Science.gov

Sample records for activities included fuel

  1. Fuel delivery system including heat exchanger means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel delivery system is presented wherein first and second heat exchanger means are each adapted to provide the transfer of heat between the fuel and a second fluid such as lubricating oil associated with the gas turbine engine. Valve means are included which are operative in a first mode to provide for flow of the second fluid through both first and second heat exchange means and further operative in a second mode for bypassing the second fluid around the second heat exchanger means.

  2. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    DOEpatents

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  3. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  4. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  5. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  6. Dart model for irradiation-induced swelling of dispersion fuel elements including aluminum-fuel interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART) contains models for fission-gas induced fuel swelling, interaction of fuel with the matrix aluminum, resultant reaction-product swelling, and calculation of the stress gradient within the fuel particle. The effects of an aluminide shell on fuel particle swelling are evaluated. Validation of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of DART calculations of fuel swelling of U{sub 3}SiAl-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al for various dispersion fuel element designs with the data. DART results are compared with data for fuel swelling Of U{sub 3}SiAl-Al in plate, tube, and rod configurations as a function of fission density. Plate and tube calculations were performed at a constant fuel temperature of 373 K and 518 K, respectively. An irradiation temperature of 518 K results in a calculated aluminide layer thickness for the Russian tube that is in the center of the measured range (16 {mu}m). Rod calculations were performed with a temperature gradient across the rod characterized by surface and central temperatures of 373 K and 423 K, respectively. The effective yield stress of irradiated Al matrix material and the aluminide was determined by comparing the results of DART calculations with postirradiation immersion volume measurement of U{sub 3}SiAl plates. The values for the effective yield stress were used in all subsequent simulations. The lower calculated fuel swelling in the rod-type element is due to an assumed biaxial stress state. Fuel swelling in plates results in plate thickness increase only. Likewise, in tubes, only the wall thickness increases. Irradiation experiments have shown that plate-type dispersion fuel elements can develop blisters or pillows at high U-235 burnup when fuel compounds exhibiting breakaway swelling are used at moderate to high fuel volume fractions. DART-calculated interaction layer thickness and fuel swelling follows the trends of the observations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  8. ADM. Fuel Pump House (TAN611). Elevations, floor plan. Drawing includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Fuel Pump House (TAN-611). Elevations, floor plan. Drawing includes elevation and plans for "H.M." structures (Hose Storage?). Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-611-A 78 Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0611-00-693-106741 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  10. Stagnation pressure activated fuel release mechanism for hypersonic projectiles

    DOEpatents

    Cartland, Harry E.; Hunter, John W.

    2003-01-01

    A propulsion-assisted projectile has a body, a cowl forming a combustion section and a nozzle section. The body has a fuel reservoir within a central portion of the body, and a fuel activation system located along the central axis of the body and having a portion of the fuel activation system within the fuel reservoir. The fuel activation system has a fuel release piston with a forward sealing member where the fuel release piston is adapted to be moved when the forward sealing member is impacted with an air flow, and an air-flow channel adapted to conduct ambient air during flight to the fuel release piston.

  11. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  12. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition including comparison with other nuclear fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    DOE has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. Other objectives of the paper are to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact plutonium disposition cost and schedule. Also to compare the economics of a once-through weapons-derived MOX nuclear fuel cycle to other fuel cycles, such as those utilizing spent fuel reprocessing. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs.

  13. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Axial Thruster and ACS Thruster Combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  14. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  15. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  16. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  17. Summary of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.

    1984-11-01

    This review of international practices for nuclear fuel reprocessing was prepared to provide a nontechnical summary of the current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world. The sources of information are widely varied.

  18. Performance of Trasuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Interim Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer; Gilles Youinou; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranice (TRU) in light water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles would be pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code in order assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells containing typical UO2 and MOX fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into a pin without significant quantities of uranium challenges the design from the standpoint of several key reactivity parameters, particularly void reactivity, and to some degree, the Doppler coefficient. These unit cells, while providing an indication of how a whole core of similar fuel would behave, also provide information of how individual pins of TRU-only FCM fuel would influence the reactivity behavior of a heterogeneous assembly. If these FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly with LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior would be dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance of the TRU-only FCM fuel pins may be preserved. A configuration such as this would be similar to CONFU assemblies analyzed in previous studies. Analogous to the plutonium content limits imposed on MOX fuel, some amount of TRU-only FCM pins in an otherwise-uranium fuel assembly may give acceptable reactivity

  19. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  20. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  1. Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu fuel form activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL fuel form activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  2. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch

  3. Fueling active galactic nuclei by magnetic braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.; Meiksin, Avery

    1990-01-01

    Recent detections of massive concentrations of molecular gas near the centers of galaxies hosting active nuclei suggest that these concentrations may be the source of accretion fuel for the nucleus. However, for that to be true, an angular momentum barrier must be overcome before the material in such a cloud can reach the nucleus. It is suggested that magnetic braking of the cloud may remove sufficient angular momentum to permit its material to draw considerably closer to the central object. The mechanism is particularly effective in the limit that the gas becomes self-gravitating because removal of a fraction of the initial angular momentum can lead to dynamical instability and collapse. Any small misalignment between the initial rotation axis of the cloud and the rotation axis of the galaxy can be substantially amplified as a result of the braking. It is argued that mass accretion onto the central object may occur in episodes, in some cases with a constant mass accretion rate during each episode.

  4. Pu-238 fuel form activities, June 1-30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-18

    This monthly report for Pu-238 Fuel Form Activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF Pu-238 Fuel Form Production Processes and SRL Pu-238 Fuel Form Research and Development. The program status, budget information, and milestone information are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) for this program is outlined. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  5. DOE FUEL CELL R&D ACTIVITIES: TRANSPORTATION, STATIONARY, AND PORTABLE POWER APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Terry L; Garland, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Fuel Cell R&D Activities: Transportation, Stationary, and Portable Power Applications Terry Payne, PhD, PE, Technology development Manager; and Nancy Garland, PhD, Acting Fuel Cell Team Leader, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy* In 2007, the Department of Energy s Hydrogen Program initiated new research and development projects aimed at reducing component cost and increasing stack durability and performance of transportation and stationary fuel cells. Updated progress in the Program including highlights from the new projects includes operation of a membrane electrode assembly over 7300 with voltage cycling. Market transformation activities in the Program such as forklifts for distribution centers and fuel cells for backup power will be discussed.

  6. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L [Albany, OR; Summers, Cathy A [Albany, OR; Gerdemann, Steve [Albany, OR; Oryshchyn, Danylo B [Philomath, OR; Turner, Paul [Independence, OR; Patrick, Brian R [Chicago, IL

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  7. Used fuel disposition campaign international activities implementation plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, W. M.

    2011-06-29

    countries with more mature programs. The U.S. fuel cycle is a once through fuel cycle involving the direct disposal of UNF, as spent nuclear fuel, in a geologic repository (previously identified at Yucca Mountain, Nevada), following at most a few decades of storage (wet and dry). The geology at Yucca Mountain, unsaturated tuff, is unique among all countries investigating the disposal of UNF and HLW. The decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to no longer pursue the disposal of UNF at Yucca Mountain and possibly utilize very long term storage (approaching 100 years or more) while evaluating future fuel cycle alternatives for managing UNF, presents a different UNF and HLW management R&D portfolio that has been pursued in the U.S. In addition, the research and development activities managed by OCRWM have been transferred to DOE-NE. This requires a reconsideration of how the UFDC will engage in cooperative and collaborative activities with other countries. This report presents the UFDC implementation plan for international activities. The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has cooperated and collaborated with other countries in many different 'arenas' including the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and through bilateral agreements with other countries. These international activities benefited OCRWM through the acquisition and exchange of information, database development, and peer reviews by experts from other countries. DOE-NE cooperates and collaborates with other countries in similar 'arenas' with similar objectives and realizing similar benefits. However the DOE-NE focus has not typically been in the area of UNF and HLW management. This report will first summarize these recent cooperative and collaborative activities. The manner that the UFDC will cooperate and collaborate in the future is expected to change as R&D is conducted

  8. CNR-TAE`s activity on fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Staiti, P.; Freni, S.; Passalacqua, E.; Antonucci, V.

    1997-07-01

    The recognition of the advantages and efficiencies implicit in an economy based upon the electrochemical conversion of fuels has led to intensive efforts toward the development of the fuel cells technology. On phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC), the CNR-TAE owns a full capability in PAFC technology and has built and tested 1 kW power plant in an ENEA supported program. On molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), the CNR-TAE has matured a sound experience on the modeling of energy balances of MCFC with external or internal reforming, screening design and testing of reforming catalysts, on mechanisms of components aging, catalysts formulation and innovative methods to control catalyst poisoning by means of porous ceramic membranes. In solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) research, a comparison between steam internal and external reforming, exhaust gas recycling reforming and use of partial oxidation has been performed. Basic researches on the mechanism of conduction in solids and search for novel electrolytes are on course. In the field of fuel cells operating at low temperatures, the activity is addressed to the development of low Pt loading electrodes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and development of ternary catalysts supported on carbon black for electrochemical oxidation of methanol in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Further research is on the fuel cell utilizing a new type of electrolyte; in this field, an heteropolyacid lab-scale monocell has been realized and successful tested.

  9. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell demonstration activities

    SciTech Connect

    Veyo, S.E.

    1995-08-01

    The development of a viable fuel cell driven electrical power generation system involves not only the development of cell and stack technology, but also the development of the overall system concept, the strategy for control, and the ancillary subsystems. The design requirements used to guide system development must reflect a customer focus in order to evolve a commercial product. In order to obtain useful customer feedback, Westinghouse has practiced the deployment with customers of fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell power generation systems. These field units have served to demonstrate to customers first hand the beneficial attributes of the SOFC, to expose deficiencies through experience in order to guide continued development, and to garner real world feedback and data concerning not only cell and stack parameters, but also transportation, installation, permitting and licensing, start-up and shutdown, system alarming, fault detection, fault response, and operator interaction.

  10. Fuel Cell Activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel cells have a long history in space applications and may have potential application in aeronautics as well. A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that directly transforms the chemical energy of a fuel and oxidant into electrical energy. Alkaline fuel cells have been the mainstay of the U.S. space program, providing power for the Apollo missions and the Space Shuttle. However, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells offer potential benefits over alkaline systems and are currently under development for the next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Furthermore, primary and regenerative systems utilizing PEM technology are also being considered for future space applications such as surface power and planetary aircraft. In addition to these applications, the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently studying the feasibility of the use of both PEM and solid oxide fuel cells for low- or zero-emission electric aircraft propulsion. These types of systems have potential applications for high altitude environmental aircraft, general aviation and commercial aircraft, and high attitude airships. NASA Glenn has a unique set of capabilities and expertise essential to the successful development of advanced fuel cell power systems for space and aeronautics applications. NASA Glenn's role in past fuel cell development programs as well as current activities to meet these new challenges will be presented

  11. Radiochemical Assays of Irradiated VVER-440 Fuel for Use in Spent Fuel Burnup Credit Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2005-04-25

    The objective of this spent fuel burnup credit work was to study and describe a VVER-440 reactor spent fuel assembly (FA) initial state before irradiation, its operational irradiation history and the resulting radionuclide distribution in the fuel assembly after irradiation. This work includes the following stages: (1) to pick out and select a specific spent (irradiated) FA for examination; (2) to describe the FA initial state before irradiation; (3) to describe the irradiation history, including thermal calculations; (4) to examine the burnup distribution of select radionuclides along the FA height and cross-section; (5) to examine the radionuclide distributions; (6) to determine the Kr-85 release into the plenum; (7) to select and prepare FA rod specimens for destructive examinations; (8) to determine the radionuclide compositions, isotope masses and burnup in the rod specimens; and (9) to analyze, document and process the results. The specific workscope included the destructive assay (DA) of spent fuel assembly rod segments with an {approx}38.5 MWd/KgU burnup from a single VVER-440 fuel assembly from the Novovorenezh reactor in Russia. Based on irradiation history criteria, four rods from the fuel assembly were selected and removed from the assembly for examination. Next, 8 sections were cut from the four rods and sent for destructive analysis of radionuclides by radiochemical analyses. The results were documented in a series of seven reports over a period of {approx}1 1/2 years.

  12. Early direct-injection, low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel in an optical engine utilizing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle.

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, Christopher R.; Radovanovic, Michael S.; Milam, David M.; Martin, Glen C.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2008-04-01

    Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes x 70/mD and 5 holes x 35/mD) with 103-/gmm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70/mD before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low. Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load. High-speed movies of natural luminosity were acquired by viewing through a window in the cylinder wall and through a window in the piston to provide quasi-3D information about the combustion process. These movies revealed that advanced combustion phasing resulted in intense pool fires within the piston bowl, after the end of significant heat release. These pool fires are a result of fuel-films created when the injected fuel impinged on the piston surface. The emissions results showed a strong correlation with pool-fire activity. Smoke and NO/dx emissions rose steadily as pool-fire intensity increased, whereas HC and CO showed a dramatic increase with near-zero pool-fire activity.

  13. Rethinking biological activation of methane and conversion to liquid fuels.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Chad A; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    If methane, the main component of natural gas, can be efficiently converted to liquid fuels, world reserves of methane could satisfy the demand for transportation fuels in addition to use in other sectors. However, the direct activation of strong C-H bonds in methane and conversion to desired products remains a difficult technological challenge. This perspective reveals an opportunity to rethink the logic of biological methane activation and conversion to liquid fuels. We formulate a vision for a new foundation for methane bioconversion and suggest paths to develop technologies for the production of liquid transportation fuels from methane at high carbon yield and high energy efficiency and with low CO2 emissions. These technologies could support natural gas bioconversion facilities with a low capital cost and at small scales, which in turn could monetize the use of natural gas resources that are frequently flared, vented or emitted.

  14. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  15. Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O& #x27; Brien, James E.

    2013-03-05

    Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

  16. Fuel conservation through active control of rotor clearances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beitler, R. S.; Saunders, A. A.; Wanger, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project, technology is being developed which will significantly reduce the fuel consumption of turbofan engines for subsonic transport aircraft. One technology concept being pursued is active control of rotor tip clearances. Attention is given to rotor tip clearance considerations and an overview of preliminary study results as well as the General Electric EEE clearance control approach is presented. Finally, potential fuel savings with active control of rotor clearances for a typical EEE mission are predicted.

  17. 5.0. Depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Wieselquist, William A.

    2016-04-01

    SCALE’s general depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms analysis capabilities are enabled through a family of modules related to the main ORIGEN depletion/irradiation/decay solver. The nuclide tracking in ORIGEN is based on the principle of explicitly modeling all available nuclides and transitions in the current fundamental nuclear data for decay and neutron-induced transmutation and relies on fundamental cross section and decay data in ENDF/B VII. Cross section data for materials and reaction processes not available in ENDF/B-VII are obtained from the JEFF-3.0/A special purpose European activation library containing 774 materials and 23 reaction channels with 12,617 neutron-induced reactions below 20 MeV. Resonance cross section corrections in the resolved and unresolved range are performed using a continuous-energy treatment by data modules in SCALE. All nuclear decay data, fission product yields, and gamma-ray emission data are developed from ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluations. Decay data include all ground and metastable state nuclides with half-lives greater than 1 millisecond. Using these data sources, ORIGEN currently tracks 174 actinides, 1149 fission products, and 974 activation products. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the stand-alone capabilities and underlying methodology of ORIGEN—as opposed to the integrated depletion capability it provides in all coupled neutron transport/depletion sequences in SCALE, as described in other chapters.

  18. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  19. Hydrogen as an activating fuel for a tidal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlov, A. M.

    Tidal projects, offering a clean, inexhaustible, and fairly predictable energy source, require a system for accumulating energy for off-peak periods. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis during off-peak power plant operation can be used as an activating fuel to furnish the plant during peak load demands. Tidal energy is converted into compressed air energy by special chambers on the ocean bed. This compressed air can be heated by combustion of the stored hydrogen and expanded through high speed gas turbine generators. For off-peak periods, the energy of non-heated compressed air is used for the production of hydrogen fuel. The amount of fuel produced at this time is enough for power plant operation during two peak hours, with three times greater plant capacity. The hydrogen fuel storage method does have energy losses and requires extra capital investment for electrolysis and hydrogen storage equipment. It does not, however, require a gas turbine oil fuel, as does the air compressed storage method, nor a low-speed heavy hydro-turbine, as does the hydro-pumped method. Moreover, the gas turbine can be used for both production and consumption of hydrogen fuel.

  20. Dynamic model of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack including an integrated cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    A novel dynamic micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (MT-SOFC) and stack model including an integrated cooling system is developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. The modeling approach includes a simplified tubular geometry and stack design including an integrated cooling structure, detailed pressure drop and gas property calculations, the electrical and physical constraints of the stack design that determine the current, as well as control strategies for the temperature. Moreover, an advanced heat transfer balance with detailed radiative heat transfer between the cells and the integrated cooling-tubes, convective heat transfer between the gas flows and the surrounding structures and conductive heat transfer between the solid structures inside of the stack, is included. The detailed model can be used as a design basis for the novel MT-SOFC stack assembly including an integrated cooling system, as well as for the development of a dynamic system control strategy. The evaluated best-case design achieves very high electrical efficiency between around 75 and 55% in the entire power density range between 50 and 550 mW /cm2 due to the novel stack design comprising an integrated cooling structure.

  1. Fuel cell system including a unit for electrical isolation of a fuel cell stack from a manifold assembly and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Kelley; Dana A. , Farooque; Mohammad , Davis; Keith

    2007-10-02

    A fuel cell system with improved electrical isolation having a fuel cell stack with a positive potential end and a negative potential, a manifold for use in coupling gases to and from a face of the fuel cell stack, an electrical isolating assembly for electrically isolating the manifold from the stack, and a unit for adjusting an electrical potential of the manifold such as to impede the flow of electrolyte from the stack across the isolating assembly.

  2. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou

    2011-09-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  3. Fuel cell integral bundle assembly including ceramic open end seal and vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control

    DOEpatents

    Zafred, Paolo R [Murrysville, PA; Gillett, James E [Greensburg, PA

    2012-04-24

    A plurality of integral bundle assemblies contain a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion containing a base support, the base supports a dense, ceramic air exhaust manifold having four supporting legs, the manifold is below and connects to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the open end of the fuel cells rest upon and within a separate combination ceramic seal and bundle support contained in a ceramic support casting, where at least one flexible cushion ceramic band seal located between the recuperator and fuel cells protects and controls horizontal thermal expansion, and where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all of the weight of the generator.

  4. Evaluation and optimization of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack model including an integrated cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    A micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack model including an integrated cooling system was developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. For the purpose of model evaluation, reference operating, geometrical and material properties are determined. The reference stack design is composed of 3294 cells, with a diameter of 2 mm, and 61 cooling-tubes. The stack is operated at a power density of 300 mW/cm2 and air is used as the cooling fluid inside the integrated cooling system. Regarding the performance, the reference design achieves an electrical stack efficiency of around 57% and a power output of 1.1 kW. The maximum occurring temperature of the positive electrode electrolyte negative electrode (PEN)-structure is 1369 K. As a result of a design of experiments, parameters of a best-case design are determined. The best-case design achieves a comparable power output of 1.1 kW with an electrical efficiency of 63% and a maximum occurring temperature of the PEN-structure of 1268 K. Nevertheless, the best-case design has an increased volume based on the higher diameter of 3 mm and increased spacing between the cells.

  5. Radionuclide Compositions and Total Activity of Spent MTR-HEU Fuel Elements of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sarta, Jose A.; Castiblanco, Luis A

    2005-05-24

    With cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States, several calculations and tasks related to the waste disposal of spent MTR fuel enriched nominally to 93% were carried out for the conversion of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor from MTR-HEU fuel to TRIGA-LEU fuel. In order to remove the spent MTR-HEU fuel of the core and store it safely a program was established at the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares y Energias Alternativas (INEA). This program included training, acquisition of hardware and software, design and construction of a decay pool, transfer of the spent HEU fuel elements into the decay pool and his final transport to Savannah River in United States. In this paper are presented data of activities calculated for each relevant radionuclide present in spent MTR-HEU fuel elements of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor and the total activity. The total activity calculated takes in consideration contributions of fission, activation and actinides products. The data obtained were the base for shielding calculations for the decay pool concerning the storage of spent MTR-HEU fuel elements and the respective dosimetric evaluations in the transferring operations of fuel elements into the decay pool.

  6. Radionuclide Compositions and Total Activity of Spent MTR-HEU Fuel Elements of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarta, Josè A.; Castiblanco, Luis A.

    2005-05-01

    With cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States, several calculations and tasks related to the waste disposal of spent MTR fuel enriched nominally to 93% were carried out for the conversion of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor from MTR-HEU fuel to TRIGA-LEU fuel. In order to remove the spent MTR-HEU fuel of the core and store it safely a program was established at the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares y Energìas Alternativas (INEA). This program included training, acquisition of hardware and software, design and construction of a decay pool, transfer of the spent HEU fuel elements into the decay pool and his final transport to Savannah River in United States. In this paper are presented data of activities calculated for each relevant radionuclide present in spent MTR-HEU fuel elements of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor and the total activity. The total activity calculated takes in consideration contributions of fission, activation and actinides products. The data obtained were the base for shielding calculations for the decay pool concerning the storage of spent MTR-HEU fuel elements and the respective dosimetric evaluations in the transferring operations of fuel elements into the decay pool.

  7. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  8. Fuel cells seminar

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  9. Bioacessibility of PAHs in fuel soot assessed by an in vitro digestive model: effect of including an absorptive sink.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Pignatello, Joseph J; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-03-17

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with soot or black carbon can enter the human digestive tract by unintentional ingestion of soil or other particles. This study investigated the bioaccessibility of 11 PAHs in a composite fuel soot sample using an in vitro digestive model that included silicone sheet as an absorptive sink during the small intestinal digestion stage. The sheet was meant to simulate the passive transfer of PAHs in lumen fluid across the small intestinal epithelium, which was postulated to promote desorption of labile PAHs from the soot by steepening the soot-fluid concentration gradient. We show that the presence of silicone sheet during a 4 h default digestion time significantly increased the apparent bioaccessible fraction (Bapp, %), defined as the sum in the sheet and digestive fluid relative to the total PAH determined. The ability to increase Bapp for most PAHs leveled off above a sheet-to-soot ratio of 2.0 g per 50 mg, indicating that the sheet is an effective absorptive sink and promotes desorption in the mentioned way. Enhancement of Bapp by the sheet correlated positively with the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), even though the partition coefficient of PAH between sheet and digestive fluid (which contains bile acid micelles) correlated negatively with Kow. It was hypothesized that PAHs initially in the soot exist in labile and nonlabile states. The fraction of labile PAH still sorbed to the soot residue after digestion, and the maximum possible (limiting) bioaccessibility (Blim) could be estimated by varying the sheet-to-soot ratio. We show conclusively that the increase in bioccessibility due to the presence of the sheet is accounted for by a corresponding decrease in fraction of labile PAH still sorbed to the soot. The Blim ranged from 30.8 to 62.4%, independent of molecular size. The nonlabile fraction of individual PAHs (69.2-37.6% in this case) is therefore large and needs to be taken into account in risk

  10. Activities of the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue for many NEA member countries. In nuclear criticality safety, the decision of many countries to advance burnup credit as part of their licensing strategy has heightened recent interest in experimental data needed to validate computer codes used in burnup credit calculations. This paper discusses recent activities of an Expert Group on assay data, formed under the OECD/NEA/NSC/WPNCS (Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) to help coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate international collaboration between NEA member countries developing or implementing burnup credit methodologies. Recent activities of the Expert Group are described, focusing on the planned expansion of the Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO), and preparation of a state-of-the-art report on assay data that includes sections on recommended radiochemical analysis methods, techniques, and lessons learned from previous experiments.

  11. Combustion instability and active control: Alternative fuels, augmentors, and modeling heat release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sammy Ace

    Experimental and analytical studies were conducted to explore thermo-acoustic coupling during the onset of combustion instability in various air-breathing combustor configurations. These include a laboratory-scale 200-kW dump combustor and a 100-kW augmentor featuring a v-gutter flame holder. They were used to simulate main combustion chambers and afterburners in aero engines, respectively. The three primary themes of this work includes: 1) modeling heat release fluctuations for stability analysis, 2) conducting active combustion control with alternative fuels, and 3) demonstrating practical active control for augmentor instability suppression. The phenomenon of combustion instabilities remains an unsolved problem in propulsion engines, mainly because of the difficulty in predicting the fluctuating component of heat release without extensive testing. A hybrid model was developed to describe both the temporal and spatial variations in dynamic heat release, using a separation of variables approach that requires only a limited amount of experimental data. The use of sinusoidal basis functions further reduced the amount of data required. When the mean heat release behavior is known, the only experimental data needed for detailed stability analysis is one instantaneous picture of heat release at the peak pressure phase. This model was successfully tested in the dump combustor experiments, reproducing the correct sign of the overall Rayleigh index as well as the remarkably accurate spatial distribution pattern of fluctuating heat release. Active combustion control was explored for fuel-flexible combustor operation using twelve different jet fuels including bio-synthetic and Fischer-Tropsch types. Analysis done using an actuated spray combustion model revealed that the combustion response times of these fuels were similar. Combined with experimental spray characterizations, this suggested that controller performance should remain effective with various alternative fuels

  12. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hózer, Zoltán; Szabó, Emese; Pintér, Tamás; Varjú, Ilona Baracska; Bujtás, Tibor; Farkas, Gábor; Vajda, Nóra

    2009-07-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  13. Fire Activity and Severity in the Western US Vary along Proxy Gradients Representing Fuel Amount and Fuel Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Sean A.; Parisien, Marc-André; Miller, Carol; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have shown that wildfire activity (e.g., area burned) at regional to global scales may be limited at the extremes of environmental gradients such as productivity or moisture. Fire activity, however, represents only one component of the fire regime, and no studies to date have characterized fire severity along such gradients. Given the importance of fire severity in dictating ecological response to fire, this is a considerable knowledge gap. For the western US, we quantify relationships between climate and the fire regime by empirically describing both fire activity and severity along two climatic water balance gradients, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and water deficit (WD), that can be considered proxies for fuel amount and fuel moisture, respectively. We also concurrently summarize fire activity and severity among ecoregions, providing an empirically based description of the geographic distribution of fire regimes. Our results show that fire activity in the western US increases with fuel amount (represented by AET) but has a unimodal (i.e., humped) relationship with fuel moisture (represented by WD); fire severity increases with fuel amount and fuel moisture. The explicit links between fire regime components and physical environmental gradients suggest that multivariable statistical models can be generated to produce an empirically based fire regime map for the western US. Such models will potentially enable researchers to anticipate climate-mediated changes in fire recurrence and its impacts based on gridded spatial data representing future climate scenarios. PMID:24941290

  14. Fire activity and severity in the western US vary along proxy gradients representing fuel amount and fuel moisture.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sean A; Parisien, Marc-André; Miller, Carol; Dobrowski, Solomon Z

    2014-01-01

    Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have shown that wildfire activity (e.g., area burned) at regional to global scales may be limited at the extremes of environmental gradients such as productivity or moisture. Fire activity, however, represents only one component of the fire regime, and no studies to date have characterized fire severity along such gradients. Given the importance of fire severity in dictating ecological response to fire, this is a considerable knowledge gap. For the western US, we quantify relationships between climate and the fire regime by empirically describing both fire activity and severity along two climatic water balance gradients, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and water deficit (WD), that can be considered proxies for fuel amount and fuel moisture, respectively. We also concurrently summarize fire activity and severity among ecoregions, providing an empirically based description of the geographic distribution of fire regimes. Our results show that fire activity in the western US increases with fuel amount (represented by AET) but has a unimodal (i.e., humped) relationship with fuel moisture (represented by WD); fire severity increases with fuel amount and fuel moisture. The explicit links between fire regime components and physical environmental gradients suggest that multivariable statistical models can be generated to produce an empirically based fire regime map for the western US. Such models will potentially enable researchers to anticipate climate-mediated changes in fire recurrence and its impacts based on gridded spatial data representing future climate scenarios.

  15. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her...) Other market promotion activities. Credit-Back shall be granted for market promotion other than...

  16. Experience with the loading and transport of fuel assembly transport casks, including CASTOR casks, and the radiation exposure of personnel.

    PubMed

    Bentele, W; Kinzelmann, T

    1999-12-01

    In 1997 and 1998, six spent fuel assembly transports started from the nuclear power plant Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN), using CASTOR-V19 casks. Professor Kuni of Marburg University challenged the statement made by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (BfS)) based on accepted scientific knowledge, according to which so-called CASTOR transports present no risk, either to the population or to the escorting police units. This paper shows that the collective dose during the loading of the CASTOR casks amounted to 4.5 mSv (gamma and neutrons) per cask at the most, and that the maximum individual dose amounted to 0.26 mSv. In addition to these doses, the collective dose during handling and transport must be considered: this amounted to 0.35 mSv (gamma and neutrons). The dose to the police escort was <0.1 mSv (gamma and neutrons). In the light of these circumstances, this report is presented on contamination determined during the transport of CASTOR casks and of other spent fuel casks. The controls of spent fuel transports carried out since 1978, mainly with NTL 11 spent fuel casks, revealed that about one fifth of the transport casks which left the GKN with a surface contamination of <4 Bq cm(-2) (limit for surface contamination), presented degrees of contamination >4 Bq cm(-2) upon reaching the Valognes/Cogema terminal. However, transport casks coming from French plants also revealed degrees of contamination >4 Bq cm(-2), as well as 'hot spots'. No such contamination was found on NTL 11 casks transported from the GKN to Sellafield. Neither was any increased contamination found upon the arrival of CASTOR-V19 casks transported from GKN to Gorleben or Ahaus. The partially sensationalist media reports were inversely proportional to the actual radiological relevance of the matter. The German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK) confirmed that the radiological effect of such contaminated spent fuel transports is

  17. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  18. Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M.; Rosocha, Louis A.

    2009-12-01

    A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

  19. Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxian; Wu, Wenzhong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; You, Li; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor (ER) recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency (RP) of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency (RIE) was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials were also determined. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem. The magnitude of pollution due to global usage of fossil fuels makes it imperative to understand the issue of fossil fuel-derived endocrine activities and the associated health risks, particularly the aggregated risks stemmed from exposure to toxicants of multiple sources.

