of saving resources (budget and people), the TMT preselected sites (all in the American Continent) are not included in our European study.

  5. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  6. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  7. 29 CFR 525.23 - Work activities centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work activities centers. 525.23 Section 525.23 Labor... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.23 Work activities centers. Nothing in these regulations shall be interpreted to prevent an employer from maintaining or establishing...

  8. 29 CFR 525.23 - Work activities centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work activities centers. 525.23 Section 525.23 Labor... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.23 Work activities centers. Nothing in these regulations shall be interpreted to prevent an employer from maintaining or establishing...

  9. 29 CFR 525.23 - Work activities centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work activities centers. 525.23 Section 525.23 Labor... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.23 Work activities centers. Nothing in these regulations shall be interpreted to prevent an employer from maintaining or establishing...

  10. Factors associated with active commuting to work among women.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Child, Stephanie; Campbell, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting (AC), the act of walking or biking to work, has notable health benefits though rates of AC remain low among women. This study used a social-ecological framework to examine the factors associated with AC among women. A convenience sample of employed, working women (n = 709) completed an online survey about their mode of travel to work. Individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental influences were assessed. Basic descriptive statistics and frequencies described the sample. Simple logistic regression models examined associations with the independent variables with AC participation and multiple logistic regression analysis determined the relative influence of social ecological factors on AC participation. The sample was primarily middle-aged (44.09±11.38 years) and non-Hispanic White (92%). Univariate analyses revealed several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community and environmental factors significantly associated with AC. The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that significant factors associated with AC included number of children, income, perceived behavioral control, coworker AC, coworker AC normative beliefs, employer and community supports for AC, and traffic. The results of this study contribute to the limited body of knowledge on AC participation for women and may help to inform gender-tailored interventions to enhance AC behavior and improve health.

  11. Factors associated with active commuting to work among women.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Child, Stephanie; Campbell, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting (AC), the act of walking or biking to work, has notable health benefits though rates of AC remain low among women. This study used a social-ecological framework to examine the factors associated with AC among women. A convenience sample of employed, working women (n = 709) completed an online survey about their mode of travel to work. Individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental influences were assessed. Basic descriptive statistics and frequencies described the sample. Simple logistic regression models examined associations with the independent variables with AC participation and multiple logistic regression analysis determined the relative influence of social ecological factors on AC participation. The sample was primarily middle-aged (44.09±11.38 years) and non-Hispanic White (92%). Univariate analyses revealed several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community and environmental factors significantly associated with AC. The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that significant factors associated with AC included number of children, income, perceived behavioral control, coworker AC, coworker AC normative beliefs, employer and community supports for AC, and traffic. The results of this study contribute to the limited body of knowledge on AC participation for women and may help to inform gender-tailored interventions to enhance AC behavior and improve health. PMID:24512572

  12. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity.

    PubMed

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an "invisible brain"? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an "invisible brain" or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  13. Invisible Brain: Knowledge in Research Works and Neuron Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Aviv; Curtis, Dorothy; Jung, Sukhwan; Chae, Suhyun

    2016-01-01

    If the market has an invisible hand, does knowledge creation and representation have an “invisible brain”? While knowledge is viewed as a product of neuron activity in the brain, can we identify knowledge that is outside the brain but reflects the activity of neurons in the brain? This work suggests that the patterns of neuron activity in the brain can be seen in the representation of knowledge-related activity. Here we show that the neuron activity mechanism seems to represent much of the knowledge learned in the past decades based on published articles, in what can be viewed as an “invisible brain” or collective hidden neural networks. Similar results appear when analyzing knowledge activity in patents. Our work also tries to characterize knowledge increase as neuron network activity growth. The results propose that knowledge-related activity can be seen outside of the neuron activity mechanism. Consequently, knowledge might exist as an independent mechanism. PMID:27439199

  14. McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An international reference work in fifteen volumes including an index

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an international advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.

  15. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  16. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in the Homeland Security Acquisition Regulation, DHS FORM 0700-01, DHS FORM 0700-02, DHS FORM 0700-03...: The Department of Homeland Security, Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition Policy...

  17. How Teachers Manage Individual and Small-Group Work in Active Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierstead, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Describes how teachers manage multitask classroom activities by defining teacher and student work cycles, sorting students into attention categories by assessing their work daily, and providing assistance to students according to need. Includes figures illustrating student's and teacher's work cycles and the three levels of classroom decision…

  18. Role of Prefrontal Persistent Activity in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Mitchell R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is activated during working memory, as evidenced by fMRI results in human studies and neurophysiological recordings in animal models. Persistent activity during the delay period of working memory tasks, after the offset of stimuli that subjects are required to remember, has traditionally been thought of as the neural correlate of working memory. In the last few years several findings have cast doubt on the role of this activity. By some accounts, activity in other brain areas, such as the primary visual and posterior parietal cortex, is a better predictor of information maintained in visual working memory and working memory performance; dynamic patterns of activity may convey information without requiring persistent activity at all; and prefrontal neurons may be ill-suited to represent non-spatial information about the features and identity of remembered stimuli. Alternative interpretations about the role of the prefrontal cortex have thus been suggested, such as that it provides a top-down control of information represented in other brain areas, rather than maintaining a working memory trace itself. Here we review evidence for and against the role of prefrontal persistent activity, with a focus on visual neurophysiology. We show that persistent activity predicts behavioral parameters precisely in working memory tasks. We illustrate that prefrontal cortex represents features of stimuli other than their spatial location, and that this information is largely absent from early cortical areas during working memory. We examine memory models not dependent on persistent activity, and conclude that each of those models could mediate only a limited range of memory-dependent behaviors. We review activity decoded from brain areas other than the prefrontal cortex during working memory and demonstrate that these areas alone cannot mediate working memory maintenance, particularly in the presence of distractors. We finally discuss the discrepancy between

  19. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the claimant does his or her work satisfactorily, this may show that the claimant is working at the substantial gainful activity level. If the claimant is unable, because of his or her impairments, to do... level. (b) How well the claimant performs. The Board considers how well the claimant does his or...

  20. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the claimant does his or her work satisfactorily, this may show that the claimant is working at the substantial gainful activity level. If the claimant is unable, because of his or her impairments, to do... level. (b) How well the claimant performs. The Board considers how well the claimant does his or...

  1. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the claimant does his or her work satisfactorily, this may show that the claimant is working at the substantial gainful activity level. If the claimant is unable, because of his or her impairments, to do... level. (b) How well the claimant performs. The Board considers how well the claimant does his or...

  2. Maternal work and children's diet, activity, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Mothers' work hours are likely to affect their time allocation towards activities related to children's diet, activity and well-being. For example, mothers who work more may be more reliant on processed foods, foods prepared away from home and school meal programs for their children's meals. A greater number of work hours may also lead to more unsupervised time for children that may, in turn, allow for an increase in unhealthy behaviors among their children such as snacking and sedentary activities such as TV watching. Using data on a national cohort of children, we examine the relationship between mothers' average weekly work hours during their children's school years on children's dietary and activity behaviors, BMI and obesity in 5th and 8th grade. Our results are consistent with findings from the literature that maternal work hours are positively associated with children's BMI and obesity especially among children with higher socioeconomic status. Unlike previous papers, our detailed data on children's behaviors allow us to speak directly to affected behaviors that may contribute to the increased BMI. We show that children whose mothers work more consume more unhealthy foods (e.g. soda, fast food) and less healthy foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, milk) and watch more television. Although they report being slightly more physically active, likely due to organized physical activities, the BMI and obesity results suggest that the deterioration in diet and increase in sedentary behaviors dominate.

  3. Activities of the EMRAS Tritium/C14 Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Balonov, M.; Venter, A

    2005-07-15

    A new model evaluation program, Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS), was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in September 2003. EMRAS includes a working group (WG) on modeling tritium and C-14 transfer through the environment to biota and man. The main objective of this WG is to develop and test models of the uptake, formation and translocation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in food crops, animals and aquatic systems. To the extent possible, the WG is carrying out its work by comparing model predictions with experimental data to identify the modeling approaches and assumptions that lead to the best agreement between predictions and observations. Results for scenarios involving a chronically contaminated aquatic ecosystem and short-term exposure of soybeans are presently being analyzed. In addition, calculations for scenarios involving chronically contaminated terrestrial food chains and hypothetical short-term releases are currently underway, and a pinetree scenario is being developed. The preparation of datasets on tritium dynamics in large animals and fish is being encouraged, since these are the areas of greatest uncertainty in OBT modeling. These activities will be discussed in this paper.

  4. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404.1573 Section 404.1573 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity §...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1573 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 404.1573 Section 404.1573 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity §...

  6. Cultural leisure activities, recovery and work engagement among hospital employees

    PubMed Central

    TUISKU, Katinka; VIRTANEN, Marianna; DE BLOOM, Jessica; KINNUNEN, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between cultural leisure activities, recovery experiences and two outcomes among hospital workers. The differences in recovery experiences (detachment, relaxation, mastery and control) and outcomes (work engagement and subjective recovery state) among hospital personnel (N=769) were analysed by the type (receptive or creative) and frequency of cultural activities. The cross-sectional data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Employees who reported both receptive and creative cultural leisure activities on a weekly basis had the highest relaxation, mastery and control experiences during off-job time. In addition, those with weekly creative activities had beneficial mastery experiences. There were no differences in recovery outcomes after adjustment for age, except in work engagement. Cultural leisure activities, and creative activities in particular, play an important role in certain aspects of recovery. PMID:26829973

  7. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  8. Structure and correlates of spillover from nonwork to work: an examination of nonwork activities, well-being, and work outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Tracy D; Boies, Kathleen

    2009-10-01

    Employees today are involved in many different types of activities outside of work, including family, volunteering, leisure, and so on. The purpose of this study was to understand how participation in such nonwork activities can both enrich and interfere with well-being and behavior at work. Four dimensions of nonwork-to-work spillover were examined to better understand this process (i.e., positive emotional, negative emotional, positive behavioral, and negative behavioral). Survey data were collected in 2 waves from 293 staff and faculty members of a large Canadian university (N = 108 matched surveys from both waves). We found that volunteering is associated with increased well-being and work satisfaction, and that it creates positive emotional and behavioral, and negative behavioral spillovers. We also found that sports, recreation, and fitness are associated with improved well-being and positive emotional spillover. Negative spillover is associated with negative outcomes. PMID:19839661

  9. Science Activities That Work: Perceptions of Primary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, Ken

    2002-06-01

    Many primary school teachers in Australia tend to be reluctant to teach science, partly because they are not confident in science and have limited science background knowledge. However, quite a number of primary school teachers still manage to teach some science. When they plan to teach science, many of them use the term science activities that work. Such activities seem to be related to science pedagogical content knowledge for some primary teachers. In order to better understand what the term activities that work means, twenty teachers from several schools were interviewed and asked what they understood by this expression. Themes that emerged suggest that activities that work are hands on, are interesting and motivating for the children, have a clear outcome or result, are manageable in the classroom, use equipment that is readily available, and are preferably used in a context where science is integrated into themes. Implications for curriculum and for preservice teacher education are considered.

  10. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  11. Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-05-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contralateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  12. Working Memory Delay Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contra-lateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  13. Enzymatically active 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are widely distributed among Metazoa, including protostome lineage.

    PubMed

    Päri, Mailis; Kuusksalu, Anne; Lopp, Annika; Kjaer, Karina Hansen; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2014-02-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) belong to the nucleotidyl transferase family together with poly(A) polymerases, CCA-adding enzymes and the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Mammalian OASs have been thoroughly characterized as components of the interferon-induced antiviral system. The OAS activity and the respective genes were also discovered in marine sponges where the interferon system is absent. In this study the recombinant OASs from several multicellular animals and their closest unicellular relative, a choanoflagellate, were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their enzymatic activities were examined. We demonstrated 2-5A synthesizing activities of OASs from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, a representative of the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum (Porifera), from an invertebrate of the protostome lineage, the mollusk Mytilus californianus (Mollusca), and from a vertebrate species, a cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea (Chordata). However, the expressed proteins from an amphibian, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (Chordata), and from a protozoan, the marine choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (Choanozoa), did not show 2-5A synthesizing activity. Differently from other studied OASs, OAS from the marine sponge T. ignis was able to catalyze the formation of oligomers having both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. Our data suggest that OASs from sponges and evolutionarily higher animals have similar activation mechanisms which still include different affinities and possibly different structural requirements for the activating RNAs. Considering their 2'- and 3'-specificities, sponge OASs could represent a link between evolutionarily earlier nucleotidyl transferases and 2'-specific OASs from higher animals.

  14. Enzymatically active 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are widely distributed among Metazoa, including protostome lineage.

    PubMed

    Päri, Mailis; Kuusksalu, Anne; Lopp, Annika; Kjaer, Karina Hansen; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2014-02-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) belong to the nucleotidyl transferase family together with poly(A) polymerases, CCA-adding enzymes and the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Mammalian OASs have been thoroughly characterized as components of the interferon-induced antiviral system. The OAS activity and the respective genes were also discovered in marine sponges where the interferon system is absent. In this study the recombinant OASs from several multicellular animals and their closest unicellular relative, a choanoflagellate, were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their enzymatic activities were examined. We demonstrated 2-5A synthesizing activities of OASs from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, a representative of the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum (Porifera), from an invertebrate of the protostome lineage, the mollusk Mytilus californianus (Mollusca), and from a vertebrate species, a cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea (Chordata). However, the expressed proteins from an amphibian, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (Chordata), and from a protozoan, the marine choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (Choanozoa), did not show 2-5A synthesizing activity. Differently from other studied OASs, OAS from the marine sponge T. ignis was able to catalyze the formation of oligomers having both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. Our data suggest that OASs from sponges and evolutionarily higher animals have similar activation mechanisms which still include different affinities and possibly different structural requirements for the activating RNAs. Considering their 2'- and 3'-specificities, sponge OASs could represent a link between evolutionarily earlier nucleotidyl transferases and 2'-specific OASs from higher animals. PMID:24184688

  15. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Constantinidou, H A; Barchet, W R; Upper, C D

    1982-11-01

    Vertical wind shear and concentration gradients of viable, airborne bacteria were used to calculate the upward flux of viable cells above bare soil and canopies of several crops. Concentrations at soil or canopy height varied from 46 colony-forming units per m over young corn and wet soil to 663 colony-forming units per m over dry soil and 6,500 colony-forming units per m over a closed wheat canopy. In simultaneous samples, concentrations of viable bacteria in the air 10 m inside an alfalfa field were fourfold higher than those over a field with dry, bare soil immediately upwind. The upward flux of viable bacteria over alfalfa was three- to fourfold greater than over dry soil. Concentrations of ice nucleation-active bacteria were higher over plants than over soil. Thus, plant canopies may constitute a major source of bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria, in the air.

  16. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  17. The influence of body posture, arm movement, and work stress on trapezius activity during computer work.

    PubMed

    Mork, Paul Jarle; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2007-11-01

    The study aimed to determine the influence of arm posture and movement on trapezius activity of computer workers, considering the full workday. A second aim was to investigate if work periods perceived as stressful were associated with elevated or more sustained muscle activity pattern. Twenty-six computer workers performing call-center (n=11), help desk (n=7), or secretarial (n=8) work tasks participated. Bilateral trapezius surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and heart rate was recorded throughout the workday. Simultaneous inclinometer recordings from left thigh and upper arms identified periods with sitting, standing, and walking, as well as arm posture and movement. Perceived work stress and tension were recorded on visual analog scales (VAS) every hour. Trapezius sEMG activity was low in seated posture [group median 1.8 and 0.9% of activity at maximal voluntary contraction (%EMGmax) for dominant and non-dominant side] and was elevated in standing (3.0 and 2.5% EMGmax) and walking (3.9 and 3.4% EMGmax). In seated posture (mean duration 79% of workday) arm movement consistently influenced trapezius activity, accounting for approximately 20% of intra-individual variation in trapezius activity. Arm elevation was on average not associated with trapezius activity when seated; however, considerable individual variation was observed. There was no indication of increase in trapezius activity or more sustained activity pattern, nor in heart rate, in high-stress versus low-stress periods, comparing periods with seated posture for the subjects reporting contrasts of at least two VAS units in stress (n=16) or tension (n=14) score. PMID:17653757

  18. Stability and activity of alcohol dehydrogenases in W/O-microemulsions: enantioselective reduction including cofactor regeneration.

    PubMed

    Orlich, B; Berger, H; Lade, M; Schomäcker, R

    2000-12-20

    Microemulsions provide an interesting alternative to classical methods for the conversion of less water-soluble substrates by alcohol dehydrogenase, but until now stability and activity were too low for economically useful processes. The activity and stability of the enzymes are dependent on the microemulsion composition, mostly the water and the surfactant concentration. Therefore, it is necessary to know the exact phase behavior of a given microemulsion reaction system and the corresponding enzyme behavior therein. Because of their economic and ecologic suitability polyethoxylated fatty alcohols were investigated concerning their phase behavior and their compatibility with enzymes in ternary mixtures. The phase behavior of Marlipal O13-60 (C13EO6 in industrial quality)/cyclohexane/water and its effect on the activity and stability of alcohol dehydrogenase from Yeast (YADH) and horse liver (HLADH) and the carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR) is presented in this study. Beside the macroscopic phase behavior of the reaction system, the viscosity of the system indicates structural changes of aggregates in the microemulsion. The changes of the enzyme activities with the composition are discussed on the basis of transitions from reverse micelles to swollen reverse micelles and finally, the transition to the phase separation. The formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii was used for the NADH-regeneration during reduction reactions. While the formate dehydrogenase did not show any kinetic effect on the microemulsion composition, the other enzymes show significant changes of activity and stability varying the water or surfactant concentration of the microemulsion. Under certain conditions, stability could be maintained with HLADH for several weeks. Successful experiments with semi-batch processes including cofactor regeneration and product separation were performed.

  19. Summary of the working group 3: Electron beams from electromagnetic structures, including dielectric and laser-driven structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuensch, Walter; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In this lively working group a diverse set of topics was discussed, spanning from novel methods in RF-cavity production via investigations of high-gradient breakdown and upcoming accelerator test facilities to new acceleration concepts. Because the talks were not divided into topics a broad range of expertise was always present during all presentations in seminar room "Sala Bonaparte 2". While the topics covered were broadly distributed, the report on the demonstration of high-gradient dielectric wakefield acceleration by the UCLA group was certainly considered as a highlight of this working group.

  20. "Working." Student Activity Sheets for Selected Interviews Contained in "Working" by Studs Terkel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, David; And Others

    These student activity sheets are intended to accompany a vocational English program based on Studs Terkel's book, "Working," a collection of more than 100 interviews with people about their jobs. The 30 interviews selected for inclusion in the curriculum either illustrate occupations taught in the schools or deal with occupations related to those…

  1. Counselor Technical Activity in Cases with Improving Working Alliances and Continuing-Poor Working Alliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Schmitz, Patrick J.

    1992-01-01

    Clients, 15 student volunteers paired with 15 counselors trainees for 4 sessions, rated strength of working alliance for each counseling session and scored counselor technical activity on various dimensions. Counselors were rated as relatively more challenging, thematically focused, and here-and-now oriented in improving dyads (eight dyads) than…

  2. The Challenges of Implementing Group Work in Primary School Classrooms and Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Findings from two studies are discussed in relation to the experiences and challenges faced by teachers trying to implement effective group work in schools and classrooms and to reflect on the lessons learnt about how to involve pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The first study reports on UK primary school teachers' experiences of…

  3. 45 CFR 286.80 - What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exemptions, limitations and special rules being established in relation to work requirements; and (5) The... are justified based on the Tribe's needs and conditions. (i) The rationale must address how the... levels of adults in the service area; availability of and/or accessibility to resources...

  4. 45 CFR 286.80 - What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exemptions, limitations and special rules being established in relation to work requirements; and (5) The... are justified based on the Tribe's needs and conditions. (i) The rationale must address how the... levels of adults in the service area; availability of and/or accessibility to resources...

  5. 45 CFR 286.80 - What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exemptions, limitations and special rules being established in relation to work requirements; and (5) The... are justified based on the Tribe's needs and conditions. (i) The rationale must address how the... levels of adults in the service area; availability of and/or accessibility to resources...

  6. A Select Bibliography of Adult Education in Great Britain; Including Works Published to the End of the Year 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Thomas, Ed.

    The emphasis in the selectively annotated bibliography is primarily on nonvocational adult education. The 1,756 entries are grouped into four large categories, with subdivisions: general (bibliographies, yearbooks and directories, encyclopedias, and periodicals); social and educational background (general works, history of education, and mass…

  7. 76 FR 29797 - International Automotive Components, North America, Including On-Site Leased Workers From At-Work...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on April 22, 2011 (76 FR 22732). At the request of the State... Federal Register on February 23, 2009 (74 FR 8115). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage... Leased Workers From At-Work Personnel and CJR Solutions, d/b/a Harvard Resources Solutions, Lebanon,...

  8. The association between work performance and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Martinson, Brian; Kessler, Ronald C; Beck, Arne L; Simon, Gregory E; Wang, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between lifestyle-related modifiable health risks (physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity) and work performance. Data were obtained from 683 workers. Dependent variables included number of work loss days, quantity and quality of work performed, overall job performance, extra effort exerted, and interpersonal relationships. Results indicated that higher levels of physical activity related to reduced decrements in quality of work performed and overall job performance; higher cardiorespiratory fitness related to reduced decrements in quantity of work performed, and a reduction in extra effort exerted to perform the work; obesity related to more difficulty in getting along with coworkers; severe obesity related to a higher number of work loss days. It is concluded that lifestyle-related modifiable health risk factors significantly impact employee work performance.

  9. Working Memory Training: Improving Intelligence--Changing Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…

  10. Predictors of Political Activism among Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Eric W.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies factors inspiring greater political participation among undergraduate social work students (N=125). When separating students into self-identified liberals and conservatives, the study uses resource, mobilizing, and framing variables to explain greater levels of activism. After several multivariate regressions, this article…

  11. Predicting Work Activities with Divergent Thinking Tests: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Maria M.; Cowdery, Edwina M.; King, Kelly E.; Montang, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether divergent thinking test scores obtained from engineering students during college predicted creative work activities fifteen years later. Results showed that a subscore of the "Owens Creativity Test", which assesses divergent thinking about mechanical objects, correlated significantly with self-ratings of creative work…

  12. Meta-Coordination Activities: Exploring Articulation Work in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of distributed activities is central to organizational work. The effective functioning of organizations hinges on their ability to manage interdependencies both within (intra-) and between (inter-) various departments. However, more than just the management of these individual dependencies is required for smooth coordination in…

  13. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-06-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  14. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-06-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  15. Working memory training: improving intelligence--changing brain activity.

    PubMed

    Jaušovec, Norbert; Jaušovec, Ksenija

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography - EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy - NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design, respondents of the working memory group after 30 h of training significantly increased performance on all tests of fluid intelligence. By contrast, respondents of the active control group (participating in a 30-h communication training course) showed no improvements in performance. The influence of WM training on patterns of neuroelectric brain activity was most pronounced in the theta and alpha bands. Theta and lower-1 alpha band synchronization was accompanied by increased lower-2 and upper alpha desynchronization. The hemodynamic patterns of brain activity after the training changed from higher right hemispheric activation to a balanced activity of both frontal areas. The neuroelectric as well as hemodynamic patterns of brain activity suggest that the training influenced WM maintenance functions as well as processes directed by the central executive. The changes in upper alpha band desynchronization could further indicate that processes related to long term memory were also influenced.

  16. The EMT-activator ZEB1 induces bone metastasis associated genes including BMP-inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Kerstin; Preca, Bogdan-Tiberius; Brummer, Tilman; Brabletz, Simone; Stemmler, Marc P.; Brabletz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cell invasion, dissemination and metastasis is triggered by an aberrant activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), often mediated by the transcription factor ZEB1. Disseminating tumor cells must acquire specific features that allow them to colonize at different organ sites. Here we identify a set of genes that is highly expressed in breast cancer bone metastasis and activated by ZEB1. This gene set includes various secreted factors, e.g. the BMP-inhibitor FST, that are described to reorganize the bone microenvironment. By inactivating BMP-signaling, BMP-inhibitors are well-known to induce osteolysis in development and disease. We here demonstrate that the expression of ZEB1 and BMP-inhibitors is correlated with bone metastasis, but not with brain or lung metastasis of breast cancer patients. In addition, we show that this correlated expression pattern is causally linked, as ZEB1 induces the expression of the BMP-inhibitors NOG, FST and CHRDL1 both by directly increasing their gene transcription, as well as by indirectly suppressing their reduction via miR-200 family members. Consequently, ZEB1 stimulates BMP-inhibitor mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings suggest that ZEB1 is not only driving EMT, but also contributes to the formation of osteolytic bone metastases in breast cancer. PMID:25973542

  17. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  18. Activity theory as a framework for analyzing and redesigning work.

    PubMed

    Engeström, Y

    2000-07-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory is a new framework aimed at transcending the dichotomies of micro- and macro-, mental and material, observation and intervention in analysis and redesign of work. The approach distinguishes between short-lived goal-directed actions and durable, object-oriented activity systems. A historically evolving collective activity system, seen in its network relations to other activity systems, is taken as the prime unit of analysis against which scripted strings of goal-directed actions and automatic operations are interpreted. Activity systems are driven by communal motives that are often difficult to articulate for individual participants. Activity systems are in constant movement and internally contradictory. Their systemic contradictions, manifested in disturbances and mundane innovations, offer possibilities for expansive developmental transformations. Such transformations proceed through stepwise cycles of expansive learning which begin with actions of questioning the existing standard practice, then proceed to actions of analyzing its contradictions and modelling a vision for its zone of proximal development, then to actions of examining and implementing the new model in practice. New forms of work organization increasingly require negotiated 'knotworking' across boundaries. Correspondingly, expansive learning increasingly involves horizontal widening of collective expertise by means of debating, negotiating and hybridizing different perspectives and conceptualizations. Findings from a longitudinal intervention study of children's medical care illuminate the theoretical arguments.

  19. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  20. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  1. Active control of environmental noise, VIII: increasing the response to primary source changes including unpredictable noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. E.; Atmoko, H.; Vuksanovic, B.

    2004-07-01

    Conventional adaptive cancellation systems using traditional transverse finite impulse response (FIR) filters, together with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithms, well known in active noise control, are slow to adapt to primary source changes. This makes them inappropriate for cancelling rapidly changing noise, including unpredictable noise such as speech and music. Secondly, the cancelling structures require considerable computational processing effort to adapt to primary source and plant changes, particularly for multi-channel systems. This paper describes methods to increase the adaptive speed to primary source changes in large enclosed spaces and outdoor environments. A method is described that increases the response to time varying periodic noise using traditional transverse FIR filters. Here a multi-passband filter, with individual variable adaptive step sizes for each passband is automatically adjusted according to the signal level in each band. This creates a similar adaptive response for all frequencies within the total pass-band, irrespective of amplitude, minimizing the signal distortion and increasing the combined adaptive speed. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the adaptive speed using the above method as classical transverse FIR filters have a finite adaptive speed given by the stability band zero bandwidth. For rapidly changing periodic noise and unpredictable non-stationary noise, a rapid to instantaneous response is required. In this case the on-line adaptive FIR filters are dispensed with and replaced by a time domain solution that gives virtually instantaneous cancellation response (infinite adaptive speed) to primary source changes, and is computationally efficient.

  2. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs.

  3. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs. PMID:15193097

  4. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  5. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  6. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  7. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  8. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  9. Our Economy: How It Works. Activities and Investigation. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Elmer U.

    To help junior and senior high school students develop a better understanding of the United States' economy, this teacher's guide presents a series of learning activities centered around eight general themes. The topics (corresponding to the document's eight chapters) include both international and global economic issues as well as current…

  10. From Research to Reality: Activities and Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olliphant, Jo Ann

    Six specific second language learning theories are presented and for each, an example of a practical, classroom application is provided. The theories include the following: (1) it is important to create a positive atmosphere in the classroom because cognitive learning increases when self-concept improves; (2) activities that employ multiple senses…

  11. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  12. Analysis of exposure due to work on activated components

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this brief note the author summarized analysis of the exposure incurred in various maintenance jobs involving activated accelerator and beam line components at Fermilab. A tabulation was made of parameters associated with each job. Included are rather terse descriptions of the various tasks. The author presented various plots of the quantities in the table. All exposure rates are mR/hr while all exposures accumulated are mR. The exposure rates were generally measured at the Fermilab standard one foot distance from the activated component. Accumulated exposures are taken from the self-reading pocket dosimeter records maintained by the radiation control technicians.

  13. Education on antibiotic use. Education systems and activities that work.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Cobo, Javier; San Juan, Rafael; Montejo, Miguel; Fariñas, M Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Education is a cornerstone of antimicrobial stewardships programs, because 50% of inappropriate antimicrobial prescriptions are a consequence of an imbalance between the high levels of knowledge required for the appropriate use of antibiotics and the scarce training offered to medical specialists. For this reason, programs optimizing antimicrobial (PROA) are essentially based on support and educational activities for prescribers. The educational activities are difficult to evaluate. In our country, the application of educational activities in antimicrobial training programs is very heterogeneous, although it has improved in recent years. We recommend the following educational measures, which are prioritized in order of effectiveness. Interactive educational interventions are the most effective. These are non-compulsory interventions based on real prescriptions in clinical practice and include educational outreach visits, audits and counseling interviews with feedback and multifaceted interventions. Passive educational strategies, with posters, newsletters, and dissemination of guidelines, are only marginally effective in changing antimicrobial prescribing practices and have not shown a sustained effect. These measures need extensive professional involvement and should be combined with more active approaches. Currently, interventions can be enhanced with some teaching tools in electronic format. Both interactive and passive educational measures should be integrated into the PROA and should have institutional support. Finally, we recommend including antimicrobials in the training plans of all clinical specialties.

  14. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  15. Influence of computer work under time pressure on cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Hu, Sijung; Yu, Hongliu

    2015-03-01

    Computer users are often under stress when required to complete computer work within a required time. Work stress has repeatedly been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The present study examined the effects of time pressure workload during computer tasks on cardiac activity in 20 healthy subjects. Heart rate, time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV) and Poincaré plot parameters were compared among five computer tasks and two rest periods. Faster heart rate and decreased standard deviation of R-R interval were noted in response to computer tasks under time pressure. The Poincaré plot parameters showed significant differences between different levels of time pressure workload during computer tasks, and between computer tasks and the rest periods. In contrast, no significant differences were identified for the frequency domain indices of HRV. The results suggest that the quantitative Poincaré plot analysis used in this study was able to reveal the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the autonomically regulated cardiac rhythm. Specifically, heightened vagal tone occurred during the relaxation computer tasks without time pressure. In contrast, the stressful computer tasks with added time pressure stimulated cardiac sympathetic activity.

  16. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  17. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values. PMID:23082579

  18. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  19. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  20. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  1. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  2. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  3. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  4. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  5. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  6. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  7. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  8. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  9. Recent Science and Engineering Graduates Working in Energy-Related Activities, 1979 and 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sharon E.

    Employment and professional activities of recent science and engineering graduates who described their work as energy-related were examined. The survey included graduates who received bachelor's or master's degrees between 1972 and 1979 and was conducted in 1976, 1978, 1979, and 1980. Data indicated that the number of graduates who reported…

  10. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  11. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... relations purposes, including E-commerce (mail ordering through the Internet): Provided, That Credit-Back...-Back is requested. (e) The following requirements shall apply to Credit-Back for all promotional... and Canada, paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall also apply. (2) The clear and evident purpose...