  20. Nuclear actin activates human transcription factor genes including the OCT4 gene.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shota; Yamamoto, Koji; Tokunaga, Makio; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    RNA microarray analyses revealed that nuclear actin activated many human transcription factor genes including OCT4, which is required for gene reprogramming. Oct4 is known to be activated by nuclear actin in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings imply that this process of OCT4 activation is conserved in vertebrates and among cell types and could be used for gene reprogramming of human cells.

  1. Alcohol fuels activities at the Solar Energy Research Institute, 1982. [Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and describe the SERI R and D activities in alcohol fuels during FY 1982. This report summarizes both in-house and contracted research tasks. Individual task summary sheets are included which report budget allocations, the objectives, and the technical approach. The major emphasis of the program is on cellulose-to-ethanol process development, with a smaller emphasis on methanol synthesis through gasification. To improve biological processing of biomass, the program also includes many of the long-lead-time, basic research tasks in such areas of recombinant DNA, genetics, and mutant strain selection.

  2. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  3. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  4. Utilization of spent activated carbon to enhance the combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chang-Wen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Jhong-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the heating value and combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel, spent activated carbon derived fuel, and derived fuel from a mixture of organic sludge and spent activated carbon. Spent activated carbon was sampled from an air pollution control device of an incinerator and characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA, and SEM. The spent activated carbon was washed with deionized water and solvent (1N sulfuric acid) and then processed by the organic sludge derived fuel manufacturing process. After washing, the salt (chloride) and sulfide content could be reduced to 99% and 97%, respectively; in addition the carbon content and heating value were increased. Different ratios of spent activated carbon have been applied to the organic sludge derived fuel to reduce the NO(x) emission of the combustion.

  5. Options Study Documenting the Fast Reactor Fuels Innovative Design Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-07-01

    This document provides presentation and general analysis of innovative design concepts submitted to the FCRD Advanced Fuels Campaign by nine national laboratory teams as part of the Innovative Transmutation Fuels Concepts Call for Proposals issued on October 15, 2009 (Appendix A). Twenty one whitepapers were received and evaluated by an independent technical review committee.

  6. Wavelet-transform-based power management of hybrid vehicles with multiple on-board energy sources including fuel cell, battery and ultracapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Masrur, Abul; Daniszewski, David

    A wavelet-transform-based strategy is proposed for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with multiple on-board energy sources and energy storage systems including a battery, a fuel cell, and an ultra-capacitor. The proposed wavelet-transform algorithm is capable of identifying the high-frequency transient and real time power demand of the HEV, and allocating power components with different frequency contents to corresponding sources to achieve an optimal power management control algorithm. By using the wavelet decomposition algorithm, a proper combination can be achieved with a properly sized ultra-capacitor dealing with the chaotic high-frequency components of the total power demand, while the fuel cell and battery deal with the low and medium frequency power demand. Thus the system efficiency and life expectancy can be greatly extended. Simulation and experimental results validated the effectiveness of wavelet-transform-based power management algorithm.

  7. Nondestructive assay of spent boiling-water-reactor fuel by active neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.; Ricker, C.W.; Ragan, G.L.; Difilippo, F.C.; Slaughter, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    Spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel from Dresden I was assayed for total fissile mass, using the active neutron interrogation method. The nondestructive assay (NDA) system used has four Sb-Be sources for interrogation of the fuels; the induced fission neutrons from the fuel are counted by four lead-shielded methane-filled proportional counters biased above the energy of the source neutrons. Results agreed with results from the chemical analyses to within 2 to 3%. Similar agreement was obtained when two combinations of canned spent fuel were used as standards for the nondestructive assays.

  8. Active Well Coincidence Counter measurements of enriched uranium fuel assemblies in scanning and stationary modes

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, M.S.; Cowder, L. ); Maltsev, V.; Chernikov, A.; Mokeenko, P.; D'yadkov, K.; Ivanov, V. Nuclear Power Plant, Zarechnyy ); Lagattu, A.; Lopatin, Y.; Czock, K.; Rundquist, D.; Pedraza, L. )

    1991-01-01

    Enriched uranium fuel assemblies were measured with an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) at the Beloyarskaya Nuclear Power Plant. Special AWCC inserts, electronics, and software were used. Stationary and scanning measurements were performed to establish calibrations and performance specifications for the assay of {sup 235}U and {sub 235}U/cm for BN600 fuel. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  10. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  11. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  12. Modifying Physical Activities to Include Individuals with Disabilities: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Effectively including individuals with disabilities in a physical activity setting can often be a challenge due to constraints related to equipment, class size, curriculum, and the various ability levels of individuals with and without disabilities. However, there are ways the instructor can control the environment and tasks to meet the needs of…

  13. Activity of fuel batches processed through Hanford separations plants, 1944 through 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, R.A.; Wootan, D.W.

    1997-07-29

    This document provides a printout of the ``Fuel Activity Database`` (version U6) generated by the Hanford DKPRO code and transmitted to the Los Alamos National Laboratory for input to their ``Hanford Defined Waste`` model of waste tank inventories. This fuel activity file consists of 1,276 records--each record representing the activity associated with a batch of spent reactor fuel processed by month (or shorter period) through individual Hanford separations plants between 1944 and 1989. Each record gives the curies for 46 key radionuclides, decayed to a common reference date of January 1, 1994.

  14. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  15. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  16. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Joseph Perry; Farese, David John; Xu, Jianguo

    2002-06-11

    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  17. Preface for small-molecule activation: Carbon-containing fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. Thus, this transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather by the tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.

  18. Preface for small-molecule activation: Carbon-containing fuels

    DOE PAGES

    Fujita, Etsuko; Goldman, Alan S.

    2015-06-01

    For millennia, human transportation was fueled largely through the consumption of biomass (by humans or domestic animals) and to a lesser extent by wind. The 19th century saw a major shift to coal-fueled transportation, with trains and ships powered by steam engines. A second major shift in the fueling of transportation occurred in the 20th century, this time to petroleum. Thus, this transition was not driven by the cost or ease of obtaining energy from oil wells vs. coal mines – indeed, the cost of petroleum has always been higher than coal on a per-unit-energy basis – but rather bymore » the tremendous technical advantages of powering engines with liquids, specifically liquid hydrocarbons.« less

  19. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 1, Activation measurements and comparison with calculations for spent fuel assembly hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, A.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly remains that is also radioactive and requires disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report presents a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volumes 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1. 5 refs., 4 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 3, Calculated activity profiles of spent nuclear fuel assembly hardware for boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.M.; Luksic, A.T.; Schutz, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly that is also radioactive and required disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report presents a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volume 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1.

  1. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 2, Calculated activity profiles of spent nuclear fuel assembly hardware for pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.M.; Luksic, A.T.; Lotz, T.L.; Schutz, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly remains that is also radioactive and requires disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report present a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from Laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volumes 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1.

  2. NREL Team Creates High-Activity, Durable Platinum Extended Surface Catalyst for Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers with NREL's Fuel Cell team showed that platinum can replace copper nanowires in such a way that high-surface-area and high-specific-activity catalysts are produced, potentially allowing for lower-cost catalysts.

  3. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Fou...

  4. Nondestructive assay of spent boiling water reactor fuel by active neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.; Ricker, C.W.; Ragan, G.L.; Difilippo, F.C.; Slaughter, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    Spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel from Dresden I was assayed for total fissile mass, using the active neutron interrogation method. The nondestructive assay (NDA) system used has four Sb-Be sources for interrogation of the fuels; the induced fission neutrons from the fuel are counted by four lead-shielded methane-filled proportional counters biased above the energy of the source neutrons. Spent fuel rods containing 9 kg of heavy metal were chopped into 5-cm segments and loaded into three 1-liter cans. The three cans were assayed in seven combinations of one, two, or three cans, enabling an evaluation of the precision and accuracy of the NDA system for different amounts of fissile material. The fissile mass in each combination was determined by comparing the induced-fission-neutron counts with the counts obtained from a known standard comprising chopped segments of unirradiated Dresden fuel. These masses were compared to the masses determined by chemical analyses of the spent fuel. The results from the nondestructive assays agreed with results from the chemical analyses to within 2 to 3%. Similar agreement was obtained when two combinations of canned spent fuel were used as standards for the nondesctuctive assays. The assay of BWR spent fuel served as a test of the NDA system which was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the assay of spent liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel subassemblies at the heat-end of a reprocessing plant. Results of previous experiments and calculations reported earlier using simulated LMFBR fuel subassemblies indicated that the NDA system can measure the fissile masses of spent fuel subassemblies to within an accuracy of 3%. Results of the assays of spent BWR fuel reported herein support this conclusion.

  5. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-02-01

    In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw control is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.

  6. Mimetics of caloric restriction include agonists of lipid-activated nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Corton, J Christopher; Apte, Udayan; Anderson, Steven P; Limaye, Pallavi; Yoon, Lawrence; Latendresse, John; Dunn, Corrie; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Voss, Kenneth A; Swanson, Cynthia; Kimbrough, Carie; Wong, Jean S; Gill, Sarjeet S; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Stulnig, Thomas M; Steffensen, Knut R; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mehendale, Harihara M

    2004-10-29

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized countries is associated with increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and certain types of cancer. In animal models, caloric restriction (CR) suppresses these diseases as well as chemical-induced tissue damage. These beneficial effects of CR overlap with those altered by agonists of nuclear receptors (NR) under control of the fasting-responsive transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha). In a screen for compounds that mimic CR effects in the liver, we found statistically significant overlaps between the CR transcript profile in wild-type mice and the profiles altered by agonists of lipid-activated NR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), liver X receptor, and their obligate heterodimer partner, retinoid X receptor. The overlapping genes included those involved in CVD (lipid metabolism and inflammation) and cancer (cell fate). Based on this overlap, we hypothesized that some effects of CR are mediated by PPARalpha. As determined by transcript profiling, 19% of all gene expression changes in wild-type mice were dependent on PPARalpha, including Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14, involved in fatty acid omega-oxidation, acute phase response genes, and epidermal growth factor receptor but not increases in PGC-1alpha. CR protected the livers of wild-type mice from damage induced by thioacetamide, a liver toxicant and hepatocarcinogen. CR protection was lost in PPARalpha-null mice due to inadequate tissue repair. These results demonstrate that PPARalpha mediates some of the effects of CR and indicate that a pharmacological approach to mimicking many of the beneficial effects of CR may be possible.

  7. Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the rig s design are features that approximate conditions similar to those that would be encountered by a candidate device if it were installed on an actual combustion research rig. The characterized dynamic performance measures obtained through testing in the rig are planned to be accurate indicators of expected performance in an actual combustion testing environment. To evaluate how well the characterization rig predicts fuel modulator dynamic performance, characterization rig data was compared with performance data for a fuel modulator candidate when the candidate was in operation during combustion testing. Specifically, the nominal and off-nominal performance data for a magnetostrictive-actuated proportional fuel modulation valve is described. Valve performance data were collected with the characterization rig configured to emulate two different combustion rig fuel feed systems. Fuel mass flows and pressures, fuel feed line lengths, and fuel injector orifice size was approximated in the characterization rig. Valve performance data were also collected with the valve modulating the fuel into the two combustor rigs. Comparison of the predicted and actual valve performance data show that when the valve is operated near its design condition the characterization rig can appropriately predict the installed performance of the valve. Improvements to the characterization rig and accompanying modeling activities are underway to more accurately predict performance, especially for the devices under development to modulate fuel into the much smaller fuel injectors anticipated in future lean-burning low-emissions aircraft engine combustors.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of soy has been demonstrated to reduce circulating cholesterol levels, most notably reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The component or components that might be responsible for this effect is still a matter of debate or controversy among many researchers. Candidate agents include an activity of soy protein itself, bioactive peptides produced during the digestive process, or the soy isoflavones. Although soy intake may provide other health benefits including preventative or remediative effects on cancer, osteoporosis and symptoms of menopause, this review will focus on isoflavones as agents affecting lipid metabolism. Isoflavones were first discovered as a bioactive agent disrupting estrogen action in female sheep, thereby earning the often-used term 'phytoestrogens'. Subsequent work confirmed the ability of isoflavones to bind to estrogen receptors. Along with the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy intake, research that is more recent has pointed to a beneficial antidiabetic effect of soy intake, perhaps mediated by soy isoflavones. The two common categories of antidiabetic drugs acting on nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are the fibrates and glitazones. We and others have recently asked the research question 'do the soy isoflavones have activities as either "phytofibrates" or "phytoglitazones"?' Such an activity should be able to be confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. In both the in vivo and in vitro cases, this action has indeed been confirmed. Further work suggests a possible action of isoflavones similar to the nonestrogenic ligands that bind the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Recently, these receptors have been demonstrated to contribute to lipolytic processes. Finally, evaluation of receptor activation studies suggests that thyroid receptor activation may provide additional clues explaining the metabolic action of isoflavones. The recent

  9. Students Continue to Fuel Activism on Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of Latino students helped fuel rallies across the country the week of April 10, 2006 against federal proposals to crack down on immigrants who are in the United States illegally. It was the third week of such rallies, which have put some school officials into politically delicate situations, such as having to decide whether to…

  10. Review of ALARA plan for activities at the 105 K-East fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Durham, J.S.; Hickey, E.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Cicotte, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to reduce doses to workers to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) tasked the Health Protection Department of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to review operations at the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin (105 K-East). This review included both routine operations and a proposed campaign to encapsulate N-Reactor fuel stored there. This report summarizes the results of PNL`s reviews of policy, procedures, and practices for operations at 105 K-East as well as an evaluation of the major sources of occupational radiation exposures. Where possible, data previously collected by WHC and its predecessors were used. In addition, PNL staff developed a three-dimensional model of the radiological environment within 105 K-East to assess the relative contributions of different radiation sources to worker dose and to provide a decision tool for use in evaluating alternative methods of dose rate reduction. The model developed by PNL indicates that for most areas in the basin the primary source of occupational radiation exposure is the contaminated concrete surfaces of the basin near the waterline. Basin cooling water piping represents a significant source in a number of areas, particularly the Technical Viewing Pit. This report contains specific recommendations to reduce the impact of these sources of occupational radiation exposure in 105 K-East. Other recommendations to reduce doses to workers during activities such as filter changes and filter sampling are also included.

  11. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  12. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America

    SciTech Connect

    2011-06-15

    This 2011 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides an update of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. State activities reported include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activities by state industries and universities.

  13. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  14. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  15. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  16. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  17. A Kinetic Modeling study on the Oxidation of Primary Reference Fuel?Toluene Mixtures Including Cross Reactions between Aromatics and Aliphatics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y; Miyoshi, A; Koshi, M; Pitz, W J

    2008-01-09

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the mixtures of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF: n-heptane and iso-octane) and toluene has been proposed. This model is divided into three parts; a PRF mechanism [T. Ogura et al., Energy & Fuels 21 (2007) 3233-3239], toluene sub-mechanism and cross reactions between PRF and toluene. Toluene sub-mechanism includes the low temperature kinetics relevant to engine conditions. A chemical kinetic mechanism proposed by Pitz et al. [Proc. the 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Combust. Institute (2001)] was used as a starting model and modified by updating rate coefficients. Theoretical estimations of rate coefficients were performed for toluene and benzyl radical reactions important at low temperatures. Cross-reactions between alkane, alkene, and aromatics were also included in order to account for the acceleration by the addition of toluene into iso-octane recently found in the shock tube study of the ignition delay [Y. Sakai et al, SAE 2007-01-4014 (2007)]. Validations of the model were performed with existing shock tube and flow tube data. The model well predicts the ignition characteristics of toluene and PRF/Toluene mixtures under the wide range of temperatures (500-1700 K) and pressures (2-50 atm). It is found that reactions of benzyl radical with oxygen molecule determine the reactivity of toluene at low temperature. Although the effect of toluene addition to iso-octane is not fully resolved, the reactions of alkene with benzyl radical have the possibility to account for the kinetic interactions between PRF and toluene.

  18. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  19. Fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, P.D.; Nesselrode, F.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a fuel pump. It includes: a fuel reservoir member, the fuel reservoir member being formed with fuel chambers, the chambers comprising an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber, means to supply fuel to the inlet chamber, means to deliver fuel from the outlet chamber to a point of use, the fuel reservoir member chambers also including a bypass chamber, means interconnecting the bypass chamber with the outlet chamber; the fuel pump also comprising pump means interconnecting the inlet chamber and the outlet chamber and adapted to suck fuel from the fuel supply means into the inlet chamber, through the pump means, out the outlet chamber, and to the fuel delivery means; the bypass chamber and the pump means providing two substantially separate paths of fuel flow in the fuel reservoir member, bypass plunger means normally closing off the flow of fuel through the bypass chamber one of the substantially separate paths including the fuel supply means and the fuel delivery means when the bypass plunger means is closed, the second of the substantially separate paths including the bypass chamber when the bypass plunger means is open, and all of the chambers and the interconnecting means therebetween being configured so as to create turbulence in the flow of any fuel supplied to the outlet chamber by the pump means and bypassed through the bypass chamber and the interconnecting means.

  20. The Role of Electrode Microstructure on Activation and Concentration Polarizations in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    December 1999 Abstract Activation and concentration polarization effects in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells ( SOFC ) were examined. The anode and...and Chemical Properties’, Schlol Solid state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells Ringberg, Germany, March 8-13, 1998. ( SOFC ) consist of a cathode...mail address: anil.virkar@m.cc.utah.edu (AV Virkar) development of the SOFC ; the electrolyte-supported 0167-2738/00/$ - see front matter © 2000 Elsevier

  1. Bifunctional activation of a direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikovsky, A. A.; Schmitz, H.; Wippermann, K.; Mergel, J.; Fricke, B.; Sanders, T.; Sauer, D. U.

    We report a novel method for performance recovery of direct methanol fuel cells. Lowering of air flow rate below a critical value turns the cell into bifunctional regime, when the oxygen-rich part of the cell generates current while the rest part works in electrolysis mode (electrolytic domain). Upon restoring the normal (super-critical) air flow rate, the galvanic performance of the electrolytic domain increases. This recovery effect is presumably attributed to Pt surface cleaning on the cathode with the simultaneous increase in catalyst utilization on the anode.

  2. Nuclear fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.

    1987-03-03

    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  3. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  4. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.623 How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  5. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans including syndecan-3 modulate BMP activity during limb cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie C; Li, Yingcui; Seghatoleslami, M Reza; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in multiple aspects of limb development including regulation of cartilage differentiation. Several BMPs bind strongly to heparin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix have recently been implicated as modulators of BMP signaling in some developing systems. Here we have explored the role of HSPGs in regulating BMP activity during limb chondrogenesis by evaluating the effects of exogenous heparan sulfate (HS), heparitinase treatment, and overexpression of the HSPG syndecan-3 on the ability of BMP2 to modulate the chondrogenic differentiation of limb mesenchymal cells in micromass culture. Exogenous HS dramatically enhances the ability of BMP2 to stimulate chondrogenesis and cartilage specific gene expression, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to stimulate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, HS stimulates BMP2-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8, transcriptional mediators of BMP2 signaling, indicating that HS enhances the interaction of BMP2 with its receptors. Pretreatment of micromass cultures with heparitinase to degrade endogenous HSPGs also enhances the chondrogenic activity of BMP2, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together these results indicate that exogenous HS or heparitinase enhance the chondrogenic activity of BMP2 by interfering with its interaction with endogenous HSPGs that would normally restrict its interaction with its receptors. Consistent with the possibility that HSPGs are negative modulators of BMP signaling during chondrogenesis, we have found that overexpression of syndecan-3, which is one of the major HSPGs normally expressed during chondrogenesis, greatly impairs the ability of BMP2 to promote cartilage differentiation. Furthermore, retroviral overexpression of syndecan-3 inhibits BMP2-mediated Smad phosphorylation in the regions of the cultures in which chondrogenesis is

  6. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  7. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  8. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan outlines the strategy, activities, and plans of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program and the DOE offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Science.

  9. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  10. Modelling of an activated primary settling tank including the fermentation process and VFA elutriation.

    PubMed

    Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2002-10-01

    A complete model of a primary settler including both sedimentation and biological processes is presented. It is a one-dimensional model based on the solids flux concept and the conservation of mass that uses the Takács model for the settling velocity, which is corrected by a compression function in the lower layers. The biological model is based on the ASM2 and enlarged with the fermentation model proposed by this research group. The settler was split in ten layers and the flux terms in the mass balance for each layer is obtained by means of the settling model. A pilot plant has been operated to study the primary sludge fermentation and volatile fatty acids (VFA) elutriation in a primary settler tank. The model has been tested with pilot plant experimental data with very good results. It has been able to simulate the VFA production in the settler and their elutriation with the influent wastewater for all the studied experiments. The developed model is easily applicable to secondary settlers and thickeners, also taking into account biological activity inside them.

  11. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  12. High-activity PtRuPd/C catalyst for direct dimethyl ether fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wen, Xiaodong; Wu, Gang; Chung, Hoon T; Gao, Rui; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-06-22

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for direct-feed fuel cells but lack of an efficient DME oxidation electrocatalyst has remained the challenge for the commercialization of the direct DME fuel cell. The commonly studied binary PtRu catalyst shows much lower activity in DME than methanol oxidation. In this work, guided by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, a ternary carbon-supported PtRuPd catalyst was designed and synthesized for DME electrooxidation. DFT calculations indicated that Pd in the ternary PtRuPd catalyst is capable of significantly decreasing the activation energy of the CO and CH bond scission during the oxidation process. As evidenced by both electrochemical measurements in an aqueous electrolyte and polymer-electrolyte fuel cell testing, the ternary catalyst shows much higher activity (two-fold enhancement at 0.5 V in fuel cells) than the state-of-the-art binary Pt50 Ru50 /C catalyst (HiSPEC 12100).

  13. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  14. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  15. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  16. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  17. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.; Carlson, G.; Doyon, J.

    1995-08-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  18. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.; Bentley, C.

    1995-12-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  19. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth; Gangi, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. It features the top five fuel cell states (in alphabetical order): California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, and South Carolina. State activities reported include supportive fuel cell and hydrogen policies, installations and demonstrations, road maps, and level of activism.

  20. Dry, portable calorimeter for nondestructive measurement of the activity of nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Beyer, Norman S.; Lewis, Robert N.; Perry, Ronald B.

    1976-01-01

    The activity of a quantity of heat-producing nuclear fuel is measured rapidly, accurately and nondestructively by a portable dry calorimeter comprising a preheater, an array of temperature-controlled structures comprising a thermally guarded temperature-controlled oven, and a calculation and control unit. The difference between the amounts of electric power required to maintain the oven temperature with and without nuclear fuel in the oven is measured to determine the power produced by radioactive disintegration and hence the activity of the fuel. A portion of the electronic control system is designed to terminate a continuing sequence of measurements when the standard deviation of the variations of the amount of electric power required to maintain oven temperature is within a predetermined value.

  1. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  2. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setzler, Brian P.; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-01

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW-1 in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  3. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Setzler, Brian P; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-06

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW(-1) in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  4. DETECTION OF ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL FUEL AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study evaluated both diesel fuel exhaust and biomass (wood) burn extracts for androgen receptor¿mediated activity using MDA-kb2 cells, which contain an androgen-responsive promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct. This assay and analytical fractionization of the sa...

  5. Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF NATURAL ATTENUATION AT A JP-4 JET FUEL RELEASE AFTER ACTIVE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    After eighteen months of active remediation at a JP-4 jet-fuel spill, a residual of unremediated hydrocarbon remained. Further site characterization was conducted to evaluate the contribution of natural attenuation to control exposure to hazards associated with the residual cont...

  7. Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

  8. Numerical and Experimental Study of Mixing Properties of Gaseous Fuels Jets Including Hydrogen and Methane Into the non-Swirl Main Flow in a Premixer Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Amin

    The mixing of fuel and air has a significant impact on overall operation efficiency and emissions performance of combustion systems, especially in lean combustion applications. As a result, developing an understanding of the processes associated with the fuel/air mixing is important. In parallel with the evolution of lean combustion, a new generation of fuels is emerging as an alternative to conventional fuels. Thus, it is desirable to study the mixing properties of different fuels from conventional resources, such as methane, as well as from renewable resources, such as hydrogen. One tool that is available to study mixing in complex (e.g., turbulent and elliptic) flows is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In the present work, mixing of hydrogen and methane into air, for example, is simulated using various CFD approaches. Fuel is injected either co-flowing to the air flow ("axial injection") or perpendicular to the air flow ("radial injection"). The quality of the simulations is evaluated by comparing the numerical results with experimental measurements. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are used to evaluate the relative accuracy of different CFD approaches to simulate the mixing characteristics. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulent models are utilized to model all the cases as steady turbulent models. Moreover, unsteady turbulent models, such as Unsteady RANS, and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are used to provide information about unsteady features in selected cases. The sensitivity of numerical predictions to different RANS turbulence models as well as to different turbulent Schmidt numbers are explored. The results indicate more sensitivity to turbulence models for radial injection configurations. However, for the axial configuration, more sensitivity to Sct is observed. In general, the RSM turbulence model with Sc t=0.7 provides the most promising predictions for various combination of different fuels and injection types.

  9. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  10. Lattice-strain control of the activity in dealloyed core-shell fuel cell catalysts.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Peter; Koh, Shirlaine; Anniyev, Toyli; Greeley, Jeff; More, Karren; Yu, Chengfei; Liu, Zengcai; Kaya, Sarp; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Toney, Michael F; Nilsson, Anders

    2010-06-01

    Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. We demonstrate the core-shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity-strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.

  11. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2008-09-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to have potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of such particles, and ignore interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we develop a new parameterization framework that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler Theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frankel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory, and i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH for which activation into cloud droplets is not possible, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. Parameterization formulations are developed for sectional and lognormal aerosol size distribution functions. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2 ~0.98.

  12. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  13. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  14. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  15. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  16. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  17. Catalysts for improved fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, R.L.; Inbody, M.A.

    2000-09-01

    This report covers our technical progress on fuel processing catalyst characterization for the specific purpose of hydrogen production for proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These development efforts support DOE activities in the development of compact, transient capable reformers for on-board hydrogen generation starting from candidate fuels. The long-term objective includes increased durability and lifetime, in addition to smaller volume, improved performance, and other specifications required meeting fuel processor goals. The technical barriers of compact fuel processor size, transient capability, and compact, efficient thermal management all are functions of catalyst performance. Significantly, work at LANL now tests large-scale fuel processors for performance and durability, as influenced by fuels and fuel constituents, and complements that testing with micro-scale catalyst evaluation which is accomplished under well controlled conditions.

  18. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Current aircraft turbine fuels do not present a significant problem with fuel thermal stability. However, turbine fuels with broadened properties or nonpetroleum derived fuels may have reduced thermal stability because of their higher content of olefins, heteroatoms, and trace metals. Moreover, advanced turbine engines will increase the thermal stress on fuels because of their higher pressure ratios and combustion temperature. In recognition of the importance of this problem, NASA Lewis is currently engaged in a broadly based research effort to better understand the underlying causes of fuel thermal degradation. The progress and status of our various activities in this area are discussed. Topics covered include: nature of fuel instability and its temperature dependence, methods of measuring the instability, chemical mechanisms involved in deposit formation, and instrumental methods for characterizing fuel deposits. Finally, some preliminary thoughts on design approaches for minimizing the effects of lowered thermal stability are briefly discussed.

  19. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  20. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  1. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  2. Design study for MOX fuel rod scanner for ATR fuel fabrication. Phase I: Design of active neutron scanner. Phase II: Design of passive neutron scanner. Phase III: Design of passive gamma-ray scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.

    1997-09-01

    An active neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of fissile materials in mixed oxide fuel rods. A {sup 252}Cf source is located at the center of the scanner very near the through-hole for the fuel rods. Spontaneous fission neutrons from the californium are moderated and induce fissions within the passing fuel rod. The rod continues past a combined gamma-ray and neutron shield where delayed gamma rays above 1 MeV are detected. The authors used the Monte Carlo neutron-photon (MCNP) code to design the scanner and review optimum materials and geometries. Applications of the rod scanner include accountability of fissile material for safeguards applications, quality control of the fissile content in a fuel rod, and the verification of reactivity potential for mixed oxide fuels. A passive neutron fuel-rod scanner has been designed for the assay of the plutonium in mixed oxide fuel rods. The {sup 240}Pu-effective is measured by counting the spontaneous fission neutrons using a high-efficiency thermal-neutron detector. This passive neutron detector would be combined with a high-resolution gamma-ray system (HRGS) measurement to obtain the total plutonium from the plutonium isotopic ratios. A passive gamma-ray scanner has been designed for the measurement of the {sup 241}Am and plutonium uniformity in mixed oxide fuel rods. The passive gamma-ray emissions from {sup 241}Am (60 keV) and plutonium (150-400 keV) are used to verify the unformity of the fuel enrichment zones and to check for any pellets that are out of specification. The fuel rod is moved through the interior of an NaI(Tl) or a bismuth germanate detector to measure the passive gamma-ray emissions. A tungsten sleeve collimator is used in the through-hole to improve the pellet-to-pellet spatial resolution. The same detector is used to verify the plutonium uniformity in the pellets with a 13-mm tungsten collimator. The low-resolution passive gamma system would be used in the unattended mode.

  3. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  4. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  5. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  6. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  7. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  8. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  9. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.

  10. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  11. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  12. Computer control of fuel handling activities at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Romrell, D.M.

    1985-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, utilizes computer control for reactor refueling and other related core component handling and processing tasks. The computer controlled tasks described in this paper include core component transfers within the reactor vessel, core component transfers into and out of the reactor vessel, remote duct measurements of irradiated core components, remote duct cutting, and finally, transferring irradiated components out of the reactor containment building for off-site shipments or to long term storage. 3 refs., 16 figs.

  13. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, intrahepatic cholestasis, and other cholestatic conditions. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of the disease pathophysiology, our understanding of the effects of UDCA remains unclear. Possibly underlying its cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative effects, UDCA was reported to regulate the expression of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines. However, it is not known if this effect involves also modulation of ADAM family of metalloproteinases, which are responsible for release of ectodomains of inflammatory cytokines from the cell surface. We hypothesized that UDCA modulates ADAM17 activity, resulting in amelioration of cholestasis in a murine model of bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The effect of UDCA on ADAM17 activity was studied using the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Untransfected cells or cells ectopically expressing human ADAM17 were cultured with or without UDCA and further activated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The expression and release of ADAM17 substrates, TNFα, TGFα, and c-Met receptor (or its soluble form, sMet) were evaluated using ELISA and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Immunoblotting analyses were conducted to evaluate expression and activation of ADAM17 as well as the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after UDCA treatment. The regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) by UDCA was studied using zymography and qRT-PCR. A mouse model of acute cholestasis was induced by common BDL technique, during which mice received daily orogastric gavage with either UDCA or vehicle only. Liver injury was quantified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP), relative liver weight, and confirmed by histological analysis. ADAM17 substrates in sera were assessed using a bead multiplex assay. Results UDCA decreases amount of shed TNFα, TGFα, and sMet in cell culture media and the phosphorylation of

  14. A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cangiani, A; Natalini, R

    2010-12-21

    We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.