  12. In vitro bactericidal activity of aminoglycosides, including the next-generation drug plazomicin, against Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven C; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with a potentially unique set of clinical characteristics compared with other aminoglycosides. This study assessed the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of plazomicin against 15 clinical isolates as well as three reference strains representing Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis. These data were compared with those obtained for six other aminoglycosides and two aminocyclitols. Plazomicin and gentamicin were the only drugs demonstrating bactericidal activity towards two of the three Brucella spp., whilst plazomicin was the only drug exhibiting bactericidal activity against B. suis. This is the first study to assess the bactericidal nature of plazomicin against Brucella spp. in vitro. PMID:25459738

  13. Developmental relationships as the active ingredient: a unifying working hypothesis of "what works" across intervention settings.

    PubMed

    Li, Junlei; Julian, Megan M

    2012-04-01

    Developmental relationships are characterized by reciprocal human interactions that embody an enduring emotional attachment, progressively more complex patterns of joint activity, and a balance of power that gradually shifts from the developed person in favor of the developing person. The working hypothesis of this article is that developmental relationships constitute the active ingredient of effective interventions serving at-risk children and youth across settings. In the absence of developmental relationships, other intervention elements yield diminished or minimal returns. Scaled-up programs and policies serving children and youth often fall short of their potential impact when their designs or implementation drift toward manipulating other "inactive" ingredients (e.g., incentive, accountability, curricula) instead of directly promoting developmental relationships. Using empirical studies as case examples, this study demonstrates that the presence or absence of developmental relationships distinguishes effective and ineffective interventions for diverse populations across developmental settings. The conclusion is that developmental relationships are the foundational metric with which to judge the quality and forecast the impact of interventions for at-risk children and youth. It is both critical and possible to give foremost considerations to whether program, practice, and policy decisions promote or hinder developmental relationships among those who are served and those who serve.

  14. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  15. Phytophthora infestans Has a Plethora of Phospholipase D Enzymes Including a Subclass That Has Extracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  16. Phytophthora infestans has a plethora of phospholipase D enzymes including a subclass that has extracellular activity.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Harold J G; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  17. Working postures and physical activity among registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard

    2016-05-01

    Nurses report a high prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort, particularly of the low back and neck/shoulder. This study characterized the full-shift upper arm and trunk postures and movement velocities of registered nurses using inertial measurement units (IMUs). Intensity of occupational physical activity (PA) was also ascertained using a waist-worn PA monitor and using the raw acceleration data from each IMU. Results indicated that nurses spent a relatively small proportion of their work time with the arms or trunk in extreme postures, but had few opportunities for rest and recovery in comparison to several other occupational groups. Comparisons between nurses in different PA groups suggested that using a combination of accelerometers secured to several body locations may provide more representative estimates of physical demands than a single, waist-worn PA monitor. The findings indicate a need for continued field-based research with larger sample sizes to facilitate the development of maximally effective intervention strategies. PMID:26851483

  18. Activities of the IERS Working Group on prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, W.

    2008-04-01

    The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) established a Working Group on Prediction (WGP) to investigate what IERS prediction products are useful to the user community in addition to making a detailed examination of the fundamental properties of the different input data sets and algorithms. The major goals and objectives of the WGP are to determine the desired Earth orientation prediction products, the importance of observational accuracy, which types of input data provide an optimal prediction, the strengths and weaknesses of various prediction algorithms, and the interactions between series and algorithms that are beneficial or harmful. To focus the research efforts of the WGP, the user community was polled to ascertain what prediction products are needed and at what level of accuracy. The current status of WGP activities and the anticipated future directions are presented.

  19. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  20. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  1. The Work Activity and Participation Outcomes Framework: a new look at work disability outcomes through the lens of the ICF.

    PubMed

    AlHeresh, Rawan A; Keysor, Julie J

    2015-06-01

    Work disability is common among people with chronic conditions. The terminology in the field is variable and often used interchangeably and there is a lack of comprehensive frameworks to describe work as an outcome. Varied operationalization of work disability makes it difficult to establish precise estimates of the impact of chronic musculoskeletal conditions on work. A new conceptual framework was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and was named 'Work Activity and Participation Outcome (Work APO) Framework' which clarified definitions in the field. Applying the framework to people at risk of work disability and evaluating their outcomes could advance the literature.

  2. Working Memory-Related Neural Activity Predicts Future Smoking Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Loughead, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Falcone, Mary; Hopson, Ryan; Gur, Ruben; Lerman, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Brief abstinence from smoking impairs cognition, particularly executive function, and this has a role in relapse to smoking. This study examined whether working memory-related brain activity predicts subsequent smoking relapse above and beyond standard clinical and behavioral measures. Eighty treatment-seeking smokers completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions (smoking satiety vs 24 h abstinence challenge) during performance of a visual N-back task. Brief counseling and a short-term quit attempt followed. Relapse during the first 7 days was biochemically confirmed by the presence of the nicotine metabolite cotinine. Mean percent blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change was extracted from a priori regions of interest: bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial frontal/cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Signal from these brain regions and additional clinical measures were used to model outcome status, which was then validated with resampling techniques. Relapse to smoking was predicted by increased withdrawal symptoms, decreased left DLPFC and increased PCC BOLD percent signal change (abstinence vs smoking satiety). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated 81% area under the curve using these predictors, a significant improvement over the model with clinical variables only. The combination of abstinence-induced decreases in left DLPFC activation and reduced suppression of PCC may be a prognostic marker for poor outcome, specifically early smoking relapse. PMID:25469682

  3. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  4. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  5. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  6. Modeling the development of biofilm density including active bacteria, inert biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Laspidou, Chrysi S; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    We present the unified multi-component cellular automaton (UMCCA) model, which predicts quantitatively the development of the biofilm's composite density for three biofilm components: active bacteria, inert or dead biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. The model also describes the concentrations of three soluble organic components (soluble substrate and two types of soluble microbial products) and oxygen. The UMCCA model is a hybrid discrete-differential mathematical model and introduces the novel feature of biofilm consolidation. Our hypothesis is that the fluid over the biofilm creates pressures and vibrations that cause the biofilm to consolidate, or pack itself to a higher density over time. Each biofilm compartment in the model output consolidates to a different degree that depends on the age of its biomass. The UMCCA model also adds a cellular automaton algorithm that identifies the path of least resistance and directly moves excess biomass along that path, thereby ensuring that the excess biomass is distributed efficiently. A companion paper illustrates the trends that the UMCCA model is able to represent and shows a comparison with experimental results. PMID:15276752

  7. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  8. Evaluation of three methodologies for assessing work activity during computer use.

    PubMed

    Homan, Michelle M; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate three separate methodologies for gathering work activity information among computer users. These methodologies included worker self-report, work sampling, and activity monitoring. A repeated measures design was employed whereby data were collected simultaneously on each subject (n = 51) across three consecutive workdays. Exposure information gathered included keying time, mouse usage, and time spent performing various work tasks (i.e., writing, proofreading, handling documents). Subjects were recruited to represent a wide range of keyboard activity and mouse usage. The study found that worker self-reports overestimated actual keyboard usage by a factor of approximately 1.5 for workers using the keyboard an average of 4 hours per day to a factor of 4 for workers using the keyboard an average of 30 min per day. On average, there was an approximate twofold difference between worker self-reported keying time and that obtained via activity monitoring and work sampling. This trend was similar with regard to time spent using the computer mouse. Worker self-reported mouse usage was approximately twofold higher than that obtained via activity monitoring or work sampling. Self-reported exposure information not only resulted in different estimates, but showed greater variance compared with the other methodologies. The results of this study suggest that the use of worker self-reported exposure information on keying time and mouse usage may not represent an accurate account of time spent performing these tasks. In the context of epidemiological studies work sampling and/or activity monitoring would be more suitable methodologies for obtaining such information.

  9. Radio Properties of Low Redshift Broad Line Active Galactic Nuclei Including Multiple Component Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafter, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the radio properties of a low redshift (z < 0.35) sample of 8434 broad line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey after correlating the optical sources with radio sources in the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters survey. We find that 10% of our sample has radio emission < 4" away from the optical counterpart (core-only sources), and 1% has significant extended emission that must be taken into account when calculating the total radio luminosity (multi-component sources). Association of the extended radio emission is established by the proximity to the optical source, physical connection of jets and lobes, or large scale symmetry like in classic FRIIs. From these data we find an FRI/FRII luminosity dividing line like that found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974), where we use our core-only sources as proxies for FRIs, and our multi-component sources for the FRIIs. We find a bimodal distribution for the radio loudness (R = L(radio)/L(opt)) where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the multi-component extended sources, compared with no evidence for bimodality when just the core-only sources are used. We also find that a log(R) value of 1.75 is well suited to separate the FRIs from the FRIIs, and that the R bimodality seen here is really a manifestation of the FRI/FRII break originally found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974). We find modest trends in the radio loud fraction as a function of Eddington ratio and black hole mass, where the fraction of RL AGNs decreases with increasing Eddington ratio, and increases when the black hole mass is above 2 x 108 solar masses.

  10. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  11. Development of an oregano-based ointment with anti-microbial activity including activity against methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Eng, William; Norman, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance has prompted a search for new compounds with anti-microbial activity. In the authors' previous study, oregano extract was identified as one of the most potent anti-microbial compounds. The disk diffusion method was employed to assess the degree of inhibition against various microorganisms, and the bacteriostatic or bactericidal mechanism of action. Disk diffusion studies showed that oregano was found to be bacteriostatic for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, (MRSA) but bacteriocidal for seven other microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa could not be inhibited by oregano. An ointment consisting of 1-10% oregano could inhibit most organisms except for Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris, which required 20% and Pseudomonas which could not be inhibited even at the highest concentration of 80%. Oregano extracts can be formulated into an ointment that shows broad antimicrobial activity. Additional testing to assess tissue toxicity and other adverse reactions would be needed prior to human testing.

  12. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  13. Heparanase procoagulant activity, factor Xa, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are increased in shift work female nurses.

    PubMed

    Nadir, Yona; Saharov, Gleb; Hoffman, Ron; Keren-Politansky, Anat; Tzoran, Inna; Brenner, Benjamin; Shochat, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate on an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in shift workers, although the underlying mechanism is obscure. Heparanase directly enhances tissue factor (TF) activity leading to increased factor Xa production and subsequent activation of the coagulation system. In the present study, a comparison of coagulation markers among healthy shift working (SW) vs. healthy daytime working (DW) female nurses was performed. Thirty SW and 30 DW female nurses were enrolled. For each of the 60 participants, blood was drawn between 7:00 and 8:00 a.m. and at least 8 h after the last work shift. Plasma was studied for coagulation marker that included TF/heparanase procoagulant activity, TF activity, heparanase procoagulant activity, heparanase level, factor Xa level, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), plasminogen, α2-antiplasmin, fibrinogen, global protein C, von Willebrand factor, and D-dimer by chromogenic assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Sleep quality was assessed by self-report according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The heparanase procoagulant activity increased by 2-fold and the TF/heparanase procoagulant activity increased by 1.5-fold in SW nurses compared to DW nurses (P < 0.05). Factor Xa levels and PAI-1 levels were significantly higher among SW nurses compared to the DW group (22 vs. 18 ng/ml, P < 0.05, and 32 vs. 22 ng/ml, P < 0.005, respectively). No significant differences were found in the other tested coagulation markers between the study groups. Heparanase procoagulant activity, factor Xa level, and PAI-1 level were significantly higher in SW nurses compared to the DW group. These alterations of blood coagulation activation may potentially contribute to cardiovascular and cancer morbidity.

  14. Relative desirability of leisure activities and work parameters in a simulation of isolated work stations. [long term space flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullins, W. R., Jr.; Rogers, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The kinds of activities that are attractive to man in long duration isolation are delineated considering meaningful work as major activity and a choice of leisure/living provisions. The dependent variables are the relative distribution between various work, leisure, and living activities where external constraints on the subject's freedom of choice are minimized. Results indicate that an average of at least five hours per day of significant meaningful work is required for satisfactory enjoyment of the situation; most other parameters of the situation have less effects on overall performance and satisfaction

  15. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  16. Managing Highway Maintenance: Maintenance Activities, Work Units, and Classifying Work, Unit 6, Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit explains how maintenance work should be described, measured, and classified. It is designed for supervisors who need to know the mechanics of describing work. The format is a programed, self-instruction approach in which information is presented in progressive segments or frames. (EA)

  17. Architecture. Intermediate ThemeWorks. An Integrated Activity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kelly

    This resource book offers an activity bank of learning experiences related to the theme of architecture. The activities, which are designed for use with students in grades 4-6, require active engagement of the students and integrate language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and art experiences. Activities exploring the architectural…

  18. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Mencl, W. Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13–18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale -11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal

  19. Differential associations between impulsivity and risk-taking and brain activations underlying working memory in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Karni; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C

    2014-11-01

    Increased impulsivity and risk-taking are common during adolescence and relate importantly to addictive behaviors. However, the extent to which impulsivity and risk-taking relate to brain activations that mediate cognitive processing is not well understood. Here we examined the relationships between impulsivity and risk-taking and the neural correlates of working memory. Neural activity was measured in 18 adolescents (13-18 years) while they engaged in a working memory task that included verbal and visuospatial components that each involved encoding, rehearsal and recognition stages. Risk-taking and impulsivity were assessed using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11A), respectively. We found overlapping as well as distinct regions subserving the different stages of verbal and visuospatial working memory. In terms of risk-taking, we found a positive correlation between BART scores and activity in subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, dorsal striatum) recruited during verbal rehearsal, and an inverse correlation between BART scores and cortical regions (e.g., parietal and temporal regions) recruited during visuospatial rehearsal. The BIS-11A evidenced that motor impulsivity was associated with activity in regions recruited during all stages of working memory, while attention and non-planning impulsivity was only associated with activity in regions recruited during recognition. In considering working memory, impulsivity and risk-taking together, both impulsivity and risk-taking were associated with activity in regions recruited during rehearsal; however, during verbal rehearsal, differential correlations were found. Specifically, positive correlations were found between: (1) risk-taking and activity in subcortical regions, including the thalamus and dorsal striatum; and, (2) motor impulsivity and activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore

  20. Industrial Sites Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-18

    This Leachfield Corrective Action Units (CAUs) Work Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. A work plan may be developed that can be referenced by leachfield Corrective Action Investigation Plans (CAIPs) to eliminate redundant CAU documentation. This Work Plan includes FFACO-required management, technical, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management documentation common to several CAUs with similar site histories and characteristics, namely the leachfield systems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TT R). For each CAU, a CAIP will be prepared to present detailed, site-specific information regarding contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), sampling locations, and investigation methods.

  1. Emotional Contagion at Work: An In-Class Experiential Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Rebecca A. Bull; Palanski, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an in-class exercise designed to demonstrate the concept of emotional contagion. Empirical research has found that leader emotional displays at work relate to various member work attitudes and performance. However, students may have a difficult time understanding how and why emotions can influence organizational outcomes.…

  2. Active biofeedback changes the spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work.

    PubMed

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Madeleine, Pascal

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal effects of advanced biofeedback by inducing active and passive pauses on the trapezius activity pattern using high-density surface electromyography (HD-EMG). Thirteen healthy male subjects performed computer work with superimposed feedback either eliciting passive (rest) or active (approximately 30% MVC) pauses based on fuzzy logic design and a control session with no feedback. HD-EMG signals of upper trapezius were recorded using a 5 x 13 multichannel electrode grid. From the HD-EMG recordings, two-dimensional maps of root mean square (RMS), relative rest time (RRT) and permuted sample entropy (PeSaEn) were obtained. The centre of gravity (CoG) and entropy of maps were used to quantify changes in the spatial distribution of muscle activity. PeSaEn as a measure of temporal heterogeneity for each channel, decreased over the whole map in response to active pause (P < 0.05) underlining a more homogenous activation pattern. Concomitantly, the CoG of RRT maps moved in caudal direction and the entropy of RMS maps as a measure of spatial heterogeneity over the whole recording grid, increased in response to active pause session compared with control session (no feedback) (P < 0.05). Active pause compared with control resulted in more heterogeneous coordination of trapezius compared with no feedback implying a more uneven spatial distribution of the biomechanical load. The study introduced new aspects in relation to the potential benefit of superimposed muscle contraction in relation to the spatial organization of muscle activity during computer work.

  3. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  4. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM. PMID:26018644

  5. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  6. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  7. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  8. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  9. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  10. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  11. Acculturation and physical activity in a working class multiethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Colditz, Graham; Stoddard, Anne M.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    Background Determinants of physical activity in minority populations remain under-explored. Acculturation is one proposed mechanism for the disparities that exist between racial and ethnic groups in health outcomes. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of language acculturation and generation in the US since migration with leisure-time and occupational activity. A low-income, multiethnic urban population was recruited from Massachusetts small businesses (SB) (n = 1725) and health centers (HC) (n = 2205). Baseline data were collected between May 2000 and February 2002. Results Individuals with low acculturation reported leisure-time activity 3–5 MET hours/week lower than those who were highly acculturated (P < 0.05). Generation predicted leisure-time activity only in SB participants. In the HC, least acculturated participants reported occupational activity 10–12 MET hours/week higher than highly acculturated participants. In SB men, acculturation was inversely associated with occupational activity; in SB women, language acculturation was positively associated with occupational activity. Generation was not predictive of occupational activity. Conclusion Language acculturation and generation were positively associated with leisure-time activity. Language acculturation is also associated with occupational activity. Acculturation is important to consider when designing public health interventions. PMID:16481031

  12. A lipid chemotactic factor from anaerobic coryneform bacteria including Corynebacterium parvum with activity for macrophages and monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R J; McInroy, R J; Wilkinson, P C; White, R G

    1976-01-01

    A lipid with chemoattractant (chemotactic) activity for mouse and guinea-pig macrophages and for human blood monocytes is released by anaerobic coryneform bacteria (including Corynebacterium parvum). The active lipid is associated with fibrillar structures which lie on the outside of the bacterial cell and are released spontaneously during growth. The lipid can also be extracted easily by a number of methods. The fibrils are loosely associated with a capsule-like structure composed largely of polysaccharide. Purification of the active lipid was achieved by chloroform-methanol extraction of the whole organisms yielding a chloroform-soluble fraction attracting mononuclear phagocytes at concentrations around 10 microgram/ml. The infra-red spectrum of this material showed lipid but no peptide or sugar. Thin-layer chromatography yielded twelve spots of which three had chemoattractant properties. The most active of these gave staining reactions consistent with the presence of phospholipid, the other two probably contained free fatty acids and triglycerides. Thin-layer electrophoresis also yielded an active phosphorus-containing spot. Saturated fatty acids of chain lengths found in the anaerobic coryne forms had weak monocyte-attractant activity. As the active material was progressively purified, its activity as a monocyte attractant weakened. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1027716

  13. Firefighters’ Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work

    PubMed Central

    Chappel, Stephanie E.; Aisbett, Brad; Vincent, Grace E.; Ridgers, Nicola D.

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters’ physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters’ activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED) and in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant) were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h) or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively). No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period) did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period). Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time. PMID:27706057

  14. Can Cognitive Activities during Breaks in Repetitive Manual Work Accelerate Recovery from Fatigue? A Controlled Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M.; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during “diverting” periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may

  15. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may be

  16. How Do They Do It: Working Women Meeting Physical Activity Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify factors that facilitate adherence to physical activity among employed women. Methods Participants were 103 employed women (Mean 44.4 years ±11.8). Measures included physical activity by accelerometry, location by global positioning systems, and psychosocial constructs, perception of worksite policies and the built environment by questionnaire. Results Meeting physical activity recommendations was significantly associated with use of the built environment, self-regulation, perception of higher land-use mix diversity, and perception of lower infrastructure and safety for walking. Perception of worksite policies, self-efficacy, and social support were not associated with meeting recommendations. Conclusions The findings provide evidence that working women’s physical activity behavior is influenced by both psychosocial and environmental factors. PMID:24765681

  17. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    PubMed

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures.

  18. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    PubMed

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures. PMID:9285277

  19. 20 CFR 416.973 - General information about work activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....973 Section 416.973 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME... given the opportunity to work, despite your impairment, because of family relationship, past association... and gainful regardless of whether you spend more time or less time at the job than workers who are...

  20. Celebrating the World of Work: Interviews and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Susan Conklin

    This document, which is intended for use with students in grades K-5, profiles more than 40 far-ranging jobs and serves as a first step toward introducing students to the world of work while fostering an appreciation for cultural diversity and a job well done. Each of the book's 42 chapters is devoted to a different career and opens with an…

  1. Analyzing Student Work as a Professional Development Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Angela S.

    2005-01-01

    When worthwhile mathematical tasks are used in classrooms, they should also become a crucial element of assessment. For teachers, using these tasks in classrooms requires a different way to analyze student thinking than the traditional assessment model. Looking carefully at students' written work on worthwhile mathematical tasks and listening…

  2. Development and testing of a work measurement tool to assess caregivers' activities in residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Munyisia, Esther; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of computerized information systems into health care practices may cause changes to the way healthcare workers conduct their routine work activities, such as work flow and the time spend on each activity. To date the available work measurement tools are confined to activities in hospitals and do not cover residential aged care facilities (RACFs). There is little evidence about the effects of technology on caregivers' work practices, including the distribution of time on activities in a RACF. This requires the measurement of caregivers' activities using a valid and reliable measurement tool. The contribution of this research is to develop and test such a tool. The tool was developed based on literature research and validation in two RACFs. The final instrument contains 48 activities that are grouped into seven categories. They include direct care, indirect care, communication, documentation, personal activities, in-transit and others. This measurement tool can be used to measure the changes in caregivers' work activities associated with the introduction of computerized information systems in RACFs, including the efficiency gains of such systems. PMID:20841879

  3. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    This work presents the development and application of an active control approach for reduction of both vibration and noise induced by helicopter rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI). Control is implemented through single or dual actively controlled flaps (ACFs) on each blade. Low-speed helicopter flight is prone to severe BVI, resulting in elevated vibration and noise levels. Existing research has suggested that when some form of active control is used to reduce vibration, noise will increase and vice versa. The present research achieves simultaneous reduction of noise and vibration, and also investigates the physical sources of the observed reduction. The initial portion of this work focused on developing a tool for simulating helicopter noise and vibrations in the BVI flight regime. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades was developed and combined with an enhanced free-wake model and an acoustic prediction tool with provisions for blade flexibility. These elements were incorporated within an aeroelastic analysis featuring fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. Subsequently, control algorithms were developed that were effective for reducing noise and vibration even in the nonlinear BVI flight regime; saturation limits were incorporated constraining flap deflections to specified limits. The resulting simulation was also validated with a wide range of experimental data, achieving excellent correlation. Finally, a number of active control studies were performed. Multi-component vibration reductions of 40--80% could be achieved, while incurring a small noise penalty. Noise was reduced using an onboard feedback microphone; reductions of 4--10 dB on the advancing side were observed on a plane beneath the rotor when using dual flaps. Finally, simultaneous noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of about 5 dB in noise on the advancing side combined with a 60% reduction in vibration was

  4. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  5. Knowledge Representations Underlying Covert Metalinguistic Activity: A Working Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Covert metalinguistic activity has received little attention in the field of second language (L2) education, even though the few studies that have examined this type of attention to language note that it plays a role in L2 learning and use. However, little is known about this phenomenon. The study reported in this article focuses on the knowledge…

  6. Activating Aesthetics: Working with Heidegger and Bourdieu for Engaged Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grierson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate art in public urban space via a process of activating aesthetics as a way of enhancing pedagogies of engagement. It does this firstly by addressing the question of aesthetics in Enlightenment and twentieth-century frames; then it seeks to understand how artworks may be approached ontologically and…

  7. Words Work: Activities for Developing Vocabulary, Style, and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnicelli, Thomas A.

    This book offers integrated activities in which students explore words and, at the same time, develop their language arts and thinking skills. The book states that this way teachers can pay more attention to word study, without sacrificing other parts of the English curriculum and without resorting to word lists and memorization. In the first…

  8. Measurement for Work. Teaching Guide and Sample Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Margo; Bolton, Chris

    This document is intended to help Australian technical and further education instructors in New South Wales (TAFE NSW) identify teaching principles and learning activities that they can use to help adult learners master the mathematics processes, knowledge, and skills needed to perform basic measurement tasks in today's workplace. The materials…

  9. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  10. Preschool Curriculum: A Child Centered Curriculum of Concepts and Activities Including All of the CDA Functional Areas--Bi-lingual and Home Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Dorothy, Comp.

    This preschool resource curriculum, intended for use in a Head Start center, was written to correspond with a work plan and curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. The units included in the curriculum guide are aimed at integrating growth experiences with the learning of basic skills. Each of the 16 units contains material related to each of…

  11. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  12. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA–Dependent Tel1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Daichi; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Shima, Hiroki; Higashide, Mika; Terasawa, Masahiro; Gasser, Susan M.; Shinohara, Miki

    2016-01-01

    Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity. PMID:26990569

  13. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention.

    PubMed

    Kottlow, Mara; Schlaepfer, Anthony; Baenninger, Anja; Michels, Lars; Brandeis, Daniel; Koenig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health. We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods. Four temporally coherent networks (TCNs)-the default mode network (DMN), the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network-were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks' pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha, and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing. We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be "online" synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals. PMID:25999828

  14. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  15. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  16. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  17. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  18. 20 CFR 617.17 - Availability and active search for work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Availability and active search for work. 617.17 Section 617.17 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 617.17 Availability and active search for work. (a) Extended Benefit work test applicable. Except...

  19. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of a Siderophore Cephalosporin, S-649266, against Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates, Including Carbapenem-Resistant Strains.

    PubMed

    Kohira, Naoki; West, Joshua; Ito, Akinobu; Ito-Horiyama, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Rio; Sato, Takafumi; Rittenhouse, Stephen; Tsuji, Masakatsu; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2015-11-16

    S-649266 is a novel siderophore cephalosporin antibiotic with a catechol moiety on the 3-position side chain. Two sets of clinical isolate collections were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of S-649266 against Enterobacteriaceae. These sets included 617 global isolates collected between 2009 and 2011 and 233 β-lactamase-identified isolates, including 47 KPC-, 49 NDM-, 12 VIM-, and 8 IMP-producers. The MIC90 values of S-649266 against the first set of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates were all ≤1 μg/ml, and there were only 8 isolates (1.3%) among these 617 clinical isolates with MIC values of ≥8 μg/ml. In the second set, the MIC values of S-649266 were ≤4 μg/ml against 109 strains among 116 KPC-producing and class B (metallo) carbapenemase-producing strains. In addition, S-649266 showed MIC values of ≤2 μg/ml against each of the 13 strains that produced other types of carbapenemases such as SME, NMC, and OXA-48. The mechanisms of the decreased susceptibility of 7 class B carbapenemase-producing strains with MIC values of ≥16 μg/ml are uncertain. This is the first report to demonstrate that S-649266, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, has significant antimicrobial activity against Enterobacteriaceae, including strains that produce carbapenemases such as KPC and NDM-1.

  20. After the Sunset: Sustaining School-to-Work Intermediary Activity. School-to-Work Intermediary Project. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobe, Terry

    The now defunct School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 provided start-up funding for states to establish comprehensive career development systems. Survey results of 21 intermediary organizations that used funding from the act to provide learning experiences for youth showed that the loss of federal funding affected activities in various ways,…

  1. Part-Time Work and Hurried Adolescence: The Links between Work Intensity, Social Activities, Health Behaviors, and Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safron, Deborah J.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman Jerald G.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' part-time work intensity and its relation to participation in various activities as well as substance use. Two theoretical perspectives are considered: the "time trade-off perspective"; and "the precocious development perspective." Results provide evidence for a combination of both perspectives. (Author)

  2. Activity of eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, including multidrug-resistant isolates, from New York City.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David; Quale, John

    2015-03-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  3. 76 FR 67558 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance) Activity: Comment Request... comments for information needed to determine a claimant's eligibility for work-study benefits. DATES.... Application for Work-Study Allowance, VA Form 22-8691. b. Student Work-Study Agreement (Advance Payment),...

  4. Making activity-based funding work for mental health.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health from 1 July 2013 has significant risks and benefits. It is critical that the process of implementation is consistent with Australia's cherished goal of establishing a genuine and effective model of community-based mental health care. The infrastructure to support the application of ABF to mental health is currently weak and requires considerable development. States and territories are struggling to meet existing demand for largely hospital-based acute mental health care. There is a risk that valuable ABF-driven Commonwealth growth funds may be used to prop up these systems rather than drive the emergence of new models of community-based care. Some of these new models exist now and this article provides a short description. The aim is to help the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority better understand the landscape of mental health into which it now seeks to deploy ABF.

  5. Initial Work Toward A Robotically Assisted Extravehicular Activity Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jonathan M.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Laske, Evans A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit RoboGlove (SSRG) is a glove designed to provide additional grasp strength or endurance for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew member, since a pressurized space suit gloved hand performance is a fraction of what the unencumbered human hand can achieve. There have been past efforts to improve space suit gloved hand performance by employing novel materials and construction techniques to the glove design, as well as integrating powered assistance devices into the gloves. These past efforts were not completely successful and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decided to develop a new glove based on the NASA/General Motors RoboGlove technology. The resulting SSRG used a unique approach to integrate the robotic actuators and sensors into a Phase VI EVA glove that resulted in a space suit glove that provided grasp augmentation to the user while the augmentation is activated, and also functioned as a normal glove when the augmentation is disabled. Care was taken to avoid adding excessive bulk to the glove or affecting tactility by choosing low-profile sensors and locating the actuators at a distance from the fingers. Conduits were used to guide robotic tendons from linear actuators, across the wrist, and to the fingers. The electromechanical design, softgoods integration, control system, and early test results of the first generation SSRG are presented in this paper. These early test results showed that this sensor integration did not impact tactile feedback in the glove and that the actuators provided potential for increased grip strength and reduction in grasp fatigue over time.

  6. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  7. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that "attentional" brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction-compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional mobility.

  8. Effect of Mild Thyrotoxicosis on Performance and Brain Activations in a Working Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Göbel, Anna; Heldmann, Marcus; Göttlich, Martin; Dirk, Anna-Luise; Brabant, Georg; Münte, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Disturbed levels of thyroid hormones are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including memory impairments. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of mild induced thyrotoxicosis on working memory and its neural correlates. Methods Twenty-nine healthy, male subjects with normal thyroid state participated in the study. Functional MRI was acquired during a working memory task (n-back task) before and after ingesting 250 μg L-thyroxin per day for a period of eight weeks. In addition, neuropsychological tests were performed. Results In the hyperthyroid condition the subjects showed slower reaction times, but a higher accuracy in the 0-back version of the memory tasks. Fewer differences between euthyroid and hyperthyroid state were seen for the more difficult conditions of the n-back task. FMRI revealed effects of difficulty in the parahippocampal gyrus, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cerebellum, rolandic operculum and insula (p<0.05, FWE corrected). When comparing euthyroid and hyperthyroid condition in relation to task-induced activation, differences of activation were found in the right prefrontal cortex as well as in the right parahippocampal area. In the psychological assessment, the alerting effect in the Attention Network Task (ANT) and four out of five parameters of the auditory verbal learning test (AVLT) showed an increase from euthyroid to hyperthyroid state. Conclusions It can be concluded that even a short-term intake of thyroid hormones leads to an activation of brain areas associated with working memory and to an improvement of accuracy of working memory tasks. PMID:27536945

  9. Validation of a high throughput flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay including assessment of metabolic activation in TK6 cells.

    PubMed

    Thougaard, Annemette V; Christiansen, Joan; Mow, Tomas; Hornberg, Jorrit J

    2014-12-01

    Genotoxicity is an unacceptable property for new drug candidates and we employ three screening assays during the drug discovery process to identify genotoxicity early and optimize chemical series. One of these methods is the flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay for which protocol optimizations have been described recently. Here, we report further validation of the assay in TK6 cells including assessment of metabolic activation. We first optimized assay conditions to allow for testing with and without metabolic activation in parallel in a 96-well plate format. Then, we tested a set of 48 compounds carefully selected to contain known in vivo genotoxins, nongenotoxins and drugs. Avoidance of irrelevant positives, a known issue with mammalian cell-based genotoxicity assays, is important to prevent early deselection of potentially promising compounds. Therefore, we enriched the validation set with compounds that were previously reported to produce irrelevant positive results in mammalian cell-based genotoxicity assays. The resulting dataset was used to set the relevant cut-off values for scoring a compound positive or negative, such that we obtained an optimal balance of high sensitivity (88%) and high specificity (87%). Finally, we tested an additional set of 16 drugs to further probe assay performance and 14 of them were classified correctly. To our knowledge, the present study is the most comprehensive validation of the in vitro flow cytometric micronucleus assay and the first to report parallel assessment with metabolic activation in reasonable throughput. The assay allows for rapidly screening novel compounds for genotoxicity and is therefore well-suited for use in early drug discovery projects. Environ.

  10. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act may be used to...

  11. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act...

  12. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act...

  13. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act may be used to...

  14. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  15. Ergonomic analysis of New York apple harvest work using a Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) work sampling approach.

    PubMed

    Earle-Richardson, G; Fulmer, S; Jenkins, P; Mason, C; Bresee, C; May, J

    2004-08-01

    Although back, neck, and shoulder strains are common among migrant and seasonal orchard workers, little data currently exist regarding the ergonomic factors contributing to this problem. We adapted Posture-Activities-Tools-Handling (PATH) instruments and methods for ergonomic job analysis of apple harvest work in three New York orchards, and used the resulting protocol to quantify hazardous activities, loads, and postures. Using a prototype developed previously, we trained twelve contract orchard observers with classroom training and supervised orchard practice. The PATH data were then collected on 14 orchard workers over four days (2,900 observations). Mean coefficients of variation ranged from a low of 0.212 (standing leg neutral) to a high of 0.603 (trunk moderate flexion). Most frequently observed activities were: picking (62.9%), placing and moving apples in the bag (8. 7%), and walking (8.1%). Weight bearing (>10 lb, >4.54 kg) was observed 78.5% of the time throughout a range of activities. Apple harvest work is comparable with other ergonomically high-risk occupations. Future research should focus on low-cost interventions that reduce load and awkward postures.

  16. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it (political), why are my…

  17. Construing Systems of Management among Primary Headteachers: Moving Forward from Work Activity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norah; Connolly, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A study used a Personal Construct Theory/Repertory Grid approach to examine the work of 12 Welsh primary headteachers. Analysis of thematic work-activity grids suggests principals have a more coherent view of their work (as centered on children and education) than Henry Mintzberg's observational studies portrayed. (Contains 36 references.) (MLH)

  18. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Yugay, Tatiana; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Shea, Steven A.; Buijs, Ruud M.; Hu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Motor activity possesses a multiscale regulation that is characterized by fractal activity fluctuations with similar structure across a wide range of timescales spanning minutes to hours. Fractal activity patterns are disturbed in animals after ablating the master circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and in humans with SCN dysfunction as occurs with aging and in dementia, suggesting the crucial role of the circadian system in the multiscale activity regulation. We hypothesized that the normal synchronization between behavioural cycles and the SCN-generated circadian rhythms is required for multiscale activity regulation. To test the hypothesis, we studied activity fluctuations of rats in a simulated shift work protocol that was designed to force animals to be active during the habitual resting phase of the circadian/daily cycle. We found that these animals had gradually decreased mean activity level and reduced 24-h activity rhythm amplitude, indicating disturbed circadian and behavioural cycles. Moreover, these animals had disrupted fractal activity patterns as characterized by more random activity fluctuations at multiple timescales from 4 to 12 h. Intriguingly, these activity disturbances exacerbated when the shift work schedule lasted longer and persisted even in the normal days (without forced activity) following the shift work. The disrupted circadian and fractal patterns resemble those of SCN-lesioned animals and of human patients with dementia, suggesting a detrimental impact of shift work on multiscale activity regulation. PMID:24829282

  19. Simulated shift work in rats perturbs multiscale regulation of locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Escobar, Carolina; Yugay, Tatiana; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Scheer, Frank A J L; Shea, Steven A; Buijs, Ruud M; Hu, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Motor activity possesses a multiscale regulation that is characterized by fractal activity fluctuations with similar structure across a wide range of timescales spanning minutes to hours. Fractal activity patterns are disturbed in animals after ablating the master circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and in humans with SCN dysfunction as occurs with aging and in dementia, suggesting the crucial role of the circadian system in the multiscale activity regulation. We hypothesized that the normal synchronization between behavioural cycles and the SCN-generated circadian rhythms is required for multiscale activity regulation. To test the hypothesis, we studied activity fluctuations of rats in a simulated shift work protocol that was designed to force animals to be active during the habitual resting phase of the circadian/daily cycle. We found that these animals had gradually decreased mean activity level and reduced 24-h activity rhythm amplitude, indicating disturbed circadian and behavioural cycles. Moreover, these animals had disrupted fractal activity patterns as characterized by more random activity fluctuations at multiple timescales from 4 to 12 h. Intriguingly, these activity disturbances exacerbated when the shift work schedule lasted longer and persisted even in the normal days (without forced activity) following the shift work. The disrupted circadian and fractal patterns resemble those of SCN-lesioned animals and of human patients with dementia, suggesting a detrimental impact of shift work on multiscale activity regulation.

  20. DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism modulates the effect of ventral striatal activation on working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, P; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-09-01

    Motivation is important for learning and cognition. Although dopaminergic (D2) transmission in the ventral striatum (VS) is associated with motivation, learning, and cognition are more strongly associated with function of the dorsal striatum, including activation in the caudate nucleus. A recent study found an interaction between intrinsic motivation and the DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism (rs1800497), suggesting that A-carriers of rs1800497 are significantly more sensitive to motivation in order to improve during working memory (WM) training. Using data from the two large-scale imaging genetic data sets, IMAGEN (n=1080, age 13-15 years) and BrainChild (n∼300, age 6-27), we investigated whether rs1800497 is associated with WM. In the IMAGEN data set, we tested whether VS/caudate activation during reward anticipation was associated with WM performance and whether rs1800497 and VS/caudate activation interact to affect WM performance. We found that rs1800497 was associated with WM performance in IMAGEN and BrainChild. Higher VS and caudate activation during reward processing were significantly associated with higher WM performance (p<0.0001). An interaction was found between the DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphism rs1800497 and VS activation during reward anticipation on WM (p<0.01), such that carriers of the minor allele (A) showed a significant correlation between VS activation and WM, whereas the GG-homozygotes did not, suggesting that the effect of VS BOLD on WM is modified by inter-individual genetic differences related to D2 dopaminergic transmission. PMID:24713612

  1. The Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity: Applications to the Study of Human Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedny, Gregory Z.; Harris, Steven Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article offers an introduction to the central concepts and principles of the Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity (SSTA), an activity-theoretical approach specifically tailored to the analysis and design of human work. In activity theory, cognition is understood both as a process and as a structured system of actions. Building on the…

  2. [Stress prevention programs--strategies, techniques, effectiveness. Part I. National and international activities to prevent stress at work].

    PubMed

    Waszkowska, Małgorzata; Merecz, Dorota; Drabek, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    Work stress is nowadays one of the major world-wide problems because of its negative impact on health and socio-economic consequences. Therefore, many organizations, established to protect occupational health and safety, include stress-related issues into their preventive activities. This article is the first part of a broader review of approaches to work stress prevention and existing practices in Europe. It presents anti-stress interventions elaborated and implemented at international and national levels, such as: legal and research initiatives, educational actions, supporting the development of knowledge of occupational stress, and promoting the idea of healthy work place.

  3. Rapid binding of a cationic active site inhibitor to wild type and mutant mouse acetylcholinesterase: Brownian dynamics simulation including diffusion in the active site gorge.

    PubMed

    Tara, S; Elcock, A H; Kirchhoff, P D; Briggs, J M; Radic, Z; Taylor, P; McCammon, J A

    1998-12-01

    It is known that anionic surface residues play a role in the long-range electrostatic attraction between acetylcholinesterase and cationic ligands. In our current investigation, we show that anionic residues also play an important role in the behavior of the ligand within the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase. Negatively charged residues near the gorge opening not only attract positively charged ligands from solution to the enzyme, but can also restrict the motion of the ligand once it is inside of the gorge. We use Brownian dynamics techniques to calculate the rate constant kon, for wild type and mutant acetylcholinesterase with a positively charged ligand. These calculations are performed by allowing the ligand to diffuse within the active site gorge. This is an extension of previously reported work in which a ligand was allowed to diffuse only to the enzyme surface. By setting the reaction criteria for the ligand closer to the active site, better agreement with experimental data is obtained. Although a number of residues influence the movement of the ligand within the gorge, Asp74 is shown to play a particularly important role in this function. Asp74 traps the ligand within the gorge, and in this way helps to ensure a reaction.

  4. [Evaluation of an obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and physical activity applied in public schools of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Concha, Fernando; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Lobos, Luz; Bustos, Nelly; Vio, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and physical activity applied to low income Chilean children in a longitudinal three-year follow-up study. Participants included all 4-7 year old children from 7 public schools located in a low socioeconomic district of Santiago. The main aspects of the intervention were: training of teachers so they could apply an educational program on healthy eating, increase in physical education classes from 3 to 4 per week, and improvement of their quality. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) were assessed yearly in 597 children. We calculated BMI, BMI Z, % normal (N), overweight (OW) and obesity (OB), WC > 90th percentile (NHANES III) and fitness (6MWD/height). Annual changes in BMI Z, WC, 6MWD and fitness were assessed, using repeated measures ANOVA and the test of proportions. Knowledge in healthy eating was assessed during 2 of the 3 years. Results showed that % OB remained unchanged for 2 years (17%) but increased to 19.3% at follow-up. BMI Z increased from 0.3 to 0.38 (p = 0.052) in the N, remained unchanged in the OW, while decreasing significantly in the OB (2.73 to 2.41 p < 0.0001). % WC > 90 th percentile decreased in the OW and OB; 6 MWD was higher in the OW, but the increase in distance overtime was greater among the N. Overall fitness improved, however it was only significant among the N (p = 0.0002). There was a significant increase in food knowledge. We conclude that in spite of a decrease in BMI Z of the OB, an improvement in fitness in the N and food knowledge in all the children, obesity increased at follow-up. This study shows that in school-based obesity programs it is necessary to apply more intense interventions with another type of methodology; otherwise this condition will continue to rise.

  5. Failing to deactivate: the association between brain activity during a working memory task and creativity.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-03-15

    Working memory (WM) is an essential component for human higher order cognitive activities. Creativity has been essential to the development of human civilization. Previous studies from different fields have suggested creativity and capacity of WM have opposing characteristics possibly in terms of diffuse attention. However, despite a number of functional imaging studies on creativity, how creativity relates to brain activity during WM has never been investigated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated this issue using an n-back WM paradigm and a psychometric measure of creativity (a divergent thinking test). A multiple regression analysis revealed that individual creativity was significantly and positively correlated with brain activity in the precuneus during the 2-back task (WM task), but not during the non-WM 0-back task. As the precuneus shows deactivation during cognitive tasks, our findings show that reduced task induced deactivation (TID) in the precuneus is associated with higher creativity measured by divergent thinking. The precuneus is included in the default mode network, which is deactivated during cognitive tasks. The magnitude of TID in the default mode network is considered to reflect the reallocation of cognitive resources from networks irrelevant to the performance of the task. Thus, our findings may indicate that individual creativity, as measured by the divergent thinking test, is related to the inefficient reallocation of attention, congruent with the idea that diffuse attention is associated with individual creativity.

  6. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  7. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  8. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  9. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  10. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  11. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  12. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  13. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-08-15

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  14. Developmental Differences in Prefrontal Activation during Working Memory Maintenance and Manipulation for Different Memory Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolles, Dietsje D.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep information active in working memory is one of the cornerstones of cognitive development. Prior studies have demonstrated that regions which are important for working memory performance in adults, such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), and superior parietal cortex, become…

  15. 76 FR 31682 - Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Time Record (Work-Study Program), VA Form 22-8690. OMB Control Number: 2900-0379. Type...

  16. People* Working . . . *Especially Women . . . A Book of Materials, Activities, and Ideas for the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiant, Sharon

    This bibliography lists publications and other media, historical facts, and suggestions for activities that show women as working and accomplishing people. Materials are from all grade levels (K-12) and many subject areas. Arrangement is in three sections. Part I deals with women who have worked but not for wages, the pioneer, the homemaker, and…

  17. 76 FR 72997 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... for additional language. The NPRM was published on January 12, 2011 (76 FR 2200), and the final rule... announcement of working group activities and status reports of December 7, 2010 (75 FR 76070). The 44th full..., 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The working group agreed...

  18. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of April 23, 2012 (77 FR 24257). The 46th full RSAC... published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The working... communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The...

  19. Job Socialization: The Carry-Over Effects of Work on Political and Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasek, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    A model of job socialization based on the joint effect of decision latitude and psychological demands are developed to predict how behaviors learned on the job would carry over to leisure and political activities out-side of work. The model is tested with a longitudinal national random sample of the Swedish male work force (1:1,000) in 1968 and…

  20. Pageant Princesses and Math Whizzes: Understanding Children's Activities as a Form of Children's Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    Organized children's activities qualify as children's work, in much the same way that school work does. Both produce transferable use value and create capital that contributes to the future production of goods and services. To illustrate this argument, this article draws on qualitative research primarily based on interviews with the parents of…

  1. The Effects of an Afterschool Physical Activity Program on Working Memory in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamijo, Keita; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Wu, Chien-Ting; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 9-month randomized control physical activity intervention aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness on changes in working memory performance in preadolescent children relative to a waitlist control group. Participants performed a modified Sternberg task, which manipulated working memory demands based…

  2. Effects of restricted feeding on daily fluctuations of hepatic functions including p450 monooxygenase activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Jun; Arakawa, Shingo; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ito, Kazumi; Furukawa, Tadashi

    2006-02-10

    Hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities, assessed by measurement of 7-alkoxycoumarin O-dealkylase (ACD) activities, show obvious daily fluctuations in male rats with high values during the dark period and low values during the light period. We have already confirmed that the ACD activities are controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is well known as the oscillator of circadian rhythm. Recently, it is reported that circadian oscillators exist not only in the SCN but also in peripheral organs. To date, it is unclear which circadian oscillators predominantly drive the daily fluctuations of hepatic ACD activities. To address this question, we examined the effects of restricted feeding, which uncouples the circadian oscillators in the liver from the central pacemaker in the SCN, on the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities in male rats. Here we show that restricted feeding inverts the oscillation phase of the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities. Regarding the hepatic P450 content, there were no fluctuations between the light and dark periods under ad libitum and restricted feeding conditions. Therefore, it is considered that the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities are predominantly driven by the circadian factors in peripheral organs rather than by the oscillator in the SCN directly.

  3. The Association between Near Work Activities and Myopia in Children-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Chang, Dolly Shuo-Teh; Wu, Pei-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Myopia has a multifactorial etiology, although environmental factors are predominant in determining its current patterns. Currently, associations between near work activities and myopia have not been consistently observed. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to quantify the effect of near work activities on myopia in children. Relevant articles published between 1989 and 2014 were identified in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, and the citation lists were reviewed. Twelve cohort studies and 15 cross-sectional studies were included (25,025 children aged between 6 and 18 years). The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Study-level data were pooled using a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model (when less than 5 studies were included). We found that more time spent on near work activities was associated with higher odds of myopia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.20) and that the odds of myopia increased by 2% (OR:1.02; 95% CI = 1.01-1.03) for every one diopter-hour (hr) more of near work per week. Therefore, the development of a strategy to reduce the impact of near work on myopia would be important for preventing myopia in children.

  4. The Association between Near Work Activities and Myopia in Children—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Myopia has a multifactorial etiology, although environmental factors are predominant in determining its current patterns. Currently, associations between near work activities and myopia have not been consistently observed. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to quantify the effect of near work activities on myopia in children. Relevant articles published between 1989 and 2014 were identified in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, and the citation lists were reviewed. Twelve cohort studies and 15 cross-sectional studies were included (25,025 children aged between 6 and 18 years). The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Study-level data were pooled using a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model (when less than 5 studies were included). We found that more time spent on near work activities was associated with higher odds of myopia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08–1.20) and that the odds of myopia increased by 2% (OR:1.02; 95% CI = 1.01–1.03) for every one diopter-hour (hr) more of near work per week. Therefore, the development of a strategy to reduce the impact of near work on myopia would be important for preventing myopia in children. PMID:26485393

  5. Antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV includes both cytolytic and non-cytolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Chiara; Castilletti, Concetta; Cimini, Eleonora; Romanelli, Antonella; Lapa, Daniele; Quartu, Serena; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe central nervous system infection in humans, primarily in the elderly and immunocompromised subjects. Human γδ T-cells play a critical role in the immune response against viruses, and studies of WNV meningoencephalitis in laboratory mice described a role of γδ T-cells in the protective immune response. Aim of this study was to analyze the cytolytic and non-cytolytic antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV replication. The anti-WNV activity of soluble factor released by zoledronic acid (ZA)-activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and the cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 T-cell lines against WNV-infected cells were tested in vitro. The activation of Vδ2 T-cell lines was able to inhibit WNV replication through the release of soluble factors. IFN-γ is massively released by activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and is involved in the anti-WNV activity. Moreover, the Vδ2 T-cell lines can efficiently kill WNV-infected cells possibly through perforin-mediated mechanism. Altogether, our results provide insight into the effector functions of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV. The possibility to target these cells by ZA, a commercially available drug used in humans, could potentially offer a new immunotherapeutic strategy for WNV infection. PMID:27196553

  6. Internal desynchronization in a model of night-work by forced activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Delgado, R; Angeles-Castellanos, M; Buijs, M R; Escobar, C

    2008-06-26

    Individuals engaged in shift- or night-work show disturbed diurnal rhythms, out of phase with temporal signals associated to the light/dark (LD) cycle, resulting in internal desynchronization. The mechanisms underlying internal desynchrony have been mainly investigated in experimental animals with protocols that induce phase shifts of the LD cycle and thus modify the activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In this study we developed an animal model of night-work in which the light-day cycle remained stable and rats were required to be active in a rotating wheel for 8 h daily during their sleeping phase (W-SP). This group was compared with rats that were working in the wheel during their activity phase (W-AP) and with undisturbed rats (C). We provide evidence that forced activity during the sleeping phase (W-SP group) alters not only activity, but also the temporal pattern of food intake. In consequence W-SP rats showed a loss of glucose rhythmicity and a reversed rhythm of triacylglycerols. In contrast W-AP rats did not show such changes and exhibited metabolic rhythms similar to those of the controls. The three groups exhibited the nocturnal corticosterone increase, in addition the W-SP and W-AP groups showed increase of plasma corticosterone associated with the start of the working session. Forced activity during the sleep phase did not modify SCN activity characterized by the temporal patterns of PER1 and PER2 proteins, which remained in phase with the LD cycle. These observations indicate that a working regimen during the sleeping period elicits internal desynchronization in which activity combined with feeding uncouples metabolic functions from the biological clock which remains fixed to the LD cycle. The present data suggest that in the night worker the combination of work and eating during working hours may be the cause of internal desynchronization.

  7. Out of sight, out of mind: including group quarters residents with household residents can change what we know about working-age people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, David; Honeycutt, Todd; Schechter, Bruce

    2012-02-01

    Information about residents of institutional and noninstitutional group quarters (GQ), particularly those with disabilities, has been limited by gaps in survey data, and statistics based on data that exclude some or all GQ residents are biased as estimates of total population statistics. We used the 2006 and 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) to identify the distribution of working-age populations with and without disabilities by major residence type and to assess the sensitivity of disability statistics to GQ residence. Our findings show that (1) of those with disabilities, about 1 in 13 males and 1 in 33 females live in GQ; (2) GQ rates are higher for individuals reporting mental, self-care, or go-outside-the-home disabilities than for those reporting sensory, physical, or employment disabilities; (3) younger males with disabilities are more likely to reside there, particularly at institutional GQ, reflecting their relatively high incarceration rate; (4) individuals with and without disabilities who are black, American Indian, were never married, or have less than a high school education have higher GQ residence rates; (5) 40% of male and 62% of female GQ residents have a disability; (6) adding GQ residents to household residents increases estimated disability prevalence for males by 6%, and the estimated difference between disability prevalence rates by gender nearly disappears; and (7) inclusion of the GQ population substantially lowers employment rate estimates for young males, blacks, and American Indians. PMID:22109082

  8. Work-Based, Community Service-Learning Activities for Students in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    This resource guide provides information on community service-learning activities for rural students. The guide is based on focus-group sessions in which participants from five rural Appalachian counties identified community service activities that would enhance students' academic success, improve their transition from school to work, and address…

  9. How Do Detergents Work? A Qualitative Assay to Measure Amylase Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novo, M. Teresa; Casanoves, Marina; Garcia-Vallvé, Santi; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical activity focusing on two main goals: to give learners the opportunity to experience how the scientific method works and to increase their knowledge about enzymes in everyday situations. The exercise consists of determining the amylase activity of commercial detergents. The methodology is based on a qualitative assay using a…

  10. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable activities? 664.470 Section 664.470 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program...

  11. Dissociation of Active Working Memory and Passive Recognition in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Active cognitive control of working memory is central in most human memory models, but behavioral evidence for such control in nonhuman primates is absent and neurophysiological evidence, while suggestive, is indirect. We present behavioral evidence that monkey memory for familiar images is under active cognitive control. Concurrent cognitive…

  12. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates…

  13. Happiness Indices among Persons with Profound and Severe Disabilities during Leisure and Work Activities: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Dickie C. T.; Spevack, Sara; Hiebert, Rene; Martin, Toby L.; Goodman, Ryan; Martin, Todd G.; Harapiak, Shayla; Martin, Garry L.

    2002-01-01

    Happiness indices were observed during naturally occurring work and leisure activities for individuals with severe (n=12) and profound (n=7) disabilities. Both groups showed more happiness indices during leisure activities, although the difference for the profound group was smaller. There was also a significant difference between groups for…

  14. Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…

  15. Drivers` activities and information needs in an automated highway system. Working paper, August 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Levitan, L.; Bloomfield, J.

    1996-10-01

    In most visions of the AHS--including that of the National Automated Highway System Consortium--it has been assumed that when a vehicle was under automated control, the driver would be allowed to engage in any of a variety of activities not related to driving (e.g, working, reading, sleeping). The objective of the first study reported here--one of the noncommuter studies--was to determine what drivers do when traveling under automated control, and whether the age of and/gender or the driver and/or the intrastring gap have an influence on those activities. One the objectives of the commuter experiment--of relevance for this report--was to determine whether what drivers do when traveling under automated control changes as a function of experience with the AHS (i.e., across trials). As conceptualization of the AHS proceeds, the details of the interface between the driver and the in-vehicle system will become more important. One part of that interface will be information supplied by the AHS to the driver, perhaps about such things as traffic conditions ahead predicted trip time to the driver`s selected exit, and so on. To maximize the utility of that information, it is important to determine what it is that drivers would like to know when traveling under automated control. The objective of the third study reported here--the second of the five noncommuter experiments--was to provide a first investigation of that issue.

  16. Temporal dynamics and degradation activity of an bacterial inoculum for treating waste metal-working fluid.

    PubMed

    van der Gast, Christopher J; Whiteley, Andrew S; Thompson, Ian P

    2004-03-01

    In order for established bioreactors to be effective for treating chemically mixed wastes such as metal working fluids (MWF) it is essential that they harbour microbial populations that can maintain sufficient active biomass and degrade each of the chemical constituents present. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of a bacterial consortium composed of four species (Clavibacter michiganensis, Methylobacterium mesophilicum, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Pseudomonas putida), assembled on the basis of their apparent ubiquity in waste MWF, degradation ability and tolerance to fluctuating chemistry of the waste. The temporal dynamics of the inoculum and its effects on the fate of individual chemical components of the waste were studied, by regular sampling, over 400 h. Using a complementary approach of culture with chemotaxonomic (FAME) analysis and applying group specific probes (FISH), the inoculum was found to represent a significant component of the community in bioreactors with and without presence of indigenous MWF populations. In addition, the reduction in the COD by the consortium was approximately 85% of the total pollution load, and 30-40% more effectively than any other treatment (indigenous MWF community alone or activated sludge). Furthermore, all the chemical constituents, including the biocide (a formaldehyde release agent) demonstrated > 60% reduction. Many chemical components of the MWF proved to be recalcitrant in the other treatments. The results of this study confirm that assemblage of an inoculum, based on a comprehensive knowledge of the indigenous microbial community, in the target habitat, is a highly effective way of selecting microbial populations for bioaugmentation of bioreactors.

  17. Evaluation of Active Working Fluids for Brayton Cycles in Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, J. C.; Courville, G. E.; Scott, J. H.

    2004-02-01

    The main parameter of interest for space thermal power conversion to electricity is specific power, defined as the total electric power output per unit of system mass, rather than the cycle thermal efficiency. For a closed Brayton cycle, performance with two active working fluids, nitrogen tetroxide and aluminum chloride, is compared to that with an inert mixture of helium and xenon having a molecular mass of 40. A chemically active working fluid is defined here as a chemical compound that has a relatively high molecular weight at temperatures appropriate for the compressor inlet and dissociates to a lighter molecular weight fluid at typical turbine inlet temperatures. The active working fluids may have the advantage of a higher net turbomachinery work output and an advantageous enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient in the heat exchangers. The fundamental theory of the active working fluid concept is presented to demonstrate these potential advantages. Scoping calculations of the heat exchanger mass for a selected spacecraft application of 36.4 kW of electrical power output show that the nitrogen tetroxide active working fluid has an advantageous 7% to 30% lower mass-to-power ratio than that for the inert noble gas mixture, depending on the allowable turbine inlet temperature. The calculations for the aluminum chloride system suggest only a slight improvement in performance relative to the inert noble gas mixture.

  18. Factors across home, work, and school domains influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional college students.

    PubMed

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bishop, Hillary L; Greaney, Mary L; Whiteley, Jessica A

    2012-10-01

    Nontraditional college students (older, part-time, and/or working) have less healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors compared to traditional students, yet few health promotion efforts focus on nontraditional students. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore factors affecting nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional students. Fourteen semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nontraditional undergraduate students attending a large university. The sample had a median age of 25 (range, 21-64), 57% were men, 43% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 57% were employed (mean 22 hours/week). Data were coded using a systematic team-based approach. Consistent themes (mentioned by 4+ students) were identified and categorized into three domains: home, work, and school. Home (themes: neighborhood characteristics, family, partners), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: cafeteria, vending machines) factors consistently influenced positive nutrition behaviors. Similarly, home (themes: neighborhood including safety, friends from home, partner,), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: not having a car, campus structure, campus gym, friends at school) factors consistently influenced positive physical activity. Financial resources and perceptions of autonomy had influence across domains. Results indicate consistent influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors across home, work, and school domains for nontraditional college students. Study findings suggest possible, and sometimes unconventional, intervention strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity. For example, when cafeteria meal plans are not offered and financial constraints limit eating at the cafeteria, encouraging healthful choices from vending machines could be preferable to not eating at all. PMID:23146772

  19. The activation of mechanisms linking judgements of work design and management with musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Randall, Raymond; Griffiths, Amanda; Cox, Tom; Welsh, Claire

    2002-01-15

    The report of work-related musculoskeletal pain may be related to worker evaluations of the design and management of work through two mechanisms: one biomechanical and the other stress-related. This study of engineering workers (n = 204) explored the validity of these mechanisms using sequential logistic regression. Analyses suggested that workers' ratings of the adequacy of the design and management of their work were related to their report of work-related musculoskeletal pain. However, the mechanisms appeared to be activated in certain conditions. The reporting of pain in the upper body was both biomechanically- and stress-related, whereas that in the lower body was only biomechanically-related. It is argued that the mechanism activated appeared to be determined by the anatomical location of the pain, and probably the variance shared between the different aspects of work design and management, on the one hand, and the mechanical load of the job, on the other. PMID:11964192

  20. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... recovery; or (ii) The FAA's determination that risk to third parties and Government property as a result...