  15. Overview of the International R&D Recycling Activities of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (90% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  16. Development and Assessment of CFD Models Including a Supplemental Program Code for Analyzing Buoyancy-Driven Flows Through BWR Fuel Assemblies in SFP Complete LOCA Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artnak, Edward Joseph, III

    This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.

  17. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  18. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  19. Adipose Recruitment and Activation of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Fuel Metaflammation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amrit Raj; Bhattacharya, Roopkatha; Bhattacharya, Shamik; Nargis, Titli; Rahaman, Oindrila; Duttagupta, Pritam; Raychaudhuri, Deblina; Liu, Chinky Shiu Chen; Roy, Shounak; Ghosh, Parasar; Khanna, Shashi; Chaudhuri, Tamonas; Tantia, Om; Haak, Stefan; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chakrabarti, Partha; Ganguly, Dipyaman

    2016-11-01

    In obese individuals, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is the seat of chronic low-grade inflammation (metaflammation), but the mechanistic link between increased adiposity and metaflammation largely remains unclear. In obese individuals, deregulation of a specific adipokine, chemerin, contributes to innate initiation of metaflammation by recruiting circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) into VAT through chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Adipose tissue-derived high-mobility group B1 (HMGB1) protein activates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in the adipose-recruited pDCs by transporting extracellular DNA through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and induces production of type I interferons (IFNs). Type I IFNs in turn help in proinflammatory polarization of adipose-resident macrophages. IFN signature gene expression in VAT correlates with both adipose tissue and systemic insulin resistance (IR) in obese individuals, which is represented by ADIPO-IR and HOMA2-IR, respectively, and defines two subgroups with different susceptibility to IR. Thus, this study reveals a pathway that drives adipose tissue inflammation and consequent IR in obesity.

  20. Accumulation of fossil fuels and metallic minerals in active and ancient rift lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A study of active and ancient rift systems around the world suggests that accumulations of fossil fuels and metallic minerals are related to the interactions of processes that form rift valleys with those that take place in and around rift lakes. The deposition of the precursors of petroleum, gas, oil shale, coal, phosphate, barite, Cu-Pb-Zn sulfides, and uranium begins with erosion of uplifted areas, and the consequent input of abundant nutrients and solute loads into swamps and tectonic lakes. Hot springs and volcanism add other nutrients and solutes. The resulting high biological productivity creates oxidized/reduced interfaces, and anoxic and H2S-rich bottom waters which preserves metal-bearing organic tissues and horizons. In the depositional phases, the fine-grained lake deposits are in contact with coarse-grained beach, delta, river, talus, and alluvial fan deposits. Earthquake-induced turbidites also are common coarse-grained deposits of rift lakes. Postdepositional processes in rifts include high heat flow and a resulting concentration of the organic and metallic components that were dispersed throughout the lakebeds. Postdepositional faulting brings organic- and metal-rich sourcebeds in contact with coarse-grained host and reservoir rocks. A suite of potentially economic deposits is therefore a characteristic of rift valleys. ?? 1983.

  1. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  2. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  3. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  4. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  5. [Development of asymmetric synthesis of optically active compounds including fluoroorganic molecules].

    PubMed

    Iseki, K

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis of chiral fluorinated molecules is important in the biological and medicinal chemistry fields in view of the influence of fluorine's unique properties on biological activity. In recent years, we have studied asymmetric synthesis focussing on such optically active compounds. This review describes 1) diastereoselective trifluoromethylation of chiral N-acyloxazolidinones, 2) catalytic enantioselective aldol reactions of fluorine-substituted ketene silyl acetals, and 3) catalytic enantioselective allylation of aldehydes mediated by chiral Lewis bases. The trifluoromethylation of lithium enolates of N-acyloxazolidinones with iodotrifluoromethane is mediated by triethylborane to give the corresponding trifluoromethylated products with up to 86% diastereomeric excess. The stereoselective reaction is considered to proceed through the attack of the trifluoromethyl radical on the less hindered face of the lithium imide. Difluoroketene and bromofluoroketene trimethylsilyl ethyl acetals react with various aldehydes in the presence of chiral Lewis acids to afford the corresponding desired aldols with up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee). It is noteworthy that the aldol reactions of the fluorine-substituted acetals at -78 degrees C and at higher temperatures (-45 or -20 degrees C) provide the (+)- and (-)-aldols, respectively, with excellent-to-good enantioselectivity. Chiral phosphoramides newly prepared from (S)-proline were found to catalyze the allylation and crotylation of aromatic aldehydes with allylic trichlorosilanes in good enantioselective yields (up to 90% ee). (S,S)-Bis(alpha-methylbenzyl)formamide developed as an efficient catalyst for the allylation and crotylation of aliphatic aldehydes mediates the enantioselective addition with the assistance of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% ee.

  6. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  7. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  8. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  9. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  10. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of Gd

  11. Future Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-04

    tactical ground mobility and increasing operational reach • Identify, review, and assess – Technologies for reducing fuel consumption, including...T I O N S A C T I O N S TOR Focus - Tactical ground mobility - Operational reach - Not A/C, Ships, or troops Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Management...Fuel Management During Combat Operations Energy Fundamentals • Energy Density • Tactical Mobility • Petroleum Use • Fuel Usage (TWV) • TWV OP TEMPO TOR

  12. ACFA 2020 - An FP7 project on active control of flexible fuel efficient aircraft configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper gives an overview about the project ACFA 2020 which is funded by the European Commission within the 7th framework program. The acronym ACFA 2020 stands for Active Control for Flexible Aircraft 2020. The project is dealing with the design of highly fuel efficient aircraft configurations and, in particular, on innovative active control concepts with the goal to reduce loads and structural weight. Major focus lays on blended wing body (BWB) aircraft. Blended wing body type aircraft configurations are seen as the most promising future concept to fulfill the so-called ACARE (Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe) vision 2020 goals in regards to reduce fuel consumption and external noise. The paper discusses in some detail the overall goals and how they are addressed in the workplan. Furthermore, the major achievements of the project are outlined and a short outlook on the remaining work is given.

  13. Enhanced oxygen reduction activity and solid oxide fuel cell performance with a nanoparticles-loaded cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Li; Zhao, Zhe; Tu, Baofeng; Ou, Dingrong; Cui, Daan; Wei, Xuming; Chen, Xiaobo; Cheng, Mojie

    2015-03-11

    Reluctant oxygen-reduction-reaction (ORR) activity has been a long-standing challenge limiting cell performance for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in both centralized and distributed power applications. We report here that this challenge has been tackled with coloading of (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3 stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles within a porous YSZ framework. This design dramatically improves ORR activity, enhances fuel cell output (200-300% power improvement), and enables superior stability (no observed degradation within 500 h of operation) from 600 to 800 °C. The improved performance is attributed to the intimate contacts between nanoparticulate YSZ and LSM particles in the three-phase boundaries in the cathode.

  14. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  15. Active neutron coincidence counting for the assay of MTR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, R.

    1983-02-01

    The active well coincidence counter (AWCC) and the neutron coincidence collar (CC) were investigated for their suitability to assay materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel elements. The AWCC was used with its special insert to hold the fuel element and interrogation source. The CC was modified by the addition of polyethylene liners 2.5 cm (1 in.) thick on the sides. For a typical MTR element (approx. 220 g /sup 235/U) and 1000-s count times, statistical errors were approx. 1.6% for the CC and approx. 0.6% for AWCC. For either instrument, the change in count rate corresponding to the removal or addition of one fuel plate (with an 18-plate element) was approx. 3.8%; thus, either instrument can detect removal of one plate. The AWCC can also detect removal of one plate in count times that are considerably less than 1000 s. Various functions were investigated to fit the coincidence count rate vs /sup 235/U mass curve for the AWCC. Programs have been written for the Hewlett-Packard HP-97 calculator to calculate the calibration constants of these functions by a least-squares technique. Coincidence count rates in the AWCC depend on the orientation of the plates of the fuel elements because of the counting efficiency variation in the insert. To lessen this dependence, the MTR element should be counted with its plates positioned vertically, that is, parallel to the radius of the device. For the collar, the effect of plate orientation is much smaller.

  16. Isolation and Analysis of Novel Electrochemically Active Bacteria for Enhanced Power Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-07

    ISOLATION AND ANALYSIS OF NOVEL ELECTROCHEMICALLY ACTIVE BACTERIA FOR ENHANCED POWER GENERATION IN MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS B.E. Logan, J.M. Regan...new exoelectrogenic bacteria during this project. We isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris DX-1, and demonstrated for the first time that a pure culture... isolated Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1, which had the remarkable characteristic that it was unable to respire using hydrous Fe(lll) oxide but produced

  17. Synthesis of Pt-Mo-N Thin Film and Catalytic Activity for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Akira; Tague, Michele E.; Gregoire, John M.; Wen, Xiao-Dong; van Dover, R. Bruce; Abruña, Héctor D.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2010-05-13

    Pt-Mo-N composition gradient film was synthesized by combining thin-film deposition techniques and subsequent thermal nitridation. A ternary platinum-based nitride, Pt2Mo3N, showed catalytic activities for fuel cell applications and higher electrochemical stability when it was compared with a PtMo alloy with the same Pt:Mo ratio.

  18. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  19. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities; modifications. 440.11 Section 440.11 Aeronautics and... Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted...

  20. Application of Butler-Volmer equations in the modelling of activation polarization for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. F.; Amphlett, J. C.; Peppley, B. A.; Thurgood, C. P.

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells have been under development for many years and appear to be the potential solution for many electricity supply applications. Modelling and computer simulation of PEM fuel cells have been equally active areas of work as a means of developing better understanding of cell and stack operation, facilitating design improvements and supporting system simulation studies. In general, fuel cell models must be capable of predicting values of the activation polarization at both the anode and the cathode. Since the magnitude of an activation polarization for a particular electrode depends on the inverse of the chemical (or electrochemical) reaction rate at that electrode, reaction rate expressions are normally required for each electrode. The reaction rate is commonly expressed as an 'exchange current density', typical symbol i 0, and mechanistic expressions to predict i 0 are, therefore, components of an ideal model. Most expressions for i 0 are based on the Butler-Volmer (B-V) equation or on more approximate equations derived from the B-V equation. Many publications use one of these B-V equations without a critical determination of the applicability or accuracy of the particular equation being used. The present paper examines these questions and makes some recommendations regarding the applicability of each equation in the 'B-V family of equations'. In addition, terminology and symbols have been modified, where possible, to make modelling based on B-V equations more easily understood and applied by those without an extensive background in electrochemistry.

  1. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  2. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  3. Motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, L.D.

    1982-07-13

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuel compositions are provided containing antiknock quantities of ashless antiknock agents comprising selected furyl compounds including furfuryl alcohol, furfuryl amine, furfuryl esters, and alkyl furoates.

  4. Structural dynamics and activity of nanocatalysts inside fuel cells by in operando atomic pair distribution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Shan, Shiyao; Ren, Yang; Wu, Jinfang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2016-05-01

    Here we present the results from a study aimed at clarifying the relationship between the atomic structure and activity of nanocatalysts for chemical reactions driving fuel cells, such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In particular, using in operando high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) we tracked the evolution of the atomic structure and activity of noble metal-transition metal (NM-TM) nanocatalysts for ORR as they function at the cathode of a fully operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Experimental HE-XRD data were analysed in terms of atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) and compared to the current output of the PEMFC, which was also recorded during the experiments. The comparison revealed that under actual operating conditions, NM-TM nanocatalysts can undergo structural changes that differ significantly in both length-scale and dynamics and so can suffer losses in their ORR activity that differ significantly in both character and magnitude. Therefore we argue that strategies for reducing ORR activity losses should implement steps for achieving control not only over the length but also over the time-scale of the structural changes of NM-TM NPs that indeed occur during PEMFC operation. Moreover, we demonstrate how such a control can be achieved and thereby the performance of PEMFCs improved considerably. Last but not least, we argue that the unique capabilities of in operando HE-XRD coupled to atomic PDF analysis to characterize active nanocatalysts inside operating fuel cells both in a time-resolved manner and with atomic level resolution, i.e. in 4D, can serve well the ongoing search for nanocatalysts that deliver more with less platinum.Here we present the results from a study aimed at clarifying the relationship between the atomic structure and activity of nanocatalysts for chemical reactions driving fuel cells, such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In particular, using in operando high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE

  5. Structural dynamics and activity of nanocatalysts inside fuel cells by in operando atomic pair distribution studies.

    PubMed

    Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Shan, Shiyao; Ren, Yang; Wu, Jinfang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2016-05-19

    Here we present the results from a study aimed at clarifying the relationship between the atomic structure and activity of nanocatalysts for chemical reactions driving fuel cells, such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In particular, using in operando high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) we tracked the evolution of the atomic structure and activity of noble metal-transition metal (NM-TM) nanocatalysts for ORR as they function at the cathode of a fully operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Experimental HE-XRD data were analysed in terms of atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) and compared to the current output of the PEMFC, which was also recorded during the experiments. The comparison revealed that under actual operating conditions, NM-TM nanocatalysts can undergo structural changes that differ significantly in both length-scale and dynamics and so can suffer losses in their ORR activity that differ significantly in both character and magnitude. Therefore we argue that strategies for reducing ORR activity losses should implement steps for achieving control not only over the length but also over the time-scale of the structural changes of NM-TM NPs that indeed occur during PEMFC operation. Moreover, we demonstrate how such a control can be achieved and thereby the performance of PEMFCs improved considerably. Last but not least, we argue that the unique capabilities of in operando HE-XRD coupled to atomic PDF analysis to characterize active nanocatalysts inside operating fuel cells both in a time-resolved manner and with atomic level resolution, i.e. in 4D, can serve well the ongoing search for nanocatalysts that deliver more with less platinum.

  6. Effect of microstructure of nitrogen-doped graphene on oxygen reduction activity in fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lipeng; Niu, Jianbing; Dai, Liming; Xia, Zhenhai

    2012-05-15

    The development of fuel cells as clean-energy technologies is largely limited by the prohibitive cost of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. A fundamental understanding of catalyst design principle that links material structures to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant nonmetal catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we present a first-principles study of ORR on nitrogen-doped graphene in acidic environment. We demonstrate that the ORR activity primarily correlates to charge and spin densities of the graphene. The nitrogen doping and defects introduce high positive spin and/or charge densities that facilitate the ORR on graphene surface. The identified active sites are closely related to doping cluster size and dopant-defect interactions. Generally speaking, a large doping cluster size (number of N atoms >2) reduces the number of catalytic active sites per N atom. In combination with N clustering, Stone-Wales defects can strongly promote ORR. For four-electron transfer, the effective reversible potential ranges from 1.04 to 1.15 V/SHE, depending on the defects and cluster size. The catalytic properties of graphene could be optimized by introducing small N clusters in combination with material defects.

  7. Stochastic simulation of fission product activity in primary coolant due to fuel rod failures in typical PWRs under power transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Javed; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mirza, Sikander M.

    2008-01-01

    During normal operation of PWRs, routine fuel rods failures result in release of radioactive fission products (RFPs) in the primary coolant of PWRs. In this work, a stochastic model has been developed for simulation of failure time sequences and release rates for the estimation of fission product activity in primary coolant of a typical PWR under power perturbations. In the first part, a stochastic approach is developed, based on generation of fuel failure event sequences by sampling the time dependent intensity functions. Then a three-stage model based deterministic methodology of the FPCART code has been extended to include failure sequences and random release rates in a computer code FPCART-ST, which uses state-of-the-art LEOPARD and ODMUG codes as its subroutines. The value of the 131I activity in primary coolant predicted by FPCART-ST code has been found in good agreement with the corresponding values measured at ANGRA-1 nuclear power plant. The predictions of FPCART-ST code with constant release option have also been found to have good agreement with corresponding experimental values for time dependent 135I, 135Xe and 89Kr concentrations in primary coolant measured during EDITHMOX-1 experiments.

  8. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell model for aging predictions: Simulated equivalent active surface area loss and comparisons with durability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C.; Gérard, M.; Quinaud, M.; d'Arbigny, J.; Bultel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) lifetime is one of the major challenges to optimize both material properties and dynamic control of the fuel cell system. In this study, by a multiscale modeling approach, a mechanistic catalyst dissolution model is coupled to a dynamic PEMFC cell model to predict the performance loss of the PEMFC. Results are compared to two 2000-h experimental aging tests. More precisely, an original approach is introduced to estimate the loss of an equivalent active surface area during an aging test. Indeed, when the computed Electrochemical Catalyst Surface Area profile is fitted on the experimental measures from Cyclic Voltammetry, the computed performance loss of the PEMFC is underestimated. To be able to predict the performance loss measured by polarization curves during the aging test, an equivalent active surface area is obtained by a model inversion. This methodology enables to successfully find back the experimental cell voltage decay during time. The model parameters are fitted from the polarization curves so that they include the global degradation. Moreover, the model captures the aging heterogeneities along the surface of the cell observed experimentally. Finally, a second 2000-h durability test in dynamic operating conditions validates the approach.

  9. Highly active carbon supported Pd cathode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Borodzinski, A.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Mierzwa, B.; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M.; Stobinski, L.; Ciecierska, E.; Zimoch, A.; Opałło, M.

    2016-12-01

    One of the drawbacks of low-temperature fuel cells is high price of platinum-based catalysts used for the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of the fuel cell. The aim of this work is to develop the palladium catalyst that will replace commonly used platinum cathode catalysts. A series of palladium catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were prepared and tested on the cathode of Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC). Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the carbon black (Vulcan) and on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface by reduction of palladium(II) acetate dissolved in ethanol. Hydrazine was used as a reducing agent. The effect of functionalization of the carbon supports on the catalysts physicochemical properties and the ORR catalytic activity on the cathode of DFAFC was studied. The supports were functionalized by treatment in nitric acid for 4 h at 80 °C. The structure of the prepared catalysts has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Hydrophilicity of the catalytic layers was determined by measuring contact angles of water droplets. The performance of the prepared catalysts has been compared with that of the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C (Premetek) catalyst. The maximum power density obtained for the best palladium catalyst, deposited on the surface of functionalized carbon black, is the same as that for the commercial Pt/C (Premetek). Palladium is cheaper than platinum, therefore the developed cathode catalyst is promising for future applications.

  10. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  11. Activated carbons prepared from refuse derived fuel and their gold adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Buah, William K; Williams, Paul T

    2010-02-01

    Activated carbons produced from refuse derived fuel (RDF), which had been prepared from municipal solid waste have been characterized and evaluated for their potential for gold adsorption from gold chloride solution. Pyrolysis of the RDF produced a char, which was then activated via steam gasification to produce activated carbons. Steam gasification of the char at 900 degrees C for 3 h yielded 73 wt% activated carbon. The derived activated carbon had a surface area of 500 m2 g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.19 cm3 g(-1). The gold adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was 32.1 mg Au g(-1) of carbon when contacted with an acidified gold chloride solution. The gold adsorption capacity was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon tested under the same conditions and was well in the range of values of activated carbons used in the gold industry. Demineralization of the RDF activated carbon in a 5 M HCl solution resulted in enhancement of its textural properties but a reduction in the gold adsorption rate, indicating that the metal content of the RDF activated carbon influenced its gold adsorption rate.

  12. Detection of androgenic activity in emissions from diesel fuel and biomass combustion.

    PubMed

    Owens, Clyde V; Lambright, Christy; Cardon, Mary; Gray, L Earl; Gullett, Brian K; Wilson, Vickie S

    2006-08-01

    The present study evaluated both diesel fuel exhaust and biomass (wood) burn extracts for androgen receptor-mediated activity using MDA-kb2 cells, which contain an androgen-responsive promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct. This assay and analytical fractionization of the samples were used as tools to separate active from inactive fractions, with the goal of identifying the specific compounds responsible for the activity. A significant androgenic response was detected from the diesel emission. High-performance liquid chromatographic fractionation of the sample indicated that significant androgenic activity was retained in three fractions. 4-Hydroxybiphenyl was identified from the most active fraction using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. This purified compound was then tested at doses from 1 nM to 100 microM. 4-Hydroxybiphenol exhibited antagonist activity at low concentrations and agonist activity at high concentrations. A competitive-binding assay confirmed binding to the androgen receptor, with a median inhibitory concentration for radioligand binding of approximately 370 nM. Significant androgenic activity also was detected in the wood burn samples, but we were unable to identify the specific chemicals responsible for this endocrine activity. The present study demonstrates that in vitro bioassays can serve as sensitive bioanalytical tools to aid in characterization of complex environmental mixtures.

  13. NMR measurement system including two synchronized ring buffers, with 128 rf coils for in situ water monitoring in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Aoki, Masaru; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Morisaka, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Seitaro

    2017-01-01

    A small radio-frequency (rf) coil inserted into a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) can be used to acquire nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from the water in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) or in oxygen gas channels in the PEFC. Measuring the spatial distribution of the water in a large PEFC requires using many rf probes, so an NMR measurement system which acquires NMR signals from 128 rf probes at intervals of 0.5 s was manufactured. The system has eight rf transceiver units with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for modulation of the excitation pulse and quadrature phase detection of the NMR signal, and one control unit with two ring buffers for data control. The sequence data required for the NMR measurement were written into one ring buffer. The acquired NMR signal data were then written temporarily into the other ring buffer and then were transmitted to a personal computer (PC). A total of 98 rf probes were inserted into the PEFC that had an electrical generation area of 16 cm × 14 cm, and the water generated in the PEFC was measured when the PEFC operated at 100 A. As a result, time-dependent changes in the spatial distribution of the water content in the MEA and the water in the oxygen gas channels were obtained.

  14. Effective clean-up of organic liquid contaminants including BTEX, fuels, and organic solvents from the environment by poly(alkoxysilane) sorbents.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Koksal; Yati, Ilker; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal

    2016-06-01

    Novel cross-linked poly(alkoxysilane)s, which can be used for the removal of organic liquid contaminants from water, were synthesized in one step, in a solvent free reaction medium, at moderately high temperature without using a catalyst. The synthesized polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state (13)C and (29)Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods and elemental analysis. The swelling features of the poly(alkoxysilane)s were investigated in organic solvents and oils, such as dichloromethane, benzene, toluene, xylene, methyl tertiary butyl ether, and also some fuel derivatives, such as gasoline and euro diesel. All polymers have high-fast solvent uptake abilities, good reusability and thermal stability. The swelling features of the synthesized cross-linked polymers were evaluated by the swelling test, absorption-desorption kinetics. Thus, the results propose that cross-linked poly(alkoxysilane)s are suitable for the absorption of oil-organic pollutants from the water surface.

  15. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, John C.; Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  16. Implementation of the active neutron Coincidence Collar for the verification of unirradiated PWR and BWR fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Keddar, A.

    1982-01-01

    An active neutron interrogation technique has been developed for the measurement of the /sup 235/U content in fresh fuel assemblies. The method employs an AmLi neutron source to induce fission reactions in the fuel assembly and coincidence counting of the resulting fission reaction neutrons. When no interrogation source is present, the passive neutron coincidence rate gives a measure of the /sup 238/U by the spontaneous fission reactions. The system can be applied to the fissile content determination in fresh fuel assemblies for accountability, criticality control, and safeguards purposes. Field tests have been performed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) staff using the Coincidence Collar to verify the /sup 235/U content in light-water-reactor fuel assemblies. The results gave an accuracy of 1 to 2% in the active mode (/sup 235/U) and 2 to 3% in the passive mode (/sup 238/U) under field conditions.

  17. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  18. Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-12-31

    Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii`s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

  19. Enhanced fuel efficiency on tractor-trailers using synthetic jet-based active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitay, Michael; Menicovich, David; Gallardo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers was explored experimentally in wind tunnel testing as well as full-scale road tests. Aerodynamic drag accounts for more than 50% of the usable energy at highway speeds, a problem that applies primarily to trailer trucks. Therefore, a reduction in aerodynamic drag results in large saving of fuel and reduction in CO2 emissions. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. Preliminary wind tunnel results showed up to 18% reduction in fuel consumption, whereas road tests also showed very promising results.

  20. Nonactivated and activated biochar derived from bananas as alternative cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haoran; Deng, Lifang; Qi, Yujie; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Tang, Jiahuan

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m(2) and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  1. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  2. PEMFC catalyst layers: the role of micropores and mesopores on water sorption and fuel cell activity.

    PubMed

    Soboleva, Tatyana; Malek, Kourosh; Xie, Zhong; Navessin, Titichai; Holdcroft, Steven

    2011-06-01

    The effects of carbon microstructure and ionomer loading on water vapor sorption and retention in catalyst layers (CLs) of PEM fuel cells are investigated using dynamic vapor sorption. Catalyst layers based on Ketjen Black and Vulcan XC-72 carbon blacks, which possess distinctly different surface areas, pore volumes, and microporosities, are studied. It is found that pores <20 nm diameter facilitate water uptake by capillary condensation in the intermediate range of relative humidities. A broad pore size distribution (PSD) is found to enhance water retention in Ketjen Black-based CLs whereas the narrower mesoporous PSD of Vulcan CLs is shown to have an enhanced water repelling action. Water vapor sorption and retention properties of CLs are correlated to electrochemical properties and fuel cell performance. Water sorption enhances electrochemical properties such as the electrochemically active surface area (ESA), double layer capacitance and proton conductivity, particularly when the ionomer content is very low. The hydrophilic properties of a CL on the anode and the cathode are adjusted by choosing the PSD of carbon and the ionomer content. It is shown that a reduction of ionomer content on either cathode or anode of an MEA does not necessarily have a significant detrimental effect on the MEA performance compared to the standard 30 wt % ionomer MEA. Under operation in air and high relative humidity, a cathode with a narrow pore size distribution and low ionomer content is shown to be beneficial due to its low water retention properties. In dry operating conditions, adequate ionomer content on the cathode is crucial, whereas it can be reduced on the anode without a significant impact on fuel cell performance.

  3. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori Ann; Carmack, William Jonathan

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  4. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  5. In-situ electrochemically active surface area evaluation of an open-cathode polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torija, Sergio; Prieto-Sanchez, Laura; Ashton, Sean J.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to evaluate the electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) of fuel cell electrodes is crucial toward characterising designs and component suites in-situ, particularly when evaluating component durability in endurance testing, since it is a measure of the electrode area available to take part in the fuel cell reactions. Conventional methods to obtain the ECSA using cyclic voltammetry, however, rely on potentiostats that cannot be easily scaled to simultaneously evaluate all cells in a fuel cell stack of practical size, which is desirable in fuel cell development. In-situ diagnostics of an open-cathode fuel cell stack are furthermore challenging because the cells do not each possess an enclosed cathode compartment; instead, the cathodes are rather open to the environment. Here we report on a diagnostic setup that allows the electrochemically active surface area of each cell anode or cathode in an open-cathode fuel cell stack to be evaluated in-situ and simultaneously, with high resolution and reproducibility, using an easily scalable chronopotentiometry methodology and a gas-tight stack enclosure.

  6. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  7. Experimental investigations on active cooling thermal protection structure of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor in arc heated facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianqiang, Tu; Jinlong, Peng; Xianning, Yang; Lianzhong, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The active cooling thermal protection technology is the efficient method to resolve the long-duration work and reusable problems of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor, where worst thermo-mechanical loads occur. The fuel is passed through coolant channels adjacent to the heated surfaces to absorb heat from the heating exchanger panels, prior to injection into the combustor. The heating exchanger both cooled down the wall temperature of the combustor wall and heats and cracks the hydrocarbon fuel inside the panel to permit an easier combustion and satisfying combustion efficiency. The subscale active cooling metallic panels, with dimensions of 100×100 mm and different coolant channel sizes, have been tested under typical combustion thermal environment produced by arc heated Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD). The heat exchange ability of different coolant channel sizes has been obtained. The big-scale active cooling metallic panel, with dimensions of 100 × 750 mm and the coolant channel sizes of better heating exchange performance, has been made and tested in the big-scale arc heated TFD facility. The test results show that the local superheated ablation is easy to happen for the cooling fuel assigned asymmetrically in the bigscale active cooling metallic panel, and the cooling fuel rate can reduce 8%˜10% after spraying the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) in the heating surface.

  8. HTGR Fuel Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments of the HTGR Fuel Technology Program at GA Technologies Inc. during the first half of FY 83. The activities include the fuel process, fuel materials, fuel cycle, fission product transport, core component verification, and core technology transfer tasks necessary to support the design and development of a steam cycle/cogeneration (SC/C) version of the HTGR.

  9. Highly active nitrogen-doped nanocarbon electrocatalysts for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruusenberg, Ivar; Ratso, Sander; Vikkisk, Merilin; Kanninen, Petri; Kallio, Tanja; Kannan, Arunachala M.; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2015-05-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are assembled and evaluated using Fumatech FAA3 alkaline anion exchange membrane. Two novel metal-free cathode catalysts are synthesised, investigated and compared with the commercial Pt-based catalyst. In this work nitrogen-doped few-layer graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotube (N-FLG/MWCNT) composite and nitrogen-doped MWCNT (N-MWCNT) catalyst are prepared by pyrolysing the mixture of dicyandiamide (DCDA) and carbon nanomaterials at 800 °C. The resulting cathode catalyst material shows a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M KOH solution employing the rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. Fuel cell tests are performed by using 1 M methanol as anode and pure oxygen gas cathode feed. The maximum power density obtained with the N-FLG/MWCNT material (0.72 mW cm-2) is similar to that of the Pt/C catalyst (0.72 mW cm-2), whereas the N-MWCNT material shows higher peak power density (0.92 mW cm-2) than the commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  10. Real-time thermal imaging of solid oxide fuel cell cathode activity in working condition.