  1. Activated Notch1 Target Genes during Embryonic Cell Differentiation Depend on the Cellular Context and Include Lineage Determinants and Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Meier-Stiegen, Franziska; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Bernoth, Kristina; Martini, Simone; Hieronymus, Thomas; Ruau, David; Zenke, Martin; Just, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Background Notch receptor signaling controls developmental cell fates in a cell-context dependent manner. Although Notch signaling directly regulates transcription via the RBP-J/CSL DNA binding protein, little is known about the target genes that are directly activated by Notch in the respective tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings To analyze how Notch signaling mediates its context dependent function(s), we utilized a Tamoxifen-inducible system to activate Notch1 in murine embryonic stem cells at different stages of mesodermal differentiation and performed global transcriptional analyses. We find that the majority of genes regulated by Notch1 are unique for the cell type and vary widely dependent on other signals. We further show that Notch1 signaling regulates expression of genes playing key roles in cell differentiation, cell cycle control and apoptosis in a context dependent manner. In addition to the known Notch1 targets of the Hes and Hey families of transcriptional repressors, Notch1 activates the expression of regulatory transcription factors such as Sox9, Pax6, Runx1, Myf5 and Id proteins that are critically involved in lineage decisions in the absence of protein synthesis. Conclusion/Significance We suggest that Notch signaling determines lineage decisions and expansion of stem cells by directly activating both key lineage specific transcription factors and their repressors (Id and Hes/Hey proteins) and propose a model by which Notch signaling regulates cell fate commitment and self renewal in dependence of the intrinsic and extrinsic cellular context. PMID:20628604

  2. Dynamic trajectory of multiple single-unit activity during working memory task in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Yi, Hu; Bai, Wenwen; Tian, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Working memory plays an important role in complex cognitive tasks. A popular theoretical view is that transient properties of neuronal dynamics underlie cognitive processing. The question raised here as to how the transient dynamics evolve in working memory. To address this issue, we investigated the multiple single-unit activity dynamics in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during a Y-maze working memory task. The approach worked by reconstructing state space from delays of the original single-unit firing rate variables, which were further analyzed using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Then the neural trajectories were obtained to visualize the multiple single-unit activity. Furthermore, the maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) was calculated to quantitatively evaluate the neural trajectories during the working memory task. The results showed that the neuronal activity produced stable and reproducible neural trajectories in the correct trials while showed irregular trajectories in the incorrect trials, which may establish a link between the neurocognitive process and behavioral performance in working memory. The MLEs significantly increased during working memory in the correctly performed trials, indicating an increased divergence of the neural trajectories. In the incorrect trials, the MLEs were nearly zero and remained unchanged during the task. Taken together, the trial-specific neural trajectory provides an effective way to track the instantaneous state of the neuronal population during the working memory task and offers valuable insights into working memory function. The MLE describes the changes of neural dynamics in working memory and may reflect different neuronal population states in working memory. PMID:26441626

  3. Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal pain is one of the occupational hazards in dentists. Aims: To find the prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in dentists, to compare musculoskeletal pain among dentists practicing yoga, those practicing physical activities, and those without any physical activity, and also to know the effects of sex, age, and workload on musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A self-reporting work-related questionnaire and the Nordic questionnaire for analysis of musculoskeletal disorders were given to graduated dentists attending Indian dental conference in Mumbai, to know the musculoskeletal pain experienced in the last 12 months and feedback was obtained from 220 dentists. Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentists was 34.5%. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 10.5%, 21.7%, and 45.6% in dentists with regular yoga practice, other physical activity, and no physical activity, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists who were practicing yoga when compared with those in no regular activity group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, there was significant role of physical activity on the quality and quantity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders experienced by dentists. Yoga was found to be more effective than other modes of physical activities. More research is needed on musculoskeletal problems in dentists, with an emphasis on larger sample sizes and correlating other factors like age and sex of the dentists, duration of practice, years of practicing yoga, and working hours per week. PMID:26236679

  4. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    PubMed

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  5. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  6. Development of Active Control within Working Memory: Active Retrieval versus Monitoring in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain-Brière, Bénédicte; Bouchard, Caroline; Bigras, Nathalie; Cadoret, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare children's performance on two mnemonic functions that engage the lateral prefrontal cortex. Brain imaging studies in adults have shown that the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex is specifically involved in active controlled retrieval, and the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is specifically involved in…

  7. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  8. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  9. Circadian Activity Rhythms and Sleep in Nurses Working Fixed 8-hr Shifts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Miao, Nae-Fang; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Sithole, Trevor; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-05-01

    Shift work is associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of shift work on circadian activity rhythms (CARs) and objective and subjective sleep quality in nurses. Female day-shift (n = 16), evening-shift (n = 6), and night-shift (n = 13) nurses wore a wrist actigraph to monitor the activity. We used cosinor analysis and time-frequency analysis to study CARs. Night-shift nurses exhibited the lowest values of circadian rhythm amplitude, acrophase, autocorrelation, and mean of the circadian relative power (CRP), whereas evening-shift workers exhibited the greatest standard deviation of the CRP among the three shift groups. That is, night-shift nurses had less robust CARs and evening-shift nurses had greater variations in CARs compared with nurses who worked other shifts. Our results highlight the importance of assessing CARs to prevent the adverse effects of shift work on nurses' health. PMID:25332463

  10. Dissociated sequential activity and stimulus encoding in the dorsomedial striatum during spatial working memory

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghpour, Hessameddin; Wiskerke, Joost; Choi, Jung Yoon; Taliaferro, Joshua P; Au, Jennifer; Witten, Ilana B

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the striatum has an important role in spatial working memory. The neural dynamics in the striatum have been described in tasks with short delay periods (1–4 s), but remain largely uncharacterized for tasks with longer delay periods. We collected and analyzed single unit recordings from the dorsomedial striatum of rats performing a spatial working memory task with delays up to 10 s. We found that neurons were activated sequentially, with the sequences spanning the entire delay period. Surprisingly, this sequential activity was dissociated from stimulus encoding activity, which was present in the same neurons, but preferentially appeared towards the onset of the delay period. These observations contrast with descriptions of sequential dynamics during similar tasks in other brains areas, and clarify the contribution of the striatum to spatial working memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19507.001 PMID:27636864

  11. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  12. Work activities and the onset of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Nuwayhid, I A; Stewart, W; Johnson, J V

    1993-03-01

    In a prospective study of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters, a total of 115 cases and 109 randomly selected controls were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and July 1989 to examine the role of recent work activities in the onset of first-time low back pain. After adjusting for known risk factors and off-duty activities, statistically significant high-risk work activities included operating a charged hose inside a building (odds ratio (OR) = 3.26), climbing ladders (OR = 3.18), breaking windows (OR = 4.45), cutting structures (OR = 6.47), looking for hidden fires (OR = 4.32), and lifting objects > or = 18 kg (OR = 3.07). Low-risk activities included connecting hydrants to pumpers (OR = 0.36), pulling booster hose (OR = 0.19), and participating in drills (OR = 0.09) or physical training (OR = 0.16). When further adjusted for exposure to smoke (OR = 13.59), a surrogate for severity of alarms, the ORs associated with high-risk activities were no longer significant. This, however, does not diminish the role of activities in the onset of low back pain. Instead, it suggests an inseparable role for activities and environmental hazards. To examine this, the risk of low back pain was measured within five work zones sequential in time relative to location and distance from a structural fire. The risk gradually increased as the fire fighter moved away from the firehouse (OR = 0.10) and closer to the site of fire (OR = 3.91). PMID:8465805

  13. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  14. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  15. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  16. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness < 2 years) and 40 age- and gender-matched hearing controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visuo-spatial delayed recognition task that consisted of encoding, maintenance and recognition stages. The early deaf subjects exhibited faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were

  17. Nursing Activities Score: nursing work load in a burns Intensive Care Unit1

    PubMed Central

    Camuci, Marcia Bernadete; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Cardeli, Alexandrina Aparecida Maciel; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the nursing work load in a Burns Intensive Care Unit according to the Nursing Activities Score. Method an exploratory, descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The Nursing Activities Score was used for data collection between October 2011 and May 2012, totalling 1,221 measurements, obtained from 50 patients' hospital records. Data for qualitative variables was described in tables; for the quantitative variables, calculations using statistical measurements were used. Results the mean score for the Nursing Activities Score was 70.4% and the median was 70.3%, corresponding to the percentage of the time spent on direct care to the patient in 24 hours. Conclusion the Nursing Activities Score provided information which involves the process of caring for patients hospitalized in a Burns Intensive Care Unit, and indicated that there is a high work load for the nursing team of the sector studied. PMID:26107842

  18. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  19. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  1. Selective Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of Human DNA Methyltransferases Active in Cancer Including in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are important enzymes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression and represent valuable targets in cancer chemotherapy. A number of nucleoside DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi) have been studied in cancer, including in cancer stem cells, and two of them (azacytidine and decitabine) have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, only a few non-nucleoside DNMTi have been identified so far, and even fewer have been validated in cancer. Through a process of hit-to-lead optimization, we report here the discovery of compound 5 as a potent non-nucleoside DNMTi that is also selective toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Compound 5 was potent at single-digit micromolar concentrations against a panel of cancer cells and was less toxic in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than two other compounds tested. In mouse medulloblastoma stem cells, 5 inhibited cell growth, whereas related compound 2 showed high cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, 2 and 5 are the first non-nucleoside DNMTi tested in a cancer stem cell line. PMID:24387159

  2. Novel stilbenoids, including cannabispiradienone glycosides, from Tragopogon tommasinii (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) and their potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Granica, Sebastian; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Randazzo, Antonio; Schneider, Peter; Żyżyńska-Granica, Barbara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-09-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Tragopogon tommasinii Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) yielded a total of 21 natural products, two simple phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid), four caffeic acid derivatives (chlorogenic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid), six flavonoids (luteolin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, vitexin, orientin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside), three simple bibenzyls [2-carboxyl-5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-4'-β-glucopyranosyl-oxybibenzyl, 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxybibenzyl, 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-dihydroxy-5,3'-dimethoxybibenzyl], three phtalides [3-(4-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methoxyphtalide, 7-β-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxyphtalide, and 7-(1→6)-α-rhamnosyl-β-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxyphtalide], two cannabispiradienone derivatives [3-O-β-glucopyranosyldemethoxycannabispiradienone and 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxydemethoxycannabispiradienone], and tetra-N-coumaroyl spermine. The three bibenzyls, the latter two benzylphthalides, and both cannabispiradienone derivatives represent new natural compounds and all compounds, except the caffeic acid derivatives and the flavonoids were new for T. tommasinii. The structures were established by HR mass spectrometry, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and CD spectroscopy. Moreover, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the new compounds were assayed using human neutrophils and their production of IL-1b, IL-8, TNF-α and MMP-9 as well as the expression of TLR-4, respectively.

  3. Activity Structure as Scaffolding for Children's Second Language Learning. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin-Tripp, Susan M.

    An examination of the play situations in which children are successful in learning second languages was undertaken based on observations that children in foreign language settings learn languages quickly in the process of daily play activities. A wide variety of activities were examined, including play phone conversations, soccer, elastic rope…

  4. Exercises and Activities in Basic Number Work. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This guide is a collection of ideas for mathematics activities which were assembled and tested by primary teachers. The activities supplement the teaching of basic numeracy and include topics such as algorithms, pyramids, magic squares, multiples, and number values. The guide is organized into four sections: (1) addition and subtraction; (2)…

  5. Physical Activity and Nutrition Health Promotion Interventions: What Is Working for People with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana

    2011-01-01

    A scoping review of studies on physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Searches included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1986 through July 2006. The final number included 11 articles comprising 12 studies. Generally, this review indicated some…

  6. Toward Enriched Conceptions of Work Learning: Participation, Expansion, and Translation among Individuals with/in Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that understandings of work learning within human resource development (HRD) theory can be fruitfully enriched by more fully incorporating practice-based perspectives. Three contemporary theories that analyze learning as a relation of individuals with and/or in activity are discussed: the participational perspective of situated…

  7. Electronic Learning Courses as a Means to Activate Students' Independent Work in Studying Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurygin, Viktor Yurjevich; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are special requirements to the system of higher education, focused not only on imparting knowledge to students, but also on the formation of the continuous need for independent self-education, self-creative approach to getting knowledge throughout their active life. In this regard, the role of students' independent work with its…

  8. When Talking Won't Work: Implementing Experiential Group Activities with Addicted Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Hirshhorn, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional talk therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral techniques, are often ineffective when working with addicted clients for many reasons. By tapping into the power of the group modality, experiential activities can serve as a powerful facilitator of insight and behavior change. The authors provide a brief review of the literature followed…

  9. Portraying the Work of Instructional Designing: An Activity-Oriented Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Gail A.

    This study tested the usefulness of an activity-oriented approach in describing and explaining the work of designing an international distance education course in business entrepreneurship at Indiana University. The course was team taught with an instructor at the City University of Hong Kong; video conferencing and Internet-based technologies…

  10. Connecting Social Work and Activism in the Arts through Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawdon, Kathryn; Moxley, David

    2016-01-01

    The authors place a continuing education conference devoted to linking the arts, social practice, and social work within the context of a movement to advance arts activism. They illustrate how social workers, artists, and community arts activists can collaborate in building public awareness about serious social issues, creating alternative…

  11. Unesco's Activities to Facilitate Access of Developing Countries to Protected Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, A. M. N.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the operational activities of UNESCO to facilitate easy access of developing countries to works protected by copyright. Particular reference is made to collection of data, economic situation, formation of national copyright information centers, copyright data bank services, reprographic reproduction, preparation of model contracts,and…

  12. 20 CFR 632.122 - Unionization and antiunionization activities; work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unionization and antiunionization activities; work stoppages. 632.122 Section 632.122 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Prevention of Fraud...

  13. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of January 29, 2010 (75 FR 4904). The 41st full... October 11, 2005. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275... published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The Task Force met on October 17-18, 2007, and reached...

  14. Working through: In-Session Processes that Promote Between-Session Thoughts and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether clients' ratings of the working alliance as well as their perception of cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques (delivered by therapists who used both) were associated with clients' intersession processes (i.e., their thoughts about therapy and therapeutic activity between sessions).…

  15. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people. 404.1584 Section 404.1584 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness §...

  20. 77 FR 24257 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of November 28, 2011 (76 FR 72997). The 45th full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23... emergency communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR...

  1. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51525). The 42nd full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23... emergency communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR...

  2. A Role for Prefrontal Calcium-Sensitive Protein Phosphatase and Kinase Activities in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Jason D.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2005-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is involved in the integration and interpretation of information for directing thoughts and planning action. Working memory is defined as the active maintenance of information in mind and is thought to lie at the core of many prefrontal functions. Although dopamine and other neurotransmitters have been implicated, the…

  3. Guided Participation in Three Youth Activism Organizations: Facilitation, Apprenticeship, and Joint Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Multiracial youth activism groups, based in working class and poor neighborhoods, seek to improve social conditions by organizing grassroots campaigns. Campaigns such as these, which require sophisticated planning, organizing, and advocacy skills, are noteworthy not just for their political impact, but also because of the insights they provide…

  4. Using Activity Theory to Understand How People Learn to Negotiate the Conditions of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena

    2008-01-01

    In a typical workplace in the United States, two knowledge-producing activity systems are in motion. Each produces knowledge about how to do the work of that workplace, but they are differently motivated: one toward productivity, and the other toward earning a living. The conflict between these two systems is addressed through the process of…

  5. The regulation of work activity and the new labor and production contexts.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elaine Cristina; Bento, Paulo Eduardo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a rise in the use o lean production model techniques. Through this approach, companies become more flexible, a fact that increases the interest in studies regarding the introduction of this model in businesses and its impacts on working conditions. Important observations concerning ergonomics, such as the theme of work activity regulation, have been highlighted in such studies. This article aims to discuss strategies and regulations adopted by the workers on assembly lines that are considered flexible. The article presents the results of a study in a company that adopts some lean production techniques. The study was analyzed using the activity analysis as one of the premises of the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). Many aspects of the traditional assembly line remain present in the scenario that was studied, however a new language was employed and aspects in the nature of regulations demonstrate that the relation with lean production techniques influence the operators' operational modes.

  6. Current activities of the Atmospheric Composition Sub-Group of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkov, Bojan

    The Atmospheric Sub-Group of the CEOS Calibration and Validation Working Group (CEOS WGCV/ASCG) was established in November 2001 with mission to ensure accurate and traceable calibration of remotely-sensed atmospheric chemistry radiance data and validation of higher level products, for application to atmospheric chemistry and climate research. This working-group, consisting of 15 members from space agencies and other relevant agencies and organizations with broad experience in calibration, modeling, algorithm development and validation, meet on an annual basis to promote international collaboration and technical exchanges, encourage interactions between mission scientists and data users, recommend network validation sites, develop comprehensive validation methodologies involving ground-based and space-borne assets, and specify comprehensive and consistent multi-mission validation datasets. Recent activities of the ACSG, including the recent ground-based intercomparisons, the ongoing NASA-ESA-NDACC validation data sharing activities, and the planned multi-agency CO2 validation efforts, will be presented.

  7. Integration of Nevada Test Site (NTS) Work Control Programs and Incorporating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) into Activity Level Work Planning and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Kinney and Kevin Breen

    2008-08-30

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to improve the planning and execution of work activities utilizing an Activity Level Work Control process in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2004-1, Oversight of Complex, High-Hazard Nuclear Operations. The process was initially developed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2007, and implementation is commencing during the fourth quarter of FY 2008. This process will significantly enhance the flexibility and the appropriate rigor in the performance of work activities.

  8. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  9. The topography of alpha-band activity tracks the content of spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Foster, Joshua J; Sutterer, David W; Serences, John T; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a system for the online storage of information. An emerging view is that neuronal oscillations coordinate the cellular assemblies that code the content of WM. In line with this view, previous work has demonstrated that oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) plays a role in WM maintenance, but the exact contributions of this activity have remained unclear. Here, we used an inverted spatial encoding model in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracks spatial representations held in WM. Participants in three experiments performed spatial WM tasks that required them to remember the precise angular location of a sample stimulus for 1,000-1,750 ms. Across all three experiments, we found that the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracked the specific location that was held in WM. Evoked (i.e., activity phase-locked to stimulus onset) and total (i.e., activity regardless of phase) power across a range of low-frequency bands transiently tracked the location of the sample stimulus following stimulus onset. However, only total power in the alpha band tracked the content of spatial WM throughout the memory delay period, which enabled reconstruction of location-selective channel tuning functions (CTFs). These findings demonstrate that alpha-band activity is directly related to the coding of spatial representations held in WM and provide a promising method for tracking the content of this online memory system.

  10. The topography of alpha-band activity tracks the content of spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Foster, Joshua J; Sutterer, David W; Serences, John T; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a system for the online storage of information. An emerging view is that neuronal oscillations coordinate the cellular assemblies that code the content of WM. In line with this view, previous work has demonstrated that oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) plays a role in WM maintenance, but the exact contributions of this activity have remained unclear. Here, we used an inverted spatial encoding model in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracks spatial representations held in WM. Participants in three experiments performed spatial WM tasks that required them to remember the precise angular location of a sample stimulus for 1,000-1,750 ms. Across all three experiments, we found that the topographic distribution of alpha-band activity tracked the specific location that was held in WM. Evoked (i.e., activity phase-locked to stimulus onset) and total (i.e., activity regardless of phase) power across a range of low-frequency bands transiently tracked the location of the sample stimulus following stimulus onset. However, only total power in the alpha band tracked the content of spatial WM throughout the memory delay period, which enabled reconstruction of location-selective channel tuning functions (CTFs). These findings demonstrate that alpha-band activity is directly related to the coding of spatial representations held in WM and provide a promising method for tracking the content of this online memory system. PMID:26467522

  11. Individual differences in neural activity during a facial expression vs. identity working memory task.

    PubMed

    Neta, Maital; Whalen, Paul J

    2011-06-01

    Facial expressions of emotion constitute a critical portion of our non-verbal social interactions. In addition, the identity of the individual displaying this expression is critical to these interactions as they embody the context in which these expressions will be interpreted. To identify any overlapping and/or unique brain circuitry involved in the processing of these two information streams in a laboratory setting, participants performed a working memory (WM) task (i.e., n-back) in which they were instructed to monitor either the expression (EMO) or the identity (ID) of the same set of face stimuli. Consistent with previous work, during both the EMO and ID tasks, we found a significant increase in activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) supporting its generalized role in WM. Further, individuals that showed greater DLPFC activity during both tasks also showed increased amygdala activity during the EMO task and increased lateral fusiform gyrus activity during the ID task. Importantly, the level of activity in these regions significantly correlated with performance on the respective tasks. These findings provide support for two separate neural circuitries, both involving the DLPFC, supporting working memory for the faces and expressions of others. PMID:21349341

  12. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  13. The variability of the trunk forward bending in standing activities during work vs. leisure time.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas; Samani, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    High level of occupational physical activity (PA), contrary to leisure time activities, is generally associated with detrimental health outcomes. We hypothesized that this contrast may be associated with a different pattern of exposure variability in PA, e.g., forward bending of the trunk. The study was conducted on 657 blue-collar workers. Two accelerometers were used to identify the body posture and forward bending of the trunk during work and leisure time. The pattern of forward bending was analyzed using exposure variation analysis (EVA). The recordings comprised of 2.6 ± 0.97 working days in average, with 19.9 ± 8.1 h work and 22.9 ± 8.9 h leisure. The standard deviation and entropy of the EVA profile indicated 11% and 6% (for about 80% of subjects) less variable pattern during work compared with the leisure time, respectively. These new findings contribute to the understanding the paradoxical outcomes of PA during work and leisure. PMID:27633222

  14. Work, food and physical activity. A qualitative study of coping strategies among men in three occupations.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Margareta; Roos, Gun

    2005-02-01

    Life style diseases contribute heavily to inequalities in health. Thus, there is a need for a better understanding of factors affecting health-related habits, such as diet and exercise, among different groups of people. In this study, the work situation is chosen as a point of departure for analyses on health-related perceptions and habits among men from three different occupations: 20 carpenters, 15 engineers and 11 drivers in Oslo, Norway. The data were collected by in depth semi-structured interviews. There were clear differences in the way men in the three types of work view food, meals, the body and physical activity. The distribution of different types of meals throughout the day was also tied to the type of work. This was linked to notions of food as fuel for immediate body functioning, vis a vis body shape and future health. The differences observed are most likely a mixture and mutual reinforcement of demands related to the work situation as well as the socio-cultural background, level of knowledge and education. Benefits at work were also different; those in higher positions (engineers) received most healthy benefits, such as fruit baskets, healthy lunches, and participation in physical activities. These may contribute to the already large differences in health practices.

  15. Increased brain activation during working memory processing after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Daniel R.; West, John D.; Bailey, Jessica N.; Arnold, Todd W.; Kersey, Patrick A.; Saykin, Andrew J.; McDonald, Brenna C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neural substrate of post-concussive symptoms following the initial injury period after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in pediatric populations remains poorly elucidated. This study examined neuropsychological, behavioral, and brain functioning in adolescents post-mTBI to assess whether persistent differences were detectable up to a year post-injury. Methods Nineteen adolescents (mean age 14.7 years) who experienced mTBI 3–12 months previously (mean 7.5 months) and 19 matched healthy controls (mean age 14.0 years) completed neuropsychological testing and an fMRI auditory-verbal N-back working memory task. Parents completed behavioral ratings. Results No between-group differences were found for cognition, behavior, or N-back task performance, though the expected decreased accuracy and increased reaction time as task difficulty increased were apparent. However, the mTBI group showed significantly greater brain activation than controls during the most difficult working memory task condition. Conclusion Greater working memory task-related activation was found in adolescents up to one year post-mTBI relative to controls, potentially indicating compensatory activation to support normal task performance. Differences in brain activation in the mTBI group so long after injury may indicate residual alterations in brain function much later than would be expected based on the typical pattern of natural recovery, which could have important clinical implications. PMID:26684070

  16. Working together may be better: activation of reward centers during a cooperative maze task.

    PubMed

    Krill, Austen L; Platek, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Humans use theory of mind when predicting the thoughts and feelings and actions of others. There is accumulating evidence that cooperation with a computerized game correlates with a unique pattern of brain activation. To investigate the neural correlates of cooperation in real-time we conducted an fMRI hyperscanning study. We hypothesized that real-time cooperation to complete a maze task, using a blind-driving paradigm, would activate substrates implicated in theory of mind. We also hypothesized that cooperation would activate neural reward centers more than when participants completed the maze themselves. Of interest and in support of our hypothesis we found left caudate and putamen activation when participants worked together to complete the maze. This suggests that cooperation during task completion is inherently rewarding. This finding represents one of the first discoveries of a proximate neural mechanism for group based interactions in real-time, which indirectly supports the social brain hypothesis.

  17. Activity-silent’ working memory in prefrontal cortex: a dynamic coding framework

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) provides the functional backbone to high-level cognition. Maintenance in WM is often assumed to depend on the stationary persistence of neural activity patterns that represent memory content. However, accumulating evidence suggests that persistent delay activity does not always accompany WM maintenance but instead seems to wax and wane as a function of the current task relevance of memoranda. Furthermore, new methods for measuring and analysing population-level patterns show that activity states are highly dynamic. At first glance, these dynamics seem at odds with the very nature of WM. How can we keep a stable thought in mind while brain activity is constantly changing? This review considers how neural dynamics might be functionally important for WM maintenance. PMID:26051384

  18. The Association Between Eye Movements and Cerebellar Activation in a Verbal Working Memory Task.

    PubMed

    Peterburs, Jutta; Cheng, Dominic T; Desmond, John E

    2016-09-01

    It has been argued that cerebellar activations during cognitive tasks may masquerade as cognition, while actually reflecting processes related to movement planning or motor learning. The present study investigated whether the cerebellar load effect for verbal working memory, that is, increased activations in lobule VI/Crus I and lobule VIIB/VIIIA, is related to eye movements and oculomotor processing. Fifteen participants performed an fMRI-based Sternberg verbal working memory task. Oculomotor and cognitive task demands were manipulated by using closely and widely spaced stimuli, and high and low cognitive load. Trial-based quantitative eye movement parameters were obtained from concurrent eye tracking. Conventional MRI analysis replicated the cerebellar load effect in lobules VI and VIIB/VIIIa. With quantitative eye movement parameters as regressors, analysis yielded very similar activation patterns. While load effect and eye regressor generally recruited spatially distinct neocortical and cerebellar regions, conjunction analysis showed that a small subset of prefrontal areas implicated in the load effect also responded to the eye regressor. The present results indicate that cognitive load-dependent activations in lateral superior and posteroinferior cerebellar regions in the Sternberg task are independent of eye movements occurring during stimulus encoding. This is inconsistent with the notion that cognitive load-dependent cerebellar activations merely reflect oculomotor processing. PMID:26286918

  19. Parallel effects of memory set activation and search on timing and working memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Schweickert, Richard; Fortin, Claudette; Xi, Zhuangzhuang; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Accurately estimating a time interval is required in everyday activities such as driving or cooking. Estimating time is relatively easy, provided a person attends to it. But a brief shift of attention to another task usually interferes with timing. Most processes carried out concurrently with timing interfere with it. Curiously, some do not. Literature on a few processes suggests a general proposition, the Timing and Complex-Span Hypothesis: A process interferes with concurrent timing if and only if process performance is related to complex span. Complex-span is the number of items correctly recalled in order, when each item presented for study is followed by a brief activity. Literature on task switching, visual search, memory search, word generation and mental time travel supports the hypothesis. Previous work found that another process, activation of a memory set in long term memory, is not related to complex-span. If the Timing and Complex-Span Hypothesis is true, activation should not interfere with concurrent timing in dual-task conditions. We tested such activation in single-task memory search task conditions and in dual-task conditions where memory search was executed with concurrent timing. In Experiment 1, activating a memory set increased reaction time, with no significant effect on time production. In Experiment 2, set size and memory set activation were manipulated. Activation and set size had a puzzling interaction for time productions, perhaps due to difficult conditions, leading us to use a related but easier task in Experiment 3. In Experiment 3 increasing set size lengthened time production, but memory activation had no significant effect. Results here and in previous literature on the whole support the Timing and Complex-Span Hypotheses. Results also support a sequential organization of activation and search of memory. This organization predicts activation and set size have additive effects on reaction time and multiplicative effects on percent

  20. Education of natural science in the work of the Municipal Center for Extracurricular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokin, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the description of my work I presented my own experience in the organizing and carrying out of extracurricular activities with the students, the used modes and methods of work, the obtained results and some good practices in the field of natural sciences. Organizing and carrying out of scientific festivals, participation in joint projects together with scientific organizations. Key words: European dimension, interactive methods, key competences, natural sciences, extracurricular activities. We are witnesses of a fundamental change in the pedagogical culture and practice in our schools to establish the parameters of the quality of training. The good scientific culture is an important part of the students' education. Unfortunately, at the present time the scientific and technological culture is on a low level. One of the contemporary problems and realities of the education in natural science school subjects, as a whole and in particular in the secondary education, is the decreased interest for the training in them and in particular in physics, as well as synchronization of the interrelations: school environment - society. In many countries there is a drop in the orientation of the students towards the science and technology - the problem of Science and Technology (S&T). The training of the young people often creates some problems. The teachers meet with the problem of insufficient motivation of the learners for study and difficulties that they encounter in the process of training. The students find it difficult to apply the mastered knowledge to an applied context. The knowledge is rather academic and rather remote from the context, in which the children live and communicate, which makes it nonfunctional. At present there are not enough extracurricular activities that should meet these necessities of the Bulgarian school. The reasons are various, but they mainly consist in the lack of a material base, an exchange of experience and good practices and motivation

  1. Applying observations of work activity in designing prototype data analysis tools

    SciTech Connect

    Springmeyer, R.R.

    1993-07-06

    Designers, implementers, and marketers of data analysis tools typically have different perspectives than users. Consequently, data analysis often find themselves using tools focused on graphics and programming concepts rather than concepts which reflect their own domain and the context of their work. Some user studies focus on usability tests late in development; others observe work activity, but fail to show how to apply that knowledge in design. This paper describes a methodology for applying observations of data analysis work activity in prototype tool design. The approach can be used both in designing improved data analysis tools, and customizing visualization environments to specific applications. We present an example of user-centered design for a prototype tool to cull large data sets. We revisit the typical graphical approach of animating a large data set from the point of view of an analysis who is culling data. Field evaluations using the prototype tool not only revealed valuable usability information, but initiated in-depth discussions about user`s work, tools, technology, and requirements.

  2. A3 domain region 1803-1818 contributes to the stability of activated factor VIII and includes a binding site for activated factor IX.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Esther; Meems, Henriet; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-09-01

    A recent chemical footprinting study in our laboratory suggested that region 1803-1818 might contribute to A2 domain retention in activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). This site has also been implicated to interact with activated factor IX (FIXa). Asn-1810 further comprises an N-linked glycan, which seems incompatible with a role of the amino acids 1803-1818 for FIXa or A2 domain binding. In the present study, FVIIIa stability and FIXa binding were evaluated in a FVIII-N1810C variant, and two FVIII variants in which residues 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 are replaced by the corresponding residues of factor V (FV). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 has a decreased apparent binding affinity for FIXa. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that fluorescent FIXa exhibits impaired complex formation with only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 on lipospheres. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Phe-1816 contributes to the interaction with FIXa. To evaluate FVIIIa stability, the FVIII/FV chimeras were activated by thrombin, and the decline in cofactor function was followed over time. FVIII/FV 1803-1810 and FVIII/FV 1811-1818 but not FVIII-N1810C showed a decreased FVIIIa half-life. However, when the FVIII variants were activated in presence of FIXa, only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 demonstrated an enhanced decline in cofactor function. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the FVIII variants K1813A/K1818A, E1811A, and F1816A exhibit enhanced dissociation after activation. The results together demonstrate that the glycan at 1810 is not involved in FVIII cofactor function, and that Phe-1816 of region 1811-1818 contributes to FIXa binding. Both regions 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 contribute to FVIIIa stability.

  3. A3 domain region 1803-1818 contributes to the stability of activated factor VIII and includes a binding site for activated factor IX.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Esther; Meems, Henriet; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-09-01

    A recent chemical footprinting study in our laboratory suggested that region 1803-1818 might contribute to A2 domain retention in activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). This site has also been implicated to interact with activated factor IX (FIXa). Asn-1810 further comprises an N-linked glycan, which seems incompatible with a role of the amino acids 1803-1818 for FIXa or A2 domain binding. In the present study, FVIIIa stability and FIXa binding were evaluated in a FVIII-N1810C variant, and two FVIII variants in which residues 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 are replaced by the corresponding residues of factor V (FV). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 has a decreased apparent binding affinity for FIXa. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that fluorescent FIXa exhibits impaired complex formation with only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 on lipospheres. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Phe-1816 contributes to the interaction with FIXa. To evaluate FVIIIa stability, the FVIII/FV chimeras were activated by thrombin, and the decline in cofactor function was followed over time. FVIII/FV 1803-1810 and FVIII/FV 1811-1818 but not FVIII-N1810C showed a decreased FVIIIa half-life. However, when the FVIII variants were activated in presence of FIXa, only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 demonstrated an enhanced decline in cofactor function. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the FVIII variants K1813A/K1818A, E1811A, and F1816A exhibit enhanced dissociation after activation. The results together demonstrate that the glycan at 1810 is not involved in FVIII cofactor function, and that Phe-1816 of region 1811-1818 contributes to FIXa binding. Both regions 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 contribute to FVIIIa stability. PMID:23884417

  4. A3 Domain Region 1803–1818 Contributes to the Stability of Activated Factor VIII and Includes a Binding Site for Activated Factor IX

    PubMed Central

    Bloem, Esther; Meems, Henriet; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B.