    PubMed

    Montanini, Roberto; Quattrocchi, Antonino; Piccolo, Sebastiano A; Amato, Alessandra; Trocino, Stefano; Zignani, Sabrina C; Faro, Massimiliano Lo; Squadrito, Gaetano

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are effective for quantifying solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operational performance, but not for identifying and monitoring the chemical processes that occur on the electrodes' surface, which are thought to be strictly related to the SOFCs' efficiency. Because of their high operating temperature, mechanical failure or cathode delamination is a common shortcoming of SOFCs that severely affects their reliability. Infrared thermography may provide a powerful tool for probing in situ SOFC electrode processes and the materials' structural integrity, but, due to the typical design of pellet-type cells, a complete optical access to the electrode surface is usually prevented. In this paper, a specially designed SOFC is introduced, which allows temperature distribution to be measured over all the cathode area while still preserving the electrochemical performance of the device. Infrared images recorded under different working conditions are then processed by means of a dedicated image processing algorithm for quantitative data analysis. Results reported in the paper highlight the effectiveness of infrared thermal imaging in detecting the onset of cell failure during normal operation and in monitoring cathode activity when the cell is fed with different types of fuels.

  11. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

    2013-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination.

  12. 77 FR 29751 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Economy Reports AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... average fuel economy standard for the model year for which the report is made, the actions a manufacturer... CONTACT: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and...

  13. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  14. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  15. On the impact of water activity on reversal tolerant fuel cell anode performance and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bo Ki; Mandal, Pratiti; Oh, Jong-Gil; Litster, Shawn

    2016-10-01

    Durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells in automotive applications can be severely affected by hydrogen starvation arising due to transients during the drive-cycle. It causes individual cell voltage reversal, yielding water electrolysis and carbon corrosion reactions at the anode, ultimately leading to catastrophic cell failure. A popular material-based mitigation strategy is to employ a reversal tolerant anode (RTA) that includes oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst (e.g., IrO2) to promote water electrolysis over carbon corrosion. Here we report that RTA performance surprisingly drops under not only water-deficient but also water-excess conditions. This presents a significant technical challenge since the most common triggers for cell reversal involve excess liquid water. Our findings from detailed electrochemical diagnostics and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography provide insight into how automotive fuel cells can overcome critical vulnerabilities using material-based solutions. Our work also highlights the need for improved materials, electrode designs, and operation strategies for robust RTAs.

  16. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  17. Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-07

    Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

  18. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2014 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori; May, W. Edgar

    2014-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of a “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. AFC uses a “goal-oriented, science-based approach” aimed at a fundamental understanding of fuel and cladding fabrication methods and performance under irradiation, enabling the pursuit of multiple fuel forms for future fuel cycle options. This approach includes fundamental experiments, theory, and advanced modeling and simulation. The modeling and simulation activities for fuel performance are carried out under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program, which is closely coordinated with AFC. In this report, the word “fuel” is used generically to include fuels, targets, and their associated cladding materials. R&D of light water reactor (LWR) fuels with enhanced accident tolerance is also conducted by AFC. These fuel systems are designed to achieve significantly higher fuel and plant performance to allow operation to significantly higher burnup, and to provide enhanced safety during design basis and beyond design basis accident conditions. The overarching goal is to develop advanced nuclear fuels and materials that are robust, have high performance capability, and are more tolerant to

  19. Future long-range transports: Prospects for improved fuel efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.; Alford, W. J., Jr.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A status report is provided on current thinking concerning potential improvements in fuel efficiency and possible alternate fuels. Topics reviewed are: (1) historical trends in airplane efficiency; (2) technological opportunities including supercritical aerodynamics, (3) vortex diffusers, (4) composite materials, (5) propulsion systems, (6) active controls, and terminal-area operations; (7) unconventional design concepts, and (8) hydrogen-fueled airplane.

  20. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  1. Examination of optimal separator shape of polymer electrolyte fuel cell with numerical analysis including the effect of gas flow through gas diffusion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Gen; Matsukuma, Yosuke; Minemoto, Masaki

    This work concentrates on the effects of channel depth and separator shape on cell output performance, current density distribution and gas flow condition in various conditions with PEFC numerical analysis model including gas flow through GDL. When GDL effective porosity was small, the effect of gas flow through GDL which was changed by channel depth on cell output performance became large. However, current density distribution was ununiform. As GDL permeability became larger, cell output density increased, but current density and gas flow rate distribution were ununiform. From the results of changing the gas flow rate, it was found that the ratio of the minimum gas flow rate to the inlet flow rate depended on channel depth. Furthermore, the optimal separator, which increased output density and made the current density distribution and gas flow rate distribution uniform, was examined. It was also found that cell performance had possible to be developed by improving the turning point of the serpentine separator.

  2. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  3. Bio-based phenols and fuel production from catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin by activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Liu, Yupeng; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Tang, Juming

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin for renewable phenols and fuels using activated carbon (AC) as a catalyst. A central composite experimental design (CCD) was used to optimize the reaction condition. The effects of reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV, h(-1)) on product yields were investigated. GC/MS analysis showed that the main chemical compounds of bio-oils were phenols, guaiacols, hydrocarbons and esters, most of which were ranged from 71% to 87% of the bio-oils depending on different reaction conditions. Bio-oils with high concentrations of phenol (45% in the bio-oil) were obtained. The calorific value analysis revealed that the high heating values (HHV) of the lignin-derived biochars were from 20.4 to 24.5 MJ/kg in comparison with raw lignin (19 MJ/kg). The reaction mechanism of this process was analyzed.

  4. Electrocatalytic activity of ZnS nanoparticles in direct ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredol, Michael; Kaczmarek, Michał; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-06-01

    Low temperature fuel cells consuming ethanol without reformation would be a major step toward the use of renewable energy sources from biomass. However, the necessary electrodes and electrocatalysts still are far from being perfect and suffer from various poisoning and deactivation processes. This work describes investigations on systems using carbon/ZnS-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in complete membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). MEAs were built on Nafion membranes with active masses prepared from ZnS nanoparticles and Vulcan carbon support. Under operation, acetic acid and acetaldehyde were identified and quantified as soluble oxidation products, whereas the amount of CO2 generated could not be quantified directly. Overall conversion efficiencies of up to 25% were estimated from cells operated over prolonged time. From polarization curves, interrupt experiments and analysis of reaction products, mass transport problems (concentration polarization) and breakthrough losses were found to be the main deficiencies of the ethanol oxidation electrodes fabricated so far.

  5. Polyphosphate: A Morphogenetically Active Implant Material Serving as Metabolic Fuel for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-09-01

    The initial mineralization centers during human bone formation onto osteoblasts are composed of CaCO3 . Those bioseeds are enzymatically formed via carbonic anhydrase(s) in close association with the cell surface of the osteoblasts. Subsequently, the bicarbonate/carbonate anions are exchanged non-enzymatically by inorganic phosphate [Pi ]. One source for the supply of Pi is polyphosphate [polyP] which is a physiological polymer, formed in the osteoblasts as well as in the platelets. The energy-rich acid anhydride bonds within the polyP chain are cleaved by phosphatase(s); during this reaction free-energy might be released that could be re-used, as metabolic fuel, for the maintenance of the steady-state concentrations of the substrates/products during mineralization. Finally it is outlined that polyP, as a morphogenetically active scaffold, is even suitable for 3D cell printing.

  6. Development of catalytically active and highly stable catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekeun; Xie, Tianyuan; Jung, Wonsuk; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Ganesan, Prabhu; Popov, Branko N.

    2015-01-01

    Novel procedures are developed for the synthesis of highly stable carbon composite catalyst supports (CCCS-800 °C and CCCS-1100 °C) and an activated carbon composite catalyst support (A-CCCS). These supports are synthesized through: (i) surface modification with acids and inclusion of oxygen groups, (ii) metal-catalyzed pyrolysis, and (iii) chemical leaching to remove excess metal used to dope the support. The procedure results in increasing carbon graphitization and inclusion of non-metallic active sites on the support surface. Catalytic activity of CCCS indicates an onset potential of 0.86 V for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with well-defined kinetic and mass-transfer regions and ∼2.5% H2O2 production in rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) studies. Support stability studies at 1.2 V constant potential holding for 400 h indicate high stability for the 30% Pt/A-CCCS catalyst with a cell potential loss of 27 mV at 800 mA cm-2 under H2-air, 32% mass activity loss, and 30% ECSA loss. Performance evaluation in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell shows power densities (rated) of 0.18 and 0.23 gPt kW-1 for the 30% Pt/A-CCCS and 30% Pt/CCCS-800 °C catalysts, respectively. The stabilities of various supports developed in this study are compared with those of a commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  7. Effect of a fuel activation device (FAD) on particulate matter and black carbon emissions from a diesel locomotive engine.

    PubMed

    Park, Duckshin; Lee, Taejeong; Lee, Yongil; Jeong, Wonseog; Kwon, Soon-Bark; Kim, Dongsool; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-01-01

    Emission reduction is one of the most efficient control measures in fuel-powered locomotives. The purpose of this study was to determine the reduction in particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) emissions following the installation of a fuel activation device (FAD). The FAD was developed to enhance fuel combustion by atomizing fuel and to increase the surface area per unit volume of injected fuel. Emission reduction by the FAD was evaluated by installing a FAD in an operating diesel locomotive in Mongolia. The test was conducted on a train operating on a round-trip 238-km route between Ulaanbaatar and Choir stations in Mongolia. The fuel consumption rate was slightly reduced following the FAD installation. The FAD installation decreased PM and BC emissions in the diesel locomotive, especially coarse PM. The PM10 reductions achieved after FAD installation were 58.0, 69.7, and 34.2% for the constant velocity, stopping, and acceleration stages of the train's operation, respectively. The BC reduction rates were 29.5, 52.8, and 27.4% for the constant velocity, stopping, and acceleration stages, respectively.

  8. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States’ energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future. PMID:22540989

  9. The role of natural gas as a primary fuel in the near future, including comparisons of acquisition, transmission and waste handling costs of as with competitive alternatives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fang-Yu; Ryvak, Marta; Sayeed, Sara; Zhao, Nick

    2012-04-23

    Natural gas comprises about a quarter of the United States' energy use. It is more environmentally friendly than oil and coal due to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit, less costly per unit of energy and more readily available domestically in abundant supply. However, due to a number of barriers in the political, infrastructural, pricing and other arenas, the use of natural gas as a significant energy source in the United States has been limited. In our paper, we highlight the favorable qualities of natural gas and its benefits for the consumer, producer, and environment, having compared the costs of the various components of the natural gas business such as drilling and transport to that of coal and oil. Moreover, we touch upon the major issues that have prevented a more prevalent use of the gas, such as the fact that the infrastructure of natural gas is more costly since it is transported though pipelines whereas other energy sources such as oil and coal have flexible systems that use trains, trucks and ships. In addition, the powerful lobbies of the coal and oil businesses, along with the inertia in the congress to pass a national climate change bill further dampens incentives for these industries to invest in natural gas, despite its various attractive qualities. We also include discussions of policy proposals to incentive greater use of natural gas in the future.

  10. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  11. Updated NGNP Fuel Acquisition Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Tim Abram; Richard Hobbins; Jim Kendall

    2010-12-01

    A Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel acquisition strategy was first established in 2007. In that report, a detailed technical assessment of potential fuel vendors for the first core of NGNP was conducted by an independent group of international experts based on input from the three major reactor vendor teams. Part of the assessment included an evaluation of the credibility of each option, along with a cost and schedule to implement each strategy compared with the schedule and throughput needs of the NGNP project. While credible options were identified based on the conditions in place at the time, many changes in the assumptions underlying the strategy and in externalities that have occurred in the interim requiring that the options be re-evaluated. This document presents an update to that strategy based on current capabilities for fuel fabrication as well as fuel performance and qualification testing worldwide. In light of the recent Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) project closure, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel development and qualification program needs to support both pebble and prismatic options under the NGNP project. A number of assumptions were established that formed a context for the evaluation. Of these, the most important are: • Based on logistics associated with the on-going engineering design activities, vendor teams would start preliminary design in October 2012 and complete in May 2014. A decision on reactor type will be made following preliminary design, with the decision process assumed to be completed in January 2015. Thus, no fuel decision (pebble or prismatic) will be made in the near term. • Activities necessary for both pebble and prismatic fuel qualification will be conducted in parallel until a fuel form selection is made. As such, process development, fuel fabrication, irradiation, and testing for pebble and prismatic options should not negatively influence each other during the period prior to a decision on reactor type

  12. Air-cathode microbial fuel cell array: a device for identifying and characterizing electrochemically active microbes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; de Figueiredo, Paul; Han, Arum

    2011-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have generated excitement in environmental and bioenergy communities due to their potential for coupling wastewater treatment with energy generation and powering diverse devices. The pursuit of strategies such as improving microbial cultivation practices and optimizing MFC devices has increased power generating capacities of MFCs. However, surprisingly few microbial species with electrochemical activity in MFCs have been identified because current devices do not support parallel analyses or high throughput screening. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of using advanced microfabrication methods to fabricate an MFC microarray. Here, we extend these studies by demonstrating a microfabricated air-cathode MFC array system. The system contains 24 individual air-cathode MFCs integrated onto a single chip. The device enables the direct and parallel comparison of different microbes loaded onto the array. Environmental samples were used to validate the utility of the air-cathode MFC array system and two previously identified isolates, 7Ca (Shewanella sp.) and 3C (Arthrobacter sp.), were shown to display enhanced electrochemical activities of 2.69 mW/m(2) and 1.86 mW/m(2), respectively. Experiments using a large scale conventional air-cathode MFC validated these findings. The parallel air-cathode MFC array system demonstrated here is expected to promote and accelerate the discovery and characterization of electrochemically active microbes.

  13. Enhanced electricity generation by using algae biomass and activated sludge in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Naim; Cui, Yu-Feng; Saif Ur Rehman, Muhammad; Han, Jong-In

    2013-07-01

    Recently, interest is growing to explore low-cost and sustainable means of energy production. In this study, we have exploited the potential of sustainable energy production from wastes. Activated sludge and algae biomass are used as substrates in microbial fuel cell (MFC) to produce electricity. Activated sludge is used at anode as inoculum and nutrient source. Various concentrations (1-5 g/L) of dry algae biomass are tested. Among tested concentrations, 5 g/L (5000 mg COD/L) produced the highest voltage of 0.89 V and power density of 1.78 W/m(2) under 1000 Ω electric resistance. Pre-treated algae biomass and activated sludge are also used at anode. They give low power output than without pre-treatment. Spent algae biomass is tested to replace whole (before oil extraction) algae biomass as a substrate, but it gives low power output. This work has proved the concept of using algae biomass in MFC for high energy output.

  14. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2010 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2010-12-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Accomplishment Report documents the high-level research and development results achieved in fiscal year 2010. The AFC program has been given responsibility to develop advanced fuel technologies for the Department of Energy (DOE) using a science-based approach focusing on developing a microstructural understanding of nuclear fuels and materials. The science-based approach combines theory, experiments, and multi-scale modeling and simulation aimed at a fundamental understanding of the fuel fabrication processes and fuel and clad performance under irradiation. The scope of the AFC includes evaluation and development of multiple fuel forms to support the three fuel cycle options described in the Sustainable Fuel Cycle Implementation Plan4: Once-Through Cycle, Modified-Open Cycle, and Continuous Recycle. The word “fuel” is used generically to include fuels, targets, and their associated cladding materials. This document includes a brief overview of the management and integration activities; but is primarily focused on the technical accomplishments for FY-10. Each technical section provides a high level overview of the activity, results, technical points of contact, and applicable references.

  15. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    PubMed

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  16. Disposal R&D in the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign: A Discussion of Opportunities for Active International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-06-01

    For DOE's Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC), international collaboration is a beneficial and cost-effective strategy for advancing disposal science with regards to multiple disposal options and different geologic environments. While the United States disposal program focused solely on Yucca Mountain tuff as host rock over the past decades, several international programs have made significant progress in the characterization and performance evaluation of other geologic repository options, most of which are very different from the Yucca Mountain site in design and host rock characteristics. Because Yucca Mountain was so unique (e.g., no backfill, unsaturated densely fractured tuff), areas of direct collaboration with international disposal programs were quite limited during that time. The decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to no longer pursue the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel at Yucca Mountain has shifted UFDC's interest to disposal options and geologic environments similar to those being investigated by disposal programs in other nations. Much can be gained by close collaboration with these programs, including access to valuable experience and data collected over recent decades. Such collaboration can help to efficiently achieve UFDC's long-term goals of conducting 'experiments to fill data needs and confirm advanced modeling approaches' (by 2015) and of having a 'robust modeling and experimental basis for evaluation of multiple disposal system options' (by 2020). This report discusses selected opportunities of active international collaboration, with focus on both Natural Barrier System (NBS) and Engineered Barrier System (EBS) aspects and those opportunities that provide access to field data (and respective interpretation/modeling) or allow participation in ongoing field experiments. This discussion serves as a basis for the DOE/NE-53 and UFDC planning process for FY12 and beyond.

  17. 49 CFR 624.3 - Eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Batteries; (v) Alcohol-based fuels; (vi) Hybrid electric; (vii) Fuel cells; (viii) Clean diesel, to the..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.3 Eligible activities. (a) Eligible activities include purchasing or leasing clean fuel buses and constructing new or improving existing...

  18. 49 CFR 624.3 - Eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Batteries; (v) Alcohol-based fuels; (vi) Hybrid electric; (vii) Fuel cells; (viii) Clean diesel, to the..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.3 Eligible activities. (a) Eligible activities include purchasing or leasing clean fuel buses and constructing new or improving existing...

  19. 49 CFR 624.3 - Eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Batteries; (v) Alcohol-based fuels; (vi) Hybrid electric; (vii) Fuel cells; (viii) Clean diesel, to the..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.3 Eligible activities. (a) Eligible activities include purchasing or leasing clean fuel buses and constructing new or improving existing...

  20. 49 CFR 624.3 - Eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Batteries; (v) Alcohol-based fuels; (vi) Hybrid electric; (vii) Fuel cells; (viii) Clean diesel, to the..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.3 Eligible activities. (a) Eligible activities include purchasing or leasing clean fuel buses and constructing new or improving existing...

  1. 49 CFR 624.3 - Eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Batteries; (v) Alcohol-based fuels; (vi) Hybrid electric; (vii) Fuel cells; (viii) Clean diesel, to the..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLEAN FUELS GRANT PROGRAM § 624.3 Eligible activities. (a) Eligible activities include purchasing or leasing clean fuel buses and constructing new or improving existing...

  2. Fuel development activities of the US RERTR Program. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Domagala, R.F.; Wiencek, T.C.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the development and irradiation testing of high-density fuels for use with low-enriched uranium in research and test reactors is reported. Swelling and blister-threshold temperature data obtained from the examination of miniature fuel plates containing UAl/sub x/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/, or U/sub 3/Si dispersed in an aluminum matrix are presented. Combined with the results of metallurgical examinations, these data show that these four fuel types will perform adequately to full burnup of the /sup 235/U contained in the low-enriched fuel. The exothermic reaction of the uranium-silicide fuels with aluminum has been found to occur at about the same temperature as the melting of the aluminum matrix and cladding and to be essentially quenched by the melting endotherm. A new series of miniature fuel plate irradiations is also discussed.

  3. 77 FR 40354 - Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels-Draft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...EPA published on May 10, 2012, Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels--Draft. The initial public comment period for this proposal was 60 days, ending on July 9, 2012. In response to requests from several stakeholders, this action extends the public comment period for an additional 45...

  4. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  5. The effect of low concentrations of tetrachloroethylene on H2 adsorption and activation on Pt in a fuel cell catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jack Z.; Colón-Mercado, Héctor R.; Goodwin, James G.

    2011-10-01

    The poisoning effect of tetrachloroethylene (TTCE) on the activity of a Pt fuel cell catalyst for the adsorption and activation of H2 was investigated at 60 °C and 2 atm using hydrogen surface concentration measurements. The impurity was chosen as a model compound for chlorinated cleaning and degreasing agents that may be introduced into a fuel cell as a contaminant at a fueling station and/or during vehicle maintenance. In the presence of only H2, introduction of up to 540 ppm TTCE in H2 to Pt/C resulted in a reduction of available Pt surface atoms (measured by H2 uptake) by ca. 30%, which was not enough to shift the H2-D2 exchange reaction away from being equilibrium limited. Exposure of TTCE to Pt/C in a mixed redox environment (hydrogen + oxygen), similar to that at the cathode of a fuel cell, resulted in a much more significant loss of Pt surface atom availability, suggesting a role in TTCE decomposition and/or Cl poisoning. Regeneration of catalyst activity of poisoned Pt/C showed the highest level of recovery when regenerated in only H2, with much less recovery in H2 + O2 or O2. The results from this study are in good agreement with those found in a fuel cell study by Martínez-Rodríguez et al. [2] and confirm that the majority of the poisoning from TTCE on fuel cell performance is most likely at the cathode, rather than the anode.

  6. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  7. Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. Delays in opening the deep geologic

  8. 26 CFR 48.4083-1 - Taxable fuel; administrative authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... can or may be used for the production, storage, or transportation of fuel, fuel dyes, or fuel markers... transportation of fuel, fuel dyes, or fuel markers. This includes any equipment used for the dyeing or marking...

  9. Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maximum power point without using resistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability.

  10. Carbon-Based Microbial-Fuel-Cell Electrodes: From Conductive Supports to Active Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Cheng, Chong; Thomas, Arne

    2017-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have attracted considerable interest due to their potential in renewable electrical power generation using the broad diversity of biomass and organic substrates. However, the difficulties in achieving high power densities and commercially affordable electrode materials have limited their industrial applications to date. Carbon materials, which can exhibit a wide range of different morphologies and structures, usually possess physiological activity to interact with microorganisms and are therefore fast-emerging electrode materials. As the anode, carbon materials can significantly promote interfacial microbial colonization and accelerate the formation of extracellular biofilms, which eventually promotes the electrical power density by providing a conductive microenvironment for extracellular electron transfer. As the cathode, carbon-based materials can function as catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction, showing satisfying activities and efficiencies nowadays even reaching the performance of Pt catalysts. Here, first, recent advancements on the design of carbon materials for anodes in MFCs are summarized, and the influence of structure and surface functionalization of different types of carbon materials on microorganism immobilization and electrochemical performance is elucidated. Then, synthetic strategies and structures of typical carbon-based cathodes in MFCs are briefly presented. Furthermore, future applications of carbon-electrode-based MFC devices in the energy, environmental, and biological fields are discussed, and the emerging challenges in transferring them from laboratory to industrial scale are described.

  11. Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.

  12. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  13. Immobilization of a Metal-Nitrogen-Carbon Catalyst on Activated Carbon with Enhanced Cathode Performance in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wulin; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-08-23

    Applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are limited in part by low power densities mainly due to cathode performance. Successful immobilization of an Fe-N-C co-catalyst on activated carbon (Fe-N-C/AC) improved the oxygen reduction reaction to nearly a four-electron transfer, compared to a twoelectron transfer achieved using AC. With acetate as the fuel, the maximum power density was 4.7±0.2 W m(-2) , which is higher than any previous report for an air-cathode MFC. With domestic wastewater as a fuel, MFCs with the Fe-N-C/AC cathode produced up to 0.8±0.03 W m(-2) , which was twice that obtained with a Pt-catalyzed cathode. The use of this Fe-N-C/AC catalyst can therefore substantially increase power production, and enable broader applications of MFCs for renewable electricity generation using waste materials.

  14. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  15. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  16. Outward electron transfer by Saccharomyces cerevisiae monitored with a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell-type activity sensor.

    PubMed

    Ducommun, Raphaël; Favre, Marie-France; Carrard, Delphine; Fischer, Fabian

    2010-03-01

    A Janus head-like bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell was constructed to monitor the electron transfer from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a woven carbon anode. The experiments were conducted during an ethanol cultivation of 170 g/l glucose in the presence and absence of yeast-peptone medium. First, using a basic fuel-cell type activity sensor, it was shown that yeast-peptone medium contains electroactive compounds. For this purpose, 1% solutions of soy peptone and yeast extract were subjected to oxidative conditions, using a microbial fuel cell set-up corresponding to a typical galvanic cell, consisting of culture medium in the anodic half-cell and 0.5 M K(3)Fe(CN)(6) in the cathodic half-cell. Second, using a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell, it was shown that electrons were transferred from yeast cells to the carbon anode. The participation of electroactive compounds in the electron transport was separated as background current. This result was verified by applying medium-free conditions, where only glucose was fed, confirming that electrons are transferred from yeast cells to the woven carbon anode. Knowledge about the electron transfer through the cell membrane is of importance in amperometric online monitoring of yeast fermentations and for electricity production with microbial fuel cells.

  17. Large-scale, dynamic transformations in fuel moisture drive wildfire activity across southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, R. H.; Boer, M. M.; Resco de Dios, V.; Caccamo, G.; Bradstock, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of large, high-intensity wildfires requires plant biomass, or fuel, that is sufficiently dry to burn. This poses the question, what is "sufficiently dry"? Until recently, the ability to address this question has been constrained by the spatiotemporal scale of available methods to monitor the moisture contents of both dead and live fuels. Here we take advantage of recent developments in macroscale monitoring of fuel moisture through a combination of remote sensing and climatic modeling. We show there are clear thresholds of fuel moisture content associated with the occurrence of wildfires in forests and woodlands. Furthermore, we show that transformations in fuel moisture conditions across these thresholds can occur rapidly, within a month. Both the approach presented here, and our findings, can be immediately applied and may greatly improve fire risk assessments in forests and woodlands globally.

  18. In-use measurement of the activity, fuel use, and emissions of front-loader refuse trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Field measurements were made for six front-loader refuse trucks for over 560 miles (901 km) and 47 h of operation using a portable emissions measurement system, electronic control unit data logger, and global positioning system receivers. Daily activity, fuel use rates, and emission rates are quantified in terms of operating mode bins defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the MOVES emission factor model. On average, 44 (±4) percent of time was spent at idle, 5 (±1) percent braking or decelerating, 11 (±2) percent coasting, 23 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at low speed (up to 25 mph, 40.2 kmph), 10 (±2) percent cruising or accelerating at moderate speed (25-50 mph, 40.2 to 80.4 kmph), and 7 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at high speed (50 mph, 80.4 kmph or higher). Fuel use and emission rates varied among operating modes by factors of 6-24. The estimated daily activity cycle average fuel economy ranges from 2.3 to 3.2 mpg (0.98-1.4 kmpl). The PM emission rates for trucks with diesel particulate filters are 98 percent lower compared to those without. Variation in truck weight lead to differences in average fuel use and emission rates of 20 percent or less, except for hydrocarbons. The variation in the empirically-based daily activity cycle average rates were highly correlated with MOVES estimates, except for hydrocarbons. The data collected here are useful for quantifying daily activity specific to front-loaders, and for developing fuel use and emission estimates and models for this type of vehicle.

  19. Evaluation on estrogenicity and oxidative hepatotoxicity of fossil fuel industrial wastewater before and after the powdered activated carbon treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-An; Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Ting-Chien

    2004-06-01

    There are 10 manufacturers who produce fossil fuel products in the Da-Hse Industrial District, Kaohsiung County, southwestern Taiwan. Before discharging the wastewater into the nearby aquatic environment, the pretreated wastewater from these manufacturers must be processed in a treatment plant which includes four major processing units: equalization, a primary clarifier, an aeration basin, and a final clarifier. In order to estimate the potential environmental risks of industrial wastewater from each manufacturer and the treatment efficiency of the powdered activated carbon treatment (PACT) system used in this wastewater treatment plant, in vitro bioassays for estrogenicity and oxidative hepatotoxicity were carried out using a stably transfected human breast cancer cell line, MVLN, and a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, respectively. Estrogenic substances occurred in nine of 10 pretreated wastewaters from these manufacturers in which the relative luciferase activity ranged from 18.9% to 98.0% for 1-fold-condensed wastewaters corresponding to the concentration of the original wastewater. The estrogenicity was highest at the influent of the treatment plant and decreased through the treatment process. About 81% estrogenicity clearance was found through all processing units. On the other hand, oxidative hepatotoxic substances existed in seven of 10 pretreated wastewaters from these manufacturers in which relative TBARs activity ranged from 18.5% to 43.0% for 1-fold-condensed wastewater. The TBARs of influent samples apparently decreased through the processing units until the aeration basin, but abruptly rose in the final clarifier, which was a result of the addition of an active charcoal-retrieving agent with the molecular formula of (C(2)H(3))(n)CONHCH(2)N(CH(3))(3)Cl and which had high TBARs activity. No TBARs activity being found in effluent samples could be a consequence of allowing sufficient time for coagulation between the active charcoal and its

  20. EGFR-activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Heike N; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H; Sequist, Lecia V; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-10-15

    In patients with lung cancer whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGF receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared with wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of cross-linker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2-M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR-mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer.

  1. Parameters characterization and optimization of activated carbon (AC) cathodes for microbial fuel cell application.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Babanova, Sofia; Atanassov, Plamen; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Grattieri, Matteo; Cristiani, Pierangela; Trasatti, Stefano; Li, Baikun; Schuler, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is employed as a cost-effective catalyst for cathodic oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFC). The fabrication protocols of AC-based cathodes are conducted at different applied pressures (175-3500 psi) and treatment temperatures (25-343°C). The effects of those parameters along with changes in the surface morphology and chemistry on the cathode performances are comprehensively examined. The cathodes are tested in a three-electrode setup and explored in single chamber membraneless MFCs (SCMFCs). The results show that the best performance of the AC-based cathode is achieved when a pressure of 1400 psi is applied followed by heat treatment of 150-200°C for 1h. The influence of the applied pressure and the temperature of the heat treatment on the electrodes and SCMFCs is demonstrated as the result of the variation in the transfer resistance, the surface morphology and surface chemistry of the AC-based cathodes tested.

  2. Lattice-Strain Control of Exceptional Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Strasser, Peter

    2011-08-19

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical approach to demonstrate how lattice strain can be used to continuously tune the catalytic activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on bimetallic nanoparticles that have been dealloyed. The sluggish kinetics of the ORR is a key barrier to the adaptation of fuel cells and currently limits their widespread use. Dealloyed Pt-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles, however, have been shown to exhibit uniquely high reactivity for this reaction. We first present evidence for the formation of a core-shell structure during dealloying, which involves removal of Cu from the surface and subsurface of the precursor nanoparticles. We then show that the resulting Pt-rich surface shell exhibits compressive strain that depends on the composition of the precursor alloy. We next demonstrate the existence of a downward shift of the Pt d-band, resulting in weakening of the bond strength of intermediate oxygenated species due to strain. Finally, we combine synthesis, strain, and catalytic reactivity in an experimental/theoretical reactivity-strain relationship which provides guidelines for the rational design of strained oxygen reduction electrocatalysts. The stoichiometry of the precursor, together with the dealloying conditions, provides experimental control over the resulting surface strain and thereby allows continuous tuning of the surface electrocatalytic reactivity - a concept that can be generalized to other catalytic reactions.