    2013-01-01

    A recent chemical footprinting study in our laboratory suggested that region 1803–1818 might contribute to A2 domain retention in activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). This site has also been implicated to interact with activated factor IX (FIXa). Asn-1810 further comprises an N-linked glycan, which seems incompatible with a role of the amino acids 1803–1818 for FIXa or A2 domain binding. In the present study, FVIIIa stability and FIXa binding were evaluated in a FVIII-N1810C variant, and two FVIII variants in which residues 1803–1810 and 1811–1818 are replaced by the corresponding residues of factor V (FV). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that only FVIII/FV 1811–1818 has a decreased apparent binding affinity for FIXa. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that fluorescent FIXa exhibits impaired complex formation with only FVIII/FV 1811–1818 on lipospheres. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Phe-1816 contributes to the interaction with FIXa. To evaluate FVIIIa stability, the FVIII/FV chimeras were activated by thrombin, and the decline in cofactor function was followed over time. FVIII/FV 1803–1810 and FVIII/FV 1811–1818 but not FVIII-N1810C showed a decreased FVIIIa half-life. However, when the FVIII variants were activated in presence of FIXa, only FVIII/FV 1811–1818 demonstrated an enhanced decline in cofactor function. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the FVIII variants K1813A/K1818A, E1811A, and F1816A exhibit enhanced dissociation after activation. The results together demonstrate that the glycan at 1810 is not involved in FVIII cofactor function, and that Phe-1816 of region 1811–1818 contributes to FIXa binding. Both regions 1803–1810 and 1811–1818 contribute to FVIIIa stability. PMID:23884417

  5. Updating working memory in aircraft noise and speech noise causes different fMRI activations

    PubMed Central

    Sætrevik, Bjørn; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The present study used fMRI/BOLD neuroimaging to investigate how visual-verbal working memory is updated when exposed to three different background-noise conditions: speech noise, aircraft noise and silence. The number-updating task that was used can distinguish between “substitution processes,” which involve adding new items to the working memory representation and suppressing old items, and “exclusion processes,” which involve rejecting new items and maintaining an intact memory set. The current findings supported the findings of a previous study by showing that substitution activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex and the parietal lobes, whereas exclusion activated the anterior medial frontal cortex. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex was activated more by substitution processes when exposed to background speech than when exposed to aircraft noise. These results indicate that (a) the prefrontal cortex plays a special role when task-irrelevant materials should be denied access to working memory and (b) that, when compensating for different types of noise, either different cognitive mechanisms are involved or those cognitive mechanisms that are involved are involved to different degrees. PMID:25352319

  6. Effects of overhead work configuration on muscle activity during a simulated drilling task.

    PubMed

    Maciukiewicz, Jacquelyn M; Cudlip, Alan C; Chopp-Hurley, Jaclyn N; Dickerson, Clark R

    2016-03-01

    Overhead work is a known catalyst for occupational shoulder injury. Industrial workers must often adopt awkward overhead postures and loading profiles to complete required tasks, potentially elevating injury risk. This research examined the combined influence of multiple overhead working parameters on upper extremity muscular demands for an industrial drilling application. Twenty-two right-handed males completed 24 unilateral and bilateral overhead work exertions stratified by direction (upward, forward), point of force application (15, 30 and 45 cm in front of the body), and whole-body posture (seated, standing). The dependency of electromyographic (EMG) activity on several factors was established. Significant two-way interactions existed between point of force application and direction (p < 0.0001) and direction and whole body posture (p < 0.0001). An average increase in muscular activity of 6.5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) occurred for the contralateral limb when the bilateral task was completed, compared to unilateral tasks, with less than a 1% MVC increase for the active limb. These findings assist evidence-based approaches to overhead tasks, specifically in the construction industry. A bilateral task configuration is recommended to reduce glenohumeral stability demands. As well, particularly for tasks with a far reach distance, design tasks to promote a forward directed exertion. The considerable inter-subject variability suggests that fixed heights are not ideal, and should be avoided, and where this is not possible reaches should be reduced. PMID:26674399

  7. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. A.; Thompson, G. G.; Goldberg, A.; Barry, P. S. I.; Lowe, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Millar, J. A., Thompson, G. G., Goldberg, A., Barry, P. S. I., and Lowe, E. H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 317-320. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls. The activity of erythrocyte ALA1-dehydrase is inhibited in vivo at blood lead (Pb2+) levels within the upper range of normal (20-40 μg/100 ml) and in vitro at lead concentrations greater than 10-7 M. In view of the high sensitivity of the enzyme to Pb2+, the levels of enzyme activity in the blood of men occupationally exposed to lead alkyls, particularly tetraethyllead, were measured. It was found that the enzyme activity in an exposed group of men was significantly less (P<0·001) than in a control group, the respective mean values being 220 and 677 units of enzyme activity. Tetraethyllead is metabolized in the body via triethyllead and diethyllead ions. As the latter compound possesses properties similar to Pb2+, it was synthesized in the laboratory and its effect on ALA-dehydrase was studied. Diethyllead ion was found to inhibit ALA-dehydrase activity at concentrations greater than 5 x 10-5 M, although the degree of inhibition was less than that obtained with Pb2+. These results suggest that exposure to tetraethyllead can cause a decrease in erythrocyte ALA-dehydrase activity. PMID:5044603

  8. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    PubMed Central

    Walitt, Brian; Čeko, Marta; Khatiwada, Manish; Gracely, John L.; Rayhan, Rakib; VanMeter, John W.; Gracely, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog”) is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ), a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy) on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks. PMID:26955513

  9. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Refinement of Optimal Work Envelope for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Suit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, Marcos A.; Angermiller, Bonnie L.; Morency, Richard M.; Rajululu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Work Envelope study is to determine and revise the work envelope defined in NSTS 07700 "System Description and Design Data - Extravehicular Activities" [1], arising from an action item as a result of the Shoulder Injury Tiger Team findings. The aim of this study is to determine a common work envelope that will encompass a majority of the crew population while minimizing the possibility of shoulder and upper arm injuries. There will be approximately two phases of testing: arm sweep analysis to be performed in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF), and torso lean testing to be performed on the Precision Air Bearing Facility (PABF). NSTS 07700 defines the preferred work envelope arm reach in terms of maximum reach, and defines the preferred work envelope torso flexibility of a crewmember to be a net 45 degree backwards lean [1]. This test served two functions: to investigate the validity of the standard discussed in NSTS 07700, and to provide recommendations to update this standard if necessary.

  11. Accion Cultural Popular. [Summary Working Documents on ACPO's Conceptual Framework and Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Hernando; And Others

    Three papers are included in this document designed to provide English language information about characteristics and activities of Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO) a private, nonprofit organization concerned with improving the quality of life of rural populations and promoting rural development through mass media education programs. "Pioneer…

  12. Social Security. Cooperative Work Experience Learning Activity Packet: Series on Job Entry and Adjustment; Packet Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschbach, Dennis R.; And Others

    This student booklet is sixth in an illustrated series of eleven learning activity packets for use in teaching job hunting and application procedures and the management of wages to secondary students. Four units are included in this packet to explain (1) the different benefits social security provides and the principles behind the program; (2) the…

  13. Workout at work: laboratory test of psychological and performance outcomes of active workstations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations. PMID:25347682

  14. Workout at work: laboratory test of psychological and performance outcomes of active workstations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations.

  15. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  16. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  17. Prenatal drug exposure to illicit drugs alters working memory-related brain activity and underlying network properties in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Julie B; Riggins, Tracy; Liang, Xia; Gallen, Courtney; Kurup, Pradeep K; Ross, Thomas J; Black, Maureen M; Nair, Prasanna; Salmeron, Betty Jo

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of effects of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on brain functioning during adolescence is poorly understood. We explored neural activation to a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) versus a control task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in adolescents with PDE and a community comparison group (CC) of non-exposed adolescents. We applied graph theory metrics to resting state data using a network of nodes derived from the VSWM task activation map to further explore connectivity underlying WM functioning. Participants (ages 12-15 years) included 47 adolescents (27 PDE and 20 CC). All analyses controlled for potentially confounding differences in birth characteristics and postnatal environment. Significant group by task differences in brain activation emerged in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6) with the CC group, but not the PDE group, activating this region during VSWM. The PDE group deactivated the culmen, whereas the CC group activated it during the VSWM task. The CC group demonstrated a significant relation between reaction time and culmen activation, not present in the PDE group. The network analysis underlying VSWM performance showed that PDE group had lower global efficiency than the CC group and a trend level reduction in local efficiency. The network node corresponding to the BA 6 group by task interaction showed reduced nodal efficiency and fewer direct connections to other nodes in the network. These results suggest that adolescence reveals altered neural functioning related to response planning that may reflect less efficient network functioning in youth with PDE.

  18. Re-evaluating the relationships among filtering activity, unnecessary storage, and visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Emrich, Stephen M; Busseri, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    The amount of task-irrelevant information encoded in visual working memory (VWM), referred to as unnecessary storage, has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying individual differences in VWM capacity. In addition, a number of studies have provided evidence for additional activity that initiates the filtering process originating in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and is therefore a crucial step in the link between unnecessary storage and VWM capacity. Here, we re-examine data from two prominent studies that identified unnecessary storage activity as a predictor of VWM capacity by directly testing the implied path model linking filtering-related activity, unnecessary storage, and VWM capacity. Across both studies, we found that unnecessary storage was not a significant predictor of individual differences in VWM capacity once activity associated with filtering was accounted for; instead, activity associated with filtering better explained variation in VWM capacity. These findings suggest that unnecessary storage is not a limiting factor in VWM performance, whereas neural activity associated with filtering may play a more central role in determining VWM performance that goes beyond preventing unnecessary storage.

  19. Modality specific cerebro-cerebellar activations in verbal working memory: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Chen, S H Annabel; Desmond, John E

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters) and modality (auditory and visual) dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44), insular, cingulate (BA 32), and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40) regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI) and right inferior (HVIII) cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI) cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19) and left parietal (BA7/40) cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominantly in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22). In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load.

  20. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Dipoppa, Mario; Gutkin, Boris S.

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required WM operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and WM in recurrently coupled spiking networks with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in WM models implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. We examine how the correlations affect the ability of the network to perform the task when distractors are present. We show that in a winner-take-all version of the model, where two populations cross-inhibit, correlations make the distractor blocking robust. In a version of the mode where no cross inhibition is present, we show that appropriate modulation of correlation levels is sufficient to also block the distractor access while leaving the relevant memory trace in tact. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations. PMID:24155714

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic c

  2. Hur arbetar forskollarare med bild? En studie av fem forskollarare som leder barn i bildaktiviteter (How Do Preschool Teachers Work with Art Activities? A Study of Five Preschool Teachers Leading Children in Art Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Eva

    Art education has traditionally played an important role in the Swedish preschool. The subject includes a variety of activities, and different aims have been stressed from both aesthetic and pedagogical points of view. This study sought to describe and analyze how preschool teachers work with children in art activities. The investigation used a…

  3. A Pro-active Real-time Forecasting and Decision Support System for Daily Management of Marine Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, Mark; Leyssen, Gert; Smets, Steven; De Wachter, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Marine Works involving turbidity generating activities (eg. dredging, dredge spoil placement) can generate environmental stress in and around a project area in the form of sediment plumes causing light reduction and sedimentation. If these works are situated near sensitive habitats like sea-grass beds, coral reefs or sensitive human activities eg. aquaculture farms or water intakes, or if contaminants are present in the water soil environmental scrutiny is advised. Environmental Regulations can impose limitations to these activities in the form of turbidity thresholds, spill budgets, contaminant levels. Breaching environmental regulations can result in increased monitoring, adaptation of the works planning and production rates and ultimately in a (temporary) stop of activities all of which entail time and cost impacts for a contractor and/or client. Sediment plume behaviour is governed by the dredging process, soil properties and ambient conditions (currents, water depth) and can be modelled. Usually this is done during the preparatory EIA phase of a project, for estimation of environmental impact based on climatic scenarios. An operational forecasting tool is developed to adapt marine work schedules to the real-time circumstances and thus evade exceedance of critical threshold levels at sensitive areas. The forecasting system is based on a Python-based workflow manager with a MySQL database and a Django frontend web tool for user interaction and visualisation of the model results. The core consists of a numerical hydrodynamic model with sediment transport module (Mike21 from DHI). This model is driven by space and time varying wind fields and wave boundary conditions, and turbidity inputs (suspended sediment source terms) based on marine works production rates and soil properties. The resulting threshold analysis allows the operator to indicate potential impact at the sensitive areas and instigate an adaption of the marine work schedule if needed. In order to use

  4. NASA GSFC Science Communication Working Group: Addressing Barriers to Scientist and Engineer Participation in Education and Public Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, L.; Hsu, B. C.; Campbell, B. A.; Hess, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Communication Working Group (SCWG) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been in existence since late 2007. The SCWG is comprised of education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, public affairs specialists, scientists, and engineers. The goals of the SCWG are to identify barriers to scientist and engineer engagement in E/PO activities and to enable those scientists and engineers who wish to contribute to E/PO to be able to do so. SCWG members have held meetings with scientists and engineers across GSFC to determine barriers to their involvement in E/PO. During these meetings, SCWG members presented examples of successful, ongoing E/PO projects, encouraged active research scientists and engineers to talk about their own E/PO efforts and what worked for them, discussed the E/PO working environment, discussed opportunities for getting involved in E/PO (particularly in high-impact efforts that do not take much time), handed out booklets on effective E/PO, and asked scientists and engineers what they need to engage in E/PO. The identified barriers were consistent among scientists in GSFC's four science divisions (Earth science, planetary science, heliophysics, and astrophysics). Common barriers included 1) lack of time, 2) lack of funding support, 3) lack of value placed on doing E/PO by supervisors, 4) lack of training on doing appropriate/effective E/PO for different audiences, 5) lack of awareness and information about opportunities, 6) lack of understanding of what E/PO really is, and 7) level of effort required to do E/PO. Engineers reported similar issues, but the issues of time and funding support were more pronounced due to their highly structured work day and environment. Since the barriers were identified, the SCWG has taken a number of steps to address and rectify them. Steps have included holding various events to introduce scientists and engineers to E/PO staff and opportunities including an E/PO Open House, brown bag seminars on

  5. Gender, family structure and cardiovascular activity during the working day and evening.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Lundwall, K; Cropley, M

    2000-02-01

    This study applied psychophysiological methods to the investigation of social roles and well-being, using cardiovascular function over a working day and evening as an index of physiological activation. One hundred and sixty-two full-time school teachers (102 women and 60 men) were assessed using automated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring apparatus, with readings every 20 min through the working day (9.00 am-5.40 pm), and every 30 min in the evening (6.00-10.30 pm). The influence of gender, marital status and parenthood (defined as having at least one child living at home) on blood pressure during the working day and on day-evening differences was examined. There were no differences in blood pressure and heart rate across the working day in relation to marital roles or family structure. However, the decrease in blood pressure between working day and evening was greatest in parents, intermediate in married non-parents, and smallest in single participants without children. Differences in systolic pressure adjusted for age and body mass index averaged -4.46, -1.76 and +0.22 mmHg in the three groups, respectively. A similar pattern was observed for diastolic pressure but not heart rate. We also found that the day-evening fall in systolic pressure was moderated by social support, with the greatest change (mean adjusted difference -6.76 mmHg) in parents who reported high levels of social support. These blood pressure responses did not differ between men and women, and there was no indication of multiple role strain for full-time working mothers. The results were independent of concomitant physical activity, location during measurement, or reported job strain. We argue that findings are consistent with an enhancement model of multiple social roles, and with lower allostatic load on individuals who are working, married and parents. Psychophysiological studies of daily life can complement epidemiological and sociological investigations of social roles and health. PMID

  6. Removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in activated sludge treatment works.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A C; Sumpter, J P

    2001-12-15

    The release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals into the aquatic environment has raised the awareness of the central role played by sewage treatment in lowland water quality. This review focuses on the activated sludge process, which is commonly used to treat sewage in large towns and cities and which successfully removes the bulk of the organic compounds that enter the works. However, not all compounds are completely broken down or converted to biomass. For example, the estrogenic alkylphenols and steroid estrogens found in effluent are the breakdown products of incomplete breakdown of their respective parent compounds. Batch microcosm studies have indicated that estrone, ethinylestradiol, and alkylphenols will not be completely eliminated in activated sludge over typical treatment times. Field data suggest that the activated sludge treatment process can consistently remove over 85% of estradiol, estriol, and ethinylestradiol. The removal performance for estrone appears to be less and is more variable. Because of its relatively high hydrophobicity, the accumulation of alkylphenol in sludge has been observed. Although it has not been examined, accumulation of ethinylestradiol in sludge is a possibility due to its recalcitrance and hydrophobicity. A comparison between the concentrations of some of the major endocrine-active chemicals in effluents and their biological potencies has been made, to direct attention to the chemicals of most concern. While water purification techniques such as UV or activated charcoal could significantly remove these microorganic contaminants, the high costs involved suggest that research into the potential for treatment optimization should receive more attention. PMID:11775141

  7. Measurement of factor VIII activity using one-stage clotting assay: a calibration curve has not to be systematically included in each run.

    PubMed

    Lattes, S; Appert-Flory, A; Fischer, F; Jambou, D; Toulon, P

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is usually evaluated using activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage clotting assays. Guidelines for clotting factor assays indicate that a calibration curve should be included each time the assay is performed. Therefore, FVIII measurement is expensive, reagent- and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare FVIII activities obtained using the same fully automated assay that was calibrated once (stored calibration curve) or each time the assay was performed. Unique lots of reagents were used throughout the study. We analysed 255 frozen plasma samples from patients who were prescribed FVIII measurement including treated and untreated haemophilia A patients. Twenty-six runs were performed on a 28-week period, each including four lyophilized control and at most 10 patient plasma samples. In control samples, FVIII activities were not significantly different when the assay was performed using the stored calibration curve or was daily calibrated. The same applied to FVIII activities in patient plasma samples that were not significantly different throughout the measuring range of activities [68.3% (<1-179) vs. 67.6% (<1-177), P=0.48] and no relevant bias could be demonstrated when data were compared according to Bland and Altman. These results suggest that in the studied technical conditions, performing the FVIII assay using a stored calibration curve is reliable, for at least 6 months. Therefore, as far as the same lots of reagents are used, it is not mandatory to include a calibration curve each time the FVIII assay was performed. However, this strategy has to be validated if the assay is performed in different technical conditions.

  8. Conceptual design statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste disposal facility, project W-520

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, W.W.

    1998-04-30

    This Statement of Work outlines the deliverables and schedule for preparation of the Project W-520 Conceptual Design Report, including, work plans, site development plan, preliminary safety evaluation, and conceptual design.

  9. Investigation of musculoskeletal discomfort, work postures, and muscle activation among practicing tattoo artists.

    PubMed

    Keester, Dana L; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2017-01-01

    Tattoo artists are an understudied worker population with respect to investigation of work-related musculoskeletal (MSK) discomfort and associated risk factors. Results from one discomfort survey has been published; no analysis of worker biomechanics has been published. As such, a study was conducted to begin exposure assessment of tattoo artists to work factors that could result in MSK discomfort. Consistent with the prior survey, the current study showed an elevated prevalence of MSK discomfort. Twelve month discomfort prevalence exceeded 50% in the neck, shoulders, hands/wrists, and upper and lower back (range: 53-94%). Seventy-one percent of postures evaluated during 16 h of observation had total RULA scores of 5, 6, or 7 (investigation and changes are required soon or immediately). Static muscle activity levels in the left, right, or both upper trapezius muscles in each study participant exceeded the 2-5% MVE limit recommended in the literature. Intervention concepts are also discussed. PMID:27633206

  10. Muscular activity of lower limb muscles associated with working on inclined surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Kincl, Laurel; Lowe, Brian; Succop, Paul; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues, muscular fatigue, task performance and experience of working on inclined surfaces on activity of postural muscles in the lower limbs associated with maintaining balance on three inclined surfaces - 0°, 14° and 26°. Normalised electromyographic (NEMG) data were collected in 44 professional roofers bilaterally from the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialii anterior and gastrocnemii medial muscle groups. The 50th and 95th percentile NEMG amplitudes were used as EMG variables. Results showed that inclination angle and task performance caused a significant increase in the NEMG amplitudes of all postural muscles. Visual cues were significantly associated with a decrease in the 95th percentile EMG amplitude for the right gastrocnemius medial and tibialis anterior. Fatigue was related to a significant decrease in the NEMG amplitude for the rectus femoris. Experience of working on inclined surfaces did not have a significant effect on the NEMG amplitude.

  11. Spatial conception of activities: a socio-cognitive perspective for simulating work practices.

    PubMed

    Clancey, William J

    2015-09-01

    People conceive their everyday affairs (their practices) as social actors in activities, in which they perceive, infer, move, manipulate objects, and communicate in some physical setting (e.g., going to the grocery to buy dinner). These behaviors are conceptually choreographed in an ongoing, usually tacit understanding of "what I'm doing now," encapsulating roles ("who I'm being now"), norms ("what I should be doing"; "how I should be dressed/talking/sitting"), and progress appraisals ("how well I'm doing"). Activity motives and modalities vary widely (e.g., waiting in line, listening to music, sleeping), all of which require time and occur in particular settings. Brahms is a multi-agent work systems design tool for modeling and simulating activities, used extensively to design aerospace work systems. For example, the Generalized Überlingen Model (Brahms-GÜM) simulates air transportation practices, focusing on how pilots and air traffic controllers interact with automated systems in safety-critical, time-pressured encounters. Spatial cognition is pervasive: scanning displays of multiple workstations; coordinating airspaces and flight paths; and prioritizing and timing interventions to maintain aircraft separations. Brahms-GÜM demonstrates how events may become unpredictable when aspects of the work system are missing or malfunctioning, making a routinely complicated system into one that is cognitively complex and becomes out of control. Normally, asynchronous processes become coupled in space and time, leading to difficulty comprehending the situation ("what is happening now") as a familiar multi-modal flow of events. Such examples illustrate the dynamics of spatial cognition inherent in our conceptually situated experience--our consciousness--of who we are and what we are doing. PMID:26271309

  12. Spatial conception of activities: a socio-cognitive perspective for simulating work practices.

    PubMed

    Clancey, William J

    2015-09-01

    People conceive their everyday affairs (their practices) as social actors in activities, in which they perceive, infer, move, manipulate objects, and communicate in some physical setting (e.g., going to the grocery to buy dinner). These behaviors are conceptually choreographed in an ongoing, usually tacit understanding of "what I'm doing now," encapsulating roles ("who I'm being now"), norms ("what I should be doing"; "how I should be dressed/talking/sitting"), and progress appraisals ("how well I'm doing"). Activity motives and modalities vary widely (e.g., waiting in line, listening to music, sleeping), all of which require time and occur in particular settings. Brahms is a multi-agent work systems design tool for modeling and simulating activities, used extensively to design aerospace work systems. For example, the Generalized Überlingen Model (Brahms-GÜM) simulates air transportation practices, focusing on how pilots and air traffic controllers interact with automated systems in safety-critical, time-pressured encounters. Spatial cognition is pervasive: scanning displays of multiple workstations; coordinating airspaces and flight paths; and prioritizing and timing interventions to maintain aircraft separations. Brahms-GÜM demonstrates how events may become unpredictable when aspects of the work system are missing or malfunctioning, making a routinely complicated system into one that is cognitively complex and becomes out of control. Normally, asynchronous processes become coupled in space and time, leading to difficulty comprehending the situation ("what is happening now") as a familiar multi-modal flow of events. Such examples illustrate the dynamics of spatial cognition inherent in our conceptually situated experience--our consciousness--of who we are and what we are doing.

  13. Persistent neural activity in auditory cortex is related to auditory working memory in humans and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Matysiak, Artur; Heil, Peter; König, Reinhard; Brosch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is the cognitive capacity of short-term storage of information for goal-directed behaviors. Where and how this capacity is implemented in the brain are unresolved questions. We show that auditory cortex stores information by persistent changes of neural activity. We separated activity related to working memory from activity related to other mental processes by having humans and monkeys perform different tasks with varying working memory demands on the same sound sequences. Working memory was reflected in the spiking activity of individual neurons in auditory cortex and in the activity of neuronal populations, that is, in local field potentials and magnetic fields. Our results provide direct support for the idea that temporary storage of information recruits the same brain areas that also process the information. Because similar activity was observed in the two species, the cellular bases of some auditory working memory processes in humans can be studied in monkeys. PMID:27438411

  14. Replacement of the Project Manager Reflected Through Activity Theory and Work-System Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartiainen, Tero; Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Jussila, Jari; Pirhonen, Maritta; Liikamaa, Kirsi

    Replacement of the project manager (RPM) is a known phenomenon in information systems (IS) projects, but scant attention is given to it in the project management or IS literature. Given its critical effects on the project business, the organization, the project team, and the project manager, it should be studied in more depth. We identified factors which make RPM occurrences inherently different and we show that work-system theory and activity theory give comprehensive lenses to advance research on RPM. For the future research on RPM we identified three objectives: experiences on RPM, process model for RPM, and organizational culture's influence on RPM occurrences.

  15. Physical activity programs for refugee Somali women: working out in a new country.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Pauline B; Diiriye, Roda Omar; Corrigan, Callie; Guerin, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Islamic refugee women from non-westernized countries face a number of challenges in adapting to their new country, especially when that new country is westernized and is not Islamic. Refugees are primarily women and children, so it is important that women be in their best health because they usually bear the responsibility of caring for each other and children, often in very difficult situations. Maintaining or obtaining good levels of physical activity contributes to good health: mentally, physically and socially. At the request of women in the local Somali community, a number of initiatives were taken to increase their opportunities for physical activity. Through interviews, observations and conversations we explored barriers to fitness and exercise, the social, physical, and cultural effects of physical activity, and solutions to facilitate Somali women's access to fitness and exercise opportunities. Physical activity interventions included exercise classes in a community center used by the Somali community, trial memberships at a local women-only fitness center, and walking and sports groups. We discuss the procedural issues relating to setting-up these physical activity opportunities, the results of interviews with 37 of the women about their health and perceptions and issues relating to the physical activity options, and our recommendations for setting up similar classes with other Somali or Islamic communities.

  16. Attention and working memory: a dynamical model of neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Deco, Gustavo; Rolls, Edmund T

    2003-10-01

    Cognitive behaviour requires complex context-dependent mapping between sensory stimuli and actions. The same stimulus can lead to different behaviours depending on the situation, or the same behaviour may be elicited by different cueing stimuli. Neurons in the primate prefrontal cortex show task-specific firing activity during working memory delay periods. These neurons provide a neural substrate for mapping stimulus and response in a flexible, context- or rule-dependent, fashion. We describe here an integrate-and-fire network model to explain and investigate the different types of working-memory-related neuronal activity observed. The model contains different populations (or pools) of neurons (as found neurophysiologically) in attractor networks which respond in the delay period to the stimulus object, the stimulus position ('sensory pools'), to combinations of the stimulus sensory properties (e.g. the object identity or object location) and the response ('intermediate pools'), and to the response required (left or right) ('premotor pools'). The pools are arranged hierarchically, are linked by associative synaptic connections, and have global inhibition through inhibitory interneurons to implement competition. It is shown that a biasing attentional input to define the current rule applied to the intermediate pools enables the system to select the correct response in what is a biased competition model of attention. The integrate-and-fire model not only produces realistic spiking dynamicals very similar to the neuronal data but also shows how dopamine could weaken and shorten the persistent neuronal activity in the delay period; and allows us to predict more response errors when dopamine is elevated because there is less different activity in the different pools of competing neurons, resulting in more conflict.

  17. Type 1 Diabetes Modifies Brain Activation in Young Patients While Performing Visuospatial Working Memory Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B.; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteban; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) on cognitive functions. T1D onset usually occurs during childhood, so it is possible that the brain could be affected during neurodevelopment. We selected young patients of normal intelligence with T1D onset during neurodevelopment, no complications from diabetes, and adequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural BOLD activation pattern in a group of patients with T1D versus healthy control subjects while performing a visuospatial working memory task. Sixteen patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects participated. There was no significant statistical difference in behavioral performance between the groups, but, in accordance with our hypothesis, results showed distinct brain activation patterns. Control subjects presented the expected activations related to the task, whereas the patients had greater activation in the prefrontal inferior cortex, basal ganglia, posterior cerebellum, and substantia nigra. These different patterns could be due to compensation mechanisms that allow them to maintain a behavioral performance similar to that of control subjects. PMID:26266268

  18. Working memory training is associated with lower prefrontal cortex activation in a divergent thinking task.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, O; Jobidon, M-E; Bouak, F; Nakashima, A; Smith, I; Lam, Q; Cheung, B

    2013-04-16

    Working memory (WM) training has been shown to lead to improvements in WM capacity and fluid intelligence. Given that divergent thinking loads on WM and fluid intelligence, we tested the hypothesis that WM training would improve performance and moderate neural function in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT)-a classic test of divergent thinking. We tested this hypothesis by administering the AUT in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner following a short regimen of WM training (experimental condition), or engagement in a choice reaction time task not expected to engage WM (active control condition). Participants in the experimental group exhibited significant improvement in performance in the WM task as a function of training, as well as a significant gain in fluid intelligence. Although the two groups did not differ in their performance on the AUT, activation was significantly lower in the experimental group in ventrolateral prefrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices-two brain regions known to play dissociable and critical roles in divergent thinking. Furthermore, gain in fluid intelligence mediated the effect of training on brain activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that a short regimen of WM training is associated with lower prefrontal activation-a marker of neural efficiency-in divergent thinking.

  19. Usual meal times in relation to age, sex, work activity and morningness-eveningness.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Lievore, F; Ferrari, P; Gaffuri, E

    1987-01-01

    Meal-timing is considered an important socio-environmental synchronizer of circadian rhythms and influences human metabolism; the temporal distribution of food intake has also an influence on human performance. In these last years, in industrialized countries, remarkable changes, both in quality and quantity and in timing, have been determined in eating behavior brought about by changes in social and working organization. In this study the authors have verified the usual mealtimes during working and free-days in a population of 670 city-dwellers, 404 men and 266 women, aged between 17 and 60, including students, housewives, clerks, artisans, tradesmen and industrial workers. The results can be summarized as follows: a. the times of the two main meals show a high stability, both in working and in free-days, at about 1230 for lunch and 1915 for dinner, with a higher variability for the dinner-time; b. there are no relevant differences between men and women; c. there is a progressive advance of the breakfast-time (together with sleeping and waking times) with oncoming age; d. industrial workers advance the breakfast-time, on work days, compared to housewives, clerks, artisans and tradesmen, while the latter delay dinner-time as compared to the others; e. shiftwork breaks up the usual timetables interfering with at least one of the main meals, according to the different shifts (morning, afternoon, night); f. morning types anticipate meal and sleeping times in comparison to evening types, both while working and, above all, on free-days.

  20. Measuring Work Activities and Skill Requirements of Occupations: Experiences from a European Pilot Study with a Web-Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijdens, Kea G.; De Ruijter, Judith; De Ruijter, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to evaluate a method for measuring work activities and skill requirements of 160 occupations in eight countries, used in EurOccupations, an EU-FP6 project. Additionally, it aims to explore how the internet can be used for measuring work activities and skill requirements. Design/methodology/approach: For the…

  1. 45 CFR 286.145 - What is the penalty if an individual refuses to engage in work activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... engage in work activities? 286.145 Section 286.145 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.145 What is the penalty if an individual refuses to engage in work activities? If an individual refuses...

  2. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Mary R; Durgerian, Sally; Mourany, Lyla; Scheibel, Randall S; Lowe, Mark J; Beall, Erik B; Koenig, Katherine A; Parsons, Michael; Troyanskaya, Maya; Reece, Christine; Wilde, Elisabeth; Fischer, Barbara L; Jones, Stephen E; Agarwal, Rajan; Levin, Harvey S; Rao, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes). Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female) who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females) with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females) and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females) without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate). Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results could not be

  3. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Mary R.; Durgerian, Sally; Mourany, Lyla; Scheibel, Randall S.; Lowe, Mark J.; Beall, Erik B.; Koenig, Katherine A.; Parsons, Michael; Troyanskaya, Maya; Reece, Christine; Wilde, Elisabeth; Fischer, Barbara L.; Jones, Stephen E.; Agarwal, Rajan; Levin, Harvey S.; Rao, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes). Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female) who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females) with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females) and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females) without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate). Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results could not be

  4. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective. PMID:23099767

  5. Reentrainment impairs spatial working memory until both activity onset and offset reentrain

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Norman F.; Patton, Danica F.; Bane, Shalmali; Looi, David; Heller, H. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Compression of the active phase (α) during reentrainment to phase-shifted light-dark (LD) cycles is a common feature of circadian systems, but its functional consequences have not been investigated. This study tested whether α compression in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) impaired their spatial working memory as assessed by spontaneous alternation (SA) behavior in a T-maze. Animals were exposed to a 1- or 3-h phase delay of the LD cycle (16 h light: 8 h dark). SA behavior was tested at four multi-day intervals after the phase shift and α was quantified for those days. All of the animals failed at the SA task while α was decompressing, but recovered spatial memory ability once α returned to baseline levels. A second experiment exposed hamsters to a 2-h light pulse either early or late at night to compress α without phase-shifting the LD cycle. SA behavior was impaired until α decompressed to baseline levels. In a third experiment, α was compressed by changing photoperiod (LD 16:8, 18:6, 20:4) to see if absolute differences in α were related to spatial memory ability. Animals performed the SA task successfully in all three photoperiods. These data show that the dynamic process of α compression and decompression impairs spatial working memory and suggests that α modulation is a potential biomarker for assessing the impact of transmeridian flight or shift work on memory. PMID:26224657

  6. Reentrainment Impairs Spatial Working Memory until Both Activity Onset and Offset Reentrain.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Norman F; Patton, Danica F; Bane, Shalmali; Looi, David; Heller, H Craig

    2015-10-01

    Compression of the active phase (α) during reentrainment to phase-shifted light-dark (LD) cycles is a common feature of circadian systems, but its functional consequences have not been investigated. This study tested whether α compression in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) impaired their spatial working memory as assessed by spontaneous alternation (SA) behavior in a T-maze. Animals were exposed to a 1- or 3-h phase delay of the LD cycle (16 h light/8 h dark). SA behavior was tested at 4 multiday intervals after the phase shift, and α was quantified for those days. All animals failed at the SA task while α was decompressing but recovered spatial memory ability once α returned to baseline levels. A second experiment exposed hamsters to a 2-h light pulse either early or late at night to compress α without phase-shifting the LD cycle. SA behavior was impaired until α decompressed to baseline levels. In a third experiment, α was compressed by changing photoperiod (LD 16:8, 18:6, 20:4) to see if absolute differences in α were related to spatial memory ability. Animals performed the SA task successfully in all 3 photoperiods. These data show that the dynamic process of α compression and decompression impairs spatial working memory and suggests that α modulation is a potential biomarker for assessing the impact of transmeridian flight or shift work on memory.

  7. [Active consciousness and the prefrontal cortex: a working-memory approach].

    PubMed

    Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-02-01

    Biological studies of human consciousness based on recent neuroimaging experiments, i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), were reviewed from the viewpoint of different functions of consciousness. A biological hierarchy of consciousness structured in three levels, i.e., arousal, awareness and self-consciousness, was reviewed in connection with working memory. We found that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate cortex, medial PFC, and parieto-temporal junction area play a crucial role in social cognition involving estimation of the mental states of other people. The ventrolateral PFC plays a role in language-based rehearsal/imitation in connection with a mirror system. Frontal pole and orbitofrontal areas are also likely to contribute to generation of self function, reward expectancy and internal planning of goal-directed behavior. Interestingly, we found that these various PFC and related areas strongly contribute to active consciousness based on the working memory system. Furthermore, we have shown that a theory-of-mind approach could be closely related to higher cognitive functions involved in working memory, which has a meta-recognition processes during mentalization.

  8. [Active consciousness and the prefrontal cortex: a working-memory approach].

    PubMed

    Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-02-01

    Biological studies of human consciousness based on recent neuroimaging experiments, i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), were reviewed from the viewpoint of different functions of consciousness. A biological hierarchy of consciousness structured in three levels, i.e., arousal, awareness and self-consciousness, was reviewed in connection with working memory. We found that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate cortex, medial PFC, and parieto-temporal junction area play a crucial role in social cognition involving estimation of the mental states of other people. The ventrolateral PFC plays a role in language-based rehearsal/imitation in connection with a mirror system. Frontal pole and orbitofrontal areas are also likely to contribute to generation of self function, reward expectancy and internal planning of goal-directed behavior. Interestingly, we found that these various PFC and related areas strongly contribute to active consciousness based on the working memory system. Furthermore, we have shown that a theory-of-mind approach could be closely related to higher cognitive functions involved in working memory, which has a meta-recognition processes during mentalization. PMID:17447465

  9. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  10. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  11. Prospective associations between household-, work-, and leisure-based physical activity and all-cause mortality among older Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R; Ku, Po-Wen; Sun, Wen-Jung; Chou, Pesus

    2012-09-01

    Most studies on the health effects of leisure time physical activity have focused on mortality. There has been limited research regarding physical activity undertaken at work or around the home and mortality. This study assessed the associations between leisure, work, and household physical activity and subsequent all-cause mortality among older adults aged 65 years and older (n = 2133) in Taiwan, over 8 years. Physical activity was evaluated with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association of physical activity with the risk of mortality. This study demonstrated that a low level of total physical activity is predictive of increased all-cause mortality in both men and women in an East Asian population. It also indicates that leisure- and household-related but not work-related activity are significant contributors to this relationship.

  12. Distinct cortical networks activated by auditory attention and working memory load.

    PubMed

    Huang, Samantha; Seidman, Larry J; Rossi, Stephanie; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2013-12-01

    Auditory attention and working memory (WM) allow for selection and maintenance of relevant sound information in our minds, respectively, thus underlying goal-directed functioning in everyday acoustic environments. It is still unclear whether these two closely coupled functions are based on a common neural circuit, or whether they involve genuinely distinct subfunctions with separate neuronal substrates. In a full factorial functional MRI (fMRI) design, we independently manipulated the levels of auditory-verbal WM load and attentional interference using modified Auditory Continuous Performance Tests. Although many frontoparietal regions were jointly activated by increases of WM load and interference, there was a double dissociation between prefrontal cortex (PFC) subareas associated selectively with either auditory attention or WM. Specifically, anterior dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and the right anterior insula were selectively activated by increasing WM load, whereas subregions of middle lateral PFC and inferior frontal cortex (IFC) were associated with interference only. Meanwhile, a superadditive interaction between interference and load was detected in left medial superior frontal cortex, suggesting that in this area, activations are not only overlapping, but reflect a common resource pool recruited by increased attentional and WM demands. Indices of WM-specific suppression of anterolateral non-primary auditory cortices (AC) and attention-specific suppression of primary AC were also found, possibly reflecting suppression/interruption of sound-object processing of irrelevant stimuli during continuous task performance. Our results suggest a double dissociation between auditory attention and working memory in subregions of anterior DLPFC vs. middle lateral PFC/IFC in humans, respectively, in the context of substantially overlapping circuits.

  13. Distinct cortical networks activated by auditory attention and working memory load

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Samantha; Seidman, Larry J.; Rossi, Stephanie; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2013-01-01

    Auditory attention and working memory (WM) allow for selection and maintenance of relevant sound information in our minds, respectively, thus underlying goal-directed functioning in everyday acoustic environments. It is still unclear whether these two closely coupled functions are based on a common neural circuit, or whether they involve genuinely distinct subfunctions with separate neuronal substrates. In a full factorial functional MRI (fMRI) design, we independently manipulated the levels of auditory-verbal WM load and attentional interference using modified Auditory Continuous Performance Tests. Although many frontoparietal regions were jointly activated by increases of WM load and interference, there was a double dissociation between prefrontal cortex (PFC) subareas associated selectively with either auditory attention or WM. Specifically, anterior dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and the right anterior insula were selectively activated by increasing WM load, whereas subregions of middle lateral PFC and inferior frontal cortex (IFC) were associated with interference only. Meanwhile, a superadditive interaction between interference and load was detected in left medial superior frontal cortex, suggesting that in this area, activations are not only overlapping, but reflect a common resource pool recruited by increased attentional and WM demands. Indices of WM-specific suppression of anterolateral non-primary auditory cortices (AC) and attention-specific suppression of primary AC were also found, possibly reflecting suppression/interruption of sound-object processing of irrelevant stimuli during continuous task performance. Our results suggest a double dissociation between auditory attention and working memory in subregions of anterior DLPFC vs. middle lateral PFC/IFC in humans, respectively, in the context of substantially overlapping circuits. PMID:23921102

  14. Logbook; Working With the Media Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Joan; Crow, Jeanne

    This student workbook for "The Media Works" (EM 010 879) contains ready-made forms, or worksheets, which refer to activities assigned in the text. The logbook also contains pages for open-ended activities which are not tied to the text. Examples of the activities include finding a definition of "media" by comparing people's definition of the term,…

  15. How to build an "active" patient? The work of AIDS associations in France.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Janine

    2006-02-01

    "What is an "active" patient?" is a question that arises in most medicine and illness-related social science research. This article examines the normative work carried out by AIDS associations in France to define an "active" patient in healthcare and research. While the fight against AIDS is often presented as being homogenous, we look at the diversity of opinion between different associations (Aides, Act Up-Paris, Actions Traitements and Positifs). We find four different cases: the patient as manager of his illness, the empowerment of patients, the science-wise patient and the experimenter. Systematic comparison of these cases shows that these perceptions of the "active" patient, in terms of the same pathology, are based upon different ways of seeing: the nature of the relationships between the different types of knowledge of the illness (scientific knowledge, clinical knowledge, experience of the illness) and the distribution of roles and powers among the various actors in the healthcare system (the government, pharmaceutical companies, the medical profession, the patients). This article highlights the historical dynamics which allow us to have a better understanding of these differences, especially the major distinction between two generations of associations, which adopted different positions with regard to their public identity.

  16. Activity in human visual and parietal cortex reveals object-based attention in working memory.

    PubMed

    Peters, Benjamin; Kaiser, Jochen; Rahm, Benjamin; Bledowski, Christoph

    2015-02-25

    Visual attention enables observers to select behaviorally relevant information based on spatial locations, features, or objects. Attentional selection is not limited to physically present visual information, but can also operate on internal representations maintained in working memory (WM) in service of higher-order cognition. However, only little is known about whether attention to WM contents follows the same principles as attention to sensory stimuli. To address this question, we investigated in humans whether the typically observed effects of object-based attention in perception are also evident for object-based attentional selection of internal object representations in WM. In full accordance with effects in visual perception, the key behavioral and neuronal characteristics of object-based attention were observed in WM. Specifically, we found that reaction times were shorter when shifting attention to memory positions located on the currently attended object compared with equidistant positions on a different object. Furthermore, functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate pattern analysis of visuotopic activity in visual (areas V1-V4) and parietal cortex revealed that directing attention to one position of an object held in WM also enhanced brain activation for other positions on the same object, suggesting that attentional selection in WM activates the entire object. This study demonstrated that all characteristic features of object-based attention are present in WM and thus follows the same principles as in perception.

  17. Frontal activations associated with accessing and evaluating information in working memory: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John X; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Johnson, Marcia K

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the involvement of frontal cortex in accessing and evaluating information in working memory, we used a variant of a Sternberg paradigm and compared brain activations between positive and negative responses (known to differentially tax access/evaluation processes). Participants remembered two trigrams in each trial and were then cued to discard one of them and maintain the other one as the target set. After a delay, a probe letter was presented and participants made decisions about whether or not it was in the target set. Several frontal areas--anterior cingulate (BA32), middle frontal gyrus (bilateral BA9, right BA10, and right BA46), and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45)--showed increased activity when participants made correct negative responses relative to when they made correct positive responses. No areas activated significantly more for the positive responses than for the negative responses. It is suggested that the multiple frontal areas involved in the test phase of this task may reflect several component processes that underlie more general frontal functions. PMID:14642465

  18. The Use of Text Messaging to Promote Physical Activity in Working Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The study evaluated the effects of a text message intervention on physical activity in adult working women. Methods Eighty-seven participants were randomized to an intervention (n=41) or control group (n=46). Pedometer step counts and measures of self-efficacy were collected at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. Intervention participants received approximately three text messages per week that were motivational, informational, and specific to performing physical activity. Results ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between groups for mean steps/day at 12 weeks (6540.0 vs. 5685.0, p=.01) and no significant difference at 24 weeks (6867.7 vs. 6189.0, p= .06). There was no change in mean step counts during or after the intervention compared to baseline. There was a significant difference between groups for mean self-efficacy scores at 12 weeks (68.5, vs. 60.3, p=.02) and at 24 weeks (67.3 vs. 59.0, p=.03). Conclusions Intervention participants had higher step counts after 12 and 24 weeks compared to a control group; however, the difference was significant only at the midpoint of the intervention and was attributable to a decrease in steps for the control group. Text messaging did not increase step counts but may be a cost effective tool for maintenance of physical activity behavior. PMID:25110303

  19. Frontal activations associated with accessing and evaluating information in working memory: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John X; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Johnson, Marcia K

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the involvement of frontal cortex in accessing and evaluating information in working memory, we used a variant of a Sternberg paradigm and compared brain activations between positive and negative responses (known to differentially tax access/evaluation processes). Participants remembered two trigrams in each trial and were then cued to discard one of them and maintain the other one as the target set. After a delay, a probe letter was presented and participants made decisions about whether or not it was in the target set. Several frontal areas--anterior cingulate (BA32), middle frontal gyrus (bilateral BA9, right BA10, and right BA46), and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45)--showed increased activity when participants made correct negative responses relative to when they made correct positive responses. No areas activated significantly more for the positive responses than for the negative responses. It is suggested that the multiple frontal areas involved in the test phase of this task may reflect several component processes that underlie more general frontal functions.

  20. Risk of miscarriage and occupational activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding shift work, working hours, lifting, standing and physical workload

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter E; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Bonzini, Matteo; Palmer, Keith T

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have indicated that shift work, long working hours and prevalent workplace exposures such as lifting, standing and physical workload increase the risk of miscarriage, but the evidence is conflicting. We conducted a systematic review of original research reports. Methods A search in Medline and EMBASE 1966 - 2012 identified 30 primary papers reporting the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage according to one or more of the five occupational activities of interest. Following an assessment of completeness of reporting, confounding and bias, each risk estimate was characterised as more or less likely to be biased. Studies with equivalent measures of exposure were pooled to obtain a weighted common risk estimate. Sensitivity analyses excluded studies most likely to be biased. Results Working fixed nights was associated with a moderately increased risk of miscarriage [pooled RR 1.51 (95% CI 1.27-1.78, n=5], while working in 3-shift schedules, working for >40 hours weekly, lifting>100 kg/day, standing > 6 hours/day and physical workload were associated with small risk increments, with the pooled RRs ranging from 1.12 (three shift schedule, n=7) to 1.36 (working hours, n=10). RRs for working hours and standing became smaller when analyses were restricted to higher quality studies. Conclusion These largely reassuring findings do not provide a strong case for mandatory restrictions in relation to shift work, long working hours, occupational lifting, standing and physical workload. Considering the limited evidence base, however, it may be prudent to advise women against work entailing high levels of these exposures and women with at-risk pregnancies should receive tailored individual counselling PMID:23235838

  1. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  2. Distribution of active faulting along orogenic wedges: Minimum-work models and natural analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagupsky, Daniel L.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Duncan, Christopher C.; Bevis, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Numerical 2-D models based on the principle of minimum work were used to examine the space-time distribution of active faulting during the evolution of orogenic wedges. A series of models focused on thin-skinned thrusting illustrates the effects of arid conditions (no erosion), unsteady state conditions (accretionary influx greater than erosional efflux) and steady state conditions (accretionary influx balances erosional efflux), on the distribution of fault activity. For arid settings, a general forward accretion sequence prevails, although a significant amount of internal deformation is registered: the resulting fault pattern is a rather uniform spread along the profile. Under fixed erosional efficiency settings, the frontal advance of the wedge-front is inhibited, reaching a steady state after a given forward propagation. Then, the applied shortening is consumed by surface ruptures over a narrow frontal zone. Under a temporal increase in erosional efficiency (i.e., transient non-steady state mass balance conditions), a narrowing of the synthetic wedge results; a rather diffuse fault activity distribution is observed during the deformation front retreat. Once steady balanced conditions are reached, a single long-lived deformation front prevails. Fault activity distribution produced during the deformation front retreat of the latter scenario, compares well with the structural evolution and hinterlandward deformation migration identified in southern Bolivian Subandes (SSA) from late Miocene to present. This analogy supports the notion that the SSA is not in steady state, but is rather responding to an erosional efficiency increase since late Miocene. The results shed light on the impact of different mass balance conditions on the vastly different kinematics found in mountain ranges, suggesting that those affected by growing erosion under a transient unbalanced mass flux condition tend to distribute deformation along both frontal and internal faults, while others

  3. Verrucous carcinomas of the head and neck, including those with associated squamous cell carcinoma, lack transcriptionally active high-risk human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalyani R; Chernock, Rebecca D; Zhang, Tian R; Wang, Xiaowei; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S

    2013-11-01

    Most oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and histologic variants harbor transcriptionally active human papillomavirus (HPV). While HPV DNA can be found in many non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinomas, transcriptionally active HPV is rare. Verrucous carcinoma is a variant with bland cytology, warty appearance, locally destructive growth, and lack of metastasis when lacking a frankly invasive carcinoma component. Studies have shown variable rates of HPV DNA and p16 protein expression in such tumors but still have not clearly addressed if the virus has biological activity or clinical relevance in the positive cases. Department files were searched for verrucous neoplasms, including pure verrucous carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma with dysplasia or minimal invasion, and SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma (ie, having a major component of frankly invasive carcinoma). p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and E6/E7 mRNA reverse transcription PCR for high-risk HPV types were performed. Of the 49 cases, 6 (12.2%) showed strong (>50%) staining for p16. HPV DNA was detected in 7/49 (14.3%) cases, but only one case was positive for both p16, and HPV DNA. A total of 36 cases yielded sufficient RNA for RT-PCR (18 verrucous carcinomas, 13 atypical verrucous carcinomas, and 5 SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma). All 36 were negative, including the four p16-positive and three HPV DNA-positive tumors tested. Although a minority of verrucous carcinoma lesions are p16 and HPV DNA positive, transcriptionally active high-risk HPV is uniformly absent. These findings argue that verrucous carcinoma and its related squamous cell carcinomas are not HPV-driven tumors.

  4. Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy.

    PubMed

    Heslop, Liza

    2012-02-01

    Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations.

  5. Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy.

    PubMed

    Heslop, Liza

    2012-02-01

    Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations. PMID:22257324

  6. The contralateral delay activity as a neural measure of visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Luria, Roy; Balaban, Halely; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2016-03-01

    The contralateral delay activity (CDA) is a negative slow wave sensitive to the number of objects maintained in visual working memory (VWM). In recent years, a growing number of labs started to use the CDA in order to investigate VWM, leading to many fascinating discoveries. Here, we discuss the recent developments and contribution of the CDA in various research fields. Importantly, we report two meta-analyses that unequivocally validate the relationship between the set-size increase in the CDA amplitude and the individual VWM capacity, and between the CDA and filtering efficiency. We further discuss how the CDA was used to study the role of VWM in visual search, multiple object tracking, grouping, binding, and whether VWM capacity allocation is determined by the items' resolution or instead by the number of objects regardless of their complexity. In addition, we report how the CDA has been used to characterize specific VWM deficits in special populations. PMID:26802451

  7. 40 CFR 745.230 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.230 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and... lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  8. 40 CFR 745.230 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.230 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and... lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  9. 40 CFR 745.230 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.230 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and... lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  10. 40 CFR 745.230 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.230 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and... lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  11. 40 CFR 745.230 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.230 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and... lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures....

  12. Inefficient Preparatory fMRI-BOLD Network Activations Predict Working Memory Dysfunctions in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Baenninger, Anja; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Rieger, Kathryn; Ford, Judith M; Kottlow, Mara; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal dynamics and structure of temporally -coherent networks (TCNs) assessed using fMRI, which undergo adaptive shifts in preparation for a cognitively demanding task. During working memory (WM) tasks, patients with schizophrenia show persistent deficits in TCNs as well as EEG indices of WM. Studying their temporal relationship during WM tasks might provide novel insights into WM performance deficits seen in schizophrenia. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired during the performance of a verbal Sternberg WM task with two load levels (load 2 and load 5) in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls. Using covariance mapping, we investigated the relationship of the activity in the TCNs before the memoranda were encoded and EEG spectral power during the retention interval. We assessed four TCNs - default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (dAN), left and right working memory networks (WMNs) - and three EEG bands - theta, alpha, and beta. In healthy controls, there was a load-dependent inverse relation between DMN and frontal midline theta power and an anti-correlation between DMN and dAN. Both effects were not significantly detectable in patients. In addition, healthy controls showed a left-lateralized load-dependent recruitment of the WMNs. Activation of the WMNs was bilateral in patients, suggesting more resources were recruited for successful performance on the WM task. Our findings support the notion of schizophrenia patients showing deviations in their neurophysiological responses before the retention of relevant information in a verbal WM task. Thus, treatment strategies as neurofeedback -targeting prestates could be beneficial as task performance relies on the preparatory state of the brain. PMID:27047395

  13. Inefficient Preparatory fMRI-BOLD Network Activations Predict Working Memory Dysfunctions in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Baenninger, Anja; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Rieger, Kathryn; Ford, Judith M.; Kottlow, Mara; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal dynamics and structure of temporally ­coherent networks (TCNs) assessed using fMRI, which undergo adaptive shifts in preparation for a cognitively demanding task. During working memory (WM) tasks, patients with schizophrenia show persistent deficits in TCNs as well as EEG indices of WM. Studying their temporal relationship during WM tasks might provide novel insights into WM performance deficits seen in schizophrenia. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired during the performance of a verbal Sternberg WM task with two load levels (load 2 and load 5) in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls. Using covariance mapping, we investigated the relationship of the activity in the TCNs before the memoranda were encoded and EEG spectral power during the retention interval. We assessed four TCNs – default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (dAN), left and right working memory networks (WMNs) – and three EEG bands – theta, alpha, and beta. In healthy controls, there was a load-dependent inverse relation between DMN and frontal midline theta power and an anti-correlation between DMN and dAN. Both effects were not significantly detectable in patients. In addition, healthy controls showed a left-lateralized load-dependent recruitment of the WMNs. Activation of the WMNs was bilateral in patients, suggesting more resources were recruited for successful performance on the WM task. Our findings support the notion of schizophrenia patients showing deviations in their neurophysiological responses before the retention of relevant information in a verbal WM task. Thus, treatment strategies as neurofeedback ­targeting prestates could be beneficial as task performance relies on the preparatory state of the brain. PMID:27047395

  14. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for <7.5, 7.5 to <16.5, and ≥16.5 metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  15. 45 CFR 287.120 - What work activities may be provided under the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Program Design and Operations § 287.120 What work... incentives related to OJT, community work experience, innovative approaches with the private sector,...

  16. 45 CFR 287.120 - What work activities may be provided under the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Program Design and Operations § 287.120 What work... incentives related to OJT, community work experience, innovative approaches with the private sector,...

  17. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students’ Class-Work and Active Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students’ reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement. PMID:26617432

  18. Working memory fMRI activation in cocaine dependent subjects: association with treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, F. Gerard; Steinberg, Joel L.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Ma, Liangsuo; Liu, Shijing; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Kramer, Larry A.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2010-01-01

    fMRI studies of early abstinence cocaine users offer information about the state of the brain when most cocaine users seek treatment. This study examined the relationship between pretreatment brain function and subsequent treatment response in 19 treatment-seeking early abstinence cocaine dependent (CD) subjects. These subjects and 14 non-drug using control subjects underwent fMRI while performing a working memory task with three levels of difficulty. CD subjects were then randomized to treatment studies. Results showed CD subjects had significantly lower (random effects, corrected for multiple comparisons) brain activation in caudate, putamen, cingulate gyrus, middle and superior frontal gyri, inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis and pars opercularis, precentral gyrus, and thalamus compared to non-drug using controls. Within CD subjects, thalamic activation significantly correlated with treatment response. This study shows CD subjects in early abstinence have alteration of brain function in frontal, striatal, and thalamic brain regions known to be part of a circuit associated with motor control, reward, and cognition. Subjects with pretreatment thalamic deactivation showed the poorest treatment response, possibly related to thalamic involvement in mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine projections. PMID:20153142

  19. Active Commuting among K-12 Educators: A Study Examining Walking and Biking to Work

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Hastmann, Tanis J.; Norton, Alyssa N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Walking and biking to work, active commuting (AC) is associated with many health benefits, though rates of AC remain low in the US. K-12 educators represent a significant portion of the workforce, and employee health and associated costs may have significant economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current rates of AC and factors associated with AC among K-12 educators. Methods. A volunteer sample of K-12 educators (n = 437) was recruited to participate in an online survey. Participants responded about AC patterns and social ecological influences on AC (individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors). t-tests and ANOVAs examined trends in AC, and Pearson correlations examined the relationship between AC and dependent variables. Multiple regression analysis determined the relative influence of individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental levels on AC. Results. Participants actively commuted 0.51 ± 1.93 times/week. There were several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors significantly related to AC. The full model explained 60.8% of the variance in AC behavior. Conclusions. This study provides insight on the factors that determine K-12 educators mode of commute and provide some insight for employee wellness among this population. PMID:24089620

  20. Working Group 1: Current plans of various organisations for lunar activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Pilcher, C.

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of presentations by representatives of several space agencies and the International Academy of Astronautics concerning lunar activities are presented. Participating space agencies reported two different types of lunar planning, long term planning and scenarios and lunar missions competing within regular programs. The long term plans of the various agencies look remarkably similar. They all involve a phased approach (coincidentally all incorporating four phases) and all address three prime scientific elements: science of, on, and from the Moon. The missions under consideration by the second group of agencies could readily fit as elements in the longer term program. There is great interest in lunar astronomy. There is a great deal of potential infrastructure and lunar transport capability already available. There is also a wide range of interesting technological developments that could form part of a lunar program. A well concerted and coordinated international effort could lead to an affordable program. Recommendations are: an international conference on lunar exploration should be held every other year; an electronic network should be established for the daily exchange of information; and a mechanism should be established for regular working level coordination of activities.

  1. Pig skin includes dendritic cell subsets transcriptomically related to human CD1a and CD14 dendritic cells presenting different migrating behaviors and T cell activation capacities.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Florian; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Maisonnasse, Pauline; Elhmouzi-Younes, Jamila; Urien, Céline; Bouguyon, Edwige; Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Simon, Gaëlle; Ezquerra, Angel; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Bonneau, Michel; Dalod, Marc; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Bertho, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    Swine skin is one of the best structural models for human skin, widely used to probe drug transcutaneous passage and to test new skin vaccination devices. However, little is known about its composition in immune cells, and among them dendritic cells (DC), that are essential in the initiation of the immune response. After a first seminal work describing four different DC subpopulations in pig skin, we hereafter deepen the characterization of these cells, showing the similarities between swine DC subsets and their human counterparts. Using comparative transcriptomic study, classical phenotyping as well as in vivo and in vitro functional studies, we show that swine CD163(pos) dermal DC (DDC) are transcriptomically similar to the human CD14(pos) DDC. CD163(pos) DDC are recruited in inflamed skin, they migrate in inflamed lymph but they are not attracted toward CCL21, and they modestly activate allogeneic CD8 T cells. We also show that CD163(low) DDC are transcriptomically similar to the human CD1a(pos) DDC. CD163(low) DDC migrate toward CCL21, they activate allogeneic CD8 and CD4 T cells and, like their potential human lung counterpart, they skew CD4 T cells toward a Th17 profile. We thus conclude that swine skin is a relevant model for human skin vaccination.

  2. Understanding how active volcanoes work: a contribution from synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polacci, M.; Baker, D. R.; Mancini, L.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanoes are complex systems that require the integration of many different geoscience disciplines to understand their behaviour and to monitor and forecast their activity. In the last two decades an increasing amount of information on volcanic processes has been obtained by studying the textures and compositions of volcanic rocks. Five years ago we started a continuing collaboration with the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra Sincrotrone, a third generation synchrotron light source near Trieste, Italy, with the goal of performing high-resolution, phase-contrast X-ray tomographic scans and reconstructing 3-D digital volumes of volcanic specimens. These volumes have been then used for the visualization of the internal structure of rocks and for the quantification of rock textures (i.e., vesicle and crystal volume fraction, individual vesicle volumes and shapes, vesicle connectivity, vesicle volume distributions, permeability simulations etc.). We performed tomographic experiments on volcanic products erupted from different hazardous volcanic systems in Italy and around the world: Campi Flegrei, Stromboli, Etna (Southern Italy), Villarrica (Chile), Yasur and Ambrym (Vanuatu Islands). As an example, we used the results of these studies to constrain the dynamics of vesiculation and degassing in basaltic (Polacci et al., 2006; Burton et al., 2007; Colò et al., 2007; Andronico et al., 2008; Polacci et al., 2008a) and trachytic (Piochi et al., 2008) magmas. A better knowledge of how gas is transported and lost from magmas has led us in turn to draw new implications on the eruptive style of these active, hazardous volcanoes (Polacci et al., 2008b). Work in progress consists of optimizing our procedure by establishing a precise protocol that will enable us to quantitatively study the 3-D texture and composition of rocks in a statistically representative way. Future work will concentrate on the study of the spatial relations between phases (crystals, vesicles and glass) in rocks

  3. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  4. Working memory encoding and maintenance deficits in schizophrenia: neural evidence for activation and deactivation abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Anticevic, Alan; Repovs, Grega; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence implicates working memory (WM) as a core deficit in schizophrenia (SCZ), purportedly due to primary deficits in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functioning. Recent findings suggest that SCZ is also associated with abnormalities in suppression of certain regions during cognitive engagement--namely the default mode system--that may further contribute to WM pathology. However, no study has systematically examined activation and suppression abnormalities across both encoding and maintenance phases of WM in SCZ. Twenty-eight patients and 24 demographically matched healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T while performing a delayed match-to-sample WM task. Groups were accuracy matched to rule out performance effects. Encoding load was identical across subjects to facilitate comparisons across WM phases. We examined activation differences using an assumed model approach at the whole-brain level and within meta-analytically defined WM areas. Despite matched performance, we found regions showing less recruitment during encoding and maintenance for SCZ subjects. Furthermore, we identified 2 areas closely matching the default system, which SCZ subjects failed to deactivate across WM phases. Lastly, activation in prefrontal regions predicted the degree of deactivation for healthy but not SCZ subjects. Current results replicate and extend prefrontal recruitment abnormalities across WM phases in SCZ. Results also indicate deactivation abnormalities across WM phases, possibly due to inefficient prefrontal recruitment. Such regional deactivation may be critical for suppressing sources of interference during WM trace formation. Thus, deactivation deficits may constitute an additional source of impairments, which needs to be further characterized for a complete understanding of WM pathology in SCZ.

  5. Working group report on beam plasmas, electronic propulsion, and active experiments using beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, J. M.; Eastman, T.; Gabriel, S.; Hawkins, J.; Matossian, J.; Raitt, J.; Reeves, G.; Sasaki, S.; Szuszczewicz, E.; Winkler, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The JPL Workshop addressed a number of plasma issues that bear on advanced spaceborne technology for the years 2000 and beyond. Primary interest was on the permanently manned space station with a focus on identifying environmentally related issues requiring early clarification by spaceborne plasma experimentation. The Beams Working Group focused on environmentally related threats that platform operations could have on the conduct and integrity of spaceborne beam experiments and vice versa. Considerations were to include particle beams and plumes. For purposes of definition it was agreed that the term particle beams described a directed flow of charged or neutral particles allowing single-particle trajectories to represent the characteristics of the beam and its propagation. On the other hand, the word plume was adopted to describe a multidimensional flow (or expansion) of a plasma or neutral gas cloud. Within the framework of these definitions, experiment categories included: (1) Neutral- and charged-particle beam propagation, with considerations extending to high powers and currents. (2) Evolution and dynamics of naturally occurring and man-made plasma and neutral gas clouds. In both categories, scientific interest focused on interactions with the ambient geoplasma and the evolution of particle densities, energy distribution functions, waves, and fields.

  6. 76 FR 73682 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Work...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...; Work Opportunity Tax Credit and Welfare-to- Work Tax Credit ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Work Opportunity Tax Credit and Welfare-to-Work Tax Credit,'' as proposed... information provided under this ICR is used for program planning, evaluation of Program performance...

  7. Teaching, Activism, and the Purposes of Education: Toward an Integrated Vision of Teachers' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Carina E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the political dimensions of teachers' work through a conceptual comparison to the work of social activists. The author developed a four-part analysis of the work of activists through a reading of the social movement literature and compared that analysis to the work of teachers according to four…

  8. Food intake during the normal activity phase prevents obesity and circadian desynchrony in a rat model of night work.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; Saderi, Nadia; Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina

    2010-03-01

    Shift work or night work is associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and other diseases. The cause for these pathologies is proposed to be the dissociation between the temporal signals from the biological clock and the sleep/activity schedule of the night worker. We investigated the mechanisms promoting metabolic desynchrony in a model for night work in rats, based on daily 8-h activity schedules during the resting phase. We demonstrate that the major alterations leading to internal desynchrony induced by this working protocol, flattened glucose and locomotor rhythms and the development of abdominal obesity, were caused by food intake during the rest phase. Shifting food intake to the normal activity phase prevented body weight increase and reverted metabolic and rhythmic disturbances of the shift work animals to control ranges. These observations demonstrate that feeding habits may prevent or induce internal desynchrony and obesity.