  3. On active disturbance rejection in temperature regulation of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dazi; Li, Chong; Gao, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qibing

    2015-06-01

    Operating a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system to maintain the stack temperature stable is one of the key issues in PEMFC's normal electrochemical reaction process. Its temperature characteristic is easily affected by inlet gas humidity, external disturbances, and electrical load changes and so on. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity of the reaction process, it is hard to build a model totally consistent with the real characteristic of the process. If model uncertainty, external disturbances, parameters changes can be regarded as "total disturbance", which is then estimated and compensated, the accurate model is no longer required and the control design can be greatly simplified to meet the practical needs. Based on this idea, an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) with a switching law is proposed for the problem of precise temperature regulation in PEMFC. Results of the work show that the proposed control system allows the PEMFC to operate successfully at the temperature of 343 K point in the presence of two different disturbances.

  4. Inhibition of progesterone receptor activity in recombinant yeast by soot from fossil fuel combustion emissions and air particulate materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2005-10-15

    Numerous environmental pollutants have been detected for estrogenic activity by interacting with the estrogen receptor, but little information is available about their interactions with the progesterone receptor. In this study, emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion (FFC) and air particulate material (APM) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in a big city of China were evaluated to interact with the human progesterone receptor (hPR) signaling pathway by examining their ability to interact with the activity of hPR expressed in yeast. The results showed that the soot of a petroleum-fired vehicle possessed the most potent anti-progesteronic activity, that of coal-fired stove and diesel fired agrimotor emissions took the second place, and soot samples of coal-fired heating work and electric power station had lesser progesterone inhibition activity. The anti-progesteronic activity of APM was between that of soot from petroleum-fired vehicle and soot from coal-fired establishments and diesel fired agrimotor. Since there was no other large pollution source near the APM sampling sites, the endocrine disrupters were most likely from vehicle emissions, tire attrition and house heating sources. The correlation analysis showed that a strong relationship existed between estrogenic activity and anti-progesteronic activity in emissions of fossil fuel combustion. The discoveries that some environmental pollutants with estrogenic activity can also inhibit hPR activity indicate that further studies are required to investigate potential mechanisms for the reported estrogenic activities of these pollutants.

  5. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  6. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  7. SPENT FUEL MANAGEMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Robert Sindelar, R; Richard Deible, R

    2007-11-03

    Spent nuclear fuels are received from reactor sites around the world and are being stored in the L-Basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The predominant fuel types are research reactor fuel with aluminum-alloy cladding and aluminum-based fuel. Other fuel materials include stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding with uranium oxide fuel. Chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs have been established and upgraded since the early 1990's to minimize corrosion degradation of the aluminum cladding materials, so as to maintain fuel integrity and minimize personnel exposure from radioactivity in the basin water. Recent activities have been initiated to support additional decades of wet storage which include fuel inspection and corrosion testing to evaluate the effects of specific water impurity species on corrosion attack.

  8. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  9. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  10. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  11. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  12. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  13. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  14. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... licensed launch or permitted activities is sufficiently small that financial responsibility is no...

  15. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Micromachined polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cells—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2006-04-01

    This review reports recent progress of the development of micromachined membrane-based fuel cells. The review first discusses the scaling law applied to this type of fuel cell. Impacts of miniaturization on the performance of membrane-based fuel cells are highlighted. This review includes only the two most common micro fuel cell types: proton exchange membrane micro fuel cells (PEMµFC) and direct methanol micro fuel cells (DMµFC). Furthermore, we only consider fuel cells with the active area of a single cell less than 1 square inch. Since the working principles of these fuel cell types are well known, the review only focuses on the choice of material and the design consideration of the components in the miniature fuel cell. Next, we compare and discuss the performance of different micro fuel cells published recently in the literature. Finally, this review gives an outlook on possible future development of micro fuel cell research.

  17. NASA's Planned Fuel Cell Development Activities for 2009 and Beyond in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Energy Storage Project is one of many technology development efforts being implemented as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). The Energy Storage Project is a focused technology development effort to advance lithium-ion battery and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technologies to meet the specific power and energy storage needs of NASA Exploration missions. The fuel cell portion of the project has as its focus the development of both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems, and is led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), academia, and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve stack electrical performance, reduce system mass and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability.

  18. Self-Activated Micro Direct-Methanol Fuel Cell (muDMFC) at Near Room Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    control of multiphase flows at the microscale is crucial to micro-DMFC development. Through micro channel experiments we showed that wettability ...channel experiments study the effects of wettability (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) as well as the presence of impurities in the fuel on the operating...and gas are flowing into square cross-sectional microchannels. The optimal wettability properties for Micro-Direct Methanol Fuel Cells are hydrophilic

  19. A setup for active neutron analysis of the fissile material content in fuel assemblies of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushuev, A. V.; Kozhin, A. F.; Aleeva, T. B.; Zubarev, V. N.; Petrova, E. V.; Smirnov, V. E.

    2016-12-01

    An active neutron method for measuring the residual mass of 235U in spent fuel assemblies (FAs) of the IRT MEPhI research reactor is presented. The special measuring stand design and uniform irradiation of the fuel with neutrons along the entire length of the active part of the FA provide high accuracy of determination of the residual 235U content. AmLi neutron sources yield a higher effect/background ratio than other types of sources and do not induce the fission of 238U. The proposed method of transfer of the isotope source in accordance with a given algorithm may be used in experiments where the studied object needs to be irradiated with a uniform fluence.

  20. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  1. Activity of platinum/carbon and palladium/carbon catalysts promoted by Ni2 P in direct ethanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Feng, Ligang; Chang, Jinfa; Wickman, Björn; Grönbeck, Henrik; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol is an alternative fuel for direct alcohol fuel cells, in which the electrode materials are commonly based on Pt or Pd. Owing to the excellent promotion effect of Ni2 P that was found in methanol oxidation, we extended the catalyst system of Pt or Pd modified by Ni2 P in direct ethanol fuel cells. The Ni2 P-promoted catalysts were compared to commercial catalysts as well as to reference catalysts promoted with only Ni or only P. Among the studied catalysts, Pt/C and Pd/C modified by Ni2 P (30 wt %) showed both the highest activity and stability. Upon integration into the anode of a homemade direct ethanol fuel cell, the Pt-Ni2 P/C-30 % catalyst showed a maximum power density of 21 mW cm(-2) , which is approximately two times higher than that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The Pd-Ni2 P/C-30 % catalyst exhibited a maximum power density of 90 mW cm(-2) . This is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of a commercial Pd/C catalyst. The discharge stability on both two catalysts was also greatly improved over a 12 h discharge operation.

  2. Analytical applications of microbial fuel cells. Part II: Toxicity, microbial activity and quantification, single analyte detection and other uses.

    PubMed

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, Maria C; Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Cortón, Eduardo

    2015-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells were rediscovered twenty years ago and now are a very active research area. The reasons behind this new activity are the relatively recent discovery of electrogenic or electroactive bacteria and the vision of two important practical applications, as wastewater treatment coupled with clean energy production and power supply systems for isolated low-power sensor devices. Although some analytical applications of MFCs were proposed earlier (as biochemical oxygen demand sensing) only lately a myriad of new uses of this technology are being presented by research groups around the world, which combine both biological-microbiological and electroanalytical expertises. This is the second part of a review of MFC applications in the area of analytical sciences. In Part I a general introduction to biological-based analytical methods including bioassays, biosensors, MFCs design, operating principles, as well as, perhaps the main and earlier presented application, the use as a BOD sensor was reviewed. In Part II, other proposed uses are presented and discussed. As other microbially based analytical systems, MFCs are satisfactory systems to measure and integrate complex parameters that are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise, such as water toxicity (where the toxic effect to aquatic organisms needed to be integrated). We explore here the methods proposed to measure toxicity, microbial metabolism, and, being of special interest to space exploration, life sensors. Also, some methods with higher specificity, proposed to detect a single analyte, are presented. Different possibilities to increase selectivity and sensitivity, by using molecular biology or other modern techniques are also discussed here.

  3. Interim report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.; Potter, J.D.; Smalley, J.T.; Baker, C.P.; Jaquish, W.R.

    1997-06-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project at the Hanford Site. The project will retrieve spent nuclear fuel, clean and remove fuel from canisters, repackage fuel into baskets, and load fuel into a multi-canister overpack (MCO) for vacuum drying and interim dry storage. The FRS is required to retrieve basin fuel canisters, clean fuel elements sufficiently of uranium corrosion products (or sludge), empty fuel from canisters, sort debris and scrap from whole elements, and repackage fuel in baskets in preparation for MCO loading. The purpose of fuel handling development testing was to examine the systems ability to accomplish mission activities, optimization of equipment layouts for initial process definition, identification of special needs/tools, verification of required design changes to support performance specification development, and validation of estimated activity times/throughput. The test program was set up to accomplish this purpose through cold development testing using simulated and prototype equipment; cold demonstration testing using vendor expertise and systems; and graphical computer modeling to confirm feasibility and throughput. To test the fuel handling process, a test mockup that represented the process table was fabricated and installed. The test mockup included a Schilling HV series manipulator that was prototypic of the Schilling Hydra manipulator. The process table mockup included the tipping station, sorting area, disassembly and inspection zones, fuel staging areas, and basket loading stations. The test results clearly indicate that the Schilling Hydra arm cannot effectively perform the fuel handling tasks required unless it is attached to some device that can impart vertical translation, azimuth rotation, and X-Y translation. Other test results indicate the importance of camera locations and capabilities, and of the jaw and end effector tool design. 5 refs., 35 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory's primary responsibilities include: evaluating emission control technology; testing vehicles, engines and fuels; and determining compliance with federal emissions and fuel economy standards.

  5. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  6. Critical analysis of the Hanford spent nuclear fuel project activity based cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.N.

    1998-09-29

    In 1997, the SNFP developed a baseline change request (BCR) and submitted it to DOE-RL for approval. The schedule was formally evaluated to have a 19% probability of success [Williams, 1998]. In December 1997, DOE-RL Manager John Wagoner approved the BCR contingent upon a subsequent independent review of the new baseline. The SNFP took several actions during the first quarter of 1998 to prepare for the independent review. The project developed the Estimating Requirements and Implementation Guide [DESH, 1998] and trained cost account managers (CAMS) and other personnel involved in the estimating process in activity-based cost (ABC) estimating techniques. The SNFP then applied ABC estimating techniques to develop the basis for the December Baseline (DB) and documented that basis in Basis of Estimate (BOE) books. These BOEs were provided to DOE in April 1998. DOE commissioned Professional Analysis, Inc. (PAI) to perform a critical analysis (CA) of the DB. PAI`s review formally began on April 13. PAI performed the CA, provided three sets of findings to the SNFP contractor, and initiated reconciliation meetings. During the course of PAI`s review, DOE directed the SNFP to develop a new baseline with a higher probability of success. The contractor transmitted the new baseline, which is referred to as the High Probability Baseline (HPB), to DOE on April 15, 1998 [Williams, 1998]. The HPB was estimated to approach a 90% confidence level on the start of fuel movement [Williams, 1998]. This high probability resulted in an increased cost and a schedule extension. To implement the new baseline, the contractor initiated 26 BCRs with supporting BOES. PAI`s scope was revised on April 28 to add reviewing the HPB and the associated BCRs and BOES.

  7. Fuels for research and test reactors, status review: July 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.

    1982-12-01

    A thorough review is provided on nuclear fuels for steady-state thermal research and test reactors. The review was conducted to provide a documented data base in support of recent advances in research and test reactor fuel development, manufacture, and demonstration in response to current US policy on availability of enriched uranium. The review covers current fabrication practice, fabrication development efforts, irradiation performance, and properties affecting fuel utilization, including thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, thermal expansion, corrosion, phase stability, mechanical properties, and fission-product release. The emphasis is on US activities, but major work in Europe and elsewhere is included. The standard fuel types discussed are the U-Al alloy, UZrH/sub x/, and UO/sub 2/ rod fuels. Among new fuels, those given major emphasis include H/sub 3/Si-Al dispersion and UO/sub 2/ caramel plate fuels.

  8. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials with activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiruveedhula, V.V.N. Phani Babu; Witzigmann, Christopher M.; Verma, Ranjit; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Rott, Marc; Schwan, William R.; Medina-Bielski, Sara; Lane, Michelle; Close, William; Polanowski, Rebecca L.; Sherman, David; Monte, Aaron; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Cook, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase in bacterial resistance over the last decade along with a dramatic decrease in new treatments for infections has led to problems in the healthcare industry. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths per year. A world-wide threat with HIV co-infected with multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of TB has emerged. In this regard, herein, novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives were synthesized in simple, efficient routes and evaluated as potential agents against several Mycobacterium species. These were synthesized via a stereospecific process for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays indicated that esters 12, 13, and 20 exhibited greater in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis than rifampin, one of the current, first-line anti-mycobacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Based on these studies the acrylic ester 20 has been developed as a potential lead compound which was found to have an MIC value of 0.4 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The SAR and biological activity of this series is presented; a Michael – acceptor mechanism appears to be important for potent activity of this series of analogs. PMID:24200931

  9. Autonomic control network active in Aplysia during locomotion includes neurons that express splice variants of R15-neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; McKay, Natasha; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Koester, John

    2007-01-01

    Splice-variant products of the R15 neuropeptide gene are differentially expressed within the CNS of Aplysia. The goal of this study was to test whether the neurons in the abdominal ganglion that express the peptides encoded by this gene are part of a common circuit. Expression of R15 peptides had been demonstrated previously in neuron R15. Using a combination of immunocytochemical and analytical methods, this study demonstrated that R15 peptides are also expressed in heart exciter neuron RB(HE), the two L9(G) gill motoneurons, and L40--a newly identified interneuron. Mass spectrometric profiling of individual neurons that exhibit R15 peptide-like immunoreactivity confirmed the mutually exclusive expression of two splice-variant forms of R15 peptides in different neurons. The L9(G) cells were found to co-express pedal peptide in addition to the R15 peptides. The R15 peptide-expressing neurons examined here were shown to be part of an autonomic control circuit that is active during fictive locomotion. Activity in this circuit contributes to implementing a central command that may help to coordinate autonomic activity with escape locomotion. Chronic extracellular nerve recording was used to determine the activity patterns of a subset of neurons of this circuit in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using shared patterns of neuropeptide expression as a guide for neural circuit identification.

  10. Looking Northwest at Office Building Boiler Room, Including Cinderblock Walls, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Office Building Boiler Room, Including Cinderblock Walls, Fuel Tank and Scale Weights - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  11. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  12. 78 FR 62462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel, or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, as... biodiesel) that were produced for the highway diesel market but were also suitable for other markets such...

  13. Fuel cell systems program plan, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    DOE Office of Fossil Energy (OoFE) is participating with private sector in developing molten carbon fuel cell (MCFC) and advanced concepts including solid oxide fuel cell for application in utility/commercial/industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by OoFE and is now being commercialized. In 1993 DOD is undertaking use and demonstration of PAFC and other fuel cells. DOE Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy is sponsoring fuel cell development for propulsion. The Conservation program is focused on polymer electrolyte or proton exchange membrane fuel cells, although they also are implementing a demonstration program for PAFC buses. DOE fuel cell research, development and demonstration efforts are also supported by private sector funding. This Plan describes the fuel cell activities of the Office of Fossil Energy.

  14. An Intramolecular Silylene Borane Capable of Facile Activation of Small Molecules, Including Metal-Free Dehydrogenation of Water.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhenbo; Szilvási, Tibor; Zhou, Yu-Peng; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    The first single-component N-heterocyclic silylene borane 1 (LSi-R-BMes2 ; L=PhC(N(t) Bu)2 ; R=1,12-xanthendiyl spacer; Mes=2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 ), acting as a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) in small-molecule activation, can be synthesized in 65 % yields. Its HOMO is largely localized at the silicon(II) atom and the LUMO has mainly boron 2p character. In small-molecule activation 1 allows access to the intramolecular silanone-borane 3 featuring a Si=O→B interaction through reaction with O2 , N2 O, or CO2 , and formation of silanethione borane 4 from reaction with S8 . The Si(II) center in 1 undergoes immediate hydrogenation if exposed to H2 at 1 atm pressure in benzene, affording the silane borane 5-H2 , L(H2 )Si-R-BMes2 . Remarkably, no H2 activation occurs if the single silylene LSiPh and Mes3 B intermolecularly separated are exposed to dihydrogen. Unexpectedly, the pre-organized Si-B separation in 1 enables a metal-free dehydrogenation of H2 O to give the silanone-borane 3 as reactive intermediate.

  15. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  16. State of the States. Fuel Cells in America 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, Sandra; Gangi, Jennifer; Skukowski, Ryan

    2012-09-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, continues to build on the April 2010 State of the States report that provided a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. This update report provides more details on the progress and activities that happened since the second report, issued in June 2011. Details reported for each state include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activity by state industry and universities.

  17. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  18. An A-site-deficient perovskite offers high activity and stability for low-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yinlong; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Shanshan; Zou, Jin; Shao, Zongping

    2013-12-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) directly convert fossil and/or renewable fuels into electricity and/or high-quality heat in an environmentally friendly way. However, high operating temperatures result in high cost and material issues, which have limited the commercialization of SOFCs. To lower their operating temperatures, highly active and stable cathodes are required to maintain a reasonable power output. Here, we report a layer-structured A-site deficient perovskite Sr0.95 Nb0.1 Co0.9 O3-δ (SNC0.95) prepared by solid-state reactions that shows not only high activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at operating temperatures below 600 °C, but also offers excellent structural stability and compatibility, and improved CO2 resistivity. An anode-supported fuel cell with SNC0.95 cathode delivers a peak power density as high as 1016 mW cm(-2) with an electrode-area-specific resistance of 0.052 Ω cm(2) at 500 °C.

  19. Electronic circuit model for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dachuan; Yuvarajan, S.

    The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is being investigated as an alternate power source for various applications like transportation and emergency power supplies. The paper presents a novel circuit model for a PEM fuel cell that can be used to design and analyze fuel cell power systems. The PSPICE-based model uses bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and LC elements available in the PSPICE library with some modification. The model includes the phenomena like activation polarization, ohmic polarization, and mass transport effect present in a PEM fuel cell. The static and dynamic characteristics obtained through simulation are compared with experimental results obtained on a commercial fuel cell module.

  20. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  1. Predicted residual activity of rilpivirine in HIV-1 infected patients failing therapy including NNRTIs efavirenz or nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Theys, K; Camacho, R J; Gomes, P; Vandamme, A M; Rhee, S Y

    2015-06-01

    Rilpivirine is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) currently indicated for first-line therapy, but its clinical benefit for HIV-1 infected patients failing first-generation NNRTIs is largely undefined. This study quantified the extent of genotypic rilpivirine resistance in viral isolates from 1212 patients upon failure of efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing antiretroviral treatment, of whom more than respectively 80% and 90% showed high-level genotypic resistance to the failing NNRTI. Of all study patients, 47% showed a rilpivirine resistance-associated mutation (RPV-RAM), whereas preserved residual rilpivirine activity was predicted in half of the patients by three genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms. An NNRTI-dependent impact on rilpivirine resistance was detected. Compared with the use of nevirapine, the use of efavirenz was associated with a 32% lower risk of having a RPV-RAM and a 50% lower risk of predicted reduced rilpivirine susceptibility. Most prevalent RPV-RAMs after nevirapine experience were Y181C and H221Y, whereas L100I+K103N, Y188L and K101E occurred most in efavirenz-experienced patients. Predicted rilpivirine activity was not affected by HIV-1 subtype, although frequency of individual mutations differed across subtypes. In conclusion, this genotypic resistance analysis strongly suggests that the latest NNRTI, rilpivirine, may retain activity in a large proportion of HIV-1 patients in whom resistance failed while they were on an efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing regimen, and may present an attractive option for second-line treatment given its good safety profile and dosing convenience. However, prospective clinical studies assessing the effectiveness of rilpivirine for NNRTI-experienced patients are warranted to validate knowledge derived from genotypic and phenotypic drug resistance studies.

  2. ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN 2013 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  3. Design principles for oxygen-reduction activity on perovskite oxide catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntivich, Jin; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Goodenough, John B.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-07-01

    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to σ*-orbital (eg) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the σ* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O22-/OH- displacement and OH- regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  4. Design principles for oxygen-reduction activity on perovskite oxide catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Suntivich, Jin; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Goodenough, John B; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-06-12

    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to σ-orbital (e(g)) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the σ orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O(2)(2-)/OH(-) displacement and OH(-) regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  5. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  6. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  7. Strata-based forest fuel classification for wild fire hazard assessment using terrestrial LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhu, Xuan; Yebra, Marta; Harris, Sarah; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-10-01

    Fuel structural characteristics affect fire behavior including fire intensity, spread rate, flame structure, and duration, therefore, quantifying forest fuel structure has significance in understanding fire behavior as well as providing information for fire management activities (e.g., planned burns, suppression, fuel hazard assessment, and fuel treatment). This paper presents a method of forest fuel strata classification with an integration between terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and geographic information system for automatically assessing forest fuel structural characteristics (e.g., fuel horizontal continuity and vertical arrangement). The accuracy of fuel description derived from terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) data was assessed by field measured surface fuel depth and fuel percentage covers at distinct vertical layers. The comparison of TLS-derived depth and percentage cover at surface fuel layer with the field measurements produced root mean square error values of 1.1 cm and 5.4%, respectively. TLS-derived percentage cover explained 92% of the variation in percentage cover at all fuel layers of the entire dataset. The outcome indicated TLS-derived fuel characteristics are strongly consistent with field measured values. TLS can be used to efficiently and consistently classify forest vertical layers to provide more precise information for forest fuel hazard assessment and surface fuel load estimation in order to assist forest fuels management and fire-related operational activities. It can also be beneficial for mapping forest habitat, wildlife conservation, and ecosystem management.

  8. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  9. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  10. 78 FR 37883 - Information Collection Activities: Report of Fuel Cost, Consumption, and Surcharge Revenue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Surcharge Revenue AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: 60-day notice of request for comments and... Management and Budget (OMB) an extension of approval for the collection of the Report of Fuel Cost, Consumption, and Surcharge Revenue. Comments are requested concerning: (1) The accuracy of the Board's...

  11. Biological Fuel Cell Functional as an Active or Reserve Power Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    J. of Biotechnol 1986, 4, 73–80. 8. Tanisho, S.; Kamiya, N.; Wakao, N. Microbial fuel cell using. Enterobacter aerogenes , J. Electroanal. Chem...adenine dinucleotide at low overpotentials. J. Electroanal. Chem 1998, 443, 155–161. 13. Mano, N.; Mao, F.; Heller, A. Characteristics of a

  12. Electrochemically Active Soluble Mediators from Shewanella oneidensis: Relevance to Microbial Fuel Cells and Extracellular Electron Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    A second approach is the use of soluble mediators such as, quinones, phenazines , and riboflavin, which are able to shuttle electrons from the cell...done using the equivalent graphite felt or graphite felt coated with platinum nanoparticles . Fuel cell chambers were separated using a gas-permeable

  13. 2009 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities, Progress, and Plans: Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-27

    The Department of Energy is conducting a comprehensive and focused program that fulfills the provisions of Title VIII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT). The Department’s Hydrogen Program addresses the full range of barriers facing the development and deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  14. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  15. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for delivering fuel to the cylinders of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a pump housing with a fuel chamber therein to which fuel is supplied from a fuel tank; means for compressing fuel in the pump chamber and delivering the compressed fuel to the engine cylinders with such means including a pump plunger adapted to be reciprocated so as to introduce fuel into the pump chamber and to pressurize the introduced fuel; spill means for spilling to a low-pressure side on a fuel tank side the compressed fuel which was pressurized in the pump chamber to be delivered from the pump chamber to the engine cylinders, the spill mechanism including a spill passage communicating with the pump chamber and including a solenoid valve located in the spill passage for opening and closing the spill passage with predetermined timing; escape for allowing the compressed fuel pressurized in the pump chamber to escape to the low-pressure side of the fuel tank side.

  16. Fuel injector system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Leonard, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  17. Dual Tank Fuel System

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  18. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  19. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  20. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  1. THE MISSION AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS FROM DOE’S FUEL CYCLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (FCRD) ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    J. Carmack; L. Braase; F. Goldner

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors, enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel, effectively utilize nuclear energy resources, and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state of the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of a “goal oriented science based approach.” AFC uses a “goal oriented, science based approach” aimed at a fundamental understanding of fuel and cladding fabrication methods and performance under irradiation, enabling the pursuit of multiple fuel forms for future fuel cycle options. This approach includes fundamental experiments, theory, and advanced modeling and simulation. One of the most challenging aspects of AFC is the management, integration, and coordination of major R&D activities across multiple organizations. AFC interfaces and collaborates with Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) campaigns, universities, industry, various DOE programs and laboratories, federal agencies (e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC]), and international organizations. Key challenges are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Challenged with the research and development of fuels for two different reactor technology platforms, AFC targeted transmutation fuel development and focused ceramic fuel development for Advanced LWR Fuels.

  2. Transportation Fuels Markets, PADD 5

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This study examines supply, demand, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5, a region that includes the western states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Hawaii. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.

  3. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  5. Effect of the Heat-exposure on Peripheral Sudomotor Activity Including the Density of Active Sweat Glands and Single Sweat Gland Output.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2010-10-01

    Tropical inhabitants are able to tolerate heat through permanent residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. The goal of this study was to clarify the peripheral mechanisms involved in thermal sweating pre and post exposure (heat-acclimatization over 10 days) by studying the sweating responses to acetylcholine (ACh), a primary neurotransmitter of sudomotor activity, in healthy subjects (n=12). Ten percent ACh was administered on the inner forearm skin for iontophoresis. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing, after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with ACH, was performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, as well as oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The post exposure activity had a short onset time (p<0.01), higher active sweat rate [(AXR (p<0.001) and DIR (p<0.001)], higher sweat output per gland (p<0.001) and higher transepidermal water loss (p<0.001) compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The activated sweat rate in the sudomotor activity increased the output for post-exposure compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The results suggested that post-exposure activity showed a higher active sweat gland output due to the combination of a higher AXR (DIR) sweat rate and a shorter onset time. Therefore, higher sudomotor responses to ACh receptors indicate accelerated sympathetic nerve responsiveness to ACh sensitivity by exposure to environmental conditions.

  6. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  7. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  8. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  9. COMPOSITE FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Hurford, W.J.; Gordon, R.B.; Johnson, W.A.

    1962-12-25

    A sandwich-type fuel element for a reactor is described. This fuel element has the shape of an elongated flat plate and includes a filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein in which the fuel material is located. The filler plate is clad on both sides with a thin cladding material which is secured to the filler plate only to completely enclose the fuel material in each compartment. (AEC)

  10. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  11. Active water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using an electroosmotic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, T.; O'Hayre, R.; Litster, S.; Prinz, F. B.; Santiago, J. G.

    In a typical air-breathing fuel cell design, ambient air is supplied to the cathode by natural convection and dry hydrogen is supplied to a dead-ended anode. While this design is simple and attractive for portable low-power applications, the difficulty in implementing effective and robust water management presents disadvantages. In particular, excessive flooding of the open-cathode during long-term operation can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. To overcome this limitation, we report here on a novel air-breathing fuel cell water management design based on a hydrophilic and electrically conductive wick in conjunction with an electroosmotic (EO) pump that actively pumps water out of the wick. Transient experiments demonstrate the ability of the EO-pump to "resuscitate" the fuel cell from catastrophic flooding events, while longer term galvanostatic measurements suggest that the design can completely eliminate cathode flooding using less than 2% of fuel cell power, and lead to stable operation with higher net power performance than a control design without EO-pump. This demonstrates that active EO-pump water management, which has previously only been demonstrated in forced-convection fuel cell systems, can also be applied effectively to miniaturized (<5 W) air-breathing fuel cell systems.

  12. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  13. Elaboration of copper-oxygen mediated C-H activation chemistry in consideration of future fuel and feedstock generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yoon; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    To contribute solutions to current energy concerns, improvements in the efficiency of dioxygen mediated C-H bond cleavage chemistry, for example, selective oxidation of methane to methanol, could minimize losses in natural gas usage or produce feedstocks for fuels. Oxidative C-H activation is also a component of polysaccharide degradation, potentially affording alternative biofuels from abundant biomass. Thus, an understanding of active-site chemistry in copper monooxygenases, those activating strong C-H bonds is briefly reviewed. Then, recent advances in the synthesis-generation and study of various copper-oxygen intermediates are highlighted. Of special interest are cupric-superoxide, Cu-hydroperoxo and Cu-oxy complexes. Such investigations can contribute to an enhanced future application of C-H oxidation or oxygenation processes using air, as concerning societal energy goals.

  14. Elaboration of Copper-Oxygen Mediated C–H Activation Chemistry in Consideration of Future Fuel and Feedstock Generation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yoon; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    To contribute solutions for current energy concerns, improvements in the efficiency of C-H bond cleavage chemistry, e.g., selective oxidation of methane to methanol, could minimize losses in natural gas usage or produce feedstocks for fuels. Oxidative C-H activation is also a component of polysaccharide degradation, affording alternative biofuels from abundant biomass. Thus, an understanding of active-site chemistry in copper monooxygenases, those activating strong C-H bonds is briefly reviewed. Then, recent advances in the synthesis-generation and study of various copper-oxygen intermediates are highlighted. Of special interest are cupric-superoxide, Cu-hydroperoxo and Cu-oxy complexes. Such investigations can contribute to an enhanced future application of C-H oxidation or oxygenation processes using air, as concerning societal energy goals. PMID:25756327

  15. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Zhu, Yimin; Kahn, Zakia; Man, Malcolm

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  16. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  17. Measuring the Noble Metal and Iodine Composition of Extracted Noble Metal Phase from Spent Nuclear Fuel Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Palomares, R. I.; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Biegalski, Steven R.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Casella, Amanda J.; Brady Raap, Michaele C.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-04-01

    Mass quantities of noble metal and iodine nuclides in the metallic noble metal phase extracted from spent fuel are measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA). Nuclide presence is predicted using fission yield analysis, and mass quantification is derived from standard gamma spectroscopy and radionuclide decay analysis. The nuclide compositions of noble metal phase derived from two dissolution methods, UO2 fuel dissolved in nitric acid and UO2 fuel dissolved in ammonium-carbonate and hydrogen-peroxide solution, are compared. Lastly, the implications of the rapid analytic speed of instrumental NAA are discussed in relation to potential nuclear forensics applications.