  9. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  10. Converging genetic and functional brain imaging evidence links neuronal excitability to working memory, psychiatric disease, and brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Heck, A.; Fastenrath, M.; Ackermann, S.; Auschra, B.; Bickel, H.; Coynel, D.; Gschwind, L.; Jessen, F.; Kaduszkiewicz, H.; Maier, W.; Milnik, A.; Pentzek, M.; Riedel-Heller, S.G.; Ripke, S.; Spalek, K.; Sullivan, P.; Vogler, C.; Wagner, M.; Weyerer, S.; Wolfsgruber, S.; de Quervain, D.; Papassotiropoulos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Working memory, the capacity of actively maintaining task-relevant information during a cognitive task, is a heritable trait. Working memory deficits are characteristic for many psychiatric disorders. We performed genome-wide gene-set enrichment analyses in multiple independent data sets of young and aged cognitively healthy subjects (n = 2’824), and in a large schizophrenia case-control sample (n = 32’143). The voltage-gated cation channel activity gene-set, consisting of genes related to neuronal excitability, was robustly linked to performance in working memory-related tasks across ages, and to schizophrenia. Functional brain imaging in 707 healthy participants linked this gene-set also to working memory-related activity in the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Gene-set analyses may help to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cognitive dimensions, brain activity and psychopathology. PMID:24529980

  11. Feeling of Pleasure to High-Intensity Interval Exercise Is Dependent of the Number of Work Bouts and Physical Activity Status

    PubMed Central

    Frazão, Danniel Thiago; de Farias Junior, Luiz Fernando; Dantas, Teresa Cristina Batista; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Prestes, Jonato; Hardcastle, Sarah J.; Costa, Eduardo Caldas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the affective responses during a single bout of a low-volume HIIE in active and insufficiently active men. Materials and methods Fifty-eight men (aged 25.3 ± 3.6 years) volunteered to participate in this study: i) active (n = 29) and ii) insufficiently active (n = 29). Each subject undertook i) initial screening and physical evaluation, ii) maximal exercise test, and iii) a single bout of a low-volume HIIE. The HIIE protocol consisted of 10 x 60s work bouts at 90% of maximal treadmill velocity (MTV) interspersed with 60s of active recovery at 30% of MTV. Affective responses (Feeling Scale, -5/+5), rating of perceived exertion (Borg’s RPE, 6–20), and heart rate (HR) were recorded during the last 10s of each work bout. A two-factor mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA, independent-samples t test, and chi-squared test were used to data analysis. Results There were similar positive affective responses to the first three work bouts between insufficiently active and active men (p > 0.05). However, insufficiently active group displayed lower affective responses over time (work bout 4 to 10) than the active group (p < 0.01). Also, the insufficiently active group displayed lower values of mean, lowest, and highest affective response, as well as lower values of affective response at the highest RPE than the active group (p < 0.001). There were no differences in the RPE and HR between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Insufficiently active and active men report feelings of pleasure to few work bouts (i.e., 3–4) during low-volume HIIE, while the affective responses become more unpleasant over time for insufficiently active subjects. Investigations on the effects of low-volume HIIE protocols including a fewer number of work bouts on health status and fitness of less active subjects would be interesting, especially in the first training weeks. PMID:27028191

  12. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  13. Dynamics of brain activity underlying working memory for music in a naturalistic condition.

    PubMed

    Burunat, Iballa; Alluri, Vinoo; Toiviainen, Petri; Numminen, Jussi; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-08-01

    We aimed at determining the functional neuroanatomy of working memory (WM) recognition of musical motifs that occurs while listening to music by adopting a non-standard procedure. Western tonal music provides naturally occurring repetition and variation of motifs. These serve as WM triggers, thus allowing us to study the phenomenon of motif tracking within real music. Adopting a modern tango as stimulus, a behavioural test helped to identify the stimulus motifs and build a time-course regressor of WM neural responses. This regressor was then correlated with the participants' (musicians') functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal obtained during a continuous listening condition. In order to fine-tune the identification of WM processes in the brain, the variance accounted for by the sensory processing of a set of the stimulus' acoustic features was pruned from participants' neurovascular responses to music. Motivic repetitions activated prefrontal and motor cortical areas, basal ganglia, medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, and cerebellum. The findings suggest that WM processing of motifs while listening to music emerges from the integration of neural activity distributed over cognitive, motor and limbic subsystems. The recruitment of the hippocampus stands as a novel finding in auditory WM. Effective connectivity and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analyses indicate that the hippocampal connectivity is modulated by motif repetitions, showing strong connections with WM-relevant areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - dlPFC, supplementary motor area - SMA, and cerebellum), which supports the role of the hippocampus in the encoding of the musical motifs in WM, and may evidence long-term memory (LTM) formation, enabled by the use of a realistic listening condition.

  14. Top-Down Activation of Spatiotopic Sensory Codes in Perceptual and Working Memory Search.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Nobre, Anna Christina; Scerif, Gaia; Astle, Duncan E

    2016-07-01

    A critical requirement of an efficient cognitive system is the selection and prioritization of relevant information. This occurs when selecting specific items from our sensory inputs, which then receive preferential status at subsequent levels of processing. Many everyday tasks also require us to select internal representations, such as a relevant item from memory. We show that both of these types of search are underpinned by the spatiotopic activation of sensory codes, using both fMRI and MEG data. When individuals searched for perceived and remembered targets, the MEG data highlighted a sensor level electrophysiological effect that reflects the contralateral organization of the visual system-namely, the N2pc. The fMRI data were used to identify a network of frontoparietal areas common to both types of search, as well as the early visual areas activated by the search display. We then combined fMRI and MEG data to explore the temporal dynamics of functional connections between the frontoparietal network and the early visual areas. Searching for a target item resulted in significantly enhanced phase-phase coupling between the frontoparietal network and the visual areas contralateral to the perceived or remembered location of that target. This enhancement of spatially specific phase-phase coupling occurred before the N2pc effect and was significantly associated with it on a trial-by-trial basis. The combination of these two imaging modalities suggests that perceptual and working memory search are underpinned by the synchronization of a frontoparietal network and the relevant sensory cortices.

  15. Real-time thermal imaging of solid oxide fuel cell cathode activity in working condition.

    PubMed

    Montanini, Roberto; Quattrocchi, Antonino; Piccolo, Sebastiano A; Amato, Alessandra; Trocino, Stefano; Zignani, Sabrina C; Faro, Massimiliano Lo; Squadrito, Gaetano

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are effective for quantifying solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operational performance, but not for identifying and monitoring the chemical processes that occur on the electrodes' surface, which are thought to be strictly related to the SOFCs' efficiency. Because of their high operating temperature, mechanical failure or cathode delamination is a common shortcoming of SOFCs that severely affects their reliability. Infrared thermography may provide a powerful tool for probing in situ SOFC electrode processes and the materials' structural integrity, but, due to the typical design of pellet-type cells, a complete optical access to the electrode surface is usually prevented. In this paper, a specially designed SOFC is introduced, which allows temperature distribution to be measured over all the cathode area while still preserving the electrochemical performance of the device. Infrared images recorded under different working conditions are then processed by means of a dedicated image processing algorithm for quantitative data analysis. Results reported in the paper highlight the effectiveness of infrared thermal imaging in detecting the onset of cell failure during normal operation and in monitoring cathode activity when the cell is fed with different types of fuels.

  16. Time away from work predicts later cognitive function: Differences by activity during leave

    PubMed Central

    Leist, Anja K.; Glymour, M Maria; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine how different activities performed during employment gaps are associated with later cognitive function and change. Method Five cognitive measures were used to indicate cognitive impairment of 18,259 respondents to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (age 50-73) in 2004/5 or 2006/7. Using complete employment histories, employment gaps of six months or more between ages 25 and 65 were identified. Results Controlling for early-life socioeconomic status, school performance, and education, higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as unemployment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95 % Confidence Interval [CI] 1.04, 1.35) and sickness (OR = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.52, 2.09). In contrast, lower risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as training (OR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.52, 1.01) or maternity (OR = 0.65, 95 % CI 0.57, 0.79). In longitudinal mixed effects models, training and maternity spells were associated with lower two-year aging-related cognitive decline. Discussion Periods away from work described as unemployment or sickness are associated with lower cognitive function, whereas maternity and training spells are associated with better late-life cognitive function. Both causation and selection mechanisms may explain these findings. PMID:23889855

  17. Intraparietal sulcus activity and functional connectivity supporting spatial working memory manipulation.

    PubMed

    Bray, Signe; Almas, Ramsha; Arnold, Aiden E G F; Iaria, Giuseppe; MacQueen, Glenda

    2015-05-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is recruited during tasks requiring attention, maintenance and manipulation of information in working memory (WM). While WM tasks often show broad bilateral engagement along the IPS, topographic maps of contralateral (CL) visual space have been identified along the IPS, similar to retinotopic maps in visual cortex. In the present study, we asked how these visuotopic IPS regions are differentially involved in the maintenance and manipulation of spatial information in WM. Visuotopic mapping was performed in 26 participants to define regions of interest along the IPS, corresponding to previously described IPS0-4. In a separate task, we showed that while maintaining the location of a briefly flashed target in WM preferentially engaged CL IPS, manipulation of spatial information by mentally rotating the target around a circle engaged bilateral IPS, peaking in IPS1 in most participants. Functional connectivity analyses showed increased interaction between the IPS and prefrontal regions during manipulation, as well as interhemispheric interactions. Two control tasks demonstrated that covert attention shifts, and nonspatial manipulation (arithmetic), engaged patterns of IPS activation and connectivity that were distinct from WM manipulation. These findings add to our understanding of the role of IPS in spatial WM maintenance and manipulation. PMID:24275831

  18. Real-time thermal imaging of solid oxide fuel cell cathode activity in working condition.

    PubMed

    Montanini, Roberto; Quattrocchi, Antonino; Piccolo, Sebastiano A; Amato, Alessandra; Trocino, Stefano; Zignani, Sabrina C; Faro, Massimiliano Lo; Squadrito, Gaetano

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are effective for quantifying solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operational performance, but not for identifying and monitoring the chemical processes that occur on the electrodes' surface, which are thought to be strictly related to the SOFCs' efficiency. Because of their high operating temperature, mechanical failure or cathode delamination is a common shortcoming of SOFCs that severely affects their reliability. Infrared thermography may provide a powerful tool for probing in situ SOFC electrode processes and the materials' structural integrity, but, due to the typical design of pellet-type cells, a complete optical access to the electrode surface is usually prevented. In this paper, a specially designed SOFC is introduced, which allows temperature distribution to be measured over all the cathode area while still preserving the electrochemical performance of the device. Infrared images recorded under different working conditions are then processed by means of a dedicated image processing algorithm for quantitative data analysis. Results reported in the paper highlight the effectiveness of infrared thermal imaging in detecting the onset of cell failure during normal operation and in monitoring cathode activity when the cell is fed with different types of fuels. PMID:27607294

  19. Contralateral delay activity reveals dimension-based attentional orienting to locations in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Thomas; Eschmann, Kathrin C J; Rusch, Tessa; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-04-01

    In research on visual working memory (WM), a contentiously debated issue concerns whether or not items are stored independently of one another in WM. Here we addressed this issue by exploring the role of the physical context that surrounds a given item in the memory display in the formation of WM representations. In particular, we employed bilateral memory displays that contained two or three lateralized singleton items (together with six or five distractor items), defined either within the same or in different visual feature dimensions. After a variable interval, a retro-cue was presented centrally, requiring participants to discern the presence (vs. the absence) of this item in the previously shown memory array. Our results show that search for targets in visual WM is determined interactively by dimensional context and set size: For larger, but not smaller, set sizes, memory search slowed down when targets were defined across rather than within dimensions. This dimension-specific cost manifested in a stronger contralateral delay activity component, an established neural marker of the access to WM representations. Overall, our findings provide electrophysiological evidence for the hierarchically structured nature of WM representations, and they appear inconsistent with the view that WM items are encoded in isolation. PMID:24510425

  20. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  1. 78 FR 18629 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Work-Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...; Work-Study Program of the Child Labor Regulations ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL..., ``Work-Study Program of the Child Labor Regulations,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... Work-Study Program (WSP) of the Child Labor Regulations. This program allows for the employment of...

  2. Investigating the Impact of Formal Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    In work-related, instrumental learning contexts the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's (1985) experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory (2000) predict skill-adaptation as a possible outcome. This prediction was experimentally explored by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants'…

  3. LISA Pathfinder Discharge Working Group: Activities, Results, and Lessons Learned for LISA/NGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, T.; Bergner, P.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Brandt, N.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) entrusted Astrium GmbH to identify the root cause and corrective measures for the shortcomings of the LISA Pathfinder discharge system baseline that were identified during the system level testing in the torsion pendulum at the University of Trento. The main goal was to maximize the discharge system robustness under the given constraint to minimize the impact on manufacturing and the AIT process of the existing flight hardware. Astrium GmbH set-up a dedicated discharge working group (DWG) for 9 months, bringing together the expertise of surface scientists (DLR Stuttgart, Uni Würzburg, Uni Modena, BEAR Trieste) with the existing significant knowledge in the LTP community (Uni Trento, Imperial College London, CGS, Selex Galileo, TWT GmbH, ESA). The findings resulted in a recommendation to modify the baseline discharge system of LISA Pathfinder, including the definition of dedicated manufacturing and AIT requirements. These findings have relevance also for LISA/NGO, since they allow for a significantly more robust discharge system design.

  4. Association between Pregnancy and Active Injection Drug Use and Sex Work among Women Injection Drug Users in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Girchenko, P; Ompad, D C; Bikmukhametov, D; Gensburg, L

    2015-06-01

    Widespread use of unsafe sexual practices among women injecting drugs both practicing and not practicing sex work leads to high levels of unplanned pregnancies in this population. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy and active drug use and sex work. Data were collected using a convenience sample of 500 women in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2013. All women had recent experience of drug use, of which 200 were pregnant at the time of the study. The study consisted of a structured interview followed by a rapid HIV test. Pregnancy was protective against both active drug use and sex work. For HIV-positive women, these associations were stronger than for HIV-negative women: drug use prevalence ratio (PR) was 0.59 vs 0.85; for sex work, the PRs were 0.36 vs 0.64. Higher levels of education were associated with a lower prevalence ratio for active drug use and sex work in all models. Having children was not associated with active drug use or sex work. Pregnancy might be an optimal time for conducting interventions aimed at cessation of drug use and sex work among women injecting drugs.

  5. Promoting a Shared Representation of Workers' Activities to Improve Integrated Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Roquelaure, Yves

    2016-06-01

    Effective and sustainable prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs) remains a challenge for preventers and policy makers. Coordination of stakeholders involved in the prevention of WR-MSDs is a key factor that requires greater reflection on common knowledge and shared representation of workers' activities among stakeholders. Information on workers' strategies and operational leeway should be the core of common representations, because it places workers at the center of the "work situation system" considered by the intervention models. Participatory ergonomics permitting debates among stakeholders about workers' activity and strategies to cope with the work constraints in practice could help them to share representations of the "work situation system" and cooperate. Sharing representation therefore represents a useful tool for prevention, and preventers should provide sufficient space and time for dialogue and discussion of workers' activities among stakeholders during the conception, implementation, and management of integrated prevention programs. PMID:27340607

  6. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-01

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  7. Passive versus active operator work in automated process control--a job design case study in a control centre.

    PubMed

    Persson, A; Wanek, B; Johansson, A

    2001-10-01

    Methods of avoiding common problems associated with operator work in automated process control, such as understimulation and difficulties in achieving and maintaining necessary skills and competence, are addressed in this paper. The source of these problems is deduced here to be that monitoring tasks are a predominant part of the job. This case study shows how work in a highly automated process can be designed not only to avoid the traditional problems, but also provide a stimulating job within a good work situation at the same time as fulfilling efficiency demands. A new definition of active/passive operator jobs is made which is based on a categorisation of the types of work tasks that make up the job. The definition gives an explanation of how different designs of operator jobs result in more or less active/passive work situations.

  8. Persistent neural activity in auditory cortex is related to auditory working memory in humans and nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Matysiak, Artur; Heil, Peter; König, Reinhard; Brosch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is the cognitive capacity of short-term storage of information for goal-directed behaviors. Where and how this capacity is implemented in the brain are unresolved questions. We show that auditory cortex stores information by persistent changes of neural activity. We separated activity related to working memory from activity related to other mental processes by having humans and monkeys perform different tasks with varying working memory demands on the same sound sequences. Working memory was reflected in the spiking activity of individual neurons in auditory cortex and in the activity of neuronal populations, that is, in local field potentials and magnetic fields. Our results provide direct support for the idea that temporary storage of information recruits the same brain areas that also process the information. Because similar activity was observed in the two species, the cellular bases of some auditory working memory processes in humans can be studied in monkeys. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15441.001 PMID:27438411

  9. Walking while Performing Working Memory Tasks Changes the Prefrontal Cortex Hemodynamic Activations and Gait Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-I B.; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that walking while performing a concurrent task negatively influences gait performance. However, it remains unclear how higher-level cognitive processes and coordination of limb movements are altered in challenging walking environments. This study investigated the influence of cognitive task complexity and walking road condition on the neutral correlates of executive function and postural control in dual-task walking. Methods: Twenty-four healthy young adults completed a series of overground walks with three walking road conditions (wide, narrow, with obstacles) with and without the concurrent n-back working memory tasks of two complexity levels (1-back and 3-back). Prefrontal brain activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used simultaneously to measure gait performance and lower-extremity kinematics. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed to examine the differences between the conditions. Results: In comparison with standing still, participants showed lower n-back task accuracy while walking, with the worst performance from the road with obstacles. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, lower-extremity joint movements, and the relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration levels were all significantly different across the task complexity and walking path conditions. While dual-tasking participants were found to flex their hips and knees less, leading to a slower gait speed, longer stride time, shorter step length, and greater gait variability than during normal walking. For narrow-road walking, smaller ankle dorsiflexion and larger hip flexion were observed, along with a reduced gait speed. Obstacle negotiation was mainly characterized by increased gait variability than other conditions. HbO levels appeared to be lower during dual-task walking than normal walking. Compared to wide and obstacle conditions, walking on the narrow

  10. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  11. Differential effects of furnidipine and its active metabolites in rat isolated working heart.

    PubMed

    Krzemiński, Tadeusz F; Hudziak, Damian; Sielańczyk, Andrzej W; Porc, Maurycy; Kedzia, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    1,4,-dihydropyridines, belonging to the class of "privileged structures", are known to protect the heart from stunning, ischemia and ventricular arrhythmias and mainly used in hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the continuous infusion of parent drug, furnidipine, with its two active metabolites (M-2; M-3) in rat isolated working heart model, where the following parameters were measured and calculated: heart rate, preload pressure, aortic systolic and diastolic pressures (AoD), as well as +/-dP/dt, aortic (AF) and coronary flow (CF), oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures and pH values in pulmonary effluent, myocardial oxygen consumption. At first, the optimal vasodilatatory dose of M-2 was estimated and afterwards it was compared with equivalent doses of both remaining substances. The strongest vasodilatatory effects were observed after the lowest dose of M-2 was used (10(-7) M), at the same time being without marked influence on pressure parameters. The pro-drug evoked significantly weaker influence on both flows. Furthermore, furnidipine significantly reduced AoD and AF in comparison to control as well as +dP/dt in comparison to the initial values, while M-2 did not. Both metabolites caused a significant CF increase, but M-3 additionally the AoS and AoD decrease in comparison to the control. Regarding clear differences in the measured parameters between the pro-drug and its metabolites found, the obtained results allow to claim that the metabolites vs. furnidipine possess a beneficial influence. The distinct flow shift from aorta into the coronaries was observed only after M-2 and to a lesser extent--M-3. The cardio-depressant potency of both metabolites is overcome by advantageous vasodilatatory effect. M-2, being a final product, easier to control and at the same time a precursor of the new chemical class of therapeutics, is promising as a cardio-protective agent.

  12. Brain activity mapping in Mecp2 mutant mice reveals functional deficits in forebrain circuits, including key nodes in the default mode network, that are reversed with ketamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Kron, Miriam; Howell, C James; Adams, Ian T; Ransbottom, Michael; Christian, Diana; Ogier, Michael; Katz, David M

    2012-10-01

    Excitatory-inhibitory imbalance has been identified within specific brain microcircuits in models of Rett syndrome (RTT) and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, macrocircuit dysfunction across the RTT brain as a whole has not been defined. To approach this issue, we mapped expression of the activity-dependent, immediate-early gene product Fos in the brains of wild-type (Wt) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2)-null (Null) mice, a model of RTT, before and after the appearance of overt symptoms (3 and 6 weeks of age, respectively). At 6 weeks, Null mice exhibit significantly less Fos labeling than Wt in limbic cortices and subcortical structures, including key nodes in the default mode network. In contrast, Null mice exhibit significantly more Fos labeling than Wt in the hindbrain, most notably in cardiorespiratory regions of the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS). Using nTS as a model, whole-cell recordings demonstrated that increased Fos expression in Nulls at 6 weeks of age is associated with synaptic hyperexcitability, including increased frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs and increased amplitude of evoked EPSCs in Nulls. No such effect of genotype on Fos or synaptic function was seen at 3 weeks. In the mutant forebrain, reduced Fos expression, as well as abnormal sensorimotor function, were reversed by the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. In light of recent findings that the default mode network is hypoactive in autism, our data raise the possibility that hypofunction within this meta-circuit is a shared feature of RTT and other ASDs and is reversible. PMID:23035095

  13. Binding in haptics: integration of "what" and "where" information in working memory for active touch.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Franco; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Kappers, Astrid M L; Postma, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Information about the identity and the location of perceptual objects can be automatically integrated in perception and working memory (WM). Contrasting results in visual and auditory WM studies indicate that the characteristics of feature-to-location binding can vary according to the sensory modality of the input. The present study provides first evidence of binding between "what" and "where" information in WM for haptic stimuli. In an old-new recognition task, blindfolded participants were presented in their peripersonal space with sequences of three haptic stimuli varying in texture and location. They were then required to judge if a single probe stimulus was previously included in the sequence. Recall was measured both in a condition in which both texture and location were relevant for the task (Experiment 1) and in two conditions where only one feature had to be recalled (Experiment 2). Results showed that when both features were task-relevant, even if the association of location and texture was neither necessary nor required to perform the task, participants exhibited a recall advantage in conditions in which the location and the texture of the target probe was kept unaltered between encoding and recall. By contrast, when only one feature was task-relevant, the concurrent feature did not influence the recall of the target feature. We conclude that attention to feature binding is not necessary for the emergence of feature integration in haptic WM. For binding to take place, however, it is necessary to encode and maintain in memory both the identity and the location of items.

  14. Upper trapezius muscle activity patterns during repetitive manual material handling and work with with a computer mouse.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C; Finsen, L; Hansen, K; Christensen, H

    1999-10-01

    Firstly, upper trapezius EMG activity patterns were recorded on the dominant side of 6 industrial production workers and on the side operating a computer mouse of 14 computer-aided design (CAD) operators to study differences in acute muscular response related to the repetitiveness of the exposure. The work tasks were performed with median arm movement frequencies ranging from 5 min(-1) to 13 min(-1) and were characterized by work cycle times ranging from less than 30 sec to several days. However, the static and median EMG levels and EMG gap frequencies were similar for all work tasks indicating that shoulder muscle loads may be unaffected by large variations in arm movement frequencies and work cycle times. An exposure variation analyses (EVA) showed that the EMG activity patterns recorded during production work were more repetitive than during CAD work, whereas CAD work was associated with more static muscle activity patterns, both may be associated with a risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. Secondly, upper trapezius EMG activity patterns recorded on the mouse side of the CAD operators were compared with those recorded on the non-mouse side to study differences in muscular responses potentially related to the risk of developing shoulder symptoms which were more prevalent on the mouse side. The number of EMG gaps on the mouse side were significantly lower than the values for the upper trapezius on the non-mouse side indicating that more continuous activity was present in the upper trapezius muscle on the mouse side and EVA analyses showed a more repetitive muscle activity pattern on the mouse side. These findings may be of importance to explain differences in the prevalence of shoulder symptoms.

  15. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  16. Changes in interstitial noradrenaline, trapezius muscle activity and oxygen saturation during low-load work and recovery.

    PubMed

    Flodgren, Gerd M; Crenshaw, A G; Gref, M; Fahlström, M

    2009-09-01

    Both physical as well as mental demands result in an increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) with changes in blood-pressure and heart-rate. Through local release of catecholamines, e.g. noradrenaline (NAd) SNS exerts various actions at the muscle level. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of low-load repetitive work alone and in combination with mental demands on local muscle interstitial noradrenaline concentration [NAd](i), muscle activity and oxygenation, assessed with microdialysis, surface electromyography, and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Healthy females (n = 15) were exposed to (1) 30 min repetitive work (RW) and (2) 30 min repetitive work with superimposed mental load (RWML) on two different occasions. Muscle [NAd](i) and muscle activity increased significantly in response to RW, but did not increase further during RWML. For RW, [NAd](i) was found to be inversely correlated to muscle activity. Oxygenation decreased significantly during work, independently of occasion. Our findings indicate that low-load work causes significantly increased trapezius muscle [NAd](i) in healthy females, and short periods of superimposed mental load do not add to this increase and further, that both muscle activity and oxygenation were unaffected by the superimposed mental load.

  17. Physiological relaxation induced by horticultural activity: transplanting work using flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite increasing attention and a growing volume of research data, little physiological evidence is available on the benefits of horticultural activity and the different effects on individuals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological effects of horticultural activity and to examine how differences in personality alter these effects. Results The effects of transplanting real flowers (horticultural activity) and handling artificial flowers (control activity) on human physiological activity were compared. On the first day, eight participants engaged in horticultural activity and another eight in the control activity. On the second day, participants switched roles. Participants’ physiological conditions during each activity were assessed by measuring the heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). Psychological responses, which were measured using a semantic differential rating scale, showed that the horticultural activity promoted comfortable, soothed, and natural feelings, compared to the control activity. Analysis of physiological responses using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that sympathetic nervous activity significantly decreased in the late time period (11 to 15 minutes) of horticultural activity only in the type A group. Conclusions This study supports the fact that the horticultural activity can enhance psychological and physiological relaxation effects, although these physiological effects can differ among individuals with different personalities. PMID:24112302

  18. Engineering as a Social Activity: Preparing Engineers to Thrive in the Changing World of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Fredricka F.; Mann, Derek T. Y.; Harris, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Key macro-trends are combining to create a new work context for the practice of engineering. Telecommuting and virtual teams create myriad possibilities and challenges related to managing work and workers. Social network technology tools allow for unprecedented global, 24/7 collaboration. Globalization has created hyper-diverse organizations,…

  19. Nonprofit Organizations and Outcome Measurement: From Tracking Program Activities to Focusing on Frontline Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lehn M.

    2012-01-01

    Why do we continue to see evidence that nonprofit staff feel like outcome measurement is missing important aspects of their work? Based on an analysis of over 1,000 pages of material in 10 outcome measurement guides and a focused literature review of frontline work in three types of nonprofit organizations, this article shows that existing outcome…

  20. The Impact of an Authentic, Simulated Learning Activity on Student Preparedness for Work-Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicola-Richmond, Kelli; Richards, Kieva; Britt, Kellie

    2016-01-01

    Student preparation for work-integrated learning using simulated learning experiences is an under researched field in occupational therapy. In 2013 the Deakin University occupational therapy degree introduced a simulated learning experience for students aimed at preparing them for work-integrated learning experiences. The session gave students an…

  1. Activity Theory: A Framework for Understanding Multi-Agency Working and Engaging Service Users in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhouse, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the quality of professional relationships between educational psychologists (EPs) and other professionals who work around children, young people and their families as part of a multi-agency team (MAT). The perceived barriers to, and facilitators of, effective multi-agency working are explored in relation to their potential…

  2. 78 FR 39015 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Work...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 8584). This information collection is subject to the PRA. A Federal agency generally cannot...; Work Application and Job Order Recordkeeping ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is...) titled, ``Work Application and Job Order Recordkeeping,'' to the Office of Management and Budget...

  3. The Teacher Work Sample: A Professional Culminating Activity that Integrates General Studies Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Jean E.; Powell, David; DeLine, Mary Ann; Sautter, Alberta; Talbut, Mary Harriet; Bratberg, William; Cwick, Simin

    2012-01-01

    In response to Oregon's Teacher Standards and Practices Commission requirement that all prospective teachers document samples of their work, the Teacher Work Sample (TWS) was developed during the 1980s at Western Oregon University. The TWS was conceptualized as a method to connect meaningful teaching and learning while documenting teacher…

  4. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  5. Application of decision-making theory to the regulation of muscular work rate during self-paced competitive endurance activity.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Martin, Louise; Micklewright, Dominic; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Successful participation in competitive endurance activities requires continual regulation of muscular work rate in order to maximise physiological performance capacities, meaning that individuals must make numerous decisions with regards to the muscular work rate selected at any point in time. Decisions relating to the setting of appropriate goals and the overall strategic approach to be utilised are made prior to the commencement of an event, whereas tactical decisions are made during the event itself. This review examines current theories of decision-making in an attempt to explain the manner in which regulation of muscular work is achieved during athletic activity. We describe rational and heuristic theories, and relate these to current models of regulatory processes during self-paced exercise in an attempt to explain observations made in both laboratory and competitive environments. Additionally, we use rational and heuristic theories in an attempt to explain the influence of the presence of direct competitors on the quality of the decisions made during these activities. We hypothesise that although both rational and heuristic models can plausibly explain many observed behaviours in competitive endurance activities, the complexity of the environment in which such activities occur would imply that effective rational decision-making is unlikely. However, at present, many proposed models of the regulatory process share similarities with rational models. We suggest enhanced understanding of the decision-making process during self-paced activities is crucial in order to improve the ability to understand regulation of performance and performance outcomes during athletic activity.

  6. Application of decision-making theory to the regulation of muscular work rate during self-paced competitive endurance activity.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Martin, Louise; Micklewright, Dominic; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Successful participation in competitive endurance activities requires continual regulation of muscular work rate in order to maximise physiological performance capacities, meaning that individuals must make numerous decisions with regards to the muscular work rate selected at any point in time. Decisions relating to the setting of appropriate goals and the overall strategic approach to be utilised are made prior to the commencement of an event, whereas tactical decisions are made during the event itself. This review examines current theories of decision-making in an attempt to explain the manner in which regulation of muscular work is achieved during athletic activity. We describe rational and heuristic theories, and relate these to current models of regulatory processes during self-paced exercise in an attempt to explain observations made in both laboratory and competitive environments. Additionally, we use rational and heuristic theories in an attempt to explain the influence of the presence of direct competitors on the quality of the decisions made during these activities. We hypothesise that although both rational and heuristic models can plausibly explain many observed behaviours in competitive endurance activities, the complexity of the environment in which such activities occur would imply that effective rational decision-making is unlikely. However, at present, many proposed models of the regulatory process share similarities with rational models. We suggest enhanced understanding of the decision-making process during self-paced activities is crucial in order to improve the ability to understand regulation of performance and performance outcomes during athletic activity. PMID:24113898

  7. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  8. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  9. 45 CFR 287.120 - What work activities may be provided under the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Program Design and Operations § 287.120 What...