  18. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-10-01

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

  19. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  20. Flame holding tolerant fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-11-20

    A fuel nozzle with active cooling is provided. It includes an outer peripheral wall, a nozzle center body concentrically disposed within the outer wall in a fuel and air pre-mixture. The fuel and air pre-mixture includes an air inlet, a fuel inlet and a premixing passage defined between the outer wall in the center body. A gas fuel flow passage is provided. A first cooling passage is included within the center body in a second cooling passage is defined between the center body and the outer wall.

  1. Fuel nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Lacey, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  2. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  3. Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Dekui; Han, Jieru; Han, Lina; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon (AC) for H₂S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H₂S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N₂ adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N₂-H₂S-H₂-CO-Hg atmosphere (simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H₂ and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres.

  4. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, Bill; Gangi, Jennifer; Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  5. Fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1983-06-28

    An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.

  6. Improving Formate and Methanol Fuels: Catalytic Activity of Single Pd Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The oxidations of formate and methanol on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles were studied at both the single-nanotube and ensemble levels. Significant voltammetric differences were seen. Pd oxide formation as a competitive reaction with formate or methanol oxidation is significantly inhibited at high overpotentials under the high mass transport conditions associated with single-particle materials in comparison with that seen with ensembles, where slower diffusion prevails. Higher electro-oxidation efficiency for the organic fuels is achieved. PMID:27761299

  7. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  8. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    DOEpatents

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  9. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.; Iwanaga, T.; Fujisawa, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for a diesel engine comprising: condition detection means for detecting operating conditions of the diesel engine including a rotational position thereof; low pressure fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a low pressure at an output port thereof; high pressure fuel pump means, having a pump chamber communicating with the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means, and plunger means reciprocable within the pump chamber for introducing fuel from the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means into the pump chamber during a movement in a predetermined direction of the plunger means and for pressurizing the introduced fuel during a movement of the plunger means in the opposite direction so that pressurized fuel is delivered from the high pressure fuel pump means at an output port thereof; common rail fuel storage means, connected to the output port of the high pressure fuel pump means, for storing pressurized fuel delivered from the high pressure pump therein at a substantially continuous pressure.

  10. Shape-Dependent Activity of Ceria for Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation in Reduced-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaofeng; Luo, Ting; Meng, Xie; Wu, Hao; Li, Junliang; Liu, Xuejiao; Ji, Xiaona; Wang, Jianqiang; Chen, Chusheng; Zhan, Zhongliang

    2015-11-04

    Single crystalline ceria nanooctahedra, nanocubes, and nanorods are hydrothermally synthesized, colloidally impregnated into the porous La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) scaffolds, and electrochemically evaluated as the anode catalysts for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Well-defined surface terminations are confirmed by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy--(111) for nanooctahedra, (100) for nanocubes, and both (110) and (100) for nanorods. Temperature-programmed reduction in H2 shows the highest reducibility for nanorods, followed sequentially by nanocubes and nanooctahedra. Measurements of the anode polarization resistances and the fuel cell power densities reveal different orders of activity of ceria nanocrystals at high and low temperatures for hydrogen electro-oxidation, i.e., nanorods > nanocubes > nanooctahedra at T ≤ 450 °C and nanooctahedra > nanorods > nanocubes at T ≥ 500 °C. Such shape-dependent activities of these ceria nanocrystals have been correlated to their difference in the local structure distortions and thus in the reducibility. These findings will open up a new strategy for design of advanced catalysts for reduced-temperature SOFCs by elaborately engineering the shape of nanocrystals and thus selectively exposing the crystal facets.

  11. Enhanced activity of Au-Fe/C anodic electrocatalyst for direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Lanhua; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Caixian; Tian, Li; Liu, Jing; Wang, Xianyou

    2015-07-01

    Carbon supported Au-Fe bimetallic nanocatalysts (Au-Fe/C) are facilely prepared via a modified NaBH4 reduction method in aqueous solution at room temperature, and used as the anode electrocatalyst of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (DBHFC). The physical and electrochemical properties of the Au-Fe/C electrocatalysts are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disc electrode (RDE) voltammetry, chronoamperometry (CA), chronopotentiometry (CP), and fuel cell test. The results show that Au-Fe/C catalysts display higher catalytic activity for the direct electrooxidation of BH4- than carbon supported pure Au nanocatalyst (Au/C), especially Au50Fe50/C catalyst presents the highest catalytic activity among all as-prepared catalysts. Besides, the single DBHFC with Au50Fe50/C anode and Au/C cathode obtains the maximum power density as high as 34.9 mW cm-2 at 25 °C.

  12. Comprehensive understanding of the active thickness in solid oxide fuel cell anodes using experimental, numerical and semi-analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Masashi; Iwai, Hiroshi; Saito, Motohiro; Yoshida, Hideo

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of the electrochemically active region in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes through experimental, numerical and semi-analytical approaches. In the experiment, anodes with several different thicknesses were fabricated and their performance was measured to find its dependence on the anode thickness, microstructure and operating conditions. The three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of the anodes was imaged using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and the microstructural parameters were quantified. One-dimensional (1D) and 3D numerical simulations based on the actual 3D microstructures were carried out to investigate the active thickness in the anodes. The validity of the numerical models was confirmed by comparing the results with the experiment. The active thickness, i.e., the electrochemically active region within the anode, is discussed using the verified simulation models to find its dependence on various conditions. The active thickness was found to depend on the microstructure and the operating conditions. We then attempted to find a simple expression for the active thickness useful for practical applications with semi-analytical discussion. The developed descriptions expressed the quantitative dependence of the active thickness on the effective ionic conductivity, exchange current density and area-specific current density.

  13. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  14. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  15. Fuel-motion diagnostics and cineradiography

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1982-09-01

    Nuclear and non-nuclear applications of cineradiography are reviewed, with emphasis on diagnostic instrumentation for in-pile transient-reactor safety testing of nuclear fuel motion. The primary instrument for this purpose has been the fast-neutron hodoscope, which has achieved quantitative monitoring of time, location, mass, and velocity of fuel movement under the difficult conditions associated with transient-reactor experiments. Alternative diagnostic devices that have been developed have not matched the capabilities of the hodoscope. Other applications for the fuel-motion diagnostic apparatus are also evolving, including time-integrated radiography and direct time- and space-resolved fuel-pin power monitoring. Although only two reactors are now actively equipped with high-resolution fuel-motion diagnostic systems, studies and tests have been carried out in and for many other reactors.

  16. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  17. Conversion of waste polypropylene to liquid fuel using acid-activated kaolin.

    PubMed

    Panda, Achyut K; Singh, R K

    2014-10-01

    Waste polypropylene was subjected to thermal degradation in the presence of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin, with different catalyst-to-plastics ratios, in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400-550°C to obtain optimized process conditions for the production of liquid fuels. The effects of process temperature, catalyst and feed composition on yield and quality of the oil were determined. For a thermal decomposition reaction at up to 450°C, the major product is volatile oil; and the major products at a higher temperature (475-550°C) are either viscous liquid or wax. The highest yield of condensed fraction in the thermal reaction is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin as a catalyst decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. The major product of catalysed degradation at all temperatures is highly volatile liquid oil. The maximum oil yield using kaolin and acid-treated kaolin is 87.5% and 92%, respectively, at 500°C. The oil obtained was characterized using GC-MS for its composition and different fuel properties by IS methods.

  18. Advanced Fuel-Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, William F., III; Martin, Ronald E.; Struning, Albin J.; Whitehill, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Modules designed for long life, light weight, reliability, and low cost. Stack of alkaline fuel cells based on modules, consisting of three fuel cells and cooler. Each cell includes following components: ribbed carbon fine-pore anode electrolyte-reservoir plate; platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode; potassium titanate matrix bonded with butyl rubber; gold-plated nickel-foil electrode substrates; and silver plated, gold-flashed molded polyphenylene sulfide cell holder. Each cell has active area of 1ft to the 2nd power (0.09 m to the 2nd power). Materials and configurations of parts chosen to extend life expectancy, reduce weight and manufacturing cost, and increase reliability.

  19. JT9D-70/59 Improved High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control System. [for specific fuel consumption improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT9D-70/59 high pressure turbine active clearance control system was modified to provide reduction of blade tip clearance when the system is activated during cruise operation. The modification increased the flow capacity and air impingement effectiveness of the cooling air manifold to augment turbine case shrinkage capability, and increased responsiveness of the airseal clearance to case shrinkage. The simulated altitude engine testing indicated a significant improvement in specific fuel consumption with the modified system. A 1000 cycle engine endurance test showed no unusual wear or performance deterioration effects on the engine or the clearance control system. Rig tests indicated that the air impingement and seal support configurations used in the engine tests are near optimum.

  20. Mixotrophic operation of photo-bioelectrocatalytic fuel cell under anoxygenic microenvironment enhances the light dependent bioelectrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Venkata Subhash, G; Venkata Mohan, S

    2012-04-01

    Electrogenic activity of photo-bioelectrocatalytic /photo-biological fuel cell (PhFC) was evaluated in a mixotrophic mode under anoxygenic microenvironment using photosynthetic consortia as biocatalyst. An acetate rich wastewater was used as anolyte for harnessing energy along with additional treatment. Mixotrophic operation facilitated good electrogenic activity and wastewater treatment associated with biomass growth. PhFC operation documented feasible microenvironment for the growth of photosynthetic bacteria compared to algae which was supported by pigment (total chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll) and diversity analysis. Pigment data also illustrated the association between bacterial and algal species. The synergistic interaction between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was found to be suitable for PhFC operation. Light dependent deposition of electrons at electrode was relatively higher compared to dark dependent electron deposition under anoxygenic condition. PhFC documented for good volatile fatty acids removal by utilizing them as electron donor. Bioelectrochemical behavior of PhFC was evaluated by voltammetric and chronoamperometry analysis.

  1. FULL SIZE U-10MO MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL AND FUEL PLATE FABRICATION-TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Moore; J-F Jue; B. H. Rabin; M. J. Nilles

    2010-03-01

    Full-size U10Mo foils are being developed for use in high density LEU monolithic fuel plates. The application of a zirconium barrier layer too the foil is applied using a hot co-rolling process. Aluminum clad fuel plates are fabricated using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or a Friction Bonding (FB) process. An overview is provided of ongoing technology development activities, including: the co-rolling process, foil shearing/slitting and polishing, cladding bonding processes, plate forming, plate-assembly swaging, and fuel plate characterization. Characterization techniques being employed include, Ultrasonic Testing (UT), radiography, and microscopy.

  2. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiping; Lester, Robert L; Dickson, Robert C

    2005-06-17

    The Pkh1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes. Phytosphingosine (PHS), a sphingoid long chain base, is hypothesized to be a lipid activator of Pkh1 and thereby controls the activity of Ypk1/2. Here we present biochemical evidence supporting this hypothesis, and in addition we demonstrate that PHS also stimulates autophosphorylation and activation of Ypk1/2. Greatest stimulation of Ypk1/2 phosphorylation and activity are achieved by inclusion of both PHS and Pkh1 in an in vitro kinase reaction. We also demonstrate for the first time that Pkh1 phosphorylates the Sch9 protein kinase in vitro and that such phosphorylation is stimulated by PHS. This is the first biochemical demonstration of Sch9 activators, and the results further support roles for long chain bases in heat stress resistance in addition to implying roles in chronological aging and cell size determination, since Sch9 functions in these processes. Thus, our data support a model in which PHS, rather than simply being an upstream activator of Pkh1, also activates kinases that are downstream targets of Pkh1 including Ypk1/2 and Sch9.

  3. Fast stack activation procedure and effective long-term storage for high-performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ri; Seo, Min Ho; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Jung, Yong-Min; Kim, Beom-Jun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    Time-saving stack activation and effective long-term storage are one of most important issues that must be resolved for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Herein, we developed the cost-effective stack activation method to finish the whole activation within 30 min and the long-term storage method by using humidified N2 without any significant decrease in cell's performance for 30 days. Specifically, the pre-activation step with the direct injection of DI water into the stack and storage at 65 or 80 °C for 2 h increases the distinctive phase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in Nafion membrane, which significantly reduces the total activation time within 30 min. Additionally, the long-term storage with humidified N2 has no effect on the Pt oxidation and drying of Nafion membrane for 30 days due to its exergonic reaction in the cell. As a result, the high water content in Nafion membrane and the decrease of Pt oxidation are the critical factors that have a strong influence on the activation and long-term storage for high-performance PEMFC.

  4. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    SciTech Connect

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternative power sources for transportation and stationary applications. The degradation of commonly used electrode catalysts (e.g. Pt, Ag, and others) and corrosion of carbon substrates are making commercialization of fuel cells incorporating present day technologies economically problematic. Furthermore, due to the instability of the Pt catalyst, the performance of fuel cells declines on long-term operation. When methanol is used as the fuel, a voltage drop, as well as significant thermal management problems can be encountered, the later being due to chemical oxidation of methanol at the platinized carbon at the cathode. Though extensive work was conducted on platinized electrodes for both the oxidation and reduction reactions, due to the problems mentioned above, fuel cells have not been fully developed for widespread commercial use. Several investigators have previously evaluated metal macrocyclic complexes as alternative catalysts to Pt and Pt/Ru in fuel cells. Unfortunately, though they have demonstrated catalytic activity, these materials were found to be unstable on long term use in the fuel cell environment. In order to improve the long-term stability of metal macrocyclic complexes, we have chemically bonded these complexes to the carbon substrate, thereby enhancing their catalytic activity as well as their chemical stability in the fuel cell environment. We have designed, synthesized, and evaluated these catalysts for O{sub 2} reduction, H{sub 2} oxidation, and direct methanol oxidation in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) and aqueous carbonate fuel cells. These catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity and long-term stability. In this paper we confine our discussion to the initial performance results of some of these catalysts in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} PEM fuel cells, including their long-term performance characteristics as well as CO poisoning effects on these catalysts.

  5. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  6. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, H.R.; Gralton, G.W.; Gronauer, T.W.; Liljedahl, G.N.; Love, B.F.

    1987-06-01

    Activities conducted under this contract include studies on the combustion and fireside behavior of numerous coal-water fuels (CWFs). The work has been broken down into the following areas: Task 1 -- Selection of Candidate Fuels; Task 2 -- Bench Scale Tests; Task 3 -- CWF Preparation and Supply; Task 4 -- Combustion Characterization; Task 5 -- Ash Deposition and Performance Testing; Task 6 -- Commercial Applications. This report covers Task 6, the study of commercial applications of CWFs as related to the technical and economic aspects of the conversion of existing boilers and heaters to CWF firing. This work involves the analysis of seven units of various sizes and configurations firing several selected CWFs. Three utility boilers, two industrial boilers, and two process heater designs are included. Each of the units was considered with four primary selected CWFs. A fifth fuel was considered for one of the utility units. A sixth fuel, a microfine grind CWF, was evaluated on two utility units and one industrial unit. The particular fuels were chosen with the objective of examining the effects of coal source, ash level, ash properties, and beneficiation on the CWF performance and economics of the seven units. 10 refs., 81 figs., 80 tabs.

  7. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  8. Fast Degradation for High Activity: Oxygen- and Nitrogen-Functionalised Carbon Nanotubes in Solid-Acid Fuel-Cell Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Naumov, Olga; Naumov, Sergej; Flyunt, Roman; Abel, Bernd; Varga, Aron

    2016-12-08

    Similar to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, the widespread application of solid acid fuel cells (SAFCs) has been hindered partly by the necessity of the use of the precious-metal catalyst Pt in the electrodes. Here we investigate multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for their potential catalytic activity by using symmetric cell measurements of solid-acid-based electrochemical cells in a cathodic environment. For all measurements, the carbon nanotubes were Pt free and subject to either nitrogen or oxygen plasma treatment. AC impedance spectroscopy of the electrochemical cells, with and without a DC bias, was performed and showed significantly lower initial impedances for oxygen-plasma-treated MWCNTs compared to those treated with a nitrogen plasma. In symmetric cell measurements with a DC bias, the current declines quickly for oxygen-plasma-treated MWCNTs and more slowly, over 12 days, for nitrogen-plasma-treated MWCNTs. To elucidate the degradation mechanisms of the oxygen-plasma-treated MWCNTs under SAFC operating conditions, theoretical calculations were performed using DFT. The results indicate that several degradation mechanisms are likely to occur in parallel through the reduction of the surface oxygen groups that were introduced by the plasma treatment. This finally leads to an inert MWCNT surface and a very low electrode performance. Nitrogen-plasma-treated MWCNTs appear to have a higher stability and may be worthwhile for future investigations.

  9. From a fuel supplier to an active participant: Shell's view of the opportunities offered by a changing power market

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.

    1998-07-01

    In the last 10 years, the power generation market has seen radical changes. The coming years will see yet more change. Although the pace of change may be uneven across Europe, it is clear that the old reference points for the power generation market are no longer valid. Along with other market players, Shell has re-evaluated the role it wishes to play in the power generation market. Although it has long operated large generation capacity on its own sites, Shell's role has been that of a fuel supplier to monopoly power generation and distribution organizations, which were largely state controlled . Privatization and liberalization have been followed by changing market structures tending to push risk towards the producer. This evolution presents challenges for the normal IPP structure, where market risk is transferred and offers an opportunity for the active participation of the fuel supplier in meeting these challenges. In 1996, Shell decided to embrace the changes in power generation market. Already, significant steps have been taken in markets in Asia, Latin America and in Europe. The differing requirements of each of these markets means there are no standard solutions and requires Shell to devise flexible frameworks which meet the customer's needs. Shell is bringing its significant strengths to the power generation market and looks forward to participating on a world wide scale in the industry at this exciting phase in its development.

  10. Characterization of Hanford N Reactor spent fuel and K Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.; Omberg, R.P.; Trimble, D.J.; Baker, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Characterization is in progress for the N Reactor fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins. These activities` support the strategy for removal of fuel from the basins and storage of fuel in a dry condition at an area remote from the Columbia River. This strategy currently consists of placing fuel in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), drying the fuel while it resides in the MCO and conditioning some portion of the fuel to reduce its chemical reactivity. Characterization includes the examination of fuel, canisters, and associated sludge. It consists firstly of in-basin activities such as visual examination, sludge depth measurements, and sampling of gas and liquid in canisters. Secondly characterization ecompasses the examination of samples of fuel and sludge which have been removed from the basins and shipped to laboratories. This paper presents observations made in the basins during the most recent attempts to ship samples from the basins and data obtained in the laboratory hotcells.

  11. 77 FR 27451 - Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels-Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ....regulations.gov . The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not... efficient consideration of comments. a. Diesel Fuels Description 1. The draft guidance recommends using six... Oil No. 2 Common Synonyms: Diesel fuel; Gas oil or diesel fuel or heating oil, light 2 Home...

  12. 78 FR 16498 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Registration of Fuels and Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Registration of Fuels and Fuel Additives... request (ICR) ``Registration of Fuels and Fuel Additives--Requirements for Manufacturers'' (EPA ICR No..., Registration of Fuels and Fuel Additives, manufacturers (including importers) of motor-vehicle gasoline,...

  13. Injector having multiple fuel pegs

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, Mark Allan; Felling, David Kenton

    2013-04-30

    A fuel injector is provided, including a fuel injector body, a plurality of fuel vanes, and a plurality of fuel pegs. The injector body includes a manifold and an inlet. The manifold is configured for receiving fuel, and the inlet is configured for receiving air. The fuel vanes are located within the injector body and are positioned in a direction that is generally parallel with a longitudinal axis of the injector body to orient the air flowing from the inlet. The plurality of fuel pegs are fluidly connected to the manifold and are arranged within the plurality of fuel vanes. The plurality of fuel pegs are each spaced at a distance that is about equal between each of the plurality of fuel pegs.

  14. EPRI fuel cladding integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the EPRI fuel program is to supplement the fuel vendor research to assure that utility economic and operational interests are met. To accomplish such objectives, EPRI has conducted research and development efforts to (1) reduce fuel failure rates and mitigate the impact of fuel failures on plant operation, (2) provide technology to extend burnup and reduce fuel cycle cost. The scope of R&D includes fuel and cladding. In this paper, only R&D related to cladding integrity will be covered. Specific areas aimed at improving fuel cladding integrity include: (1) Fuel Reliability Data Base; (2) Operational Guidance for Defective Fuel; (3) Impact of Water Chemistry on Cladding Integrity; (4) Cladding Corrosion Data and Model; (5) Cladding Mechanical Properties; and (6) Transient Fuel Cladding Response.

  15. Freshly induced short-lived gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröhnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M. F.; Chawla, R.

    2010-12-01

    A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE@PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by short-lived fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO 2 sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO 2 sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the short-lived 142La (2542 keV), 89Rb (2570 keV), 138Cs (2640 keV) and 95Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the short-lived gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.

  16. N-type Cu2O doped activated carbon as catalyst for improving power generation of air cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Li, Kexun; Yan, Pengyu; Liu, Ziqi; Pu, Liangtao

    2015-01-01

    A novel n-type Cu2O doped activated carbon (AC) air cathode (Cu/AC) was developed as an alternative to Pt electrode for oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum power density of MFCs using this novel air cathode was as high as 1390±76mWm(-2), almost 59% higher than the bare AC air cathode. Specifically, the resistance including total resistance and charge transfer resistance significantly decreased comparing to the control. Tafel curve also showed the faster electro-transfer kinetics of Cu/AC with exchange current density of 1.03×10(-3)Acm(-2), which was 69% higher than the control. Ribbon-like Cu2O was deposited on the surface of AC with the mesopore surface area increasing. Cubic Cu2O crystals exclusively expose (111) planes with the interplanar crystal spacing of 2.48Å, which was the dominate active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). N-type Cu2O with oxygen vacancies played crucial roles in electrochemical catalytic activity.

  17. Influence of long-term diesel fuel pollution on nitrite-oxidising activity and population size of nitrobacter spp in soil.

    PubMed

    Deni, Jamal; Penninckx, Michel J

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that ammonia oxidation is not inhibited by diesel fuel in a soil with a long history of contamination contrary to a non-contaminated soil. As a consequence, ammonia oxidation does not constitute a Limited step in nitrification process (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65 (1999) 4008). Moreover, this type of soil also has had the opportunity to develop an abundant microbial population able to metabolise the diesel hydrocarbons. Whether the properties of soil with a long history of diesel fuel contamination may affect the activity of nitrite-oxidising bacteria was investigated. It was observed that re-exposure of soil to diesel fuel apparently stimulated the proliferation of nitrite-oxidising bacteria, as determined by most probable number (MPN) culture technique and MPN-polymerase chain reaction technique. The potential of nitrite-oxidising activity in soil treated with diesel fuel was about 4 times higher than in the control without addition. In the presence of diesel fuel and ammonium, the potential nitrite-oxidising activity was 40% higher than in presence of ammonium only. However, in the presence of hydrocarbon only, low proliferation of Nitrobacter was observed, probably because the heterotrophic bacteria were strongly limited by lack of nitrogen and did not produce sufficient organic metabolites that could be used by the Nitrobacter cells.

  18. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles, summary. [aircraft design of aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Baker, A. H.; Stone, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analytical study was made to investigate the effects of fuselage cross section (circular and elliptical) and the structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on aircraft performance. The vehicle was a 200 passenger, liquid hydrogen fueled Mach 6 transport designed to meet a range goal of 9.26 Mn (5000 NM). A variety of trade studies were conducted in the area of configuration arrangement, structural design, and active cooling design in order to maximize the performance of each of three point design aircraft: (1) circular wing-body with nonintegral tanks, (2) circular wing-body with integral tanks and (3) elliptical blended wing-body with integral tanks. Aircraft range and weight were used as the basis for comparison. The resulting design and performance characteristics show that the blended body integral tank aircraft weights the least and has the greatest range capability, however, producibility and maintainability factors favor nonintegral tank concepts.

  19. Use of pyrolyzed iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid modified activated carbon as air-cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-08-28

    Activated carbon (AC) is a cost-effective catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To enhance the catalytic activity of AC cathodes, AC powders were pyrolyzed with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA) at a weight ratio of FeEDTA:AC = 0.2:1. MFCs with FeEDTA modified AC cathodes and a stainless steel mesh current collector produced a maximum power density of 1580 ± 80 mW/m(2), which was 10% higher than that of plain AC cathodes (1440 ± 60 mW/m(2)) and comparable to Pt cathodes (1550 ± 10 mW/m(2)). Further increases in the ratio of FeEDTA:AC resulted in a decrease in performance. The durability of AC-based cathodes was much better than Pt-catalyzed cathodes. After 4.5 months of operation, the maximum power density of Pt cathode MFCs was 50% lower than MFCs with the AC cathodes. Pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species likely contributed to the increased activity of FeEDTA modified AC. These results show that pyrolyzing AC with FeEDTA is a cost-effective and durable way to increase the catalytic activity of AC.

  20. Alkali activation of recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from fluidised-bed combustion: Stabilisation/solidification of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Juho; Pesonen, Janne; Tiainen, Minna; Illikainen, Mirja

    2015-09-01

    Recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from a fluidized bed boiler was alkali-activated and granulated with a sodium-silicate solution in order to immobilise the heavy metals it contains. The effect of blast-furnace slag and metakaolin as co-binders were studied. Leaching standard EN 12457-3 was applied to evaluate the immobilisation potential. The results showed that Ba, Pb and Zn were effectively immobilised. However, there was increased leaching after alkali activation for As, Cu, Mo, Sb and V. The co-binders had minimal or even negative effect on the immobilisation. One exception was found for Cr, in which the slag decreased leaching, and one was found for Cu, in which the slag increased leaching. A sequential leaching procedure was utilized to gain a deeper understanding of the immobilisation mechanism. By using a sequential leaching procedure it is possible fractionate elements into watersoluble, acid-soluble, easily-reduced and oxidisable fractions, yielding a total 'bioavailable' amount that is potentially hazardous for the environment. It was found that the total bioavailable amount was lower following alkali activation for all heavy metals, although the water-soluble fraction was higher for some metals. Evidence from leaching tests suggests the immobilisation mechanism was chemical retention, or trapping inside the alkali activation reaction products, rather than physical retention, adsorption or precipitation as hydroxides.

  1. Fuel system for rotary distributor fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Klopfer, K.H.; Kelly, W.W.

    1993-06-01

    In a fuel injection pump having a drive shaft, a pump rotor driven by the drive shaft, reciprocating pumping means with periodic intake and pumping strokes to periodically receive an intake charge of fuel and deliver fuel at high pressure for fuel injection is described; a distributor head with a plurality of angularly spaced distributor outlets, the pump rotor providing a distributor rotor with a distributor port connected to the pumping means, the distributor rotor being rotatably mounted in the distributor head for sequential registration of the distributor port with the distributor outlets for distributing said high pressure delivery of fuel thereto; a fuel system for supplying fuel to the pumping means, having an end chamber at one end of the pump rotor and a fuel supply pump driven by the drive shaft and having an inlet and outlet, the supply pump outlet being connected to the end chamber for supplying fuel thereto, and a pressure regulator for regulating the fuel pressure in the end chamber; and a control valve connected between the pumping means and the end chamber and selectively opened during the intake strokes to supply fuel to the pumping means from the end chamber and during the pumping strokes to spill fuel from the pumping means into the end chamber to terminate said high pressure delivery of fuel; the improvement wherein the fuel system comprises a fuel return passage connected in series with the end chamber downstream thereof, wherein the pressure regulator is mounted in the return passage for regulating the upstream fuel pressure, including the upstream fuel pressure within the end chamber, and is connected for conducting excess fuel for return to the supply pump inlet, and wherein the supply pump is driven by the drive shaft to supply fuel at a rate exceeding the rate of said high pressure delivery of fuel for fuel injection and to provide excess fuel flow continuously through the end chamber and return passage to the pressure regulator.

  2. Glutamine Synthetase activity fuels nucleotide biosynthesis and supports growth of glutamine-restricted glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Tardito, Saverio; Oudin, Anaïs; Ahmed, Shafiq U.; Fack, Fred; Keunen, Olivier; Zheng, Liang; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sakariassen, Per Øystein; Weinstock, Adam; Wagner, Allon; Lindsay, Susan L.; Hock, Andreas K.; Barnett, Susan C.; Ruppin, Eytan; Mørkve, Svein Harald; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Chalmers, Anthony J.; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P.; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    L-Glutamine (Gln) functions physiologically to balance tissue requirements of carbon and nitrogen. It has been proposed that in cancer cells undergoing aerobic glycolysis, accelerated anabolism is sustained by Gln-derived carbons, which replenish the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (anaplerosis). However, it is shown here that in glioblastoma (GBM) cells, almost half of the Gln-derived glutamate (Glu) is secreted and does not enter the TCA cycle and, that inhibiting glutaminolysis does not affect proliferation. Moreover, Gln-starved cells are not rescued by TCA cycle replenishment. Instead, the conversion of Glu to Gln by Glutamine Synthetase (GS) (cataplerosis) confers Gln prototrophy, and fuels de novo purine biosynthesis. In both orthotopic GBM models and in patients, 13C-glucose tracing showed that GS produces Gln from TCA cycle-derived carbons. Finally, while it is contributed only marginally by the circulation, the Gln required for the growth of GBM tumours is either autonomously synthesized by GS-positive glioma cells, or supplied by astrocytes. PMID:26595383

  3. Activities to support the liquefied gaseous fuels spill test facility program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.; Routh, T.

    1997-03-01

    Approximately a hundred years ago the petrochemical industry was in its infancy, while the chemical industry was already well established. Today, both of these industries, which are almost indistinguishable, are a substantial part of the makeup of the U.S. economy and the lifestyle we enjoy. It is difficult to identify a single segment of our daily lives that isn`t affected by these industries and the products or services they make available for our use. Their survival and continued function in a competitive world market are necessary to maintain our current standard of living. The occurrence of accidents in these industries has two obvious effects: (1) the loss of product during the accident and future productivity because of loss of a portion of a facility or transport medium, and (2) the potential loss of life or injury to individuals, whether workers, emergency responders, or members of the general public. A great deal of work has been conducted at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill test Facility (LGFSTF) on hazardous spills. WRI has conducted accident investigations as well as provided information on the research results via the internet and bibliographies.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the CFA Seyfert 2 Galaxies: The Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Paul; Pogge, Richard W.