  10. Copula regression analysis of simultaneously recorded frontal eye field and inferotemporal spiking activity during object-based working memory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng; Clark, Kelsey L; Gong, Xiajing; Noudoost, Behrad; Li, Mingyao; Moore, Tirin; Liang, Hualou

    2015-06-10

    Inferotemporal (IT) neurons are known to exhibit persistent, stimulus-selective activity during the delay period of object-based working memory tasks. Frontal eye field (FEF) neurons show robust, spatially selective delay period activity during memory-guided saccade tasks. We present a copula regression paradigm to examine neural interaction of these two types of signals between areas IT and FEF of the monkey during a working memory task. This paradigm is based on copula models that can account for both marginal distribution over spiking activity of individual neurons within each area and joint distribution over ensemble activity of neurons between areas. Considering the popular GLMs as marginal models, we developed a general and flexible likelihood framework that uses the copula to integrate separate GLMs into a joint regression analysis. Such joint analysis essentially leads to a multivariate analog of the marginal GLM theory and hence efficient model estimation. In addition, we show that Granger causality between spike trains can be readily assessed via the likelihood ratio statistic. The performance of this method is validated by extensive simulations, and compared favorably to the widely used GLMs. When applied to spiking activity of simultaneously recorded FEF and IT neurons during working memory task, we observed significant Granger causality influence from FEF to IT, but not in the opposite direction, suggesting the role of the FEF in the selection and retention of visual information during working memory. The copula model has the potential to provide unique neurophysiological insights about network properties of the brain. PMID:26063909

  11. Do Training Programs Work? An Assessment of Pharmacists Activities in the Field of Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Valerie G.; Brock, Tina Penick; Ahn, Jungeun

    2001-01-01

    Seeks to determine if pharmacists who attended a chemical dependency training program were performing more chemical dependency related activities. Results reveal that participants were more likely to perform the following activities: lecture to community groups about chemical dependency; participate in a pharmacists' recovery program; provide…

  12. A Work Sampling Study of Provider Activities in School-Based Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavis, Brian; Pearson, Rachel; Stewart, Gail; Keefe, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe provider activities in a convenience sample of School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs). The goal was to determine the relative proportion of time that clinic staff engaged in various patient care and non-patient care activities. Methods: All provider staff at 4 urban SBHCs participated in this…

  13. Associations between different types of physical activity and teachers’ perceived mental, physical, and work-related health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and teaching-related factors and various types of PA. Methods This study included an online survey conducted across a representative sample of secondary school teachers (n = 1066, average age 40 years; 68 percent female). Level of PA and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and perceived mental health and physical health were estimated using the Short Form 36. Work-related factors such as job satisfaction, occupational stress, and absenteeism were also collected. T-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regression analyses were performed. Results Flemish secondary school teachers have poorer perceived mental and physical health than a general healthy population. This difference is particularly evident among female teachers, who reported lower perceived health, more occupational stress, and more absent days compared to their male colleagues. Higher participation in leisure-time PA was associated with a more positive perceived health. In contrast, higher levels of occupational PA and sitting time had a negative impact on perceived health. Total amount of PA, total amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA, and PA at home were not associated to teachers’ perceived health. Conclusion Because secondary school teachers’ levels of perceived health are low, they are an important target group for interventions aiming to improve health. Only leisure-time PA was associated with more positive perceived health. This finding may

  14. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  15. Capacitance improvement of supercapacitor active material based on activated carbon fiber working with a Li-ion containing electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamura, Tsutomu; Sato, Youh; Sato, Yuichi

    In an attempt to provide a favorable active material of Li + supercapacitor for HEV use, we modified the surface of an activated carbon fiber felt by coating with some transition metal oxides after mild-oxidation treatment. Major source of enhancing capacitance is attributed to be due to the nano-ionics mechanism proposed by Maier and coworkers. Cyclic voltammetry and constant current charge-discharge performance were examined for the surface modified samples in view of power capability. The oxides of Ag, Cu, Pd, and Sn were found effective to enhance the capacitance and high rate charge/discharge performance. The cycleability test was performed as well.

  16. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  17. The Prevalence of Binge Eating Disorder and Its Relationship to Work and Classroom Productivity and Activity Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipova, Anna A.; Stoffel, Cheri L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder on university campus, its associations with health risk factors, and its associations with work and classroom productivity and activity impairment, adjusted for health risk factors. Participants: The study was conducted at a public midwestern university in the United…

  18. Effects of Work Time on School Activities and Career Expectations. Technical Report. Studies in Employment and Training Policy: No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Lawrence

    The effects of part-time work of high school students on school-related behaviors and on career expectations were studied. Five dependent variables were classified as school-related behaviors: days tardy, days absent, number of extracurricular activities, transcript grade averages, and self-reported grades. Four career expectation variables were…

  19. Sources of Variability in Working Memory in Early Childhood: A Consideration of Age, Temperament, Language, and Brain Electrical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in working memory and inhibitory control (WMIC) in 3 1/2-, 4-, and 4 1/2-year-olds and how these differences were associated with differences in regulatory aspects of temperament, language comprehension, and brain electrical activity. A series of cognitive control tasks was administered to measure…

  20. Dementia-Related Work Activities of Home Care Nurses and Aides: Frequency, Perceived Competence, and Continuing Education Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debra G.; Kosteniuk, Julie G.; O'Connell, Megan E.; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Stewart, Norma J.; Karunanayake, Chandima

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the specific dementia learning needs of home care staff is needed to plan relevant continuing education (CE) programs and supports. The study's objective was to examine frequency and perceived competence in performing 20 dementia-related work activities, and identify CE priorities among home care staff. A cross-sectional survey…

  1. MSW Students' Perspectives on Social Work Goals and Social Activism before and after Completing Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizrahi, Terry; Dodd, Sarah-Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes perspectives on the goals of the social work profession and social activism of a cohort of MSW students before and after attending their graduate program. This study provides insights into the question about whether and how preexisting values, experiences, and background characteristics affect beginning and ending…

  2. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What health and safety standards apply to the...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS UNDER TITLE... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I...

  3. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What health and safety standards apply to the...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS UNDER TITLE... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I...

  4. Qualifying Work Activities in Louisiana: A Recruiter's Guide To Documenting Eligibility for Migrant Education. Louisiana Migrant Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    This manual was written as a guide for state migrant education recruiters who need to be familiar with the nature of seasonal and temporary work performed by Louisiana's migrating agricultural workers and fishing industry laborers. It is intended to teach recruiters about the agricultural and fishing activities necessary for raising and harvesting…

  5. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  6. Children and adults minimise activated muscle volume by selecting gait parameters that balance gross mechanical power and work demands.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Usherwood, James R

    2015-09-01

    Terrestrial locomotion on legs is energetically expensive. Compared with cycling, or with locomotion in swimming or flying animals, walking and running are highly uneconomical. Legged gaits that minimise mechanical work have previously been identified and broadly match walking and running at appropriate speeds. Furthermore, the 'cost of muscle force' approaches are effective in relating locomotion kinetics to metabolic cost. However, few accounts have been made for why animals deviate from either work-minimising or muscle-force-minimising strategies. Also, there is no current mechanistic account for the scaling of locomotion kinetics with animal size and speed. Here, we report measurements of ground reaction forces in walking children and adult humans, and their stance durations during running. We find that many aspects of gait kinetics and kinematics scale with speed and size in a manner that is consistent with minimising muscle activation required for the more demanding between mechanical work and power: spreading the duration of muscle action reduces activation requirements for power, at the cost of greater work demands. Mechanical work is relatively more demanding for larger bipeds--adult humans--accounting for their symmetrical M-shaped vertical force traces in walking, and relatively brief stance durations in running compared with smaller bipeds--children. The gaits of small children, and the greater deviation of their mechanics from work-minimising strategies, may be understood as appropriate for their scale, not merely as immature, incompletely developed and energetically sub-optimal versions of adult gaits. PMID:26400978

  7. Children and adults minimise activated muscle volume by selecting gait parameters that balance gross mechanical power and work demands

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Usherwood, James R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Terrestrial locomotion on legs is energetically expensive. Compared with cycling, or with locomotion in swimming or flying animals, walking and running are highly uneconomical. Legged gaits that minimise mechanical work have previously been identified and broadly match walking and running at appropriate speeds. Furthermore, the ‘cost of muscle force’ approaches are effective in relating locomotion kinetics to metabolic cost. However, few accounts have been made for why animals deviate from either work-minimising or muscle-force-minimising strategies. Also, there is no current mechanistic account for the scaling of locomotion kinetics with animal size and speed. Here, we report measurements of ground reaction forces in walking children and adult humans, and their stance durations during running. We find that many aspects of gait kinetics and kinematics scale with speed and size in a manner that is consistent with minimising muscle activation required for the more demanding between mechanical work and power: spreading the duration of muscle action reduces activation requirements for power, at the cost of greater work demands. Mechanical work is relatively more demanding for larger bipeds – adult humans – accounting for their symmetrical M-shaped vertical force traces in walking, and relatively brief stance durations in running compared with smaller bipeds – children. The gaits of small children, and the greater deviation of their mechanics from work-minimising strategies, may be understood as appropriate for their scale, not merely as immature, incompletely developed and energetically sub-optimal versions of adult gaits. PMID:26400978

  8. Leisure-time physical activity moderates the longitudinal associations between work-family spillover and physical health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lawson, Katie M.; Chang, Po-Ju; Neuendorf, Claudia; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented cross-sectional associations between negative and positive work-family spillover and physical health. Using an effort-recovery model, the study tested the hypothesis that engagement in greater leisure-time physical activity would facilitate recovery processes that buffer the negative health effects of increasing work-family spillover. Employed adults (N = 1,354) completed two waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Results indicated that an increase in negative work-family spillover across nine years was associated with decreased physical health and increased number of chronic conditions at Time 2. Moreover, more time spent on moderate leisure-time physical activity buffered many of the associations between increasing negative spillover and declining health. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25999602

  9. Seed dormancy breaking diterpenoids, including novel brassicicenes J and K, from fungus Alternaria brassicicola, and their necrotic/apoptotic activities in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Takeue, Sayaka; Oogushi, Megumi; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Takeshi; Toyota, Masao; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2014-03-01

    To find new metabolites similar to cotylenins and fusicoccins from the fungus Alternaria brassicicola, screening tests were carried out using the lettuce seed dormancy breaking assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from the culture using the assay afforded the isolation of two novel fusicoccane diterpenoids named brassicicenes J (1) and K (2), along with three known brassicicenes A (3), B (4), and F (5). Their structures were elucidated from extensive NMR spectral data and by comparison of these with those reported in the literature. Brassicicenes (1-5) exhibited weak to moderate seed dormancy breaking activities against lettuce seeds in the presence of abscisic acid. In addition, the necrotic/apoptotic activities of the brassicicenes (1-5), fusicoccin A (6) and cotylenin A (7) were evaluated by determining their cytotoxicity, cell viability and caspase-3/7 activation on the HL-60 cell line. Brassicicene K (2) exhibited similar cytostatic profiles to that of cotylenin A (7), and brassicicenes J (1), A (3), B (4), and F (5) exhibited necrotic activity. This is the first report of the seed dormancy breaking activity of brassicicenes in plants, and of necrotic/apoptotic activity in mammalian cells. PMID:24689212

  10. Associations between Active Travel to Work and Overweight, Hypertension, and Diabetes in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Christopher; Agrawal, Sutapa; Sullivan, Ruth; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura; Bharathi, A. V.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Kinra, Sanjay; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing active travel (walking, bicycling, and public transport) is promoted as a key strategy to increase physical activity and reduce the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) globally. Little is known about patterns of active travel or associated cardiovascular health benefits in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines mode and duration of travel to work in rural and urban India and associations between active travel and overweight, hypertension, and diabetes. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional study of 3,902 participants (1,366 rural, 2,536 urban) in the Indian Migration Study. Associations between mode and duration of active travel and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using random-effect logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, caste, standard of living, occupation, factory location, leisure time physical activity, daily fat intake, smoking status, and alcohol use. Rural dwellers were significantly more likely to bicycle (68.3% versus 15.9%; p<0.001) to work than urban dwellers. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 50.0%, 37.6%, 24.2%, 24.9%; hypertension was 17.7%, 11.8%, 6.5%, 9.8%; and diabetes was 10.8%, 7.4%, 3.8%, 7.3% in participants who travelled to work by private transport, public transport, bicycling, and walking, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, those walking (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 0.72; 95% CI 0.58–0.88) or bicycling to work (ARR 0.66; 95% CI 0.55–0.77) were significantly less likely to be overweight or obese than those travelling by private transport. Those bicycling to work were significantly less likely to have hypertension (ARR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36–0.71) or diabetes (ARR 0.65; 95% CI 0.44–0.95). There was evidence of a dose-response relationship between duration of bicycling to work and being overweight, having hypertension or diabetes. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design, which limits causal inference for the associations found

  11. Maximal Oxygen Intake and Maximal Work Performance of Active College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Susanne L.

    Maximal oxygen intake and associated physiological variables were measured during strenuous exercise on women subjects (N=20 physical education majors). Following assessment of maximal oxygen intake, all subjects underwent a performance test at the work level which had elicited their maximal oxygen intake. Mean maximal oxygen intake was 41.32…

  12. Abnormal Functional Activation and Connectivity in the Working Memory Network in Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakopoulos, Marinos; Dima, Danai; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Corrigall, Richard; Barker, Gareth J.; Frangou, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Disruption within the working memory (WM) neural network is considered an integral feature of schizophrenia. The WM network, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, undergo significant remodeling in late adolescence. Potential interactions between developmental changes in the WM network and disease-related…

  13. U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP PHASE 3 ACTIVITIES-AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) de...

  14. Working Memory Influences on Cross-Language Activation during Bilingual Lexical Disambiguation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Schwartz, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of verbal working memory on bilingual lexical disambiguation. Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences that ended in either a cognate or noncognate homonym or a control word. Participants decided whether follow-up target words were related in meaning to the sentences. On critical trials, sentences biased the…

  15. Searching for the Trace: The Influence of Age, Lexical Activation and Working Memory on Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angwin, Anthony J.; Chenery, Helen J.; Copland, David A.; Cardell, Elizabeth A.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Ingram, John C. L.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the stability of trace reactivation in healthy older adults, 22 older volunteers with no significant neurological history participated in a cross-modal priming task. Whilst both object relative center embedded (ORC) and object relative right branching (ORR) sentences were employed, working memory load was reduced by limiting the…

  16. Meeting Learning Challenges: Working with Children Who Have Difficulty Following Sequence of Activities and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2005-01-01

    In a question and answer advisory, the author gives advice to a preschool teacher working with a child who is having difficulties with sequencing, or the ability to put together a purposeful pattern of action, behavior, ideas, or thoughts. The author advises that through careful observation and appropriate learning opportunities, the children's…

  17. Developmental Change in Working Memory Strategies: From Passive Maintenance to Active Refreshing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camos, Valerie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Change in strategies is often mentioned as a source of memory development. However, though performance in working memory tasks steadily improves during childhood, theories differ in linking this development to strategy changes. Whereas some theories, such as the time-based resource-sharing model, invoke the age-related increase in use and…

  18. Working memory training for adult hearing aid users: study protocol for a double-blind randomized active controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One in ten people aged between 55 to 74 years have a significant hearing impairment in their better hearing ear (as defined by audiometric hearing thresholds). However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the challenges faced by older listeners cannot be explained by the audiogram alone. The ability for people with hearing loss to use cognition to support speech perception allows for compensation of the degraded auditory input. This in turn offers promise for new cognitive-based rehabilitative interventions. Working memory is known to be highly associated with language comprehension and recent evidence has shown significant generalization of learning from trained working memory tasks to improvements in sentence-repetition skills of children with severe to profound hearing loss. This evidence offers support for further investigation into the potential benefits of working memory training to improve speech perception abilities in other hearing impaired populations. Methods/Design This is a double-blind randomized active controlled trial aiming to assess whether a program of working memory training results in improvements in untrained measures of cognition, speech perception and self-reported hearing abilities in adult hearing aid users (aged 50 to 74 years) with mild-to-moderate hearing loss, compared with an active control group who receive a placebo version of the working memory training program. Discussion The present study aims to generate high-quality preliminary evidence for the efficacy of working memory training for adults with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss who are existing hearing aid users. This trial addresses a number of gaps in the published literature assessing training interventions for people with hearing loss, and in the general literature surrounding working memory training, such as the inclusion of an active control group, participant and tester blinding, and increased transparency in reporting. Trial registration

  19. Working memory activation of neural networks in the elderly as a function of information processing phase and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Charroud, Céline; Steffener, Jason; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jérémy; Bonafe, Alain; Abdennour, Meriem; Portet, Florence; Molino, François; Stern, Yaakov; Ritchie, Karen; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Akbaraly, Tasnime N

    2015-11-01

    Changes in working memory are sensitive indicators of both normal and pathological brain aging and associated disability. The present study aims to further understanding of working memory in normal aging using a large cohort of healthy elderly in order to examine three separate phases of information processing in relation to changes in task load activation. Using covariance analysis, increasing and decreasing neural activation was observed on fMRI in response to a delayed item recognition task in 337 cognitively healthy elderly persons as part of the CRESCENDO (Cognitive REServe and Clinical ENDOphenotypes) study. During three phases of the task (stimulation, retention, probe), increased activation was observed with increasing task load in bilateral regions of the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus, insula and in deep gray matter nuclei, suggesting an involvement of central executive and salience networks. Decreased activation associated with increasing task load was observed during the stimulation phase, in bilateral temporal cortex, parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus and prefrontal cortex. This spatial distribution of decreased activation is suggestive of the default mode network. These findings support the hypothesis of an increased activation in salience and central executive networks and a decreased activation in default mode network concomitant to increasing task load.

  20. Working memory activation of neural networks in the elderly as a function of information processing phase and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Charroud, Céline; Steffener, Jason; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jérémy; Bonafe, Alain; Abdennour, Meriem; Portet, Florence; Molino, François; Stern, Yaakov; Ritchie, Karen; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Akbaraly, Tasnime N

    2015-11-01

    Changes in working memory are sensitive indicators of both normal and pathological brain aging and associated disability. The present study aims to further understanding of working memory in normal aging using a large cohort of healthy elderly in order to examine three separate phases of information processing in relation to changes in task load activation. Using covariance analysis, increasing and decreasing neural activation was observed on fMRI in response to a delayed item recognition task in 337 cognitively healthy elderly persons as part of the CRESCENDO (Cognitive REServe and Clinical ENDOphenotypes) study. During three phases of the task (stimulation, retention, probe), increased activation was observed with increasing task load in bilateral regions of the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus, insula and in deep gray matter nuclei, suggesting an involvement of central executive and salience networks. Decreased activation associated with increasing task load was observed during the stimulation phase, in bilateral temporal cortex, parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus and prefrontal cortex. This spatial distribution of decreased activation is suggestive of the default mode network. These findings support the hypothesis of an increased activation in salience and central executive networks and a decreased activation in default mode network concomitant to increasing task load. PMID:26456114

  1. Materials characterization activities for %E2%80%9CTake Our Sons&Daughters to Work Day%E2%80%9D 2013.

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, Curtis Dale; Pimentel, Adam S.; Sparks, Elizabeth Schares; Hanlon, Brittany Paula

    2013-09-01

    We created interactive demonstration activities for Take Our Daughters&Sons to Work Day (TODSTWD) 2013 in order to promote general interest in chemistry and also generate awareness of the type of work our laboratories can perform. %E2%80%9CCurious about Mars Rover Curiosity?%E2%80%9D performed an elemental analysis on rocks brought to our lab using the same technique utilized on the planet Mars by the NASA robotic explorer Curiosity. %E2%80%9CFood is Chemistry?%E2%80%9D utilized a mass spectrometer to measure, in seconds, each participant's breath in order to identify the food item consumed for the activity. A total of over 130 children participated in these activities over a 3 hour block, and feedback was positive. This document reports the materials (including handouts), experimental procedures, and lessons learned so that future demonstrations can benefit from the baseline work performed. We also present example results used to prepare the Food activity and example results collected during the Curiosity demo.

  2. Altered likelihood of brain activation in attention and working memory networks in patients with multiple sclerosis: An ALE meta-analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Kollndorfer, K.; Krajnik, J.; Woitek, R.; Freiherr, J.; Prayer, D.; Schöpf, V.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease, frequently affecting attention and working memory functions. Functional imaging studies investigating those functions in MS patients are hard to compare, as they include heterogeneous patient groups and use different paradigms for cognitive testing. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in neuronal activation between MS patients and healthy controls performing attention and working memory tasks. Two meta-analyses of previously published fMRI studies investigating attention and working memory were conducted for MS patients and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting maps were contrasted to compare brain activation in patients and healthy controls. Significantly increased brain activation in the inferior parietal lobule and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was detected for healthy controls. In contrast, higher neuronal activation in MS patients was obtained in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the right premotor area. With this meta-analytic approach previous results of investigations examining cognitive function using fMRI are summarized and compared. Therefore a more general view on cognitive dysfunction in this heterogeneous disease is enabled. PMID:24056084

  3. 20 CFR 645.225 - How do Welfare-to-Work activities relate to activities provided through TANF and other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS... coordinated effectively at the State and local levels with activities being provided through TANF (section 403... unsubsidized employment in place for each participant which takes into account participant...

  4. "Cripping" the Curriculum through Academic Activism: Working toward Increasing Global Exchanges to Reframe (Dis)Ability and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.; Gabel, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates a work in progress about why and how a small yet growing network of international scholars have forged alternative frameworks for understanding what is termed "disability." First, we discuss the definition of disability calling attention to its social contexts, including schools, and the hegemony of special education.…

  5. 45 CFR 287.140 - With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Program Design... population of the NEW Program, including employment, training, placement, education, child care, and...

  6. Validation of the Japanese version of the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire that includes physician-based assessments in a large observational cohort.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, Y; Baba, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Gono, T; Hanaoka, M; Kawasumi, H; Yamanaka, H

    2016-04-01

    The Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) is a patient-reported outcome for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to translate it into Japanese and further investigate its validity and reliability. The English version of the SLAQ was translated into Japanese and administered to Japanese SLE patients at our university clinic. Physicians assessed disease activity using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). The patients were prospectively followed for repeat assessment a year later. Ultimately, 255 patients participated. The patients' 10-point ratings of disease activity and SLAQ scores were significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ = 0.53). The SLAQ score was weakly correlated with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K)-nolab (omitting laboratory items; ρ = 0.18) but not with the SLEDAI-2K (ρ = 0.02). These results suggested its convergent and discriminant validity. The SLAQ demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80), and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85). The effect sizes and the standardized response means of the SLAQ were as follows: clinical worsening, 0.26 and 0.31, and improvement, -0.39 and -0.41, respectively, which indicated a small but significant responsiveness. The Japanese version of the SLAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity; its performance was comparable to that of the original version.

  7. [Stress prevention programs--strategies, techniques, effectiveness. Part II. Organizational activities to prevent stress at work].

    PubMed

    Małgorzata, W; Merecz, Dorota; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of the publication on approaches to occupational stress prevention and a state of the art in different European countries. In this part, stress prevention within an organization is described and discussed. Although there is no one way of tackling stress at work, some recommendations can be formulated to increase the effectiveness of such interventions. The effective stress reducing programs should be aimed both at changes in the organization itself and empowerment of employees' coping with stress resources. It is also important to take the advantage of wide spectrum of methods and techniques (e.g., work redesign, participation, team work, cognitive behavioral methods, relaxation, etc.) remembering that one size does not fit all. The intervention should be carefully planned and adopted to the various branches, an individual organization or department and should be preceded by the identification of stress risks and risk groups. To have the stress prevention program successfully introduced one should also consider factors which may influence (positively or negatively) the process of program implementation.

  8. Central respiratory effects on motor nerve activities after organophosphate exposure in a working heart brainstem preparation of the rat.

    PubMed

    Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Seeger, Thomas; Dutschmann, Mathias; Worek, Franz; Mörschel, Michael

    2011-09-25

    The impact of organophosphorus compound (OP) intoxication on the activity of central respiratory circuitry, causing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and accumulation of acetylcholine in the respiratory brainstem circuits, is not understood. We investigated the central effect of the OP Crotylsarin (CRS) on respiratory network activity using the working heart brainstem preparation, which specifically allows for the analysis of central drug effects without changes in brainstem oxygenation possibly caused by drug effects on peripheral cardio-respiratory activity. Respiratory network activity was determined from phrenic and hypoglossal or vagal nerve activities (PNA, HNA, VNA). To investigate combined central and peripheral CRS effects hypo-perfusion was used mimicking additional peripheral cardiovascular collapse. Systemic CRS application induced a brief central apnea and complete AChE-inhibition in the brainstem. Subsequently, respiration was characterised by highly significant reduced PNA minute activity, while HNA showed expiratory related extra bursting indicative for activation of un-specified oro-pharyngeal behaviour. During hypo-perfusion CRS induced significantly prolonged apnoea. In all experiments respiratory activity fully recovered after 1h. We conclude that CRS mediated AChE inhibition causes only transient central breathing disturbance. Apparently intrinsic brainstem mechanisms can compensate for cholinergic over activation. Nevertheless, combination of hypo-perfusion and CRS exposure evoke the characteristic breathing arrests associated with OP poisoning.

  9. Revisiting the Time Trade-off Hypothesis: Work, Organized Activities, and Academics during College

    PubMed Central

    Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    How adolescents spend their time has long-term implications for their educational, health, and labor market outcomes, yet surprisingly little research has explored the time use of students across days and semesters. The current study used longitudinal daily diary data from a sample of college students attending a large public university in the Northeastern US (n = 726, Mage = 18.4) that was followed for 14 days within each of 7 semesters (for up to 98 diary days per student). The study had two primary aims. The first aim was to explore demographic correlates of employment time, organized activity time, and academic time. The second aim was to provide a rigorous test of the time trade-off hypothesis, which suggests that students will spend less time on academics when they spend more time on employment and extracurricular activities. The results demonstrated that time use varied by gender, parental education, and race/ethnicity. Furthermore, the results from multi-level models provided some support for the time trade-off hypothesis, although associations varied by the activity type and whether the day was a weekend. More time spent on employment was linked to less time spent on academics across days and semesters whereas organized activities were associated with less time on academics at the daily level only. The negative associations between employment and academics were most pronounced on weekdays. These results suggest that students may balance certain activities across days, whereas other activities may be in competition over longer time frames (i.e., semesters). PMID:25381597

  10. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells.

  11. Muscle activity and mood state during simulated plant factory work in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Okahara, Satoshi; Kataoka, Masataka; Okuda, Kuniharu; Shima, Masato; Miyagaki, Keiko; Ohara, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the physical and mental effects of plant factory work in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury and the use of a newly developed agricultural working environment. [Subjects] Six males with C5–C8 spinal cord injuries and 10 healthy volunteers participated. [Methods] Plant factory work involved three simulated repetitive tasks: sowing, transplantation, and harvesting. Surface electromyography was performed in the dominant upper arm, upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, and biceps brachii muscles. Subjects’ moods were monitored using the Profile of Mood States. [Results] Five males with C6–C8 injuries performed the same tasks as healthy persons; a male with a C5 injury performed fewer repetitions of tasks because it took longer. Regarding muscle activity during transplantation and harvesting, subjects with spinal cord injury had higher values for the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles compared with healthy persons. The Profile of Mood States vigor scores were significantly higher after tasks in subjects with spinal cord injury. [Conclusion] Individuals with cervical spinal cord injury completed the plant factory work, though it required increased time and muscle activity. For individuals with C5–C8 injuries, it is necessary to develop an appropriate environment and assistive devices to facilitate their work. PMID:27134377

  12. Muscle activity and mood state during simulated plant factory work in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Okahara, Satoshi; Kataoka, Masataka; Okuda, Kuniharu; Shima, Masato; Miyagaki, Keiko; Ohara, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the physical and mental effects of plant factory work in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury and the use of a newly developed agricultural working environment. [Subjects] Six males with C5-C8 spinal cord injuries and 10 healthy volunteers participated. [Methods] Plant factory work involved three simulated repetitive tasks: sowing, transplantation, and harvesting. Surface electromyography was performed in the dominant upper arm, upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, and biceps brachii muscles. Subjects' moods were monitored using the Profile of Mood States. [Results] Five males with C6-C8 injuries performed the same tasks as healthy persons; a male with a C5 injury performed fewer repetitions of tasks because it took longer. Regarding muscle activity during transplantation and harvesting, subjects with spinal cord injury had higher values for the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles compared with healthy persons. The Profile of Mood States vigor scores were significantly higher after tasks in subjects with spinal cord injury. [Conclusion] Individuals with cervical spinal cord injury completed the plant factory work, though it required increased time and muscle activity. For individuals with C5-C8 injuries, it is necessary to develop an appropriate environment and assistive devices to facilitate their work.

  13. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013

    PubMed Central

    SARLIS, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  14. Prevalence and work-related risk factors for reduced activities and absenteeism due to low back symptoms.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Stevenson, Mark; Devereux, Jason; Eng, Amanda; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Cheng, Soo; Pearce, Neil

    2012-07-01

    Although quite a lot is known about the risk factors for low back symptoms (LBS), less is known about the risk factors for the consequences of LBS. A sample of 3003 men and women randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll, were interviewed by telephone about self reported physical, psychosocial, organizational, environmental factors and the consequences of LBS (i.e. self-reported reduced activities and absenteeism). The 12-month period prevalence of reduced activities and absenteeism were 18% and 9%, respectively. Lifting (OR 1.79 95% CI 1.16-2.77) increased the risk of reduced activities. Working in awkward/tiring positions (OR 2.11 95% CI 1.20-3.70) and in a cold/damp environment (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.11-4.28) increased the risk of absenteeism. Among those with LBS, reduced activities increased with working in a hot/warm environment (OR 2.14 95% CI 1.22-3.76) and absenteeism was increased with work in awkward/tiring positions (OR 2.06 95% CI 1.13-3.77), tight deadlines (OR 1.89 95% CI 1.02-3.50), and a hot/warm environment (OR 3.35 95% CI 1.68-6.68). Interventions to reduce the consequences of LBS should aim to reduce awkward/tiring positions, lifting and work in a cold/damp environment. For individuals with LBS, additional focus should be to reduce tight deadlines, and work in hot/warm environments. PMID:22123534

  15. Prevalence and work-related risk factors for reduced activities and absenteeism due to low back symptoms.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Stevenson, Mark; Devereux, Jason; Eng, Amanda; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Cheng, Soo; Pearce, Neil

    2012-07-01

    Although quite a lot is known about the risk factors for low back symptoms (LBS), less is known about the risk factors for the consequences of LBS. A sample of 3003 men and women randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll, were interviewed by telephone about self reported physical, psychosocial, organizational, environmental factors and the consequences of LBS (i.e. self-reported reduced activities and absenteeism). The 12-month period prevalence of reduced activities and absenteeism were 18% and 9%, respectively. Lifting (OR 1.79 95% CI 1.16-2.77) increased the risk of reduced activities. Working in awkward/tiring positions (OR 2.11 95% CI 1.20-3.70) and in a cold/damp environment (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.11-4.28) increased the risk of absenteeism. Among those with LBS, reduced activities increased with working in a hot/warm environment (OR 2.14 95% CI 1.22-3.76) and absenteeism was increased with work in awkward/tiring positions (OR 2.06 95% CI 1.13-3.77), tight deadlines (OR 1.89 95% CI 1.02-3.50), and a hot/warm environment (OR 3.35 95% CI 1.68-6.68). Interventions to reduce the consequences of LBS should aim to reduce awkward/tiring positions, lifting and work in a cold/damp environment. For individuals with LBS, additional focus should be to reduce tight deadlines, and work in hot/warm environments.

  16. Allowing the Biblical Text to Do Its Pedagogical Work: Connecting Interpretative Activity and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Elie

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon scholarly literary approaches to biblical narratives, this article offers both a theoretical view and a method for teaching and learning which connect interpretative activity of biblical narratives with moral education. The theoretical section of the article discusses the pedagogical rather than propositional nature of biblical…

  17. Science Activities: Specific Problems--Some Solutions. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasker, Ross, Ed.; Lambert, John, Ed.

    The Learning in Science Project established that children from a young age construct out of their everyday experiences views which they use to explain their world and that these views are remarkably resistant to replacement by scientifically more useful views. Although science lessons tend to be based upon activities which are designed by teachers…

  18. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  19. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  20. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...