    1999-12-01

    We present an investigation of possible fueling mechanisms operating in the inner kiloparsec of Seyfert galaxies. We analyze visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images of 24 Seyfert 2 galaxies from the CfA Redshift Survey sample. In particular, we are searching for the morphological signatures of dynamical processes responsible for transporting gas from kiloparsec scales into the nucleus. The circumnuclear regions are very rich in gas and dust, often taking the form of nuclear spiral dust lanes on scales of a few hundred parsecs. While these nuclear spirals are found in 20 of our 24 Seyfert galaxies, we find only five nuclear bars among the entire sample, strongly reinforcing the conclusions of other investigators that nuclear bars are not the primary means of transporting this material into the nucleus. An estimate of the gas density in the nuclear spirals, based on extinction measurements, suggests that the nuclear spiral dust lanes are probably shocks in nuclear gas disks that are not strongly self-gravitating. Since shocks can dissipate energy and angular momentum, these spiral dust lanes may be the channels by which gas from the host galaxy disks is being fed into the central engines.

  5. Highly active and stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst for synthesis gas conversion to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bukur, D.B.; Lang, X.

    1999-09-01

    A precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst (100 Fe/3 Cu/4 K/16 SiO{sub 2} on mass basis) was tested in a stirred tank slurry reactor under reaction conditions representative of industrial practice using CO-rich synthesis gas (260 C, 1.5--2.2 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO = 2/3). Repeatability of performance and reproducibility of catalyst preparation procedure were successfully demonstrated on a laboratory scale. Catalyst productivity was increased by operating at higher synthesis pressure while maintaining a constant contact time in the reactor and through the use of different catalyst pretreatment procedures. In one of the tests (run SA-2186), the catalyst productivity was 0.86 (g hydrocarbons/g Fe/h) at syngas conversion of 79%, methane selectivity of 3% (weight percent of total hydrocarbons produced), and C{sub 5}+ hydrocarbon selectivity of 83 wt %. This represents a substantial improvement in productivity in comparison to state-of-the-art iron F-T catalysts. This catalyst is ideally suited for production of high-quality diesel fuels and C{sub 2}-c{sub 4} olefins from a coal-derived synthesis gas.

  6. A MINOR MERGER CAUGHT IN THE ACT OF FUELING THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IN Mrk 509

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R. A.

    2015-02-01

    In recent observations by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of a campaign to discover locations and kinematics of AGN outflows, we found that Mrk 509 contains a 3'' (∼2100 pc) linear filament in its central region. Visible in both optical continuum and [O III] imaging, this feature resembles a ''check mark'' of several knots of emission that travel northwest to southeast before jutting toward the nucleus from the southwest. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS/HST) observations along the inner portion of the filament reveal redshifted velocities, indicating that the filament is inflowing. We present further observations of the nucleus in Mrk 509 using the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph, from which we conclude that this structure cannot be related to previously studied, typical narrow line region outflows and instead embodies the remains of an ongoing minor merger with a gas-rich dwarf galaxy, therefore providing a great opportunity to study the fueling of an AGN by a minor merger in progress.

  7. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A. Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A. Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  8. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  9. A proposed 30-45 minute 4 page standard protocol to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) that includes measures of inflammatory activity, joint damage, and longterm outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pincus, T; Brooks, R H; Callahan, L F

    1999-02-01

    A proposed 4 page, 30-45 minute standard protocol to assess rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) is described that includes all relevant measures of inflammatory activity such as joint swelling, measures of joint damage such as joint deformity, and outcomes such as joint replacement surgery, to monitor patients in longterm observational studies. Forms are included: (1) a patient self-report modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ) to assess function, pain, fatigue, psychological distress, symptoms, and drugs used; (2) assessor-completed forms: "RA clinical features" --criteria for RA, functional class, family history, extraarticular disease, comorbidities, joint surgery, radiographic score, and laboratory findings. (3) A 32 joint count with 5 variables: (a) a "shorthand" normal/abnormal so that normal joints require no further detailed assessment; (b) tenderness or pain on motion; (c) swelling; (d) limited motion or deformity; (e) previous surgeries; physical measures of function, i.e., grip strength, walk time, and button test. (4) Medication review of previous disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD), work history, and years of education. The forms allow cost effective acquisition of all relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in routine clinical care, and allow recognition that measures of activity may show similar or improved values over 5-10 years, while measures of damage and outcomes indicate severe progression in the same patients. The SPERA is feasible to acquire most known relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in RA in 30-45 min in usual clinical settings, to provide a complete database for analyses of longterm outcomes.

  10. Waste management safeguards project: History of and recommendations for development activities in support of safeguards of final disposal of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.W.

    1994-02-16

    Coordinated safeguards assessment and development activities in support of the U.S. Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) and international safeguards objectives were initiated in Fiscal Year 1987. Initial technical support activities were performed at the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); however, as the priority of support activities changed, direction for the support tasks was transferred to the U.S. Department of State (State), the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE/IS-40), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The direction for technical support activities was established at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA`s) advisory group meeting and subsequent consultants` meetings on safeguards related to the final disposal of nuclear material contained in waste and spent fuel. Task directions for the development of international safeguards in support of the final disposal of spent fuel are currently being provided by DOE/IS-40. A summary of safeguards activities performed by the Waste Management Safeguards Project is provided. Systems for design information verification for spent fuel consolidation and conditioning operations are needed immediately. Safeguards approaches for maintaining continuity of knowledge of spent fuel processed at the conditioning facility and for verification of the final disposal package will be needed within three years. Systems for design information verification of the repository facilities will be needed by the end of the decade.

  11. Food for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.

    1982-05-01

    Cassava, sugar cane, grain crops, molasses - all are potential feedstocks for ethanol production. Brazil has taken a clear lead in converting food crops into ethanol fuels for the automobile, but other countries may follow and the economic consequences could be considerable. This article looks at the various options. The total activity involved in fuel ethanol production and usage is considered as comprising three related components: feedstock production, ethanol production and application of the ethanol as a transport fuel.

  12. Evaluation of storing Shippingport Core II spent blanket fuel assemblies in the T Plant PWR Core II fuel pool without active cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.R.; Lanning, D.D.; Dana, C.M.; Hedengren, D.C.

    1994-10-01

    PWR Core II fuel pool chiller-off test was conducted because it appeared possible that acceptable pool-water temperatures could be maintained without operating the chillers, thus saving hundreds of thousands of dollars in maintenance and replacement costs. Test results showed that the water-cooling capability is no longer needed to maintain pool temperature below 38{degrees}C (100{degrees}F).

  13. Impact of oxy-fuel combustion gases on mercury retention in activated carbons from a macroalgae waste: effect of water.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Anton, M A; Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Díaz-Somoano, M; Suarez-Ruíz, I; Martínez-Tarazona, M R; Ruiz, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the different sorption behaviors of mercury species on activated carbons in the oxy-fuel combustion of coal and the effect of high quantities of water vapor on the retention process. The work evaluates the interactions between the mercury species and a series of activated carbons prepared from a macroalgae waste (algae meal) from the agar-agar industry in oxy-combustion atmospheres, focussing on the role that the high concentration of water in the flue gases plays in mercury retention. Two novel aspects are considered in this work (i) the impact of oxy-combustion gases on the retention of mercury by activated carbons and (ii) the performance of activated carbons prepared from biomass algae wastes for this application. The results obtained at laboratory scale indicate that the effect of the chemical and textural characteristics of the activated carbons on mercury capture is not as important as that of reactive gases, such as the SOx and water vapor present in the flue gas. Mercury retention was found to be much lower in the oxy-combustion atmosphere than in the O2+N2 (12.6% O2) atmosphere. However, the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to form oxidized mercury (Hg2+) amounted to 60%, resulting in an enhancement of mercury retention in the flue gas desulfurization units and a reduction in the amalgamation of Hg0 in the CO2 compression unit. This result is of considerable importance for the development of technologies based on activated carbon sorbents for mercury control in oxy-combustion processes.

  14. Pore development in carbonized hemoglobin by concurrently generated MgO template for activity enhancement as fuel cell cathode catalyst.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Jun; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Amano, Taiji; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Gullikson, Eric M; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2011-12-01

    Various carbon materials with a characteristic morphology and pore structure have been produced using template methods in which a carbon-template composite is once formed and the characteristic features derived from the template are generated after the template removal. In this study, hemoglobin, which is a natural compound that could be abundantly and inexpensively obtained, was used as the carbon material source to produce a carbonaceous noble-metal-free fuel cell cathode catalyst. Magnesium oxide was used as the template concurrently generated with the hemoglobin carbonization from magnesium acetate mixed with hemoglobin as the starting material mixture to enable pore development for improving the activity of the carbonized hemoglobin for the cathodic oxygen reduction. After removal of the MgO template, the substantially developed pores were generated in the carbonized hemoglobin with an amorphous structure observed by total-electron-yield X-ray absorption. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure at the Fe-K edge indicated that Fe was coordinated with four nitrogen atoms (Fe-N(4) moiety) in the carbonized hemoglobin. The oxygen reduction activity of the carbonized hemoglobin evaluated using rotating disk electrodes was dependent on the pore structure. The highly developed pores led to an improved activity.

  15. Carnation-like MnO2 modified activated carbon air cathode improve power generation in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Kexun; Liu, Xianhua

    2014-10-01

    Highly active and low-cost electrocatalysts are of great importance for large-scale commercial applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this work, we prepared an activated carbon (AC) air cathode containing electrodeposited γ-MnO2 using a potentiostatic method. The results indicated that carnation-like MnO2 crystals were bound to the surface of the AC air cathode after a deposition time of 10 min, which greatly improved the performance of the cathode. BET analysis results demonstrated that the electrodeposition of MnO2 decreased the micropore surface area of the cathode but increased the mesopore surface area. When compared with a bare AC air cathode, the electrodeposited MnO2 cathode exhibited higher catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. The maximum power density of the MFC equipped with the electrodeposited MnO2 AC air cathode was 1554 mW m-2, which is 1.5 times higher than the control cathode.

  16. Carbon-Nanotubes-Supported Pd Nanoparticles for Alcohol Oxidations in Fuel Cells: Effect of Number of Nanotube Walls on Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Lu, Shanfu; Xiang, Yan; Shen, Pei Kang; Liu, Jian; Jiang, San Ping

    2015-09-07

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well known electrocatalyst supports due to their high electrical conductivity, structural stability, and high surface area. Here, we demonstrate that the number of inner tubes or walls of CNTs also have a significant promotion effect on the activity of supported Pd nanoparticles (NPs) for alcohol oxidation reactions of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs). Pd NPs with similar particle size (2.1-2.8 nm) were uniformly assembled on CNTs with different number of walls. The results indicate that Pd NPs supported on triple-walled CNTs (TWNTs) have the highest mass activity and stability for methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol oxidation reactions, as compared to Pd NPs supported on single-walled and multi-walled CNTs. Such a specific promotion effect of TWNTs on the electrocatalytic activity of Pd NPs is not related to the contribution of metal impurities in CNTs, oxygen-functional groups of CNTs or surface area of CNTs and Pd NPs. A facile charge transfer mechanism via electron tunneling between the outer wall and inner tubes of CNTs under electrochemical driving force is proposed for the significant promotion effect of TWNTs for the alcohol oxidation reactions in alkaline solutions.

  17. Develop high activity, low cost non-PGM fuel cell electrocatalyst and stable supports

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Elvington, M. C.

    2016-09-28

    A unique approach has been developed to probe the non-PGM catalyst active site for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) for PEMFC. Iron based functionalities have been engineered into Metallic Organic Framework (MOF) catalysts to evaluate their impact on activity for the ORR. A series of FePhen@MOF catalysts have been synthesized with varying [Fe] to investigate the effect on electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties. The magnitude of the FeII/III redox couple and the electrochemical surface area are analyzed to determine if there is a correlation between [Fe] and the ORR onset potential and/or the relative number of active sites.

  18. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-08-20

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

  19. 46 CFR 28.335 - Fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.335 Section 28.335 Shipping COAST GUARD... Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.335 Fuel systems. (a) Applicability. Except for the components of an...) Portable fuel systems. Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines...

  20. 46 CFR 28.335 - Fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.335 Section 28.335 Shipping COAST GUARD... Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.335 Fuel systems. (a) Applicability. Except for the components of an...) Portable fuel systems. Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines...

  1. 46 CFR 28.335 - Fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.335 Section 28.335 Shipping COAST GUARD... Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.335 Fuel systems. (a) Applicability. Except for the components of an...) Portable fuel systems. Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines...

  2. 46 CFR 28.335 - Fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.335 Section 28.335 Shipping COAST GUARD... Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.335 Fuel systems. (a) Applicability. Except for the components of an...) Portable fuel systems. Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines...

  3. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  4. Utilization of /sup 252/Cf-/sup 235/U fueled subcritical multiplier for neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wogman, N.A.; Lepel, E.A.

    1983-10-05

    Neutron activation analysis is normally performed at thermal fluxes of 10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2//s irradiating samples of a few milligrams. When a ten thousand-fold larger sample is available, neutron activation can be performed at proportionately lower fluxes. Thus, a 10 g sample irradiated at 10/sup 9/ n/cm/sup 2//s contains as much activity as a 1 mg sample irradiated at 10/sup 13/ n/cm/sup 2//s. This paper describes the utilization of a subcritical multiplier operating at about 10/sup 9/ n/cm/sup 2//s for the activation of a broad range of sample types and elemental concentrations.

  5. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit. PMID:27248826

  6. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450

  7. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  8. European Fuel Cells R&D Review. Final report, Purchase Order No. 062014

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, P.D.; Maguire, J.

    1994-09-01

    Aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

  9. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P < 0.002) influencing all enzyme expressions but not activities. The cholesterol supplement decreased most enzyme expression and activity. W-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of GPx, GR, Mn-SOD, and Cu,Zn-SOD and decreased that of catalase. N-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of catalase and Mn-SOD. GR activity increased in W-RM rats while SOD activity increased, but that of Se-GPx decreased in N animals. W-RM increased total and reduced glutathione and decreased the redox index. CN diet induced significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) than the CW diet. In conclusion, Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  10. Liquid fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  11. High energy fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.H.

    1983-07-19

    A high density liquid hydrocarbon fuel composition is disclosed, singularly suited for propelling turbojet limited volume missile systems designed for shipborne deployment. The contemplated fuels are basically composed of the saturated analogues of dimers of methyl cyclopentadiene and of dicyclopentadiene and optionally include the saturated analogues of the co-trimers of said dienes or the trimers of cyclopentadiene. The various dimers and trimers are combined in a relative relationship to provide optimal performing fuels for the indicated purpose.

  12. Liquid fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  13. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

    2013-03-01

    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

  14. Nonpetroleum vehicular fuels: symposium papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A three day symposium on Nonpetroleum Vehicular Fuels was held in Arlington, Virginia, February 11 to 13, 1980. The central theme of the conference was the exchange of information on the successful use of nonpetroleum vehicular fuels and the identification of problems which might hinder the acceptance of these alternative fuels. Presentations and discussions included: current domestic and foreign activities to develop nonconventional vehicular energy; research and development efforts to provide new engines, vehicles and on-board hardware for economical, safe, and environmentally acceptable operation; programs to produce, market, and utilize such fuels; institutional constraints such as tax laws, environmental and safety regulations which may slow acceptance; programs needed to speed growth of the nongasoline alternative and increase customer acceptance; and commercial applications. In attendance were experts on fuels, engines, electric vehicles, energy delivery systems, government regulations, and environmental regulations. The papers presented are reproduced in full in this volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Fuel performance in water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950`s prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material.

  16. Recent experience in planning, packaging and preparing non-commercial spent fuel for shipment within the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Shappert, L.B.; Turner, D.W.

    1996-06-01

    US DOE orders dictate that the aluminium clad fuels now stored at ORNL will be shipped to the Savannah River Site. A number of activities had to be carried out in order to ready the fuel for shipping, including choosing a cask capable of transporting the fuel, repackaging the fuel, developing a transportation plan, identifying the appropriate routes, and carrying out a readiness self assessment. These tasks have been successfully completed and are discussed herein.

  17. Compositions and methods for treating nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; Johnsen, Amanda M; McNamara, Bruce K; Hanson, Brady D; Smith, Steven C; Peper, Shane M

    2013-08-13

    Compositions are provided that include nuclear fuel. Methods for treating nuclear fuel are provided which can include exposing the fuel to a carbonate-peroxide solution. Methods can also include exposing the fuel to an ammonium solution. Methods for acquiring molybdenum from a uranium comprising material are provided.

  18. Compositions and methods for treating nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; Johnsen, Amanda M; McNamara, Bruce K; Hanson, Brady D; Smith, Steven C; Peper, Shane M

    2014-01-28

    Compositions are provided that include nuclear fuel. Methods for treating nuclear fuel are provided which can include exposing the fuel to a carbonate-peroxide solution. Methods can also include exposing the fuel to an ammonium solution. Methods for acquiring molybdenum from a uranium comprising material are provided.

  19. SAS2H input for computing core activities of 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 weight % {sup 235}U fuel for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.

    1994-08-01

    Sequoyah Nuclear Plant core activities at initial fuel enrichments of 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 wt% {sup 235}U, required in nuclear safety evaluations, were computed by the SAS2H analysis sequence and the ORIGEN-S code within the SCALE-4.2 code system.

  20. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  1. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  2. Fuel feeds function: Energy balance and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation.

    PubMed

    Schwarm, A; Viergutz, T; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Schweigel-Röntgen, M

    2013-01-01

    A general phenomenon in peripartum mammals is the breakdown of (acquired) immunity. The incidence of parasite load, disease and inflammation often rise during the specific energetically demanding time of pregnancy and lactation. In this period, blood leukocytes display decreased DNA synthesis in response to mitogens in vitro. Leukocyte activation, the phase of the cell cycle preceding the DNA synthetic phase has hardly been investigated, but the few studies suggest that leukocyte activation may also be impaired by the limited energy/nutrient availability. Leukocyte activation is characterized by manifold processes, thus, we used the cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) as a measure of ATP turnover to support all these processes. We hypothesized that the activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - in terms of oxygen consumed over basal levels after in vitro stimulation - is altered by energy balance around parturition. We studied peripartum high-yielding dairy cows because they undergo substantial fluctuations in energy intake, energy output and body fat mass. We established a fluorescence-based test strategy allowing for long-term (≥24h) quantification of O(2)-consumption and studied the peripartum period from 5 weeks ante partum to 5 weeks postpartum. In addition, we determined cellular lactate production, DNA/RNA synthesis and cell size and zoo-technical parameters such as animal energy intake and milk yield were assessed, as well as selected plasma parameters, e.g. glucose concentration. The basal OCR of PBMC from pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=6, -5 weeks ante partum) was 1.19±0.15 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) and increased to maximum levels of 2.54±0.49 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC. The basal OCR did not change over the peripartum period. Whereas the activation indices, herein defined as the PHA-induced 24h-increase of OCR above baseline, amounted to 1.1±0.3, 4.2±0.3, 4.1±1.1, 2.1±0.3, and

  3. Biofuel cell operating on activated THP-1 cells: A fuel and substrate study.

    PubMed

    Javor, Kristina; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Stemmer, Andreas

    2017-01-15

    It is known that electrochemical energy can be harvested from mammalian cells, more specifically from white blood cells (WBC). This study focuses on an improved biofuel cell operating on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) activated THP-1 human monocytic cells. Electrochemical investigation showed strong evidence pointing towards hydrogen peroxide being the primary current source, confirming that the current originates from NADPH oxidase activity. Moreover, an adequate substrate for differentiation and activation of THP-1 cells was examined. ITO, gold, platinum and glass were tested and the amount of superoxide anion produced by NADPH oxidase was measured by spectrophotometry through WST-1 reduction at 450nm and used as an indicator of cellular activity and viability. These substrates were subsequently used in a conventional two-compartment biofuel cell where the power density output was recorded. The material showing the highest cell activity compared to the reference cell culture plate and the highest power output was ITO. Under our experimental conditions, a power density of 4.5μW/cm(2) was reached. To the best of our knowledge, this is a threefold higher power output than other leukocyte biofuel cells.

  4. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  5. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  6. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  7. Solvent activities of the fluorinated solid polymer electrolyte/water system in fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Bae, Young Chan

    We modified the lattice fluid equation-of-state by the introducing Debye-Hückel equation. A thermodynamic model taking into account the specific interaction and ionic strength between the polymer and the solvent is proposed. The proposed model successfully predicts the vapor/liquid equilibria (VLE) of solvents and the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). A generalized lattice fluid model is modified to describe the change of water activity in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE)/water systems. The calculated activity curves using the proposed model agree remarkably well with the experimental data.

  8. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the NPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Woods, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Since 2001, four national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted four samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the most recent being that of the NPL (UK). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 8 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the CIEMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; García-Toraño, E.; Los Arcos, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, five national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted five samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the CIEMAT (Spain). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  10. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kossert, K.; Janßen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted six samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the PTB (Germany). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value, with the agreement of the CCRI(II). The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been recalculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. Alternative Fuels in Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

    2006-01-01

    The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative…

  12. Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area

    DOEpatents

    George, Thomas J.; Meacham, G. B. Kirby

    2002-03-26

    A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

  13. Enhanced catalytic activity and inhibited biofouling of cathode in microbial fuel cells through controlling hydrophilic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Liu, Jia; Wang, Haiman; Qu, Youpeng; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Yujie

    2016-11-01

    The hydrophilicity of activated carbon cathode directly determines the distribution of three-phase interfaces where oxygen reduction occurs. In this study, activated carbon cathodes are fabricated by using hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and amphiphilic LA132 at various weight ratio to investigate the effect of hydrophilic property on cathode performance. Contact angle tests confirm the positive impact of LA132 content on hydrophilicity. Cathode with 67 wt% LA132 content shows the highest electrochemical activity as exchange current density increases by 71% and charge transfer resistance declines by 44.6% compared to that of PTFE cathode, probably due to the extended reaction interfaces by optimal hydrophilicity of cathode so that oxygen reduction is facilitated. As a result, the highest power density of 1171 ± 71 mW m-2 is obtained which is 14% higher than PTFE cathode. In addition to the hydrophilicity, this cathode had more negative charged surface of catalyst layer, therefore the protein content of cathodic biofilm decreased by 47.5%, indicating the effective bacterial inhibition when 67 wt% LA132 is used. This study shows that the catalytic activity of cathode is improved by controlling proper hydrophilicity of cathode, and that biofilm can be reduced by increasing hydrophilicity and lowering the surface potential.

  14. Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area

    SciTech Connect

    George, Thomas J.; Meacham, G.B. Kirby

    1999-11-26

    A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

  15. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  16. Influence of chemical and physical properties of activated carbon powders on oxygen reduction and microbial fuel cell performance.

    PubMed

    Watson, Valerie J; Nieto Delgado, Cesar; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-06-18

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) were electrochemically evaluated as oxygen reduction catalysts and tested as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). AC powders were characterized in terms of surface chemistry and porosity, and their kinetic activities were compared to carbon black and platinum catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m(-2)). Peat-based AC performed similarly in MFC tests (1610 ± 100 mW m(-2)) and had the best catalyst performance, with an onset potential of E(onset) = 0.17 V, and n = 3.6 electrons used for oxygen reduction. Hardwood based AC had the highest number of acidic surface functional groups and the poorest performance in MFC and catalysis tests (630 ± 10 mW m(-2), E(onset) = -0.01 V, n = 2.1). There was an inverse relationship between onset potential and quantity of strong acid (pKa < 8) functional groups, and a larger fraction of microporosity was negatively correlated with power production in MFCs. Surface area alone was a poor predictor of catalyst performance, and a high quantity of acidic surface functional groups was determined to be detrimental to oxygen reduction and cathode performance.

  17. High catalytic activity and pollutants resistivity using Fe-AAPyr cathode catalyst for microbial fuel cell application.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Serov, Alexey; Narvaez Villarrubia, Claudia W; Stariha, Sarah; Babanova, Sofia; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Schuler, Andrew J; Atanassov, Plamen

    2015-11-13

    For the first time, a new generation of innovative non-platinum group metal catalysts based on iron and aminoantipyrine as precursor (Fe-AAPyr) has been utilized in a membraneless single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) running on wastewater. Fe-AAPyr was used as an oxygen reduction catalyst in a passive gas-diffusion cathode and implemented in SCMFC design. This catalyst demonstrated better performance than platinum (Pt) during screening in "clean" conditions (PBS), and no degradation in performance during the operation in wastewater. The maximum power density generated by the SCMFC with Fe-AAPyr was 167 ± 6 μW cm(-2) and remained stable over 16 days, while SCMFC with Pt decreased to 113 ± 4 μW cm(-2) by day 13, achieving similar values of an activated carbon based cathode. The presence of S(2-) and showed insignificant decrease of ORR activity for the Fe-AAPyr. The reported results clearly demonstrate that Fe-AAPyr can be utilized in MFCs under the harsh conditions of wastewater.

  18. Enhanced Catalytic Activity of Pt Supported on Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes for Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qizhong; Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Seok

    2015-11-01

    We report an efficient method for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide supported Pt nanocatalysts (Pt/N-RGO). Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) was prepared by pyrolysis of graphene oxide with cyanamide as a nitrogen source. Then, the Pt nanoparticles were deposited over N-RGO by one-step chemical polyol reduction process. The morphology and structure of as-prepared catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Subsequently, electrocatalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). As a result, the Pt/N-RGO catalysts exhibit the superior electrochemical activity toward methanol oxidation in compared with that of Pt loaded on undoped reduced graphene oxide (Pt/RGO) and Pt/carbon blacks (Pt/C). This was mainly attributed to the better distribution of Pt nanoparticles as well as the synergistic electrochemical effects of the nitrogen doped supports. These results demonstrate that N-RGO could be a promising candidate as a high performance catalyst support for a fuel cell application.

  19. High catalytic activity and pollutants resistivity using Fe-AAPyr cathode catalyst for microbial fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Carlo; Serov, Alexey; Villarrubia, Claudia W. Narvaez; Stariha, Sarah; Babanova, Sofia; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Schuler, Andrew J.; Atanassov, Plamen

    2015-11-01

    For the first time, a new generation of innovative non-platinum group metal catalysts based on iron and aminoantipyrine as precursor (Fe-AAPyr) has been utilized in a membraneless single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) running on wastewater. Fe-AAPyr was used as an oxygen reduction catalyst in a passive gas-diffusion cathode and implemented in SCMFC design. This catalyst demonstrated better performance than platinum (Pt) during screening in “clean” conditions (PBS), and no degradation in performance during the operation in wastewater. The maximum power density generated by the SCMFC with Fe-AAPyr was 167 ± 6 μW cm-2 and remained stable over 16 days, while SCMFC with Pt decreased to 113 ± 4 μW cm-2 by day 13, achieving similar values of an activated carbon based cathode. The presence of S2- and showed insignificant decrease of ORR activity for the Fe-AAPyr. The reported results clearly demonstrate that Fe-AAPyr can be utilized in MFCs under the harsh conditions of wastewater.

  20. In vitro activity of fosfomycin against blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, including those nonsusceptible to tigecycline and/or colistin.

    PubMed

    Endimiani, Andrea; Patel, Gopi; Hujer, Kristine M; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Perez, Federico; Rice, Louis B; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In vitro activity of fosfomycin was evaluated against 68 bla(KPC)-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpKPC) isolates, including 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains. By agar dilution, 93% of the overall KpKPC were susceptible (MIC(50/90) of 16/64 microg/ml, respectively). The subgroup of 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains showed susceptibility rates of 87% (MIC(50/90) of 32/128 microg/ml, respectively). Notably, 5 out of 6 extremely drug-resistant (tigecycline and colistin nonsusceptible) KpKPC were susceptible to fosfomycin. Compared to agar dilution, disk diffusion was more accurate than Etest.

  1. Natural product derivatives with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joshua B; Smith, Adrienne E; Kusche, Brian R; Bessette, Bradley A; Swain, P Whitney; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McMills, Mark C; Wright, Dennis L; Priestley, Nigel D

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that the intentional engineering of a natural product biosynthesis pathway is a useful way to generate stereochemically complex scaffolds for use in the generation of combinatorial libraries that capture the structural features of both natural products and synthetic compounds. Analysis of a prototype library based upon nonactic acid lead to the discovery of triazole-containing nonactic acid analogs, a new structural class of antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against drug resistant, Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  2. Fuel cell market applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is a review of the US (and international) fuel cell development for the stationary power generation market. Besides DOE, GRI, and EPRI sponsorship, the US fuel cell program has over 40% cost-sharing from the private sector. Support is provided by user groups with over 75 utility and other end-user members. Objectives are to develop and demonstrate cost-effective fuel cell power generation which can initially be commercialized into various market applications using natural gas fuel by the year 2000. Types of fuel cells being developed include PAFC (phosphoric acid), MCFC (molten carbonate), and SOFC (solid oxide); status of each is reported. Potential international applications are reviewed also. Fuel cells are viewed as a force in dispersed power generation, distributed power, cogeneration, and deregulated industry. Specific fuel cell attributes are discussed: Fuel cells promise to be one of the most reliable power sources; they are now being used in critical uninterruptible power systems. They need hydrogen which can be generated internally from natural gas, coal gas, methanol landfill gas, or other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Finally, fuel cell development and market applications in Japan are reviewed briefly.

  3. The Effects of Amine Based Missile Fuels on the Activated Sludge Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    Reference 17) used neat hydrazine as a selective inhibitor in their studies with Nitrosomonas europaea to show that hydroxylamine is an intermediate...of nitrite oxidation. That hydrazine was more toxic to Nitrobacter sp. than Nitrosomonas sp. in activated sludge was in general agreement with Meyerhof...Reference 16) who studied pure cultures of Nitrosomonas sp. and found 20-percent inhibition of ammonia oxidation at 32 mg/t. Yoshida and Alexander

  4. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ziervogel, Kai; D'Souza, Nigel; Sweet, Julia; Yan, Beizhan; Passow, Uta

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil) or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow). Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and β-glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components, indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40) into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps.

  5. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ziervogel, Kai; D'souza, Nigel; Sweet, Julia; Yan, Beizhan; Passow, Uta

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil) or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow). Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and β-glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components, indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40) into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps. PMID:24847314

  6. Fueling active galactic nuclei. II. Spatially resolved molecular inflows and outflows

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, R. I.; Erwin, P.; Burtscher, L.; Lin, M.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Rosario, D. J.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Maciejewski, W.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Emsellem, E.; Dumas, G.; Malkan, M. A.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Tran, A.

    2014-09-10

    We analyze the two-dimensional distribution and kinematics of the stars as well as molecular and ionized gas in the central few hundred parsecs of five active and five matched inactive galaxies. The equivalent widths of the Brγ line indicate that there is no ongoing star formation in their nuclei, although recent (terminated) starbursts are possible in the active galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show no signs of non-circular motions, while the 1-0 S(1) H{sub 2} kinematics exhibit significant deviations from simple circular rotation. In the active galaxies the H{sub 2} kinematics reveal inflow and outflow superimposed on disk rotation. Steady-state circumnuclear inflow is seen in three active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and hydrodynamical models indicate it can be driven by a large-scale bar. In three of the five AGNs, molecular outflows are spatially resolved. The outflows are oriented such that they intersect, or have an edge close to, the disk, which may be the source of molecular gas in the outflow. The relatively low speeds imply the gas will fall back onto the disk, and with moderate outflow rates, they will have only a local impact on the host galaxy. H{sub 2} was detected in two inactive galaxies. These exhibit chaotic circumnuclear dust morphologies and have molecular structures that are counter-rotating with respect to the main gas component, which could lead to gas inflow in the near future. In our sample, all four galaxies with chaotic dust morphology in the circumnuclear region exist in moderately dense groups with 10-15 members where accretion of stripped gas can easily occur.

  7. Presence and biological activity of antibiotics used in fuel ethanol and corn co-product production.

    PubMed

    Compart, D M Paulus; Carlson, A M; Crawford, G I; Fink, R C; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Dicostanzo, A; Shurson, G C

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotics are used in ethanol production to control bacteria from competing with yeast for nutrients during starch fermentation. However, there is no published scientific information on whether antibiotic residues are present in distillers grains (DG), co-products from ethanol production, or whether they retain their biological activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of various antibiotic residues in DG and determine whether residues were biologically active. Twenty distillers wet grains and 20 distillers dried grains samples were collected quarterly from 9 states and 43 ethanol plants in the United States. Samples were analyzed for DM, CP, NDF, crude fat, S, P, and pH to describe the nutritional characteristics of the samples evaluated. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin M1, using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additionally, virginiamycin residues were determined, using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved bioassay method. Samples were extracted and further analyzed for biological activity by exposing the sample extracts to 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/mL concentrations of sentinel bacterial strains Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Extracts that inhibited bacterial growth were considered to have biological activity. Physiochemical characteristics varied among samples but were consistent with previous findings. Thirteen percent of all samples contained low (≤1.12 mg/kg) antibiotic concentrations. Only 1 sample extract inhibited growth of Escherichia coli at 10(4) CFU/mL, but this sample contained no detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues. No extracts inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth. These data indicate that the likelihood of detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues in DG is low; and if detected, they are found in very low concentrations. The inhibition in only 1 DG

  8. Fuel processing device

    DOEpatents

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    2011-08-02

    An improved fuel processor for fuel cells is provided whereby the startup time of the processor is less than sixty seconds and can be as low as 30 seconds, if not less. A rapid startup time is achieved by either igniting or allowing a small mixture of air and fuel to react over and warm up the catalyst of an autothermal reformer (ATR). The ATR then produces combustible gases to be subsequently oxidized on and simultaneously warm up water-gas shift zone catalysts. After normal operating temperature has been achieved, the proportion of air included with the fuel is greatly diminished.

  9. Kinetic Structure of Large-Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channels Suggests that the Gating Includes Transitions through Intermediate or Secondary States

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Brad S.; Magleby, Karl L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms for the Ca2+-dependent gating of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were developed using two-dimensional analysis of single-channel currents recorded with the patch clamp technique. To extract and display the essential kinetic information, the kinetic structure, from the single channel currents, adjacent open and closed intervals were binned as pairs and plotted as two-dimensional dwell-time distributions, and the excesses and deficits of the interval pairs over that expected for independent pairing were plotted as dependency plots. The basic features of the kinetic structure were generally the same among single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but channel-specific differences were readily apparent, suggesting heterogeneities in the gating. Simple gating schemes drawn from the Monod- Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model for allosteric proteins could approximate the basic features of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. However, consistent differences between the observed and predicted dependency plots suggested that additional brief lifetime closed states not included in MWC-type models were involved in the gating. Adding these additional brief closed states to the MWC-type models, either beyond the activation pathway (secondary closed states) or within the activation pathway (intermediate closed states), improved the description of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. Secondary closed states are consistent with the closing of secondary gates or channel block. Intermediate closed states are consistent with mechanisms in which the channel activates by passing through a series of intermediate conformations between the more stable open and closed states. It is the added secondary or intermediate closed states that give rise to the majority of the brief closings (flickers) in the gating. PMID:9607935

  10. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

  11. Multidimensional Multiphysics Simulation of TRISO Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Hales; R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone; D. M. Perez; B. W. Spencer; G. Pastore

    2013-11-01

    Multidimensional multiphysics analysis of TRISO-coated particle fuel using the BISON finite-element based nuclear fuels code is described. The governing equations and material models applicable to particle fuel and implemented in BISON are outlined. Code verification based on a recent IAEA benchmarking exercise is described, and excellant comparisons are reported. Multiple TRISO-coated particles of increasing geometric complexity are considered. It is shown that the code's ability to perform large-scale parallel computations permits application to complex 3D phenomena while very efficient solutions for either 1D spherically symmetric or 2D axisymmetric geometries are straightforward. Additionally, the flexibility to easily include new physical and material models and uncomplicated ability to couple to lower length scale simulations makes BISON a powerful tool for simulation of coated-particle fuel. Future code development activities and potential applications are identified.

  12. Multidimensional multiphysics simulation of TRISO particle fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, J. D.; Williamson, R. L.; Novascone, S. R.; Perez, D. M.; Spencer, B. W.; Pastore, G.

    2013-11-01

    Multidimensional multiphysics analysis of TRISO-coated particle fuel using the BISON finite element nuclear fuels code is described. The governing equations and material models applicable to particle fuel and implemented in BISON are outlined. Code verification based on a recent IAEA benchmarking exercise is described, and excellent comparisons are reported. Multiple TRISO-coated particles of increasing geometric complexity are considered. The code's ability to use the same algorithms and models to solve problems of varying dimensionality from 1D through 3D is demonstrated. The code provides rapid solutions of 1D spherically symmetric and 2D axially symmetric models, and its scalable parallel processing capability allows for solutions of large, complex 3D models. Additionally, the flexibility to easily include new physical and material models and straightforward ability to couple to lower length scale simulations makes BISON a powerful tool for simulation of coated-particle fuel. Future code development activities and potential applications are identified.

  13. Apparatus and method for mixing fuel in a gas turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2014-08-12

    A nozzle includes a fuel plenum and an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. A primary fuel channel includes an inlet in fluid communication with the fuel plenum and a primary air port in fluid communication with the air plenum. Secondary fuel channels radially outward of the primary fuel channel include a secondary fuel port in fluid communication with the fuel plenum. A shroud circumferentially surrounds the secondary fuel channels. A method for mixing fuel and air in a nozzle prior to combustion includes flowing fuel to a fuel plenum and flowing air to an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. The method further includes injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through a primary fuel passage, injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through secondary fuel passages, and injecting air from the air plenum through the primary fuel passage.

  14. Development, Testing and Validation of a Waste Assay System for the Measurement and Characterisation of Active Spent Fuel Element Debris From UK Magnox Reactors - 12533

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, John A.; Burke, Kevin J.; Looman, Marc R.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Phillips, Martin E.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the development, testing and validation of a waste measurement instrument for characterising active remote handled radioactive waste arising from the operation of Magnox reactors in the United Kingdom. Following operation in UK Magnox gas cooled reactors and a subsequent period of cooling, parts of the magnesium-aluminium alloy cladding were removed from spent fuel and the uranium fuel rods with the remaining cladding were removed to Sellafield for treatment. The resultant Magnox based spent fuel element debris (FED), which constitutes active intermediate level waste (ILW) has been stored in concrete vaults at the reactor sites. As part of the decommissioning of the FED vaults the FED must be removed, measured and characterised and placed in intermediate storage containers. The present system was developed for use at the Trawsfynydd nuclear power station (NPS), which is in the decommissioning phase, but the approach is potentially applicable to FED characterisation at all of the Magnox reactors. The measurement system consists of a heavily shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with electromechanical cooling and a high count-rate preamplifier and digital multichannel pulse height analyser. The HPGe based detector system is controlled by a software code, which stores the measurement result and allows a comprehensive analysis of the measured FED data. Fuel element debris is removed from the vault and placed on a tray to a uniform depth of typically 10 cm for measurement. The tray is positioned approximately 1.2 meters above the detector which views the FED through a tungsten collimator with an inverted pyramid shape. At other Magnox sites the positions may be reversed with the shielded and collimated HPGe detector located above the tray on which the FED is measured. A comprehensive Monte Carlo modelling and analysis of the measurement process has been performed in order to optimise the measurement geometry and eliminate

  15. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  16. Spiral cooled fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy; Schilp, Reinhard

    2012-09-25

    A fuel nozzle for delivery of fuel to a gas turbine engine. The fuel nozzle includes an outer nozzle wall and a center body located centrally within the nozzle wall. A gap is defined between an inner wall surface of the nozzle wall and an outer body surface of the center body for providing fuel flow in a longitudinal direction from an inlet end to an outlet end of the fuel nozzle. A turbulating feature is defined on at least one of the central body and the inner wall for causing at least a portion of the fuel flow in the gap to flow transverse to the longitudinal direction. The gap is effective to provide a substantially uniform temperature distribution along the nozzle wall in the circumferential direction.

  17. Centrifugal main fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.F.

    1986-08-26

    For a gas turbine power plant having a fuel supply and a fuel metering valve and variable geometry for the power plant including servo actuating mechanisms for the fuel metering valve and variable geometry, a fuel pumping system, is described to supply pressurized fuel for the servo actuating mechanisms and for the engine working fluid medium. The pumping system includes a centrifugal pump solely supplying the fuel to the fuel metering valve to be delivered to the power plant for its working fluid medium, a positive displacement pump in parallel with the centrifugal pump and solely to supply pressurized fuel to the servo actuating mechanisms for the fuel metering valve and for the variable geometry, and a boost pump means disposed in serial relationship with the positive displacement pump and the centrifugal pump for augmenting the pressure supplied by the positive displacement pump and the centrifugal pump during predetermined operating conditions of the power plant. The combined boost pump and centrifugal pump capability is sufficient to satisfy the vapor to liquid ratio requirements of the power during its entire operating envelope.

  18. EBR-II fuel slug casting experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C. W.; Batte`, G. L.; Tracy, D. B.; Griffiths, V.

    1987-07-01

    The following paper presents a chronology of EBR-II fuel slug casting experience. Starting with the early vendor campaigns, the paper explains how production of EBR-II fuel, as well as fuel for off-site reactors, has evolved. The production facilities (i.e., EFL, Room 20, FMF, etc.) and casting techniques are discussed in detail. The paper also presents how the original casting operations have improved and the problems encountered as the techniques were developed. Extensive descriptions and data are given on the major experimental programs currently ongoing at EBR-II. Major programs include the IFR lead subassemblies, large diameter slugs, IFR metal fuel RBCB, and the FFTF subassembly program. Concluding the paper is a brief description of future development projects being considered and a summation of how EBR-II Fuels and Materials has been able to overcome various administration obstacles (i.e., improved security and safeguards measures) to continue to meet the increasing demands of fuel production while maintaining an aggressive and active research and development program in fuel slug production.

  19. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  20. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yang, Junbing; Wang, Xiaoping

    2011-04-19

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  1. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  2. DoD use of Domestically-Produced Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-10

    based fuels and biodiesel , in DoD vehicles; (2) current and projected actions by the DoD to increase the use of alternative fuels in vehicles; (3) a...fuels and vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS alternative fuel infrastructure, electric vehicles, biofuels, ethanol, biodiesel , drop-in, synthetic fuel...of: (1) use and potential use of domestically-produced alternative fuels including but not limited to, natural gas based fuels and biodiesel , in DoD

  3. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Budget

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2012-03-16

    Budget information for hydrogen and fuel cell research, development, and other activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is provided here. Included are budgets for DOE's Offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Fossil Energy, Nuclear Energy, and Science.

  4. X-RAY NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IN S{sup 4}G BARRED GALAXIES: NO LINK BETWEEN BAR STRENGTH AND CO-OCCURRENT SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE FUELING

    SciTech Connect

    Cisternas, Mauricio; Knapen, Johan H.; González-Martín, Omaira; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun; Díaz-García, Simón; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Ho, Luis C.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L.; Sheth, Kartik; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Gil de Paz, Armando; Holwerda, Benne W.; and others

    2013-10-10

    Stellar bars can lead to gas inflow toward the center of a galaxy and stimulate nuclear star formation. However, there is no compelling evidence on whether they also feed a central supermassive black hole: by measuring the fractions of barred active and inactive galaxies, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. In this paper, we aim to understand the lack of observational evidence for bar-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity by studying a sample of 41 nearby (d < 35 Mpc) barred galaxies from the Spitzer Survey for Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We use Chandra observations to measure nuclear 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities and estimate Eddington ratios, together with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging to quantify the strength of the stellar bar in two independent ways: (1) from its structure, as traced by its ellipticity and boxiness, and (2) from its gravitational torque Q{sub b} , taken as the maximum ratio of the tangential force to the mean background radial force. In this way, rather than discretizing the presence of both stellar bars and nuclear activity, we are able to account for the continuum of bar strengths and degrees of AGN activity. We find nuclear X-ray sources in 31 out of 41 galaxies with median X-ray luminosity and Eddington ratio of L{sub X} = 4.3 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} = 6.9 × 10{sup –6}, respectively, consistent with low-luminosity AGN activity. Including upper limits for those galaxies without nuclear detections, we find no significant correlation between any of the bar strength indicators and the degree of nuclear activity, irrespective of galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, Hubble type, or bulge size. Strong bars do not favor brighter or more efficient nuclear activity, implying that at least for the low-luminosity regime, supermassive black hole fueling is not closely connected to large-scale features.

  5. Fuel cells: Trends in research and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, A. J.

    Various aspects of fuel cells are discussed. The subjects addressed include: fuel cells for electric power production; phosphoric acid fuel cells; long-term testing of an air-cooled 2.5 kW PAFC stack in Italy; status of fuel cell research and technology in the Netherlands, Bulgaria, PRC, UK, Sweden, India, Japan, and Brazil; fuel cells from the manufacturer's viewpoint; and fuel cells using biomass-derived fuels. Also examined are: solid oxide electrolye fuel cells; aluminum-air batteries with neutral chloride electrolyte; materials research for advanced solid-state fuel cells at the Energy Research Laboratory in Denmark; molten carbonate fuel cells; the impact of the Siemens program; fuel cells at Sorapec; impact of fuel cells on the electric power generation systems in industrial and developing countries; and application of fuel cells to large vehicles.

  6. Options for fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, L.D. Jr.; Chance, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The key to cofiring wood or other biomass with coal in existing power stations is fuel management. Fuel management includes the procurement, receiving, processing, storage, and blending of the biomass with coal. Procurement options may include the purchase of lower cost biomass fuels, receipt of subsidies to make capital modifications to cofire biomass {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} fuels or receive tipping fees where biomass waste disposal options for a particular area are expensive. Biomass receiving options include delivery methods, unloading, measurement, and inspection. Processing options are associated with screen types, drying systems, final particle size required, and associated questions of fuel supply reliability. Issues include the ability of the coal yard to accept this processing operation, handling convenience, traffic patterns, staffing requirements, and ultimately the cost of fuel at the burner. Issues associated with storage include locating the facility, managing dust, managing moisture pick-up, and managing runoff. Blending options include pre-blending or designing a system to blend the fuels as they are transported from the coal yard to the bunkers. This paper reviews the major decisions that have to be made, and discusses some of the options available. It draws upon existing experience in cofiring systems to achieve a low cost, high reliability system to use biomass at coal-fired electricity generating stations.

  7. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    DOEpatents

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  8. Fuel pumping system and method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng ,

    2006-12-19

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  9. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  10. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  11. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  12. Catalytic Decarboxylation of Fatty Acids to Aviation Fuels over Nickel Supported on Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianghua; Shi, Juanjuan; Fu, Jie; Leidl, Jamie A.; Hou, Zhaoyin; Lu, Xiuyang

    2016-01-01

    Decarboxylation of fatty acids over non-noble metal catalysts without added hydrogen was studied. Ni/C catalysts were prepared and exhibited excellent activity and maintenance for decarboxylation. Thereafter, the effects of nickel loading, catalyst loading, temperature, and carbon number on the decarboxylation of fatty acids were investigated. The results indicate that the products of cracking increased with high nickel loading or catalyst loading. Temperature significantly impacted the conversion of stearic acid but did not influence the selectivity. The fatty acids with large carbon numbers tend to be cracked in this reaction system. Stearic acid can be completely converted at 370 °C for 5 h, and the selectivity to heptadecane was around 80%. PMID:27292280

  13. BAD-Dependent Regulation of Fuel Metabolism and KATP Channel Activity Confers Resistance to Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fisher, Jill K.; Szlyk, Benjamin; Polak, Klaudia; Wiwczar, Jessica; Tanner, Geoffrey R.; Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary; Danial, Nika N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Neuronal excitation can be substantially modulated by alterations in metabolism, as evident from the anticonvulsant effect of diets that reduce glucose utilization and promote ketone body metabolism. We provide genetic evidence that BAD, a protein with dual functions in apoptosis and glucose metabolism, imparts reciprocal effects on metabolism of glucose and ketone bodies in brain cells. These effects involve phospho-regulation of BAD and are independent of its apoptotic function. BAD modifications that reduce glucose metabolism produce a marked increase in the activity of metabolically sensitive KATP channels in neurons, as well as resistance to behavioral and electrographic seizures in vivo. Seizure resistance is reversed by genetic ablation of the KATP channel, implicating the BAD-KATP axis in metabolic control of neuronal excitation and seizure responses. PMID:22632729

  14. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    DOEpatents

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  15. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor

  16. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  17. High sintering activity Cu-Gd co-doped CeO 2 electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yingchao; Hampshire, Stuart; Lin, Bin; Ling, Yihan; Zhang, Xiaozhen

    Nano-sized Ce 0.79Gd 0.2Cu 0.01O 2- δ electrolyte powder was synthesized by the polyvinyl alcohol assisted combustion method, and then characterized by crystalline structure, powder morphology, sintering micro-structure and electrical properties. The results demonstrate that the as-synthesized Ce 0.79Gd 0.2Cu 0.01O 2- δ was well crystalline with cubic fluorite structure, and exhibited a porous foamy morphology composed of gas cavities and fine crystals ranging from 30 to 50 nm. After sintering at 1100 °C, the as-prepared pellets exhibited a dense and moderate-grained micro-structure with 95.54% relative density, suggesting that the synthesized Ce 0.79Gd 0.2Cu 0.01O 2- δ powder had high sintering activity. The powders made by this method are expected to offer potential application in intermediate-to-low temperature solid-oxide fuel cells, due to its very low densification sintering temperature (1100 °C), as well as high conductivity of 0.026 S cm -1 at 600 °C and good mechanical performance with three-point flexural strength value of 148.15 ± 2.42 MPa.

  18. Comparison of electrode reduction activities of Geobacter sulfurreducens and an enriched consortium in an air-cathode microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Watanabe, Kazuya; Yabuki, Soichi; Logan, Bruce E; Sekiguchi, Yuji

    2008-12-01

    An electricity-generating bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA, was inoculated into a single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) in order to determine the maximum electron transfer rate from bacteria to the anode. To create anodic reaction-limiting conditions, where electron transfer from bacteria to the anode is the rate-limiting step, anodes with electrogenic biofilms were reduced in size and tests were conducted using anodes of six different sizes. The smallest anode (7 cm(2), or 1.5 times larger than the cathode) achieved an anodic reaction-limiting condition as a result of a limited mass of bacteria on the electrode. Under these conditions, the limiting current density reached a maximum of 1,530 mA/m(2), and power density reached a maximum of 461 mW/m(2). Per-biomass efficiency of the electron transfer rate was constant at 32 fmol cell(-1) day(-1) (178 micromol g of protein(-1) min(-1)), a rate comparable to that with solid iron as the electron acceptor but lower than rates achieved with fumarate or soluble iron. In comparison, an enriched electricity-generating consortium reached 374 micromol g of protein(-1) min(-1) under the same conditions, suggesting that the consortium had a much greater capacity for electrode reduction. These results demonstrate that per-biomass electrode reduction rates (calculated by current density and biomass density on the anode) can be used to help make better comparisons of electrogenic activity in MFCs.

  19. Computational investigation of the flow field contribution to improve electricity generation in granular activated carbon-assisted microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Jian; Battaglia, Francine; He, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer an alternative approach to treat wastewater with less energy input and direct electricity generation. To optimize MFC anodic performance, adding granular activated carbon (GAC) has been proved to be an effective way, most likely due to the enlarged electrode surface for biomass attachment and improved mixing of the flow field. The impact of a flow field on the current enhancement within a porous anode medium (e.g., GAC) has not been well understood before, and thus is investigated in this study by using mathematical modeling of the multi-order Butler-Volmer equation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. By comparing three different CFD cases (without GAC, with GAC as a nonreactive porous medium, and with GAC as a reactive porous medium), it is demonstrated that adding GAC contributes to a uniform flow field and a total current enhancement of 17%, a factor that cannot be neglected in MFC design. However, in an actual MFC operation, this percentage could be even higher because of the microbial competition and energy loss issues within a porous medium. The results of the present study are expected to help with formulating strategies to optimize MFC with a better flow pattern design.

  20. Granular activated carbon based microbial fuel cell for simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2011-12-15

    Decolorization of dye wastewater before discharge is pivotal because of its immense color and toxicities. In this study, a granular activated carbon based microbial fuel cell (GACB-MFC) was used without using any expensive materials like Nafion membrane and platinum catalyst for simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and bioelectricity generation. After 48 hours of GACB-MFC operation, 73% color was removed at anode and 77% color was removed at cathode. COD removal was 71% at the anode and 76% at the cathode after 48 hours. Toxicity measurements showed that cathode effluent was almost nontoxic after 24 hours. The anode effluent was threefold less toxic compared to original dye wastewater after 48 hours. The GACB-MFC produced a power density of 1.7 W/m(3) with an open circuit voltage 0.45 V. One of the advantages of the GACB-MFC system is that pH was automatically adjusted from 12.4 to 7.2 and 8.0 at the anode and cathode during 48 hours operation.

  1. Adsorptive desulphurization study of liquid fuels using Tin (Sn) impregnated activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Sikandar; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Ahmad, Waqas

    2016-03-05

    Keeping in view the growing concern regarding desulphurization of petroleum products, the present study was under taken to investigate the efficiency of tin impregnated activated charcoal (Sn-AC) as a potential adsorbent for the desulphurization of model and real commercial straight run kerosene and diesel oil samples. The adsorbent Sn-AC was prepared by wet impregnation process in the laboratory and characterized by SEM, EDX and surface area analysis. Initial experiments were carried out using model oil, which was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT) in cyclohexane, the optimum conditions for desulfurization were found to be, 60°C temperature, 1h contact time and adsorbent dosage of 0.8g, under which about 99.4% of DBT removal was attained. Under optimized conditions the desulfurization of real oil i.e., kerosene and diesel oil was also investigated. Kinetic studies revealed that DBT adsorption followed pseudo second order kinetics and the data best fits in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm as compared to Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The adsorbent could be easily regenerated simply by washing with toluene for a multiple cycles and reused without losing its efficiency.

  2. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  3. Fuel performance annual report for 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1988-03-01

    This annual report, the ninth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1986 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included. 550 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Fuel performance annual report for 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1987-02-01

    This annual report, the eighth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1985 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included.

  5. Fuel performance annual report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J. ); Wu, S. . Div. of Engineering and Systems Technology)

    1990-03-01

    This annual report, the eleventh in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1988 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included. 414 refs., 13 figs., 32 tabs.

  6. Fuel performance: Annual report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1989-03-01

    This annual report, the tenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1987 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulator Commission evaluations are included. 384 refs., 13 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. Fuel performance annual report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Berting, F.M. ); Wu, S. . Div. of Systems Technology)

    1992-06-01

    This annual report, the twelfth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1989 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included.

  8. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The underlying causes of fuel thermal degradation are discussed. Topics covered include: nature of fuel instability and its temperature dependence, methods of measuring the instability, chemical mechanisms involved in deposit formation, and instrumental methods for characterizing fuel deposits. Finally, some preliminary thoughts on design approaches for minimizing the effects of lowered thermal stability are briefly discussed.

  9. Fuel-conservative engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Mcaulay, J. E.; Reynolds, T. W.; Strack, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft fuel consumption is discussed in terms of its efficient use, and the conversion of energy from sources other than petroleum. Topics discussed include: fuel from coal and oil shale, hydrogen deficiency of alternate sources, alternate fuels evaluation program, and future engines.

  10. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  11. Bioelectricity Generation and Bioremediation of an Azo-Dye in a Microbial Fuel Cell Coupled Activated Sludge Process

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Danish; Abdulateif, Huda; Ismail, Iqbal M.; Sabir, Suhail; Khan, Mohammad Zain

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye degradation was achieved in the present study by using a combined anaerobic-aerobic process. The anaerobic system was a typical single chambered microbial fuel cell (SMFC) which utilizes acid navy blue r (ANB) dye along with glucose as growth substrate to generate electricity. Four different concentrations of ANB (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) were tested in the SMFC and the degradation products were further treated in an activated sludge post treatment process. The dye decolorization followed pseudo first order kinetics while the negative values of the thermodynamic parameter ∆G (change in Gibbs free energy) shows that the reaction proceeds with a net decrease in the free energy of the system. The coulombic efficiency (CE) and power density (PD) attained peak values at 10.36% and 2,236 mW/m2 respectively for 200 ppm of ANB. A further increase in ANB concentrations results in lowering of cell potential (and PD) values owing to microbial inhibition at higher concentrations of toxic substrates. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed a perfect redox reaction was taking place in the SMFC. The pH, temperature and conductivity remain 7.5–8.0, 27(±2°C and 10.6–18.2 mS/cm throughout the operation. The biodegradation pathway was studied by the gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy technique, suggested the preferential cleavage of the azo bond as the initial step resulting in to aromatic amines. Thus, a combined anaerobic-aerobic process using SMFC coupled with activated sludge process can be a viable option for effective degradation of complex dye substrates along with energy (bioelectricity) recovery. PMID:26496083

  12. Establishment of reference intervals for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in dogs including an assessment of the effects of sex and anticoagulant use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Eralp, Oya; Moritz, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF)- and kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) have been performed in a small number of healthy dogs, but reference intervals have not been assessed in a larger number of dogs. The goal of the current study was to establish reference intervals and assess intra-assay repeatability for kaolin-activated TEG in dogs. Additionally, the impact of sex and the influence of anticoagulant (native blood vs. recalcified citrate anticoagulated blood) were evaluated. Thromboelastography analyses were performed in 56 healthy dogs including German Shepherd Dogs (n = 19), Beagles (n = 15), and others (n = 22). Median age was 2 years (range: 1-6 years) and sex was evenly distributed (31 males and 25 females). To establish reference intervals, citrated whole-blood samples were collected, and TEG was performed 1 hr after sampling. Five TEG variables (R = reaction time; K = clot formation time; alpha = angle alpha; MA = maximal amplitude; G-value reflecting clot stability) were evaluated, and reference intervals were defined as the mean +/- 1.96-fold standard deviation. Intra-assay repeatability was assessed by calculating the pooled variance estimate in duplicate measurements of 6 healthy dogs. The effect of anticoagulant was assessed in 17 specimens. Reference intervals were as follows: R = 1.8-8.6 min; angle alpha = 36.9-74.6 degrees; K = 1.3-5.7 min; MA = 42.9-67.9 mm, and G = 3.2-9.6 Kdyn/cm(2). Coefficients of variation for R, K, angle alpha, MA, and G were 7.6%, 17.7%, 7.4%, 2.9%, and 6.6%, respectively. There was no significant impact of sex or anticoagulant on results. Interindividual variation was higher in native samples than in citrated whole blood. A limitation of the current study was that most of the samples were obtained from Beagles and German Shepherd Dogs. This study provides useful reference intervals for kaolin-activated TEG.

  13. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Luscomb, D.A.

    1984-05-22

    A fuel injection pump including a plunger and a piston movably disposed in a pumping chamber, means for initiating fuel injection and means for terminating fuel injection, the plunger periodically pressurizing fuel in a pressure chamber and the piston spaced from the plunger and allowing a metering chamber to fill with a metered quantity of fuel to be injected to an engine. The means for initiating injection comprises a pilot valve having a solenoid to selectively operate between either of two states and a control valve movable between first and second positions in response to the state of pilot valve, the first position filling the metering chamber with the metered quantity of fuel. The pilot valve determines the fuel quantity to be delivered to the engine relative to a signal from an electronic controller. An accumulator is pressurized during each cycle of the plunger to provide pressurized fuel during a metering phase. A variable orifice adjusts the rate of flow during the time fuel is being metered to metering chamber.

  14. Particle fuel diversion structure

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, R. D.

    1985-07-30

    A particle fuel burning furnace has an upper combustion chamber for holding a pile of particle fuel and burning the same from the bottom thereof. The furnace also includes a lower combustion chamber for after-burning combustible gases given off by the burning of solid fuel in the upper chamber and a series of spaced apart vertically-extending passageways arranged in a row and interconnecting the upper and lower chambers for communicating the combustible gases from the upper to the lower chamber. A first improved feature relates to a particle fuel delivery control device which operates an auger for filling the upper chamber with particle fuel to a desired level. A beam of light is transmitted and reflected between a photoelectric cell and reflector respectively of the device. When the particle fuel pile has grown in height during filling to the desired level the light beam is interrupted and filling is terminated. A second improved feature relates to a particle fuel diversion structure positioned in spaced relationship above and overlying the row of passageways. The structure forms a horizontal slot which extends laterally from the passageways which prevents particles of fuel from falling through the passageways and relocates the flame which burns the particle fuel pile from the bottom to a region away from the passageways.

  15. Variable volume combustor with aerodynamic fuel flanges for nozzle mounting

    DOEpatents

    McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-20

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a number of support struts supporting the fuel nozzles and for providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The fuel injection system also may include a number of aerodynamic fuel flanges connecting the micro-mixer fuel nozzles and the support struts.

  16. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  17. Materials and Fuels Complex Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory is home to several facilities used for the research and development of nuclear fuels. Stops include the Fuel Conditioning Facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (post-irradiation examination), and the Space and Security Power System Facility, where radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are assembled for deep space missions. You can learn more about INL research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Materials and Fuels Complex Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory is home to several facilities used for the research and development of nuclear fuels. Stops include the Fuel Conditioning Facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (post-irradiation examination), and the Space and Security Power System Facility, where radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are assembled for deep space missions. You can learn more about INL research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  19. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  20. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2016-07-12

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous