Science.gov

Sample records for activities included studies

  1. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  2. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  3. Antiradical activity of gallic acid included in lipid interphases.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, C L; Frías, M A; Cutro, A C; Nazareno, M A; Disalvo, E A

    2014-10-01

    Polyphenols are well known as antioxidant agents and by their effects on the hydration layers of lipid interphases. Among them, gallic acid and its derivatives are able to decrease the dipole potential and to act in water as a strong antioxidant. In this work we have studied both effects on lipid interphases in monolayers and bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. The results show that gallic acid (GA) increases the negative surface charges of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and decreases the dipole potential of the lipid interphase. As a result, positively charged radical species such as ABTS(+) are able to penetrate the membrane forming an association with GA. These results allow discussing the antiradical activity (ARA) of GA at the membrane phase which may be taking place in water spaces between the lipids.

  4. Adapting a Social Studies Lesson to Include English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…

  5. Optimal design of active and semi-active suspensions including time delays and preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hac', A.; Youn, I.

    1993-10-01

    Several control laws for active and semi-active suspension based on a linear half car model are derived and investigated. The strategies proposed take full advantage of the fact that the road input to the rear wheels is a delayed version of that to the front wheels, which in turn can be obtained either from the measurements of the front wheels and body motions or by direct preview of road irregularities if preview sensors are available. The suspension systems are optimized with respect to ride comfort, road holding and suspension rattle space as expressed by the mean-square-values of body acceleration (including effects of heave and pitch), tire deflections and front and rear suspension travels. The optimal control laws that minimize the given performance index and include passivity constraints in the semi-active case are derived using calculus of variation. The optimal semi-active suspension becomes piecewise linear, varying between passive and fully active systems and combinations of them. The performances of active and semi-active systems with and without preview were evaluated by numerical simulation in the time and frequency domains. The results show that incorporation of time delay between the front and rear axles in controller design improves the dynamic behavior of the rear axle and control of body pitch motion, while additional preview improves front wheel dynamics and body heave.

  6. Studies on ribosomal RNA genes of mycobacteria including M. leprae.

    PubMed

    Katoch, V M; Shivannavar, C T; Datta, A K

    1989-01-01

    Information about specific genes specially of pathogenic mycobacteria could be used to unequivocally identify isolates of mycobacteria which are of clinical interest. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have been shown to comprise sequences which are conserved and others which are divergent. In the present study, rRNA genes from several cultivable mycobacteria including M. tuberculosis and armadillo derived M. leprae have been investigated. rRNA was isolated, made radioactive in vitro and then used to identify restriction fragments of DNA containing rRNA gene sequences. It was observed that restriction endonuclease patterns of rRNA genes are characteristic. By probing with homologous and heterologous rRNA probes, fragments hybridizing maximum with homologous probes could be identified and it appears that sequences flanking the rRNA genes are not identical. These fragments need to be further sequenced to identify the nucleotide sequences specific to rRNA gene cluster. It would also be necessary to analyse several isolates of each species including armadillo derived M. leprae before reaching any conclusions.

  7. Peace psychology should include the study of peaceful individuals.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Linden L

    2014-09-01

    The selection of topics for the special issue on peace psychology (October 2013) probably gave readers the impression that peace psychology should be defined as the study of conflict and peace at intergroup, societal, and global levels.

  8. Lunar surface cosmic ray experiment. [including solar flare studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    The galactic cosmic ray and solar flare experiment on Apollo 16 is reported. The published papers presented describe the experiment, equipment, data processing techniques, and operational history. The principle findings include: (1) The composition of heavy ions in interplanetary space at energies between approximately 30 and 130 MeV/nucleon is the same, within experimental errors. (2) The ability of a Lexan stack to determine simultaneously the energy spectra of major elements from He up to Fe in the energy interval 0.2 to 30 MeV/nucleon revealed systematic changes in the composition of solar flare particles as a function of energy. (3) Heavy ions emitted in a solar flare appear to be completely stripped of electrons, and are not in charge equilibrium at the time of acceleration and releases from the sun.

  9. Theoretical study and prediction of BVI noise including close interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Pierre; Rahier, Gilles

    1991-05-01

    The following study deals with the highly impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise which is generated by helicopter main rotors in descent flight. Two computer codes have been especially designed to predict it at reduced computing costs, starting from given vortices. The aerodynamic code, called MAIR, predicts the unsteady airloads, even for head-on collisions, by using a singularity method and modeling the vortices as cloud vortices with viscous cores. The acoustic code, called PARIS, computes the resulting radiated loading noise and is based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. These two codes are ready to perform noise prediction in the flight cases but the vortex prediction required for input data still needs to be improved. While waiting for better wake data, the two codes have been used for a theoretical parametric study of arbitrary single blade-vortex interactions. This study gives a physical insight of the phenomenon and its predicted tendencies could help designing quieter blades.

  10. Including Students with Disabilities in UAE Schools: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anati, Nisreen M.; Ain, Al

    2012-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates is devoted to inclusive education, which respects the right for all learners, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area, to become part of the mainstream school. This study describes the current practices that shape the nature of inclusive education in UAE schools from the teachers' perspective. Data drawn…

  11. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  12. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  13. Enzymatically active 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are widely distributed among Metazoa, including protostome lineage.

    PubMed

    Päri, Mailis; Kuusksalu, Anne; Lopp, Annika; Kjaer, Karina Hansen; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2014-02-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) belong to the nucleotidyl transferase family together with poly(A) polymerases, CCA-adding enzymes and the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Mammalian OASs have been thoroughly characterized as components of the interferon-induced antiviral system. The OAS activity and the respective genes were also discovered in marine sponges where the interferon system is absent. In this study the recombinant OASs from several multicellular animals and their closest unicellular relative, a choanoflagellate, were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their enzymatic activities were examined. We demonstrated 2-5A synthesizing activities of OASs from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, a representative of the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum (Porifera), from an invertebrate of the protostome lineage, the mollusk Mytilus californianus (Mollusca), and from a vertebrate species, a cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea (Chordata). However, the expressed proteins from an amphibian, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (Chordata), and from a protozoan, the marine choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (Choanozoa), did not show 2-5A synthesizing activity. Differently from other studied OASs, OAS from the marine sponge T. ignis was able to catalyze the formation of oligomers having both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. Our data suggest that OASs from sponges and evolutionarily higher animals have similar activation mechanisms which still include different affinities and possibly different structural requirements for the activating RNAs. Considering their 2'- and 3'-specificities, sponge OASs could represent a link between evolutionarily earlier nucleotidyl transferases and 2'-specific OASs from higher animals.

  14. Enzymatically active 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are widely distributed among Metazoa, including protostome lineage.

    PubMed

    Päri, Mailis; Kuusksalu, Anne; Lopp, Annika; Kjaer, Karina Hansen; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2014-02-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) belong to the nucleotidyl transferase family together with poly(A) polymerases, CCA-adding enzymes and the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Mammalian OASs have been thoroughly characterized as components of the interferon-induced antiviral system. The OAS activity and the respective genes were also discovered in marine sponges where the interferon system is absent. In this study the recombinant OASs from several multicellular animals and their closest unicellular relative, a choanoflagellate, were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their enzymatic activities were examined. We demonstrated 2-5A synthesizing activities of OASs from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, a representative of the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum (Porifera), from an invertebrate of the protostome lineage, the mollusk Mytilus californianus (Mollusca), and from a vertebrate species, a cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea (Chordata). However, the expressed proteins from an amphibian, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (Chordata), and from a protozoan, the marine choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (Choanozoa), did not show 2-5A synthesizing activity. Differently from other studied OASs, OAS from the marine sponge T. ignis was able to catalyze the formation of oligomers having both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. Our data suggest that OASs from sponges and evolutionarily higher animals have similar activation mechanisms which still include different affinities and possibly different structural requirements for the activating RNAs. Considering their 2'- and 3'-specificities, sponge OASs could represent a link between evolutionarily earlier nucleotidyl transferases and 2'-specific OASs from higher animals. PMID:24184688

  15. Stability and activity of alcohol dehydrogenases in W/O-microemulsions: enantioselective reduction including cofactor regeneration.

    PubMed

    Orlich, B; Berger, H; Lade, M; Schomäcker, R

    2000-12-20

    Microemulsions provide an interesting alternative to classical methods for the conversion of less water-soluble substrates by alcohol dehydrogenase, but until now stability and activity were too low for economically useful processes. The activity and stability of the enzymes are dependent on the microemulsion composition, mostly the water and the surfactant concentration. Therefore, it is necessary to know the exact phase behavior of a given microemulsion reaction system and the corresponding enzyme behavior therein. Because of their economic and ecologic suitability polyethoxylated fatty alcohols were investigated concerning their phase behavior and their compatibility with enzymes in ternary mixtures. The phase behavior of Marlipal O13-60 (C13EO6 in industrial quality)/cyclohexane/water and its effect on the activity and stability of alcohol dehydrogenase from Yeast (YADH) and horse liver (HLADH) and the carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR) is presented in this study. Beside the macroscopic phase behavior of the reaction system, the viscosity of the system indicates structural changes of aggregates in the microemulsion. The changes of the enzyme activities with the composition are discussed on the basis of transitions from reverse micelles to swollen reverse micelles and finally, the transition to the phase separation. The formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii was used for the NADH-regeneration during reduction reactions. While the formate dehydrogenase did not show any kinetic effect on the microemulsion composition, the other enzymes show significant changes of activity and stability varying the water or surfactant concentration of the microemulsion. Under certain conditions, stability could be maintained with HLADH for several weeks. Successful experiments with semi-batch processes including cofactor regeneration and product separation were performed.

  16. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  17. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  18. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in the Homeland Security Acquisition Regulation, DHS FORM 0700-01, DHS FORM 0700-02, DHS FORM 0700-03...: The Department of Homeland Security, Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition Policy...

  19. Including the Study about Religions in the Social Studies Curriculum: A Position Statement and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilzer, Robert J., Jr.

    Based on a National Council for the Social Studies position statement on the essentials of social studies, a rationale for teaching about religions in the social studies is presented. The author's rationale includes the following points: (1) that knowledge about religion is not only characteristic of an educated person but also necessary for…

  20. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  1. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  2. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Constantinidou, H A; Barchet, W R; Upper, C D

    1982-11-01

    Vertical wind shear and concentration gradients of viable, airborne bacteria were used to calculate the upward flux of viable cells above bare soil and canopies of several crops. Concentrations at soil or canopy height varied from 46 colony-forming units per m over young corn and wet soil to 663 colony-forming units per m over dry soil and 6,500 colony-forming units per m over a closed wheat canopy. In simultaneous samples, concentrations of viable bacteria in the air 10 m inside an alfalfa field were fourfold higher than those over a field with dry, bare soil immediately upwind. The upward flux of viable bacteria over alfalfa was three- to fourfold greater than over dry soil. Concentrations of ice nucleation-active bacteria were higher over plants than over soil. Thus, plant canopies may constitute a major source of bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria, in the air.

  3. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  4. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  5. In vitro bactericidal activity of aminoglycosides, including the next-generation drug plazomicin, against Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven C; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with a potentially unique set of clinical characteristics compared with other aminoglycosides. This study assessed the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of plazomicin against 15 clinical isolates as well as three reference strains representing Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis. These data were compared with those obtained for six other aminoglycosides and two aminocyclitols. Plazomicin and gentamicin were the only drugs demonstrating bactericidal activity towards two of the three Brucella spp., whilst plazomicin was the only drug exhibiting bactericidal activity against B. suis. This is the first study to assess the bactericidal nature of plazomicin against Brucella spp. in vitro. PMID:25459738

  6. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  7. The EMT-activator ZEB1 induces bone metastasis associated genes including BMP-inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Kerstin; Preca, Bogdan-Tiberius; Brummer, Tilman; Brabletz, Simone; Stemmler, Marc P.; Brabletz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cell invasion, dissemination and metastasis is triggered by an aberrant activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), often mediated by the transcription factor ZEB1. Disseminating tumor cells must acquire specific features that allow them to colonize at different organ sites. Here we identify a set of genes that is highly expressed in breast cancer bone metastasis and activated by ZEB1. This gene set includes various secreted factors, e.g. the BMP-inhibitor FST, that are described to reorganize the bone microenvironment. By inactivating BMP-signaling, BMP-inhibitors are well-known to induce osteolysis in development and disease. We here demonstrate that the expression of ZEB1 and BMP-inhibitors is correlated with bone metastasis, but not with brain or lung metastasis of breast cancer patients. In addition, we show that this correlated expression pattern is causally linked, as ZEB1 induces the expression of the BMP-inhibitors NOG, FST and CHRDL1 both by directly increasing their gene transcription, as well as by indirectly suppressing their reduction via miR-200 family members. Consequently, ZEB1 stimulates BMP-inhibitor mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings suggest that ZEB1 is not only driving EMT, but also contributes to the formation of osteolytic bone metastases in breast cancer. PMID:25973542

  8. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  9. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  10. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies in presumed Alzheimer cases, including 13 serial scans.

    PubMed

    McGeer, E G; Peppard, R P; McGeer, P L; Tuokko, H; Crockett, D; Parks, R; Akiyama, H; Calne, D B; Beattie, B L; Harrop, R

    1990-02-01

    Positron emission tomographic (PET) data on local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (LCMR) are reported for 32 regions of interest (ROI)s in cross-sectional studies on 57 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 neurologically normal controls, and in serial studies on 13 of the AD cases, including a familial, young-onset case where the diagnosis has been confirmed at autopsy. Extensive psychological testing was done on all the AD cases. Almost all cortical regions showed a significant decline in LCMR with age in the control subjects. There were the expected cortical metabolic deficits in AD and the serial studies showed a general increase in such deficits over time in 12 of the 13 cases. The regions showing the greatest declines with time in serial studies are the same as those showing the most severe deficiencies in cross-sectional studies. The young-onset case did not show a greater rate of metabolic decline than many of the older cases studied. Results on individual psychological tests tended to correlate with metabolic rates in multiple, rather than single, cortical regions, suggesting intact neuronal networks are required for good performance. The correlations with cortical metabolic activity found were of a sign indicating that the higher the metabolic rates and the better the left:right asymmetry index, the better was the performance.

  11. Backpocket: Activities for Nature Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Ian; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Leading naturalist-teachers share outdoor learning activities and techniques, including using binoculars as magnifiers, scavenger hunts, games such as "what's it called" and "I spy," insect study, guessing the age of trees by examining the bark, leading bird walks, exploring nature in the community, and enhancing nature hikes with props. (LP)

  12. Active control of environmental noise, VIII: increasing the response to primary source changes including unpredictable noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. E.; Atmoko, H.; Vuksanovic, B.

    2004-07-01

    Conventional adaptive cancellation systems using traditional transverse finite impulse response (FIR) filters, together with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithms, well known in active noise control, are slow to adapt to primary source changes. This makes them inappropriate for cancelling rapidly changing noise, including unpredictable noise such as speech and music. Secondly, the cancelling structures require considerable computational processing effort to adapt to primary source and plant changes, particularly for multi-channel systems. This paper describes methods to increase the adaptive speed to primary source changes in large enclosed spaces and outdoor environments. A method is described that increases the response to time varying periodic noise using traditional transverse FIR filters. Here a multi-passband filter, with individual variable adaptive step sizes for each passband is automatically adjusted according to the signal level in each band. This creates a similar adaptive response for all frequencies within the total pass-band, irrespective of amplitude, minimizing the signal distortion and increasing the combined adaptive speed. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the adaptive speed using the above method as classical transverse FIR filters have a finite adaptive speed given by the stability band zero bandwidth. For rapidly changing periodic noise and unpredictable non-stationary noise, a rapid to instantaneous response is required. In this case the on-line adaptive FIR filters are dispensed with and replaced by a time domain solution that gives virtually instantaneous cancellation response (infinite adaptive speed) to primary source changes, and is computationally efficient.

  13. Development of an oregano-based ointment with anti-microbial activity including activity against methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Eng, William; Norman, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance has prompted a search for new compounds with anti-microbial activity. In the authors' previous study, oregano extract was identified as one of the most potent anti-microbial compounds. The disk diffusion method was employed to assess the degree of inhibition against various microorganisms, and the bacteriostatic or bactericidal mechanism of action. Disk diffusion studies showed that oregano was found to be bacteriostatic for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, (MRSA) but bacteriocidal for seven other microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa could not be inhibited by oregano. An ointment consisting of 1-10% oregano could inhibit most organisms except for Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris, which required 20% and Pseudomonas which could not be inhibited even at the highest concentration of 80%. Oregano extracts can be formulated into an ointment that shows broad antimicrobial activity. Additional testing to assess tissue toxicity and other adverse reactions would be needed prior to human testing.

  14. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-12-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl₂ treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  15. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  16. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  17. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  18. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  19. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  20. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  1. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  2. Molecular Beam and Surface Science Studies of Heterogeneous Reaction Kinetics Including Combustion Dynamics. Final Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sibener, S. J.

    2006-06-23

    This research program examined the heterogeneous reaction kinetics and reaction dynamics of surface chemical processes which are of direct relevance to efficient energy production, condensed phase reactions, and mateials growth including nanoscience objectives. We have had several notable scientific and technical successes. Illustrative highlights include: (1) a thorough study of how one can efficiently produce synthesis gas (SynGas) at relatively low Rh(111) catalyst temperatures via the reaction CH{sub4}+1/2 O{sub2} {r_arrow} CO+2H{sub2}. In these studies methane activation is accomplished utilizing high-kinetic energy reagents generated via supersonic molecular beams, (2) experiments which have incisively probed the partial oxidation chemistry of adsorbed 1- and 2- butene on Rh and ice, as well as partial oxidation of propene on Au; (3) investigation of structural changes which occur to the reconstructed (23x{radical}3)-Au(111) surface upon exposure to atomic oxygen, (4) a combined experimental and theoretical examination of the fundamental atomic-level rules which govern defect minimization during the formation of self-organizing stepped nanostructures, (5) the use of these relatively defect-free nanotemplates for growing silicon nanowires having atomically-dimensioned widths, (6) a combined scanning probe and atomic beam scattering study of how the presence of self-assembling organic overlayers interact with metallic supports substrates - this work hs led to revision of the currently held view of how such adsorbates reconfigure surface structure at the atomic level, (7) an inelastic He atom scattering study in which we examined the effect of chain length on the low-energy vibrations of alkanethiol striped phase self-assembled monolayers on Au(111), yielding information on the forces that govern interfacial self-assembly, (8) a study of the vibrational properties of disordered films of SF{sub6} adsorbed on Au(111), and (9) a study of the activated chemistry and

  3. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 6--Social Studies Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Based on the environment and directed at elementary and intermediate level students, 5 field trips are a significant part of the 12 social studies activities in the sixth booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center outlining environmental and outdoor education activities. Most of the activities include objectives, activity description,…

  4. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  5. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  6. A study on Effective Thermal Conductivity of Packed Bed of Adsorbent Including Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, Yoshio; Ohta, Ryuma; Takegoshi, Eisyun

    In the present study, an effective thermal conductivity of the packed bed of an adsorbent including water was measured experimentally by using the transient hot wire method in temperature range from about -40°C to room temperature. Zeolite particle and activated carbon particle were employed as the adsorbent. The water included in the adsorbent was classified to three kinds; namely, the adsorbed water in the adsorption site with a nanometer order in particle, the osmosis water existing in gap with lager size than the adsorption site and the free water around particle. The measurement was performed with changing the mass ratio of adsorbed water and osmosis water and was also performed for the particle filled by the free water. As the results, the effective thermal conductivity of the packed bed increased with the increase of temperature except the case containing free water. In zeolite, the effective thermal conductivity of the packed bed of particles with adsorbed water became bigger than that of the desorbed particle about 10% though the adsorbed water was trapped in the adsorption site as a single molecular in zeolite particle. In activated carbon, the effective thermal conductivity was larger than that of desorbed particle about 20%. Next, in the packed bed of particle with the osmosis water, the effective thermal conductivity indicated about two times of that of particle with the adsorbed water. In the packed bed of particle filled by free water, the effective thermal conductivity increased suddenly under 0°C. It is considered that the thermal conductivity of ice affected seriously to the effective thermal conductivity because ice was the continuous phase in the bed.

  7. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  8. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  9. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values. PMID:23082579

  10. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  11. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  12. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  13. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  14. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  15. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  16. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  17. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  18. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  19. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  20. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  1. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  2. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... relations purposes, including E-commerce (mail ordering through the Internet): Provided, That Credit-Back...-Back is requested. (e) The following requirements shall apply to Credit-Back for all promotional... and Canada, paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall also apply. (2) The clear and evident purpose...

  3. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  4. Phytophthora infestans Has a Plethora of Phospholipase D Enzymes Including a Subclass That Has Extracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  5. Phytophthora infestans has a plethora of phospholipase D enzymes including a subclass that has extracellular activity.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Harold J G; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  6. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  7. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  8. A Systematic Examination of School Improvement Activities That Include Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchnowski, A.J.; Kutash, K.; Oliveira, B.

    2004-01-01

    Methodological and practical challenges present formidable barriers to conducting empirical evaluations of school reform initiatives. Systematic information about school reform and improvement, and its relationship to special education, is even more difficult to obtain. In this study, the authors developed a reliable and valid method to (a)…

  9. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  10. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  11. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  12. Modeling the development of biofilm density including active bacteria, inert biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Laspidou, Chrysi S; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    We present the unified multi-component cellular automaton (UMCCA) model, which predicts quantitatively the development of the biofilm's composite density for three biofilm components: active bacteria, inert or dead biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. The model also describes the concentrations of three soluble organic components (soluble substrate and two types of soluble microbial products) and oxygen. The UMCCA model is a hybrid discrete-differential mathematical model and introduces the novel feature of biofilm consolidation. Our hypothesis is that the fluid over the biofilm creates pressures and vibrations that cause the biofilm to consolidate, or pack itself to a higher density over time. Each biofilm compartment in the model output consolidates to a different degree that depends on the age of its biomass. The UMCCA model also adds a cellular automaton algorithm that identifies the path of least resistance and directly moves excess biomass along that path, thereby ensuring that the excess biomass is distributed efficiently. A companion paper illustrates the trends that the UMCCA model is able to represent and shows a comparison with experimental results. PMID:15276752

  13. The "Including Studies of Asia in Curriculum" Professional Development Program: Who's Doing It and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevaskis, Doug

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general overview of the cohort of teachers who undertook a major professional development program Including Studies of Asia in Curriculum in South Australia in 2000. As the program was the principal vehicle for introducing South Australian teachers to Studies of Asia, ensuring its ongoing relevance was critical. The…

  14. Adult Education Literacy Instruction. Appendix: Tables of Studies Included in the Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Included here are two appendixes to "Adult Education Literacy Instruction: A Review of the Research." Appendix A, "Adult Studies," contains: (1) Assessment Profiles; (2) Alphabetics; (3) Fluency; (4) Vocabulary; and (5) Comprehension. Appendix B, "Adolescent Studies," contains: (1) Alphabetics; (2) Fluency; (3) Vocabulary; and (4) Comprehension.…

  15. Trouble in Paradise: A Study of Who Is Included in an Inclusion Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zindler, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: This study is based on prior research regarding the need for explicit social instruction for children with special needs, cooperative educational models, and the goals and relative successes of inclusive educational practices. The author refers to several studies on these subjects, including those by Kavale and Forness; Salend;…

  16. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  17. Radio Properties of Low Redshift Broad Line Active Galactic Nuclei Including Multiple Component Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafter, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the radio properties of a low redshift (z < 0.35) sample of 8434 broad line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey after correlating the optical sources with radio sources in the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters survey. We find that 10% of our sample has radio emission < 4" away from the optical counterpart (core-only sources), and 1% has significant extended emission that must be taken into account when calculating the total radio luminosity (multi-component sources). Association of the extended radio emission is established by the proximity to the optical source, physical connection of jets and lobes, or large scale symmetry like in classic FRIIs. From these data we find an FRI/FRII luminosity dividing line like that found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974), where we use our core-only sources as proxies for FRIs, and our multi-component sources for the FRIIs. We find a bimodal distribution for the radio loudness (R = L(radio)/L(opt)) where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the multi-component extended sources, compared with no evidence for bimodality when just the core-only sources are used. We also find that a log(R) value of 1.75 is well suited to separate the FRIs from the FRIIs, and that the R bimodality seen here is really a manifestation of the FRI/FRII break originally found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974). We find modest trends in the radio loud fraction as a function of Eddington ratio and black hole mass, where the fraction of RL AGNs decreases with increasing Eddington ratio, and increases when the black hole mass is above 2 x 108 solar masses.

  18. Updating RIGs: Including the Systematic Influence of Online Study on Student Evaluation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart; Smith, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Based on student evaluation of teaching (SET) ratings from 1,432 units of study over a period of a year, representing 74,490 individual sets of ratings, and including a significant number of units offered in wholly online mode, we confirm the significant influence of class size, year level, and discipline area on at least some SET ratings. We also…

  19. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    PubMed

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind.

  20. Validation of a high throughput flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay including assessment of metabolic activation in TK6 cells.

    PubMed

    Thougaard, Annemette V; Christiansen, Joan; Mow, Tomas; Hornberg, Jorrit J

    2014-12-01

    Genotoxicity is an unacceptable property for new drug candidates and we employ three screening assays during the drug discovery process to identify genotoxicity early and optimize chemical series. One of these methods is the flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay for which protocol optimizations have been described recently. Here, we report further validation of the assay in TK6 cells including assessment of metabolic activation. We first optimized assay conditions to allow for testing with and without metabolic activation in parallel in a 96-well plate format. Then, we tested a set of 48 compounds carefully selected to contain known in vivo genotoxins, nongenotoxins and drugs. Avoidance of irrelevant positives, a known issue with mammalian cell-based genotoxicity assays, is important to prevent early deselection of potentially promising compounds. Therefore, we enriched the validation set with compounds that were previously reported to produce irrelevant positive results in mammalian cell-based genotoxicity assays. The resulting dataset was used to set the relevant cut-off values for scoring a compound positive or negative, such that we obtained an optimal balance of high sensitivity (88%) and high specificity (87%). Finally, we tested an additional set of 16 drugs to further probe assay performance and 14 of them were classified correctly. To our knowledge, the present study is the most comprehensive validation of the in vitro flow cytometric micronucleus assay and the first to report parallel assessment with metabolic activation in reasonable throughput. The assay allows for rapidly screening novel compounds for genotoxicity and is therefore well-suited for use in early drug discovery projects. Environ.

  1. Optical Studies of Active Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    1998-01-01

    This grant was to support optical studies of comets close enough to the sun to be outgassing. The main focus of the observations was drawn to the two extraordinarily bright comets Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp, but other active comets were also studied in detail during the period of funding. Major findings (all fully published) under this grant include: (1) Combined optical and submillimeter observations of the comet/Centaur P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 were used to study the nature of mass loss from this object. The submillimeter observations show directly that the optically prominent dust coma is ejected by the sublimation of carbon monoxide. Simultaneous optical-submillimeter observations allowed us to test earlier determinations of the dust mass loss rate. (2) We modelled the rotation of cometary nuclei using time-resolved images of dust jets as the primary constraint. (3) We obtained broad-band optical images of several comets for which we subsequently attempted submillimeter observations, in order to test and update the cometary ephemerides. (4) Broad-band continuum images of a set of weakly active comets and, apparently, inactive asteroids were obtained in BVRI using the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. These images were taken in support of a program to test the paradigm that many near-Earth asteroids might be dead or dormant comets. We measured coma vs. nucleus colors in active comets (finding that coma particle scattering is different from, and cannot be simply related to, nucleus color). We obtained spectroscopic observations of weakly active comets and other small bodies using the HIRES spectrograph on the Keck 10-m telescope. These observation place sensitive limits to outgassing from these bodies, aided by the high (40,000) spectral resolution of HIRES.

  2. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  3. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  4. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  5. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  6. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  7. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  8. A lipid chemotactic factor from anaerobic coryneform bacteria including Corynebacterium parvum with activity for macrophages and monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R J; McInroy, R J; Wilkinson, P C; White, R G

    1976-01-01

    A lipid with chemoattractant (chemotactic) activity for mouse and guinea-pig macrophages and for human blood monocytes is released by anaerobic coryneform bacteria (including Corynebacterium parvum). The active lipid is associated with fibrillar structures which lie on the outside of the bacterial cell and are released spontaneously during growth. The lipid can also be extracted easily by a number of methods. The fibrils are loosely associated with a capsule-like structure composed largely of polysaccharide. Purification of the active lipid was achieved by chloroform-methanol extraction of the whole organisms yielding a chloroform-soluble fraction attracting mononuclear phagocytes at concentrations around 10 microgram/ml. The infra-red spectrum of this material showed lipid but no peptide or sugar. Thin-layer chromatography yielded twelve spots of which three had chemoattractant properties. The most active of these gave staining reactions consistent with the presence of phospholipid, the other two probably contained free fatty acids and triglycerides. Thin-layer electrophoresis also yielded an active phosphorus-containing spot. Saturated fatty acids of chain lengths found in the anaerobic coryne forms had weak monocyte-attractant activity. As the active material was progressively purified, its activity as a monocyte attractant weakened. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1027716

  9. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides.

  10. Statistical issues including design and sample size calculation in thorough QT/QTc studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joanne; Machado, Stella G

    2008-01-01

    After several drugs were removed from the market in recent years because of death due to ventricular tachycardia resulting from drug-induced QT prolongation (Khongphatthanayothin et al., 1998; Lasser et al., 2002; Pratt et al., 1994; Wysowski et al., 2001), the ICH Regulatory agencies requested all sponsors of new drugs to conduct a clinical study, named a Thorough QT/QTc (TQT) study, to assess any possible QT prolongation due to the study drug. The final version of the ICH E14 guidance (ICH, 2005) for "The Clinical Evaluation of QT/QTc Interval Prolongation and Proarrhythmic Potential for Nonantiarrhythmic Drugs" was released in May 2005. The purpose of the ICH E14 guidance (ICH, 2005) is to provide recommendations to sponsors concerning the design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation of clinical studies to assess the potential of a drug to delay cardiac repolarization. The guideline, however, is not specific on several issues. In this paper, we try to address some statistical issues, including study design, primary statistical analysis, assay sensitivity analysis, and the calculation of the sample size for a TQT study.

  11. [Evaluation of an obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and physical activity applied in public schools of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Concha, Fernando; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Lobos, Luz; Bustos, Nelly; Vio, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and physical activity applied to low income Chilean children in a longitudinal three-year follow-up study. Participants included all 4-7 year old children from 7 public schools located in a low socioeconomic district of Santiago. The main aspects of the intervention were: training of teachers so they could apply an educational program on healthy eating, increase in physical education classes from 3 to 4 per week, and improvement of their quality. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) were assessed yearly in 597 children. We calculated BMI, BMI Z, % normal (N), overweight (OW) and obesity (OB), WC > 90th percentile (NHANES III) and fitness (6MWD/height). Annual changes in BMI Z, WC, 6MWD and fitness were assessed, using repeated measures ANOVA and the test of proportions. Knowledge in healthy eating was assessed during 2 of the 3 years. Results showed that % OB remained unchanged for 2 years (17%) but increased to 19.3% at follow-up. BMI Z increased from 0.3 to 0.38 (p = 0.052) in the N, remained unchanged in the OW, while decreasing significantly in the OB (2.73 to 2.41 p < 0.0001). % WC > 90 th percentile decreased in the OW and OB; 6 MWD was higher in the OW, but the increase in distance overtime was greater among the N. Overall fitness improved, however it was only significant among the N (p = 0.0002). There was a significant increase in food knowledge. We conclude that in spite of a decrease in BMI Z of the OB, an improvement in fitness in the N and food knowledge in all the children, obesity increased at follow-up. This study shows that in school-based obesity programs it is necessary to apply more intense interventions with another type of methodology; otherwise this condition will continue to rise.

  12. Improved technique for studying ion channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, including fast superfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, A C; Patrick, J W; Dani, J A

    1994-01-01

    The study of whole-cell currents from ion channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes with conventional two-electrode voltage clamp has two major limitations. First, the large diameter and spherical geometry of oocytes prevent extremely fast solution changes. Second, the internal medium is not controlled, which limits the experimental versatility of the oocyte expression system. For example, because the internal medium is not controlled, endogenous calcium-activated chloride conductances can contaminate currents measured with channels that are permeable to calcium. We describe a new technique that combines vaseline-gap voltage clamp for oocytes with a fast superfusion system. The vaseline-gap procedure is simplified by having the micropipette that monitors voltage serve a dual role as a perfusion micropipette that controls the internal solution. In addition, the technique provides fast external solution changes that are complete in 30-50 ms. We applied the approach to measure the calcium permeability of a muscle and a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Very fast agonist induced currents were measured without contamination by the secondary activation of calcium-dependent chloride channels. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:7522597

  13. Including stratigraphic hierarchy information in geostatistical simulation: a demonstration study on analogs of alluvial sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comunian, Alessandro; Felletti, Fabrizio; Giacobbo, Francesca; Giudici, Mauro; Bersezio, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    When building a geostatistical model of the hydrofacies distribution in a volume block it is important to include all the relevant available information. Localised information about the observed hydrofacies (hard data) are routinely included in the simulation procedures. Non stationarities in the hydrofacies distribution can be handled by considering auxiliary (soft) data extracted, for example, from the results of geophysical surveys. This piece of information can be included as auxiliary data both in variogram based methods (i.e. co-Kriging) and in multiple-point statistics (MPS) methods. The latter methods allow to formalise some soft knowledge about the considered model of heterogeneity using a training image. However, including information related to the stratigraphic hierarchy in the training image is rarely straightforward. In this work, a methodology to include the information about the stratigraphic hierarchy in the simulation process is formalised and implemented in a MPS framework. The methodology is applied and tested by reconstructing two model blocks of alluvial sediments with an approximate volume of few cubic meters. The external faces of the blocks, exposed in a quarry, were thoroughly mapped and their stratigraphic hierarchy was interpreted in a previous study. The bi-dimensional (2D) maps extracted from the faces, which are used as training images and as hard data, present a vertical trend and complex stratigraphic architectures. The training images and the conditioning data are classified according to the proposed stratigraphic hierarchy, and the hydrofacies codes are grouped to allow a sequence of interleaved binary MPS simulation. Every step of the simulation sequence corresponds to a group of hydrofacies defined in the stratigraphic hierarchy. The blocks simulated with the proposed methodology are compared with blocks simulated with a standard MPS approach. The comparisons are performed on many realisations using connectivity indicators and

  14. Study of the dynamics of orbital assemblies including interactions with geometrical appendages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The complete equations for the Unified Flexible Spacecraft Simulation (UFSS) program developed for the NASA/MSFC are presented. This general purpose simulation program is based on an algorithm which utilizes the digital computer to synthesize the dynamic and kinematic equations for a topological tree configuration of N interconnected bodies (the interconnected system of bodies forms no closed loops), the terminal members of which may be flexible. Necessary input quantities to the dynamic subroutine include the mass and inertia properties of each body and the flexible characteristics of each terminal member in addition to the specification, for each body, of those bodies to which it connects. This latter description involves the specification of the number of rotational degrees of freedom at each interconnection along with the associated position vectors defining these connections relative to the mass centers of the bodies involved. These position vectors can be input as time-varying functions if desired, thus affording the capability of studying the effects of time-varying hinge locations. Springs and dampers are assumed to act at each interconnection and structural damping in the flexible terminal members is included in the form of equivalent viscous damping.

  15. Antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV includes both cytolytic and non-cytolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Chiara; Castilletti, Concetta; Cimini, Eleonora; Romanelli, Antonella; Lapa, Daniele; Quartu, Serena; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe central nervous system infection in humans, primarily in the elderly and immunocompromised subjects. Human γδ T-cells play a critical role in the immune response against viruses, and studies of WNV meningoencephalitis in laboratory mice described a role of γδ T-cells in the protective immune response. Aim of this study was to analyze the cytolytic and non-cytolytic antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV replication. The anti-WNV activity of soluble factor released by zoledronic acid (ZA)-activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and the cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 T-cell lines against WNV-infected cells were tested in vitro. The activation of Vδ2 T-cell lines was able to inhibit WNV replication through the release of soluble factors. IFN-γ is massively released by activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and is involved in the anti-WNV activity. Moreover, the Vδ2 T-cell lines can efficiently kill WNV-infected cells possibly through perforin-mediated mechanism. Altogether, our results provide insight into the effector functions of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV. The possibility to target these cells by ZA, a commercially available drug used in humans, could potentially offer a new immunotherapeutic strategy for WNV infection. PMID:27196553

  16. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of a Siderophore Cephalosporin, S-649266, against Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates, Including Carbapenem-Resistant Strains.

    PubMed

    Kohira, Naoki; West, Joshua; Ito, Akinobu; Ito-Horiyama, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Rio; Sato, Takafumi; Rittenhouse, Stephen; Tsuji, Masakatsu; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2015-11-16

    S-649266 is a novel siderophore cephalosporin antibiotic with a catechol moiety on the 3-position side chain. Two sets of clinical isolate collections were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of S-649266 against Enterobacteriaceae. These sets included 617 global isolates collected between 2009 and 2011 and 233 β-lactamase-identified isolates, including 47 KPC-, 49 NDM-, 12 VIM-, and 8 IMP-producers. The MIC90 values of S-649266 against the first set of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates were all ≤1 μg/ml, and there were only 8 isolates (1.3%) among these 617 clinical isolates with MIC values of ≥8 μg/ml. In the second set, the MIC values of S-649266 were ≤4 μg/ml against 109 strains among 116 KPC-producing and class B (metallo) carbapenemase-producing strains. In addition, S-649266 showed MIC values of ≤2 μg/ml against each of the 13 strains that produced other types of carbapenemases such as SME, NMC, and OXA-48. The mechanisms of the decreased susceptibility of 7 class B carbapenemase-producing strains with MIC values of ≥16 μg/ml are uncertain. This is the first report to demonstrate that S-649266, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, has significant antimicrobial activity against Enterobacteriaceae, including strains that produce carbapenemases such as KPC and NDM-1.

  17. Activity of eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, including multidrug-resistant isolates, from New York City.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David; Quale, John

    2015-03-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  18. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  19. Implementing School Policies That Include Sexual Orientation: A Case Study in School and Community Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    This paper highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in a Rocky Mountain state in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop…

  20. A study of interface crack branching in dissimilar anisotropic bimaterial composites including thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Renfu

    The interface crack branching phenomena, including thermal effects, has been investigated by using complex variable method and Stroh's dislocation theory, extended to thermo-elasticity in matrix notation. As one of the most catastrophic failure modes in structures like laminated and sandwich composites in aerospace and marine construction, thin film in electronic packaging, rotators in high speed engine of aircraft and reactor in nuclear power station, the study of interface crack branching has become a topic not only having theoretical importance, but also having practical significance. A unified approach is presented to address the thermoelastic interface crack problems in dissimilar anisotropic bimaterial composites, and a compact closed form solution is formulated by analytical continuation principle of complex analysis. Employing the contour integral method, an explicit solution to the interaction between the dislocations and the interface crack is obtained. By modeling the branched portion as a continuous distribution of the dislocations, the thermoelastic interface crack branching problem is then converted to a set of semi-coupled singular integral equations and solved by Gauss-Jacobi integration schemes. The influence of material property mismatches between the two constituents and the thermal loading effects on the interface crack branching are demonstrated by extensive numerical simulation. Some useful criteria for predicting the interface crack branching growth and guidance for optimal composites design are suggested. Further, a contact model to eliminate the overlapping between the two surfaces of an interface crack is also proposed and some new parameters which could influence the interpenetrating phenomena are also discovered. The technique to extend the current method to three dimensional problems is also outlined. Furthermore, the C++ source code has been implemented to manipulate the complicated complex operations for numerically solving the

  1. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin-orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm-1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ-, and their spin-orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  2. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin–orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin–orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm‑1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ‑, and their spin–orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  3. A study of wellbore stability in shales including poroelastic, chemical, and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guizhong

    Shale is always a troublesome rock during oil and gas drilling operations. Shale (in)stability has been of great concern in the oil industry for decades. It has also been a costly problem and has perplexed the industry for many years. A better understanding of the wellbore stability mechanism in shales is imperative. The object of this study is to develop a comprehensive model to deal with borehole instability problems in shales. Wellbore stability problems are caused by changes in near wellbore pore pressure and rock stresses. The excess of rock effective stresses over the rock strength can cause collapse (shear) or breakdown (tensile) failure of the drilled formation. This imbalance between the rock stress and rock strength always happens when the in-situ rock is drilled out and is replaced by the drilling fluid. Pore pressure alterations due to osmotic effects are a function of the water activity in the drilling fluid and the membrane efficiency of the shale. In this work, thermo-mechanical stresses coupled with the osmotic contributions are used to compute conditions under which the wellbore becomes unstable. The osmotic contribution is added to the hydraulic potential to form the net driving force of the fluid flow. Changes in pore pressure have been observed in shale experiments. An alteration of the shale strength was also observed when shales are exposed to different drilling fluids. It is necessary to consider shale strength alterations when inspecting the wellbore stability status and determining critical mud weights. Thermal diffusion inside the drilled formation induces additional pore pressure and rock stress changes and consequently affects shale stability. Thermal effects are important because thermal diffusion into shale formations occurs more quickly than hydraulic diffusion and thereby dominates during early times. Rock temperature and pore pressure can be partially decoupled for shale formations. The partially decoupled problem can be solved

  4. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  5. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baysson, Helene; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-07

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  6. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    This work presents the development and application of an active control approach for reduction of both vibration and noise induced by helicopter rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI). Control is implemented through single or dual actively controlled flaps (ACFs) on each blade. Low-speed helicopter flight is prone to severe BVI, resulting in elevated vibration and noise levels. Existing research has suggested that when some form of active control is used to reduce vibration, noise will increase and vice versa. The present research achieves simultaneous reduction of noise and vibration, and also investigates the physical sources of the observed reduction. The initial portion of this work focused on developing a tool for simulating helicopter noise and vibrations in the BVI flight regime. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades was developed and combined with an enhanced free-wake model and an acoustic prediction tool with provisions for blade flexibility. These elements were incorporated within an aeroelastic analysis featuring fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. Subsequently, control algorithms were developed that were effective for reducing noise and vibration even in the nonlinear BVI flight regime; saturation limits were incorporated constraining flap deflections to specified limits. The resulting simulation was also validated with a wide range of experimental data, achieving excellent correlation. Finally, a number of active control studies were performed. Multi-component vibration reductions of 40--80% could be achieved, while incurring a small noise penalty. Noise was reduced using an onboard feedback microphone; reductions of 4--10 dB on the advancing side were observed on a plane beneath the rotor when using dual flaps. Finally, simultaneous noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of about 5 dB in noise on the advancing side combined with a 60% reduction in vibration was

  7. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  8. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  9. Measurement of factor VIII activity using one-stage clotting assay: a calibration curve has not to be systematically included in each run.

    PubMed

    Lattes, S; Appert-Flory, A; Fischer, F; Jambou, D; Toulon, P

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is usually evaluated using activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage clotting assays. Guidelines for clotting factor assays indicate that a calibration curve should be included each time the assay is performed. Therefore, FVIII measurement is expensive, reagent- and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare FVIII activities obtained using the same fully automated assay that was calibrated once (stored calibration curve) or each time the assay was performed. Unique lots of reagents were used throughout the study. We analysed 255 frozen plasma samples from patients who were prescribed FVIII measurement including treated and untreated haemophilia A patients. Twenty-six runs were performed on a 28-week period, each including four lyophilized control and at most 10 patient plasma samples. In control samples, FVIII activities were not significantly different when the assay was performed using the stored calibration curve or was daily calibrated. The same applied to FVIII activities in patient plasma samples that were not significantly different throughout the measuring range of activities [68.3% (<1-179) vs. 67.6% (<1-177), P=0.48] and no relevant bias could be demonstrated when data were compared according to Bland and Altman. These results suggest that in the studied technical conditions, performing the FVIII assay using a stored calibration curve is reliable, for at least 6 months. Therefore, as far as the same lots of reagents are used, it is not mandatory to include a calibration curve each time the FVIII assay was performed. However, this strategy has to be validated if the assay is performed in different technical conditions.

  10. THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES INSIDE STARS: A SYNTHETIC STUDY INCLUDING EXTERNAL TURBULENCE AND RADIATIVE LEVITATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vauclair, Sylvie; Theado, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    We have derived a new expression for the thermohaline mixing coefficient in stars, including the effects of radiative levitation and external turbulence, by solving Boussinesq equations in a nearly incompressible stratified fluid with a linear approximation. It is well known that radiative levitation of individual elements can lead to their accumulation in specific stellar layers. In some cases, it can induce important effects on the stellar structure. Here we confirm that this accumulation is moderated by thermohaline convection due to the resulting inverse {mu}-gradient. The new coefficient that we have derived shows that the effect of radiative accelerations on the thermohaline instability itself is small. This effect must however be checked in all computations. We also confirm that the presence of large horizontal turbulence can reduce or even suppress the thermohaline convection. These results are important as they concern all the cases of heavy element accumulation in stars. Computations of radiative diffusion must be revisited to include thermohaline convection and its consequences. It may be one of the basic reasons for the fact that the observed abundances are always smaller than those predicted by pure atomic diffusion. In any case, these processes have to compete with rotation-induced mixing, but this competition is more complex than previously thought due to their mutual interaction.

  11. An NMR Study of Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Keith E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as a model for studying enzyme activity with a basic spectrometer is presented. Included are background information, experimental procedures, and a discussion of probable results. Stressed is the value of the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in biochemistry. (CW)

  12. Early epileptic encephalopathies including West syndrome: a 3-year retrospective study from Klang Hospital, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thambyayah, M

    2001-11-01

    It is difficult to give a country report from Malaysia. A study done in 1999 reported the incidence of West Syndrome to be 3% among newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy. In this 3 year retrospective hospital-based study (1997-1999), the prevalence of early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE) and West Syndrome were 4.1 and 2.5% respectively. There is difficulty classifying EEE cases into distinct sub-groups of EIEE (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), WS (West Syndrome) and SMEI (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy), using a combination of clinical features, EEG and CT/MRI findings.

  13. Evidence Clearinghouses and Registries: Methods for Locating and Including Studies in Evidence Syntheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lisa; LaSota, Robin; Yeide, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to report about study identification practices across evidence-based registries and clearinghouses in social policy fields, which serve as a resource for scientific, evidence-based decision-making about practices about desired outcomes in these social policy fields. The information retrieval procedures of the…

  14. Including Science/Technology/Society Issues in Elementary School Social Studies: Can We? Should We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Gerald W.

    The focus of the curriculum in the elementary schools today is on reading, writing, and mathematics, an emphasis reinforced by state competency testing programs. This trend is lamented by science and social studies educators who argue that one of the major goals of today's education should be to produce citizens who are technologically literate.…

  15. Capture-recapture studies for multiple strata including non-markovian transitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hestbeck, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    We consider capture-recapture studies where release and recapture data are available from each of a number of strata on every capture occasion. Strata may, for example, be geographic locations or physiological states. Movement of animals among strata occurs with unknown probabilities, and estimation of these unknown transition probabilities is the objective. We describe a computer routine for carrying out the analysis under a model that assumes Markovian transitions and under reduced parameter versions of this model. We also introduce models that relax the Markovian assumption and allow 'memory' to operate (i.e., allow dependence of the transition probabilities on the previous state). For these models, we sugg st an analysis based on a conditional likelihood approach. Methods are illustrated with data from a large study on Canada geese (Branta canadensis) banded in three geographic regions. The assumption of Markovian transitions is rejected convincingly for these data, emphasizing the importance of the more general models that allow memory.

  16. DFT Study on Enzyme Turnover Including Proton and Electron Transfers of Copper-Containing Nitrite Reductase.

    PubMed

    Lintuluoto, Masami; Lintuluoto, Juha M

    2016-08-23

    The reaction mechanism of copper-containing nitrite reductase (CuNiR) has been proposed to include two important events, an intramolecular electron transfer and a proton transfer. The two events have been suggested to be coupled, but the order of these events is currently under debate. We investigated the entire enzyme reaction mechanism of nitrite reduction at the T2 Cu site in thermophilic Geobacillus CuNiR from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 (GtNiR) using density functional theory calculations. We found significant conformational changes of His ligands coordinated to the T2 Cu site upon nitrite binding during the catalytic reaction. The reduction potentials and pKa values calculated for the relevant protonation and reduction states show two possible routes, A and B. Reduction of the T2 Cu site in the resting state is followed by endothermic nitrite binding in route A, while exothermic nitrite binding occurs prior to reduction of the T2 Cu site in route B. We concluded that our results support the random-sequential mechanism rather than the ordered mechanism. PMID:27455866

  17. Bioremediation treatability studies for soils containing herbicides, chemicals, and petroleum products. (Includes technical summary). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nies, L.; Mesarch, M.

    1996-09-16

    Leaking underground storage tanks (LUST`s) are widespread throughout the United States. Soil contamination by hazardous pollutants may exist at some Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) facilities. Potential pollutants are petroleum products, herbicides and solvents. The primary hazard posed by LUST`s is the possible contamination of ground water, which comprises most of our drinking water supply. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether bioremediation is a feasible treatment option for contaminated INDOT soils.

  18. Morphometric study of the testis and reproductive tract (including sperm granuloma) after vasectomy in mature rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Guo, Yang; Yuan, Yong; Li, Yu-Gen; Deng, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Zheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    By utilizing the rabbit model, previous studies have found good evidence indicating that vasectomy-induced spermatogenic damage is pressure-mediated: the damage occurs when the occluded reproductive tract is unable to accommodate additional spermatozoa produced by the testis. More studies with the more commonly used rat model have shown, however, controversial results on whether and why the damage occurs. In this study, 12 mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral vasectomy: double ligation (without severing) of the vas deferens exposed via a small inguinal incision; 37 days after the operation, the testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia (juxta-epididymal segments), and sperm granulomas (at the vasectomy site) were removed to obtain methacrylate resin-embedded sections and morphometric studies carried out with light microscopy. Marked spermatogenic damage with spermatids and spermatocytes depleted in the seminiferous epithelium in 43% of the seminiferous tubule profiles was demonstrated in 5 of the 12 testes on the vasectomized side, and the damage was associated with smaller or absent sperm granulomas; in the other 7 testes with essentially normal spermatogenesis, there was an increase (by 111% on average) in the volume of the tubule lumen, associated with larger granulomas or granulomas containing more spermatozoa. There was an overall increase (by 66%) in the thickness of the rete testis in the 12 testes; the epididymis or vas deferens showed no distension. It seems therefore that the spermatogenic damage induced by vasectomy in rats is pressure-mediated as well, and that variation in the damage depends mainly on the postoperative development of the sperm granuloma. PMID:25791731

  19. A Variational Inverse Model Study of Amazonian Methane Emissions including Observations from the AMAZONICA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. J.; Gloor, M.; Chipperfield, M.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L.

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas which is emitted from a range of anthropogenic and natural sources, and since the industrial revolution its mean atmospheric concentration has climbed dramatically, reaching values unprecedented in at least the past 650,000 years. CH4 produces a relatively high radiative forcing effect upon the Earth's climate, and its atmospheric lifetime of approximately 10 years makes it a more appealing target for the mitigation of climate change over short timescales than long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. However, the spatial and temporal variation of CH4 emissions are still not well understood, though in recent years a number of top-down and bottom-up studies have attempted to construct improved emission budgets. Some top-down studies may suffer from poor observational coverage in tropical regions, however, especially in the planetary boundary layer, where the atmosphere is highly sensitive to emissions. For example, although satellite observations often take a large volume of measurements in tropical regions, these retrievals are not usually sensitive to concentrations at the planet's surface. Methane emissions from Amazon region, in particular, are often poorly constrained. Since emissions form this region, coming mainly from wetland and biomass burning sources, are thought to be relatively high, additional observations in this region would greatly help to constrain the geographical distribution of the global CH4 emission budget. In order to provide such measurements, the AMAZONICA project began to take regular flask measurements of CH4 and other trace gases from aircraft over four Amazonian sites from the year 2010 onwards. We first present a forward modelling study of these observations of Amazonian methane for the year 2010 using the TOMCAT Chemical Transport Model. The model is used to attribute variations at each site to a source type and region, and also to assess the ability of our current CH4 flux estimates to

  20. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Wedge Airfoil Sections Including Unsteady Flow Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick J.

    1959-01-01

    A two-dimensional wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted on a 20-percent-thick single-wedge airfoil section. Steady-state forces and moments were determined from pressure measurements at Mach numbers from 0.70 to about 1.25. Additional information on the flows about the single wedge is provided by means of instantaneous pressure measurements at Mach numbers up to unity. Pressure distributions were also obtained on a symmetrical double-wedge or diamond-shaped profile which had the same leading-edge included angle as the single-wedge airfoil. A comparison of the data on the two profiles to provide information on the effects of the afterbody showed that with the exception of drag, the single-wedge profile proved to be aerodynamically superior to the diamond profile in all respects. The lift effectiveness of the single-wedge airfoil section far exceeded that of conventional thin airfoil sections over the speed range of the investigation. Pitching-moment irregularities, caused by negative loadings near the trailing edge, generally associated with conventional airfoils of equivalent thicknesses were not exhibited by the single-wedge profile. Moderately high pulsating pressures existing over the base of the single-wedge airfoil section were significantly reduced as the Mach number was increased beyond 0.92 and the boundaries of the dead airspace at the base of the model converged to eliminate the vortex street in the wake. Increasing the leading-edge radius from 0 to 1 percent of the chord had a minor effect on the steady-state forces and generally raised the level of pressure pulsations over the forward part of the single-wedge profile.

  1. Extensive ab initio study of the electronic states of BSe radical including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siyuan; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Yufang

    2016-06-01

    The internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction method (MRCI) with Davidson modification and the Douglas-Kroll scalar relativistic correction has been used to calculate the BSe molecule at the level of aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. The calculated electronic states, including 9 doublet and 6 quartet Λ-S states, are correlated to the dissociation limit of B(2Pu) + Se(3Pg) and B(2Pu) + Se(1Dg). The Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction is taken into account via the state interaction approach with the full Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian operator, which causes the entire 15 Λ-S states to split into 32 Ω states. This is the first time that the spin-orbit coupling calculation has been carried out on BSe. The potential energy curves of the Λ-S and Ω electronic states are depicted with the aid of the avoided crossing rule between electronic states of the same symmetry. The spectroscopic constants of the bound Λ-S and Ω states were determined, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The transition dipole moments (TDMs) and the Franck-Condon factors (FCs) of the transitions from the low-lying bound Ω states A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 to the ground state X2Σ+1/2 have also been presented. Based on the previous calculations, the radiative lifetimes of the A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 were evaluated.

  2. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  3. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties.

  4. Tricycanomethanide ion: an infrared, Raman, and tunneling spectroscopy study including isotopic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Hipps, K.W.; Aplin, A.T.

    1985-12-05

    The tricyanomethanide ion (TCM), C(CN)/sub 3//sup -/, and its isotopomers, C(CN)/sub 2/(/sup 13/CN)/sup -/ and C(CN)/sub 2/(C/sup 15/N)/sup -/, were studied experimentally by Raman, IR, and tunneling spectroscopy in the frequency range from about 80 to 4000 cm/sup -1/. The primary focus of the present paper is on the ion and its K salt, but Co and Mn complex data are also reported. An 11-parameter empirical force field provided a 2-cm/sup -1/ standard deviation fit to all the normal modes of the ion. While many of the assignments agree with those of previous studies (done without isotopic substitution), there are a few differences. In particular, the inactive a/sub 2/'mode is definitively assigned through the use of tunneling spectroscopy. Ab initio calculations were performed at the 4-31G SCF level to determine the geometry and 11 of the quadratic force constants of the ion. The calculated geometry is in good agreement with that of the KTCM salt, but the calculated force constants are about 25% too large. 36 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  5. A reliability study on tin based lead free micro joint including intermetallic and void evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feyissa, Frezer Assefa

    In microelectronics soldering to Cu pad lead to formation of two intermetallic structures in the solder -pad interface. The growth of these layers is accompanied by microscopic voids that usually cause reliability concern in the industry. Therefore it is important to understand factors that contribute for the growth of IMC using various combination of reflow time, Sn thickness and aging temperature. Systematic study was conducted on Cu-Sn system to investigate the formation and growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) as well as voiding evolution for different solder thicknesses. The growth of the Cu6Sn5 IMC layer was found to be increasing as the Sn thicknesses increase after reflow while the Cu3Sn layer were decreasing under same conditions. Also after reflow and aging more voiding were shown to occur in the thin solder than thicker one.

  6. Retrospective survival in elderly COPD patients receiving pulmonary rehabilitation; a study including maintenance rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine retrospective survival in elderly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients receiving three different pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs. Results 193 patients [m / f 92 / 101, mean age 69.2 (standard deviation 8.6)] receiving PR were studied with lifetable and Cox regression analyses. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % pred. was significantly different in the in-patient (n = 72), out-patient (n = 72), and maintenance group (n = 49) [mean 54.5 (21.8), 52.2 (17.7), and 42.9 (15.0), respectively (p = 0.004)]. PR days were 30.3 (20.4), 18.9 (10.4) and 30.0 (20.3), respectively (p < 0.001). Median survival rate was nine years in the in-patient, eight years in the out-patient and seven years in the maintenance group. Hospital stays and days were significantly increased in the maintenance group compared with the other groups (p = 0.003 and 0.010, respectively). The impact of evaluated variables on survival in the three PR groups was significant for age, FEV1 as well as the use of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) (HR 1.06, for five years, p < 0.001, HR 0.98, p = 0.01, and HR 2.18, p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusions The COPD patients in the maintenance group showed a worse survival, but after correction for gender, age and severity of obstruction, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:24708828

  7. Studies of Transient Meteor Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Meteoroids bombard Earth's atmosphere daily, but occasionally meteor rates increase to unusual high levels when Earth crosses the relatively fresh ejecta of comets. These transient events in meteor activity provide clues about the whereabouts of Earth-threatening long-period comets, the mechanisms of large-grain dust ejection from comets, and the particle composition and size distribution of the cometary ejecta. Observations of these transient events provide important insight in natural processes that determine the large grain dust environment of comets, in natural phenomena that were prevalent during the time of the origin of life, and in processes that determine the hazard of civilizations to large impacts and of man-made satellites to the periodic blizzard of small meteoroids. In this proposal, three tasks form a coherent program aimed at elucidating various aspects of meteor outbursts, with special reference to planetary astronomy and astrobiology. Task 1 was a ground-based effort to observe periods of transient meteor activity. This includes: (1) stereoscopic imaging of meteors during transient meteor events for measurements of particle size distribution, meteoroid orbital dispersions and fluxes; and (2) technical support for Global-MS-Net, a network of amateur-operated automatic counting stations for meteor reflections from commercial VHF radio and TV broadcasting stations, keeping a 24h vigil on the level of meteor activity for the detection of new meteor streams. Task 2 consisted of ground-based and satellite born spectroscopic observations of meteors and meteor trains during transient meteor events for measurements of elemental composition, the presence of organic matter in the meteoroids, and products generated by the interaction of the meteoroid with the atmosphere. Task 3 was an airborne effort to explore the 2000 Leonid meteor outbursts, which are anticipated to be the most significant of transient meteor activity events in the remainder of the

  8. Experiences integrating productivity, pollution prevention, and energy conservation including case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten, D.J.; Muller, M.R.; Barnish, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    , or even space to expand operations. An intimate knowledge of a corporations' burden, market share, and financial stability is necessary in order for the assessment team to gain the confidence of management; failure to do so can be disastrous. Excessive movement, redundant inspections, scheduling issues, and floor layout are critical issues, and ones that are sometimes impossible to evaluate during a short visit to a plant. Before an energy audit is made, much information must be gathered, such as tax rates and purchasing policies (including acceptable defect rates of the raw materials from suppliers). These issues are forcing the one-dimensional energy expert to expand into previously unchartered territories. This paper will attempt to illustrate some generic necessities, but also use actual experiences of the Office of Industrial Productivity and Energy Assessment team at Rutgers University in three facilities to highlight the industrial triage method of presenting the client with an integrated package of analysis of the efficiency of their production facility and methods.

  9. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  10. A study on thermal barrier coatings including thermal expansion mismatch and bond coat oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, George C.; Phucharoen, Woraphat; Miller, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    The present investigation deals with a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) intended for high temperature applications to advanced gas turbine blades. Typically, this type of coating system consists of a zirconia-yttria ceramic layer with a nickel-chromium-aluminum bond coat on a superalloy substrate. The problem on hand is a complex one due to the fact that bond coat oxidation and thermal mismatch occur in the TBC. Cracking in the TBC has also been experimentally illustrated. A clearer understanding of the mechanical behavior of the TBC is investigated. The stress states in a model thermal barrier coating as it cools down in air is studied. The powerful finite element method was utilized to model a coating cylindrical specimen. Four successively refined finite element models were developed. Some results obtained using the first two models have been reported previously. The major accomplishment is the successful development of an elastic TBC finite element model known as TBCG with interface geometry between the ceramic layer and the bond coat. An equally important milestone is the near-completion of the new elastic-plastic TBC finite element model called TBCGEP which yielded initial results. Representative results are presented.

  11. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories' capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  12. 25 CFR 900.196 - Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and the provision...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... studies and investigations and the provision of emergency services, including the operation of emergency motor vehicles? 900.196 Section 900.196 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Claims § 900.196 Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and...

  13. 25 CFR 900.196 - Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and the provision...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... studies and investigations and the provision of emergency services, including the operation of emergency motor vehicles? 900.196 Section 900.196 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Claims § 900.196 Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and...

  14. 25 CFR 900.196 - Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and the provision...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... studies and investigations and the provision of emergency services, including the operation of emergency motor vehicles? 900.196 Section 900.196 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Claims § 900.196 Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and...

  15. 25 CFR 900.196 - Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and the provision...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... studies and investigations and the provision of emergency services, including the operation of emergency motor vehicles? 900.196 Section 900.196 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Claims § 900.196 Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and...

  16. 25 CFR 900.196 - Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and the provision...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... studies and investigations and the provision of emergency services, including the operation of emergency motor vehicles? 900.196 Section 900.196 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Claims § 900.196 Do covered services include the conduct of clinical studies and investigations and...

  17. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  18. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  19. A3 domain region 1803-1818 contributes to the stability of activated factor VIII and includes a binding site for activated factor IX.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Esther; Meems, Henriet; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-09-01

    A recent chemical footprinting study in our laboratory suggested that region 1803-1818 might contribute to A2 domain retention in activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). This site has also been implicated to interact with activated factor IX (FIXa). Asn-1810 further comprises an N-linked glycan, which seems incompatible with a role of the amino acids 1803-1818 for FIXa or A2 domain binding. In the present study, FVIIIa stability and FIXa binding were evaluated in a FVIII-N1810C variant, and two FVIII variants in which residues 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 are replaced by the corresponding residues of factor V (FV). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 has a decreased apparent binding affinity for FIXa. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that fluorescent FIXa exhibits impaired complex formation with only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 on lipospheres. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Phe-1816 contributes to the interaction with FIXa. To evaluate FVIIIa stability, the FVIII/FV chimeras were activated by thrombin, and the decline in cofactor function was followed over time. FVIII/FV 1803-1810 and FVIII/FV 1811-1818 but not FVIII-N1810C showed a decreased FVIIIa half-life. However, when the FVIII variants were activated in presence of FIXa, only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 demonstrated an enhanced decline in cofactor function. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the FVIII variants K1813A/K1818A, E1811A, and F1816A exhibit enhanced dissociation after activation. The results together demonstrate that the glycan at 1810 is not involved in FVIII cofactor function, and that Phe-1816 of region 1811-1818 contributes to FIXa binding. Both regions 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 contribute to FVIIIa stability.

  20. A3 domain region 1803-1818 contributes to the stability of activated factor VIII and includes a binding site for activated factor IX.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Esther; Meems, Henriet; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-09-01

    A recent chemical footprinting study in our laboratory suggested that region 1803-1818 might contribute to A2 domain retention in activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). This site has also been implicated to interact with activated factor IX (FIXa). Asn-1810 further comprises an N-linked glycan, which seems incompatible with a role of the amino acids 1803-1818 for FIXa or A2 domain binding. In the present study, FVIIIa stability and FIXa binding were evaluated in a FVIII-N1810C variant, and two FVIII variants in which residues 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 are replaced by the corresponding residues of factor V (FV). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 has a decreased apparent binding affinity for FIXa. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that fluorescent FIXa exhibits impaired complex formation with only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 on lipospheres. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Phe-1816 contributes to the interaction with FIXa. To evaluate FVIIIa stability, the FVIII/FV chimeras were activated by thrombin, and the decline in cofactor function was followed over time. FVIII/FV 1803-1810 and FVIII/FV 1811-1818 but not FVIII-N1810C showed a decreased FVIIIa half-life. However, when the FVIII variants were activated in presence of FIXa, only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 demonstrated an enhanced decline in cofactor function. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the FVIII variants K1813A/K1818A, E1811A, and F1816A exhibit enhanced dissociation after activation. The results together demonstrate that the glycan at 1810 is not involved in FVIII cofactor function, and that Phe-1816 of region 1811-1818 contributes to FIXa binding. Both regions 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 contribute to FVIIIa stability. PMID:23884417

  1. A3 Domain Region 1803–1818 Contributes to the Stability of Activated Factor VIII and Includes a Binding Site for Activated Factor IX

    PubMed Central

    Bloem, Esther; Meems, Henriet; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B.

    2013-01-01

    A recent chemical footprinting study in our laboratory suggested that region 1803–1818 might contribute to A2 domain retention in activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). This site has also been implicated to interact with activated factor IX (FIXa). Asn-1810 further comprises an N-linked glycan, which seems incompatible with a role of the amino acids 1803–1818 for FIXa or A2 domain binding. In the present study, FVIIIa stability and FIXa binding were evaluated in a FVIII-N1810C variant, and two FVIII variants in which residues 1803–1810 and 1811–1818 are replaced by the corresponding residues of factor V (FV). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that only FVIII/FV 1811–1818 has a decreased apparent binding affinity for FIXa. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that fluorescent FIXa exhibits impaired complex formation with only FVIII/FV 1811–1818 on lipospheres. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Phe-1816 contributes to the interaction with FIXa. To evaluate FVIIIa stability, the FVIII/FV chimeras were activated by thrombin, and the decline in cofactor function was followed over time. FVIII/FV 1803–1810 and FVIII/FV 1811–1818 but not FVIII-N1810C showed a decreased FVIIIa half-life. However, when the FVIII variants were activated in presence of FIXa, only FVIII/FV 1811–1818 demonstrated an enhanced decline in cofactor function. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the FVIII variants K1813A/K1818A, E1811A, and F1816A exhibit enhanced dissociation after activation. The results together demonstrate that the glycan at 1810 is not involved in FVIII cofactor function, and that Phe-1816 of region 1811–1818 contributes to FIXa binding. Both regions 1803–1810 and 1811–1818 contribute to FVIIIa stability. PMID:23884417

  2. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-jung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m2) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (< 1426.3 kcal/day) compared to high BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P < 1 × 10-4). Surveys to estimate energy intake using 24-h recall method for three days and questionnaires for family history, a medical examination, and physical activities were conducted. RESULTS We found that two NRG3 gene SNPs in the 10q23.1 chromosomal region were highly associated with BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10-7, rs1040675; 2.3 × 10-6) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10-5, rs10786764; 6.57 × 10-5). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P <10 × 10-4. Five new loci associated with BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P < 1 × 10-4). In the questionnaire investigation, significant differences were found in the number of starvation periods per week, family history of stomach cancer, coffee intake, and trial of weight control in each group. CONCLUSION We discovered several common BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate. PMID:26865924

  3. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  4. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  5. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  6. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  7. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  8. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  9. Selective Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of Human DNA Methyltransferases Active in Cancer Including in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are important enzymes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression and represent valuable targets in cancer chemotherapy. A number of nucleoside DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi) have been studied in cancer, including in cancer stem cells, and two of them (azacytidine and decitabine) have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, only a few non-nucleoside DNMTi have been identified so far, and even fewer have been validated in cancer. Through a process of hit-to-lead optimization, we report here the discovery of compound 5 as a potent non-nucleoside DNMTi that is also selective toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Compound 5 was potent at single-digit micromolar concentrations against a panel of cancer cells and was less toxic in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than two other compounds tested. In mouse medulloblastoma stem cells, 5 inhibited cell growth, whereas related compound 2 showed high cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, 2 and 5 are the first non-nucleoside DNMTi tested in a cancer stem cell line. PMID:24387159

  10. Label-Free Kinetic Studies of Hemostasis-Related Biomarkers Including D-Dimer Using Autologous Serum Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Winterhagen, Anna; Müller, Jens; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pötzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the elimination kinetics of hemostasis-related biomarkers including the prothrombin activation fragment F1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), plasmin-α2-antiplasmin complex (PAP), and D-dimer in humans. Autologous serum was used as a biomarker source and infused into 15 healthy volunteers. Serum was prepared from whole blood in the presence of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (final concentration 20 μg/mL) to induce plasmin generation required for PAP and D-dimer formation. Serum transfusions (50 mL/30 min) were well tolerated by all subjects. Endogenous thrombin formation was not induced by serum infusions as measured using a highly sensitive oligonucleotide-based enzyme capture assay. Median peak levels (x-fold increase over baseline) of F1+2, TAT, PAP, and D-dimer of 3.7 nmol/L (28.9), 393 ng/mL (189.6), 3,829 ng/mL (7.0), and 13.4 mg/L (34.2) were achieved at the end of serum infusions. During a 48 h lasting follow-up period all biomarkers showed elimination kinetics of a two-compartment model. Median (interquartile range) terminal half-lives were 1.9 (1.3–3.6) h for F1+2, 0.7 (0.7–2.6) h for TAT, and 10.8 (8.8–11.4) h for PAP. With 15.8 (13.1–23.1) h the D-dimer half-life was about twice as long as previously estimated from radiolabeling studies in animals and small numbers of human subjects. The serum approach presented here allows label-free and simultaneous analysis of the elimination kinetics of various hemostasis-related biomarkers. Based on these data changes in biomarker levels could more precisely used to estimate the activity level of the hemostatic system. PMID:26658824

  11. Effects of restricted feeding on daily fluctuations of hepatic functions including p450 monooxygenase activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Jun; Arakawa, Shingo; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ito, Kazumi; Furukawa, Tadashi

    2006-02-10

    Hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities, assessed by measurement of 7-alkoxycoumarin O-dealkylase (ACD) activities, show obvious daily fluctuations in male rats with high values during the dark period and low values during the light period. We have already confirmed that the ACD activities are controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is well known as the oscillator of circadian rhythm. Recently, it is reported that circadian oscillators exist not only in the SCN but also in peripheral organs. To date, it is unclear which circadian oscillators predominantly drive the daily fluctuations of hepatic ACD activities. To address this question, we examined the effects of restricted feeding, which uncouples the circadian oscillators in the liver from the central pacemaker in the SCN, on the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities in male rats. Here we show that restricted feeding inverts the oscillation phase of the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities. Regarding the hepatic P450 content, there were no fluctuations between the light and dark periods under ad libitum and restricted feeding conditions. Therefore, it is considered that the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities are predominantly driven by the circadian factors in peripheral organs rather than by the oscillator in the SCN directly.

  12. Computational Study of Anticancer Drug Resistance Caused by 10 Topisomerase I Mutations, Including 7 Camptothecin Analogs and Lucanthone.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Kelly; Wu, Chun

    2016-09-26

    Although Camptothecin and its analogs as Topoisomerase I poisons can effectively treat cancers, serious drug resistance has been identified for this class of drugs. Recent computational studies have indicated that the mutations near the active binding site of the drug can significantly weaken the drug binding and cause drug resistance. However, only Topotecan and three mutations have been previously analyzed. Here we present a comprehensive binding study of 10 Topoisomerase I mutants (N722S, N722A, D533G, D533N, G503S, G717V, T729A, F361S, G363C, and R364H) and 8 poisons including 7 Camptothecin analogs as well as a new generation Topoisomerase I drug, Lucanthone. Utilizing Glide docking followed by MMGBSA calculations, we determined the binding energy for each complex. We examine the relative binding energy changes with reference to the wild type, which are linked to the degree of drug resistance. On this set of mutant complexes, Topotecan and Camptothecin showed much smaller binding energies than a set of new Camptothecin derivatives (Lurtotecan, SN38, Gimatecan, Exatecan, and Belotecan) currently under clinical trials. We observed that Lucanthone exhibited comparable results to Topotecan and Camptothecin, indicating that it may serve as a promising candidate for future studies as a Topoisomerase I poison. Our docked results on Topotecan were also validated by a set of molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to a good agreement on the MMGBSA binding energy change, our simulation data also shows there is larger conformation fluctuation upon the mutations. These results may be utilized to further advancements of Topoisomerase I drugs that are resistant to mutations.

  13. Phase II study of dasatinib in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute and chronic myeloid diseases, including systemic mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Verstovsek, Srdan; Tefferi, Ayalew; Cortes, Jorge; O’Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Pardanani, Animesh; Akin, Cem; Faderl, Stefan; Manshouri, Taghi; Thomas, Deborah; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2016-01-01

    Molecular characterization of Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) chronic myeloproliferative disorders, such as systemic mastocytosis (SM), has provided a clear rationale for investigating novel targeted therapies. The tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor dasatinib is 325-fold more potent against Bcr-Abl TK than imatinib in vitro, significantly inhibiting wild-type KIT and PDGFR-B TKs, and is active against cells carrying the mutant KIT-D816V gene. In this phase 2, open-label study, the efficacy of dasatinib (140 mg/day) was investigated in 67 patients with various Ph− myeloid disorders, including SM (N=33; 28 KIT-D816V positive). The overall response rate to dasatinib in patients with SM was 33%. Only two patients, one with SM-myelofibrosis and one with SM-chronic eosinophilic leukemia, achieved complete response (elimination of mastocytosis) lasting for 5 and 16 months, respectively. Both patients were negative for KIT-D816V mutation, had low tryptase levels, abnormal WBC counts, and anemia, and had failed prior therapy with erythropoietin. Additional 9 SM patients had symptomatic response, lasting 3 to 18+ months. Complete responses were achieved in two other patients (acute myeloid leukemia, hypereosinophilic syndrome). No responses were observed among patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and primary myelofibrosis. The majority of adverse events were grade 1/2. These data show that dasatinib may benefit a selected group of SM patients, primarily by improving their symptoms. PMID:18559612

  14. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... recovery; or (ii) The FAA's determination that risk to third parties and Government property as a result...

  15. Activated Notch1 Target Genes during Embryonic Cell Differentiation Depend on the Cellular Context and Include Lineage Determinants and Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Meier-Stiegen, Franziska; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Bernoth, Kristina; Martini, Simone; Hieronymus, Thomas; Ruau, David; Zenke, Martin; Just, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Background Notch receptor signaling controls developmental cell fates in a cell-context dependent manner. Although Notch signaling directly regulates transcription via the RBP-J/CSL DNA binding protein, little is known about the target genes that are directly activated by Notch in the respective tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings To analyze how Notch signaling mediates its context dependent function(s), we utilized a Tamoxifen-inducible system to activate Notch1 in murine embryonic stem cells at different stages of mesodermal differentiation and performed global transcriptional analyses. We find that the majority of genes regulated by Notch1 are unique for the cell type and vary widely dependent on other signals. We further show that Notch1 signaling regulates expression of genes playing key roles in cell differentiation, cell cycle control and apoptosis in a context dependent manner. In addition to the known Notch1 targets of the Hes and Hey families of transcriptional repressors, Notch1 activates the expression of regulatory transcription factors such as Sox9, Pax6, Runx1, Myf5 and Id proteins that are critically involved in lineage decisions in the absence of protein synthesis. Conclusion/Significance We suggest that Notch signaling determines lineage decisions and expansion of stem cells by directly activating both key lineage specific transcription factors and their repressors (Id and Hes/Hey proteins) and propose a model by which Notch signaling regulates cell fate commitment and self renewal in dependence of the intrinsic and extrinsic cellular context. PMID:20628604

  16. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  17. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA–Dependent Tel1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Daichi; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Shima, Hiroki; Higashide, Mika; Terasawa, Masahiro; Gasser, Susan M.; Shinohara, Miki

    2016-01-01

    Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity. PMID:26990569

  18. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  19. Activities of the Space Studies Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 1993 annual report of the Space Studies Board of the National research Council (NRC) describes the activities of the Board during a year filled with questions and change in the nation's civil space program. The accounts contained in this report briefly describe the activities of the Board and its committees and sketch out major space research issues. Two major reports are summarized, and the full text of three letter reports is included. Items considered include: (1) robotic missions to explore the Earth, the solar system, and the far reaches of the universe; (2) instability in the human flight program; (3) the redesign of the International Space Station; and (4) federal funding of research in all fields, especially basic research.

  20. Activities of the Space Studies Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This 1993 annual report of the Space Studies Board of the National research Council (NRC) describes the activities of the Board during a year filled with questions and change in the nation's civil space program. The accounts contained in this report briefly describe the activities of the Board and its committees and sketch out major space research issues. Two major reports are summarized, and the full text of three letter reports is included. Items considered include: (1) robotic missions to explore the Earth, the solar system, and the far reaches of the universe; (2) instability in the human flight program; (3) the redesign of the International Space Station; and (4) federal funding of research in all fields, especially basic research.

  1. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  2. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  3. Including the people with disabilities at work: a case study of the job of bricklayer in civil construction in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined.

  4. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  5. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  6. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  7. Verrucous carcinomas of the head and neck, including those with associated squamous cell carcinoma, lack transcriptionally active high-risk human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalyani R; Chernock, Rebecca D; Zhang, Tian R; Wang, Xiaowei; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S

    2013-11-01

    Most oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and histologic variants harbor transcriptionally active human papillomavirus (HPV). While HPV DNA can be found in many non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinomas, transcriptionally active HPV is rare. Verrucous carcinoma is a variant with bland cytology, warty appearance, locally destructive growth, and lack of metastasis when lacking a frankly invasive carcinoma component. Studies have shown variable rates of HPV DNA and p16 protein expression in such tumors but still have not clearly addressed if the virus has biological activity or clinical relevance in the positive cases. Department files were searched for verrucous neoplasms, including pure verrucous carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma with dysplasia or minimal invasion, and SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma (ie, having a major component of frankly invasive carcinoma). p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and E6/E7 mRNA reverse transcription PCR for high-risk HPV types were performed. Of the 49 cases, 6 (12.2%) showed strong (>50%) staining for p16. HPV DNA was detected in 7/49 (14.3%) cases, but only one case was positive for both p16, and HPV DNA. A total of 36 cases yielded sufficient RNA for RT-PCR (18 verrucous carcinomas, 13 atypical verrucous carcinomas, and 5 SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma). All 36 were negative, including the four p16-positive and three HPV DNA-positive tumors tested. Although a minority of verrucous carcinoma lesions are p16 and HPV DNA positive, transcriptionally active high-risk HPV is uniformly absent. These findings argue that verrucous carcinoma and its related squamous cell carcinomas are not HPV-driven tumors.

  8. Columbus Zoological Gardens feasibility study for a solar greenhouse at the Columbus Zoo. [Includes set of drawings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A feasibility study is being conducted to determine if it is possible to design a 100% fossil fuel free greenhouse 1/3 acre in size. Three principle sources of renewable energy will be used: solar energy, methane digestion, and ground water for preheat. The steps taken to achieve a preliminary design are flow charted. An engineering analysis of the greenhouse design is presented. Dimensions for the greenhouse are given and a NOAA climatological data summary is included for Columbus, Ohio. Also included is a preliminary design layout, distribution of heat load, winter design heat loads, and monthly heating loads. A set of drawings is included. (LEW)

  9. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  10. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  11. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  12. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  13. 77 FR 44710 - Information Collection Activities (Depreciation Studies)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities (Depreciation Studies) ACTION: 60-day...) the information collection--Rail Depreciation Studies--further described below. Comments are requested..., including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology,...

  14. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  15. A study of detailed dosimetry records for a selected group of workers included in the Hanford mortality study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1990-09-01

    Detailed dosimetry data from microfiche and microfilm in source records for the years 1944--1978 for 139 Hanford workers were examined. Information on these records was compared with computerized dose equivalent estimates used in mortality analyses. Because of difficulties in reading some early source records, and because of variation in the format of records and in algorithms for calculating whole body dose, this validation was difficult. However, apparent discrepancies in cumulative dose were less than 0.1 rem for 88% of the workers in this study, never exceeded 1.5 rem, and would be unlikely to distort conclusions of dose-response analyses. Most discrepancies occurred in early years of Hanford operations, especially 1944--46, with very few problems with dose estimates from the 1960's and 1970's. The study also provided data dosimetry practices, by calendar year, on frequency of monitoring, the number and proportion of dosimeters yielding positive results, and the magnitude of doses recorded for individual dosimeters. 7 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Novel stilbenoids, including cannabispiradienone glycosides, from Tragopogon tommasinii (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) and their potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Granica, Sebastian; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Randazzo, Antonio; Schneider, Peter; Żyżyńska-Granica, Barbara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-09-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Tragopogon tommasinii Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) yielded a total of 21 natural products, two simple phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid), four caffeic acid derivatives (chlorogenic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid), six flavonoids (luteolin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, vitexin, orientin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside), three simple bibenzyls [2-carboxyl-5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-4'-β-glucopyranosyl-oxybibenzyl, 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxybibenzyl, 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-dihydroxy-5,3'-dimethoxybibenzyl], three phtalides [3-(4-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methoxyphtalide, 7-β-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxyphtalide, and 7-(1→6)-α-rhamnosyl-β-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxyphtalide], two cannabispiradienone derivatives [3-O-β-glucopyranosyldemethoxycannabispiradienone and 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxydemethoxycannabispiradienone], and tetra-N-coumaroyl spermine. The three bibenzyls, the latter two benzylphthalides, and both cannabispiradienone derivatives represent new natural compounds and all compounds, except the caffeic acid derivatives and the flavonoids were new for T. tommasinii. The structures were established by HR mass spectrometry, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and CD spectroscopy. Moreover, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the new compounds were assayed using human neutrophils and their production of IL-1b, IL-8, TNF-α and MMP-9 as well as the expression of TLR-4, respectively.

  17. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  18. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  19. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  20. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  1. Differential partitioning of antioxidants, including hydroxytyrosol, in human plasma and LDL: implications for their antioxidant activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Colombo, Claudio; Galli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    In vivo studies of LDL oxidation following consumption of natural phenolic compounds have yielded mixed results. It is reported that the amphiphilic hydroxytyrosol, after addition to human plasma, does not accumulate in LDL but protects plasma lipids, which are extracted together with hydroxytyrosol, from chemically-induced oxidation. Thus, a novel methodology was proposed, which does not rely on LDL separation and subsequent oxidation but is based on the oxidation of total lipids - simultaneously extracted from plasma with antioxidants - to evaluate the effects of micronutrients that do not partition into LDL, after in vivo supplementation.

  2. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  3. Origin of Rebound Plasma HIV Includes Cells with Identical Proviruses That Are Transcriptionally Active before Stopping of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Ann; Shao, Wei; Coffin, John M.; Mellors, John W.; Lederman, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Keele, Brandon F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the origin of HIV variants during viral rebound may provide insight into the composition of the HIV reservoir and has implications for the design of curative interventions. HIV single-genome sequences were obtained from 10 AIDS Clinical Trials Group participants who underwent analytic antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI). Rebounding variants were compared with those in pre-ART plasma in all 10 participants and with on-ART peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated DNA and RNA (CA-RNA) in 7/10 participants. The highest viral diversities were found in the DNA and CA-RNA populations. In 3 of 7 participants, we detected multiple, identical DNA and CA-RNA sequences during suppression on ART that exactly matched plasma HIV sequences. Hypermutated DNA and CA-RNA were detected in four participants, contributing to diversities in these compartments that were higher than in the pre-ART and post-ATI plasma. Shifts in the viral rebound populations could be detected in some participants over the 2- to 3-month observation period. These findings suggest that a source of initial rebound viremia could be populations of infected cells that clonally expanded prior to and/or during ART, some of which were already expressing HIV RNA before treatment was interrupted. These clonally expanding populations of HIV-infected cells may represent an important target for strategies aimed at achieving reservoir reduction and sustained virologic remission. IMPORTANCE Antiretroviral therapy alone cannot eradicate the HIV reservoir, and viral rebound is generally rapid after treatment interruption. It has been suggested that clonal expansion of HIV-infected cells is an important mechanism of HIV reservoir persistence, but the contribution of these clonally proliferating cells to the rebounding virus is unknown. We report a study of AIDS Clinical Trials Group participants who underwent treatment interruption and compared rebounding plasma virus with that

  4. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  5. Active Media Studies for PASER

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, Sergey P.; Kanareykin, Alexei; Schoessow, Paul; Schaechter, Levi

    2009-01-22

    The Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (PASER) is a concept that is based on the direct transfer of energy from active medium to a charged particle beam. The PASER was originally formulated and demonstrated for optical (laser) media; we are pursuing a PASER demonstration experiment based on an optically pumped paramagnetic medium active in the X-band. The activity in this case is produced via Zeeman Effect. We report on the development of an active medium based on fullerene (C{sub 60}). Various aspects like temperature dependence, concentration effects and the role of the host media are presented. Application of the technology to accelerators and microwave components will be discussed.

  6. Activities in Environmental Education. Environmental Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Michael

    This guide describes 38 activities appropriate for grades K-12. Each activity contains a brief description of the activity and a list of materials needed. The second section of the guide contains environmental learning games to be played in the classroom. These games include: crossword puzzles, cryptograms, logic problems, card games, and…

  7. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  8. Studying Activity Series of Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, Tien-Ghun; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies that illustrate the linking together of numerous chemical concepts involving the activity of metals (quantitative analysis, corrosion, and electrolysis) through the use of deep-level processing strategies. Concludes that making explicit links in the process of teaching chemistry can lead effectively to meaningful…

  9. Patient Experienced Continuity of Care in the Psychiatric Healthcare System—A Study Including Immigrants, Refugees and Ethnic Danes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern; Kastrup, Marianne; Krasnik, Allan; Norredam, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. Method: The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes). Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Results: Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. Conclusions: The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups. PMID:25233017

  10. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I, (LAP) Study 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    Presented is a Learning Activity Package (LAP) study concerned with carbon and its compounds. This LAP in chemistry includes a rationale for studying the chemical element of carbon, a list of student objectives (stated in behavioral terms), of activities (reading, laboratory experiments, model construction, etc.), a two-page worksheet, a…

  11. Study of Complete Thermoelectric Generator Behavior Including Water-to-Ambient Heat Dissipation on the Cold Side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranguren, P.; Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.

    2014-06-01

    Reduction of the thermal resistances of the heat exchangers of a thermoelectric generation (TEG) system leads to a significant increase in TEG efficiency. For the cold side of a thermoelectric module (TEM), a wide range of heat exchangers have been studied, from simple finned dissipators to more complex water (water-glycol) heat exchangers. As the Nusselt number is much higher in water heat exchangers than in conventional air finned dissipators, the convective thermal resistances are better. However, to conclude which heat exchanger leads to higher efficiencies, it is necessary to include the whole system involved in the heat dissipation, i.e., the TEM-to-water heat exchanger, the water-to-ambient heat exchanger, as well as the required pumps and fans. This paper presents a dynamic computational model able to simulate the complete behavior of a TEG, including both heat exchangers. The model uses the heat transfer and hydraulic equations to compute the TEM-to-water and water-to-ambient thermal resistances, along with the resistance of the hot-side heat exchanger at different operating conditions. Likewise, the model includes all the thermoelectric effects with temperature-dependent properties. The model calculates the net power generation for different configurations, providing a methodology to design and optimize the heat exchange in order to maximize the net power generation for a wide variety of TEGs.

  12. Laboratory studies, analysis, and interpretation of the spectra of hydrocarbons present in planetary atmospheres including cyanoacetylene, acetylene, propane, and ethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blass, William E.; Daunt, Stephen J.; Peters, Antoni V.; Weber, Mark C.

    1990-01-01

    Combining broadband Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) from the McMath facility at NSO and from NRC in Ottawa and narrow band TDL data from the laboratories with computational physics techniques has produced a broad range of results for the study of planetary atmospheres. Motivation for the effort flows from the Voyager/IRIS observations and the needs of Voyager analysis for laboratory results. In addition, anticipation of the Cassini mission adds incentive to pursue studies of observed and potentially observable constituents of planetary atmospheres. Current studies include cyanoacetylene, acetylene, propane, and ethane. Particular attention is devoted to cyanoacetylen (H3CN) which is observed in the atmosphere of Titan. The results of a high resolution infrared laboratory study of the line positions of the 663, 449, and 22.5/cm fundamental bands are presented. Line position, reproducible to better than 5 MHz for the first two bands, are available for infrared astrophysical searches. Intensity and broadening studies are in progress. Acetylene is a nearly ubiquitous atmospheric constituent of the outer planets and Titan due to the nature of methane photochemistry. Results of ambient temperature absolute intensity measurements are presented for the fundamental and two two-quantum hotband in the 730/cm region. Low temperature hotband intensity and linewidth measurements are planned.

  13. Preschool Curriculum: A Child Centered Curriculum of Concepts and Activities Including All of the CDA Functional Areas--Bi-lingual and Home Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Dorothy, Comp.

    This preschool resource curriculum, intended for use in a Head Start center, was written to correspond with a work plan and curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. The units included in the curriculum guide are aimed at integrating growth experiences with the learning of basic skills. Each of the 16 units contains material related to each of…

  14. Rapid binding of a cationic active site inhibitor to wild type and mutant mouse acetylcholinesterase: Brownian dynamics simulation including diffusion in the active site gorge.

    PubMed

    Tara, S; Elcock, A H; Kirchhoff, P D; Briggs, J M; Radic, Z; Taylor, P; McCammon, J A

    1998-12-01

    It is known that anionic surface residues play a role in the long-range electrostatic attraction between acetylcholinesterase and cationic ligands. In our current investigation, we show that anionic residues also play an important role in the behavior of the ligand within the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase. Negatively charged residues near the gorge opening not only attract positively charged ligands from solution to the enzyme, but can also restrict the motion of the ligand once it is inside of the gorge. We use Brownian dynamics techniques to calculate the rate constant kon, for wild type and mutant acetylcholinesterase with a positively charged ligand. These calculations are performed by allowing the ligand to diffuse within the active site gorge. This is an extension of previously reported work in which a ligand was allowed to diffuse only to the enzyme surface. By setting the reaction criteria for the ligand closer to the active site, better agreement with experimental data is obtained. Although a number of residues influence the movement of the ligand within the gorge, Asp74 is shown to play a particularly important role in this function. Asp74 traps the ligand within the gorge, and in this way helps to ensure a reaction.

  15. A study of the physical, behavioral, and medical phenotype, including anthropometric measures, of females with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hull, C; Hagerman, R J

    1993-11-01

    The physical features of fragile X, including a long face, prominent ears, and hyperextensible joints, are present in affected males and females. Cytogenetically negative heterozygotes have been considered to be unaffected by the fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR-1) gene. This study investigated the penetrance of the FMR-1 gene in cytogenetically negative but DNA-positive heterozygotes with a premutation (cytosine guanine guanine [CGG] amplification in the 50 to 200 repeat range), compared with carriers with a full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats) and control subjects. One hundred thirty-nine women with normal IQs between the ages of 18 and 45 years were studied. All underwent cytogenetic and DNA testing to determine their fragile X carrier status. A medical history-taking and a physical examination, including selected anthropometric measurements, were performed. Results indicate that the FMR-1 mutation mildly affects the physical phenotype of individuals even in the premutation state, although less dramatically than more affected heterozygotes. Carriers with a premutation differed significantly from control subjects in overall physical index score and in the anthropometric measure of ear prominence. These results suggest a phenotypic impact of the FMR-1 mutation even at the 50 to 200 CGG repeat length.

  16. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  17. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  18. Cold antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia and lymphoproliferative disorders: a retrospective study of 20 patients including clinical, hematological, and molecular findings.

    PubMed

    Arthold, Cathrin; Skrabs, Cathrin; Mitterbauer-Hohendanner, Gerlinde; Thalhammer, Renate; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Panzer, Simon; Valent, Peter; Lechner, Klaus; Jäger, Ulrich; Sillaber, Christian

    2014-06-01

    A total of 20 patients with cold antibody hemolytic anemia were evaluated in a retrospective study of them, 15 had a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS): 14 with MGUS of immunoglobulin M (IgM) subtype and 1 with immunoglobulin G subtype. One patient had smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, but four patients had no monoclonal protein and no evidence of lymphoma. However, in three of these patients, we were able to demonstrate a (mono-)clonal rearrangement of their immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains. Of the 20 patients, 5 had IgHV34 nucleotide sequence indicating that the antibody was directed against the "I" antigen. Two patients exhibited a progressive increase of IgM over time, however without increasing hemolytic activity. Moreover, in two patients with long-term follow-up, we were able to correlate recurrent hemolytic activity with low environmental temperatures. Among four patients treated with rituximab, all four responded to treatment. However, treatment effect was only transient in all of them.

  19. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  20. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  1. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate. A Meta-Analysis of 63 Randomized Controlled Trials Including 72 Study Populations

    PubMed Central

    Graudal, Niels A.; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973–2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4%) as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%). This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines. PMID:27047393

  2. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate. A Meta-Analysis of 63 Randomized Controlled Trials Including 72 Study Populations.

    PubMed

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4%) as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%). This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  3. Integrated wastewater management reporting at tourist areas for recycling purposes, including the case study of Hersonissos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Borboudaki, K E; Paranychianakis, N V; Tsagarakis, K P

    2005-10-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities in tourist areas, in comparison to other municipal facilities, require specific configurations and additional management actions in order to achieve a reliable and cost-effective treatment. For example, the same facility operates during winter with minimum flows and in summer with peak flows. Moreover, careful effluent management is required to minimize environmental impact and health effects on tourists. In this study, effluent management data, including quantitative and qualitative effluent characteristics, reuse, and economic aspects of the Hersonissos Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) in Greece, are discussed. It has been designed to treat both municipal wastewater from the Hersonissos Municipality and septage from the wider area. Analysis of effluent quantitative data showed two flow peaks in the summer period and only one in winter. The WTP was found to provide a reliable level of treatment in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (95.9%), total suspended solids (97.2%), and total nitrogen (87.7%) removal, but increased numbers of fecal coliforms were measured at some peak flow periods, suggesting the need for additional management strategies. Effluent is reused mainly for agricultural irrigation; secondary uses include fire protection and landscape irrigation. Economic analysis showed that for each cubic meter treated, the total annual economic cost for treatment, filtration, and reuse infrastructure was 1.07 euro, 0.05 euro, and 0.08 euro, respectively.

  4. Prenatal recruitment of participants for a birth cohort study including cord blood collection: results of a feasibility study in Bremen, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Günther, Kathrin; Frambach, Torsten; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prospective birth cohort studies comprising follow up of children from pregnancy or birth over a long period of time, and collecting various biological samples at different times through the life-course offer a promising approach to enhance etiologic knowledge of various diseases. Especially for those where early lifetime exposures and conditions are thought to play an important role. The collection and storage of biological samples is a critical component in epidemiological studies, notably for research regarding prenatal exposures to various environmental factors as well as for DNA extraction. Our feasibility study for a birth cohort within the scope of etiology of childhood leukemia with prospective sampling of mothers and their future newborns aimed to investigate the willingness of pregnant women to participate in a birth cohort study involving collection of blood and umbilical cord blood samples. The overall aim was to develop practice-based research recommendations for a possible German birth cohort study. Methods: The study was conducted in Bremen, Germany, between January 2012 and March 2013. Pregnant women were eligible for recruitment if (i) their expected date of delivery was during the study recruitment phase (September 2012–February 2013), (ii) they planned to give birth at the cooperating hospital’s obstetric unit and (iii) their knowledge of the German language was sufficient to understand study materials, details of participation and to fill out the prenatal self-administered questionnaire. Maternal blood and umbilical cord blood samples to be used for later research activities were collected and stored at a stem cell bank already collaborating with the hospital. 22 primary care gynecologists were invited to enroll pregnant women for the study and cooperation with one hospital was established. Expectant women were recruited during the last trimester of pregnancy, either during one of their prenatal care visits at their primary care

  5. Pyrometry temperature studies of shocked tin including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil diameter and the integration with emissivity diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenton-Taylor, Caroline; de'Ath, James; Ota, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Accurate temperature measurement of shock-loaded systems continues to present experimental challenges. With short measurable time durations diagnostic methods are almost exclusively restricted to optical techniques. By preventing full sample pressure unloading, through the use of an anvil, partial release temperature measurements can be deduced from multiple wavelength optical pyrometry. This paper presents our recent studies of tin shocked to 28GPa including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil dimensions and the integration with emissivity diagnostics. The results indicate that a ring groove, 5mm across and with a nominal machined depth of 50 microns, acts to enhance the measured temperature by approximately 150K. Additionally on reducing the LiF anvil diameter from 20mm to 15mm, comparable partial release temperatures were observed. With the anticipated development of multiple anvil target designs, the smaller anvil diameter is desirable. British Crown Copyright 2009/MOD.

  6. A diagnostic study of the forcing of the Ferrel cell by eddies, with latent heat effects included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salustri, G.; Stone, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    A diagnostic study of the forcing of the Ferrel cell by eddy fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere is carried out. The quasi-geostrophic omega equation, and Oort and Rasmusson's (1971) data set, are used. The effects of condensation associated with the large scale motions are introduced to the omega equation by using the quasi-geostrophic moisture conservation equation. Thus, the dry static stability is replaced by a moist static stability, and the forcing of the Ferrel cell by eddy latent heat fluxes as well as sensible heat and momentum fluxes is included. Both effects tend to enhance the forcing of the Ferrel cell. The numerical analysis indicates that the effects are small in January, but in July the maximum vertical velocities are enhanced by about 30 percent.

  7. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and molecular study including 2 cases harboring ETV6-X fusion.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yohei; Ishibashi, Kenichiro; Masaki, Ayako; Fujii, Kana; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Kawakita, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Manabu; Miyabe, Satoru; Shimozato, Kazuo; Nagao, Toshitaka; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade carcinoma with morphologic and genetic similarity, including ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, to secretory carcinoma of the breast. ETV6 is frequently involved in other epithelial and nonepithelial tumors, and many fusion partners of ETV6 have been reported. In the present study, 14 Japanese MASC cases were clinicopathologically and molecularly analyzed. The median age of the patients was 39 years, and the male:female ratio was 6:8. All cases showed histopathologic findings compatible with those previously described for MASC and harbored an ETV6 split as visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two cases showed thick fibrous septa and invasive features including vascular or perineural tumor involvement, findings that are rare in MASC. In addition, in these 2 cases, non-NTRK3 genes appeared to fuse with ETV6 (ETV6-X fusion). NTRK1 and NTRK2, both members of the NTRK family, were not involved. Of the 14 MASC cases, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was positive in 6 cases, and the relative expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was variable, ranging from 1 to 5.8. Results of the present study of MASC suggest that (1) ETV6 occasionally fuses with unknown non-NTRK3 genes, (2) ETV6-X cases might have an invasive histology, (3) for molecular diagnosis of MASC, fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect ETV6 splits is the method of choice, and (4) the expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript is considerably variable. These findings provide a novel insight into the oncogenesis, histopathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this newly recognized carcinoma. PMID:25651470

  8. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  9. Numerical Study Of The Heat Transfer Phenomenon Of A Rectangular Plate Including Void, Notch Using Finite Difference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb Nath, S. K.; Peyada, N. K.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we have developed a code using Matlab software for solving a rectangular aluminum plate having void, notch, at different boundary conditions discretizing a two dimensional (2D) heat conduction equation by the finite difference technique. We have solved a 2D mixed boundary heat conduction problem analytically using Fourier integrals (Deb Nath et al., 2006; 2007; 2007; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2008; Deb Nath, 2008; Deb Nath and Afsar, 2009; Deb Nath and Ahmed, 2009; 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2010; Deb Nath, 2013) and the same problem is also solved using the present code developed by the finite difference technique (Ahmed et al., 2005; Deb Nath, 2002; Deb Nath et al., 2008; Ahmed and Deb Nath, 2009; Deb Nath et al., 2011; Mohiuddin et al., 2012). To verify the soundness of the present heat conduction code results using the finite difference method, the distribution of temperature at some sections of a 2D heated plate obtained by the analytical method is compared with those of the plate obtained by the present finite difference method. Interpolation technique is used as an example when the boundary of the plate does not pass through the discretized grid points of the plate. Sometimes hot and cold fluids are passed through rectangular channels in industries and many types of technical equipment. The distribution of temperature of plates including notches, slots with different temperature boundary conditions are studied. Transient heat transfer in several pure metallic plates is also studied to find out the required time to reach equilibrium temperature. So, this study will help find design parameters of such structures.

  10. Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Patients with Psoriasis: Risk Profile Including Carotide Ultrasonography Assessed in Hospital-based Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Votrubova, Jana; Juzlova, Katerina; Dzambova, Martina; Hercogova, Jana; Gopfertova, Dana

    2016-08-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and its comorbidities have attracted serious interest in recent years. The evidence that psoriasis is associated with systemic inflammation and significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular risk factors has already been described. The results of published studies are highly variable, the conclusions are ambiguous, and further epidemiological studies are needed for validation of published data. Therefore, we initiated a project aimed at identifying the association with cardiovascular risk factors, including early stages of atherosclerosis, that represent important comorbidities in patients with psoriasis. We carried out a hospital-based case-control study on 189 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis enrolled as cases. The control group consisted of 378 patients with other skin diseases complying with the same exclusion criteria who were recruited to the study as the controls. All participants underwent physical examination, blood tests, and measuring of blood pressure and waist circumference. Furthermore, we evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in a subset of 117 cases and controls (matched 1:2) with no history of cardiovascular disease. The results showed higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, waist circumference, weight, body-mass index (BMI), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients with psoriasis than in controls. These parameters have been clearly demonstrated to be risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The associations between psoriasis and diastolic blood pressure, BMI value, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were statistically significant in the binary data logistic model as well. CIMT was not significantly higher in patients compared with controls. PMID:27663919

  11. Ethnic Studies Activities for Bicentennial Celebration in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Beverly

    Compiled by a teacher, this handbook will serve as a guide to elementary teachers who want to provide students with an understanding of their American heritage. Classroom activities for use in a reading or social studies lesson are described. The activities are many and varied and include the following: developing a family tree; making a sandwich…

  12. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  13. Site Selection for the European ELT: working package included in the European FP6 ``ELT design study'' contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Sarazin, M.; Vernin, J.

    2007-10-01

    The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the European Union (EU), within the ``ELT design study'' proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 ``Site Characterization'', important use has been done of previous work in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, it started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks, working packages WP, whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: to characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore three other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izaña in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a set of standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer. A similar plan is being carried out by the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team. For the sake of saving resources (budget and people), the TMT preselected sites (all in the American Continent) are not included in our European study.

  14. Mathematical speech and practical action: a case study of the challenges of including mathematics in a school technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungum, Berit; Manshadi, Saeed; Atle Lysne, Dag

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a case study of how a teacher and nine-year-old students deal with mathematics in a practical technology project. By analysing videotaped dialogues between teacher and a pair of students working on constructing a house model, we identify challenges of meaningful inclusion of mathematics in the project. The dialogues are analysed in terms of an analytical framework where four categories of interaction patterns are combined with two main paradigms of mathematics teaching: the exercise paradigm and landscapes of interaction. The project in itself has a potential for facilitating landscapes of investigation in mathematics teaching. However, we find that the teacher as well as students adheres to the exercise paradigm when mathematics is involved in the activity. Two illustrating episodes from the project are examined and presented in detail in this paper. The findings illustrate that the conceptions teachers and students hold of what mathematics teaching means can act as an obstacle in attempts to realize mathematics teaching in creative and meaningful contexts for young students. We suggest that making the various purposes of a project more explicit may help overcome this obstacle, and that the mathematics involved might be taught in separate sessions in order to form a constructive part of a cross-curricular project.

  15. Studies of active galactic nuclei with CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, A.; Böttcher, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we review the prospects for studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the envisioned future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). This review focuses on jetted AGN, which constitute the vast majority of AGN detected at gamma-ray energies. Future progress will be driven by the planned lower energy threshold for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray detections to ∼10 GeV and improved flux sensitivity compared to current-generation Cherenkov Telescope facilities. We argue that CTA will enable substantial progress on gamma-ray population studies by deepening existing surveys both through increased flux sensitivity and by improving the chances of detecting a larger number of low-frequency peaked blazars because of the lower energy threshold. More detailed studies of the VHE gamma-ray spectral shape and variability might furthermore yield insight into unsolved questions concerning jet formation and composition, the acceleration of particles within relativistic jets, and the microphysics of the radiation mechanisms leading to the observable high-energy emission. The broad energy range covered by CTA includes energies where gamma-rays are unaffected from absorption while propagating in the extragalactic background light (EBL), and extends to an energy regime where VHE spectra are strongly distorted. This will help to reduce systematic effects in the spectra from different instruments, leading to a more reliable EBL determination, and hence will make it possible to constrain blazar models up to the highest energies with less ambiguity.

  16. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants.

  17. Comparison of alpha and beta tin for lithium, sodium, and magnesium storage: An ab initio study including phonon contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Legrain, F.; Manzhos, S.; Malyi, O. I.; Persson, C.

    2015-11-28

    We present a comparative ab initio study of Li, Na, and Mg storage in tin, including phononic effects and phase competition between α and β Sn. Mg doping at low concentration is found to stabilize the β phase. On the contrary, Li and Na doping is shown to reverse the stability of the phases at room temperature: Li/Na-doped α-Sn is more stable than Li/Na-doped β-Sn up to a temperature of around 380/400 K. This may rationalize the formation of α-Sn upon lithiation and delithiation of β-Sn anodes reported in experimental studies. The changes in phase stability with Li/Na/Mg doping are directly related to the intercalation energies of Li/Na/Mg in one phase versus the other: at 300 K, Li/Na is easier intercalated in α-Sn (−0.37/−0.08 eV) than in β-Sn (0.06/0.49 eV), while Mg intercalation energy is, although positive (i.e., unfavored intercalation), lower in β-Sn (0.53 eV) than in α-Sn (0.66 eV). The temperature effect is found to affect significantly the intercalation energy, by up to 0.13 eV at 300 K. Analysis of diffusion barriers shows that Li, Na, and Mg diffusion in β-Sn is anisotropic with migration barriers along the (001) direction (respectively, 0.01, 0.22, and 0.07 eV) significantly lower than those in α-Sn (respectively, 0.20, 0.52, and 0.40 eV)

  18. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. PMID:26164391

  19. Microdeletions Including FMR1 in Three Female Patients with Intellectual Disability – Further Delineation of the Phenotype and Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zink, A.M.; Wohlleber, E.; Engels, H.; Rødningen, O.K.; Ravn, K.; Heilmann, S.; Rehnitz, J.; Katzorke, N.; Kraus, C.; Blichfeldt, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Reutter, H.; Brockschmidt, F.F.; Kreiß-Nachtsheim, M.; Vogt, P.H.; Prescott, T.E.; Tümer, Z.; Lee, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in males. It is caused most often by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and less frequently by point mutations and partial or full deletions of the FMR1 gene. The wide clinical spectrum of affected females partly depends on their X-inactivation status. Only few female ID/DD patients with microdeletions including FMR1 have been reported. We describe 3 female patients with 3.5-, 4.2- and 9.2-Mb de novo microdeletions in Xq27.3-q28 containing FMR1. X-inactivation was random in all patients, yet they presented with ID/DD as well as speech delay, macrocephaly and other features attributable to FXS. No signs of autism were present. Here, we further delineate the clinical spectrum of female patients with microdeletions. FMR1 expression studies gave no evidence for an absolute threshold below which signs of FXS present. Since FMR1 expression is known to be highly variable between unrelated females, and since FMR1 mRNA levels have been suggested to be more similar among family members, we further explored the possibility of an intrafamilial effect. Interestingly, FMR1 mRNA levels in all 3 patients were significantly lower than in their respective mothers, which was shown to be specific for patients with microdeletions containing FMR1. PMID:24715853

  20. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Marfo, Jemima Tiwaa; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Taira, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old). Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough) were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old); the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old). N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum)), followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb) and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb), however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb), but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, not quantified) and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified). Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified), and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb). Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb). The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57). Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  1. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Taira, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4–87 year-old). Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough) were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5–69 year-old); the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5–78 year-old). N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum)), followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb) and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb), however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb), but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb), in ASG (6.3%, not quantified) and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified). Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified), and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb). Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb). The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5–57). Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  2. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  3. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  4. Impact of including or excluding both-armed zero-event studies on using standard meta-analysis methods for rare event outcome: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ji; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Marshall, John K; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is no consensus on whether studies with no observed events in the treatment and control arms, the so-called both-armed zero-event studies, should be included in a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Current analytic approaches handled them differently depending on the choice of effect measures and authors' discretion. Our objective is to evaluate the impact of including or excluding both-armed zero-event (BA0E) studies in meta-analysis of RCTs with rare outcome events through a simulation study. Method We simulated 2500 data sets for different scenarios varying the parameters of baseline event rate, treatment effect and number of patients in each trial, and between-study variance. We evaluated the performance of commonly used pooling methods in classical meta-analysis—namely, Peto, Mantel-Haenszel with fixed-effects and random-effects models, and inverse variance method with fixed-effects and random-effects models—using bias, root mean square error, length of 95% CI and coverage. Results The overall performance of the approaches of including or excluding BA0E studies in meta-analysis varied according to the magnitude of true treatment effect. Including BA0E studies introduced very little bias, decreased mean square error, narrowed the 95% CI and increased the coverage when no true treatment effect existed. However, when a true treatment effect existed, the estimates from the approach of excluding BA0E studies led to smaller bias than including them. Among all evaluated methods, the Peto method excluding BA0E studies gave the least biased results when a true treatment effect existed. Conclusions We recommend including BA0E studies when treatment effects are unlikely, but excluding them when there is a decisive treatment effect. Providing results of including and excluding BA0E studies to assess the robustness of the pooled estimated effect is a sensible way to communicate the results of a meta-analysis when the treatment

  5. Factors that affect postdialysis rebound in serum urea concentration, including the rate of dialysis: results from the HEMO Study.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, John T; Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A; Leypoldt, John; Gotch, Frank; Schulman, Gerald; Star, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that postdialysis urea rebound is related to K/V, the rate of dialysis, but a systematic analysis of factors that affect rebound has not been reported. With the use of 30-min and, in a subset, 60-min postdialysis samples, postdialysis urea rebound was measured to (1) determine how well previously proposed equations based on the rate of dialysis (K/V) predict rebound in a large sample of patients with varying characteristics, (2) determine whether other factors besides K/V affect rebound, and (3) estimate more precise values for coefficients in prediction equations for rebound. Rebound was calculated relative to both immediate and 20-s postdialysis samples to study early components of rebound unrelated to access recirculation. The equilibrated Kt/V (eKt/V) computed by fitting the two-pool variable volume model to the 30-min postdialysis sample agreed well with eKt/V based on the 60-min postdialysis sample. Using the pre-, post-, and 30-min postdialysis samples for 1245 patients with arteriovenous (AV) accesses, the median intercompartmental mass transfer coefficient (Kc) was 797 ml/min for rebound computed relative to the 20-s postdialysis samples and 592 ml/min relative to the immediate postdialysis samples. K/V was the strongest predictor of rebound among 22 factors considered. Other factors associated with greater rebound for 1331 patients using AV accesses or venous catheters included access type, black race, male gender, absence of congestive heart failure, greater age, ultrafiltration rate, and low predialysis or intradialysis systolic BP. Equations of the form eKt/V = single-pool Kt/V - B x (K/V) were fit to the data. With AV access, the optimum values for the slope term (B) were 0.39 and 0.46 (in h(-1)) for single-pool Kt/V calculated based on 20-s postdialysis or immediate postdialysis samples, respectively. For patients using venous catheters, the respective values for B were 0.22 and 0.29. Postdialysis urea rebound can be

  6. Graphing and Social Studies: An Interdisciplinary Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Julia L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a graphing activity that promotes mathematical connections with social studies lessons. Students should be familiar with graphing on the Cartesian coordinate system to play this variation of the game Battleship on maps of various regions of the world. (AIM)

  7. His Story/Her Story: A Dialogue About Including Men and Masculinities in the Women's Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berila, Beth; Keller, Jean; Krone, Camilla; Laker, Jason; Mayers, Ozzie

    2005-01-01

    In section I of this article, Beth Berila, director of Women's Studies at Saint Cloud State University (SCSU), St. Cloud, Minnesota, provides a theoretical argument for incorporating Gender Studies into Women's Studies programs, drawing on recent analyses in feminist studies, queer theory, critical race theory, and transnational feminism. In…

  8. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  9. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  10. Innovative Project Activities in Science [From the NSTA Study of Innovative Project Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes four projects chosen as innovative project activities in science which exhibited identification of unique or novel problems and creative approaches to their solutions. Projects included a study of fish in Lake Erie, a goat raising project, an analysis of terrestrial plant ecology and soil composition, and a study of marine and wetlands…

  11. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  12. Five Transition Policy Studies Including Pertinent Literature Synthesis. Project TROPHY. Transition Research on Problems of Handicapped Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, William J.; And Others

    The first of five studies in this monograph, "Transition Policies for Youth with Disabilities: Now a Question of Implementation" (Joseph Stowitschek), presents results of a study to determine priority areas for policy analysis among the issues identified in the literature on the school-to-work transition of individuals with disabilities.…

  13. Multimodal electrophysiological studies including motor evoked potentials in patients with locked-in syndrome: report of six patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bassetti, C; Mathis, J; Hess, C W

    1994-01-01

    Clinical and electrophysiological findings in six patients with locked-in syndrome are reported. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex were absent in four patients, none of whom recovered clinically. In two patients, MEPs could be obtained from the severely paretic limbs and almost full motor recovery followed. Somatosensory evoked potentials were altered in four of the patients, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were altered in two of four patients examined, showing a clinically unsuspected tegmental involvement. The EEG showed a predominance of reactive alpha activity in all patients, documenting a preserved consciousness. It is concluded that a multimodal electrophysiological approach, in addition to clinical assessment, can be helpful in diagnosing locked-in syndrome, estimating the extension of the underlying brainstem dysfunction, and predicting functional outcome. Images PMID:7964820

  14. Lesbian studies and activism in India.

    PubMed

    Vanita, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This essay surveys public debates and writings about lesbianism and the history of activism around lesbian issues in twentieth-century India. Weddings between women and joint suicides by female couples over the last twenty-five years are among the under-researched, but increasingly reported, phenomena that suggest future directions that activism and the study of lesbianism in India may take. PMID:17954460

  15. Development of a computer algorithm for the analysis of variable-frequency AC drives: Case studies included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Benjamin, Owen

    1991-01-01

    The development of computer software for performance prediction and analysis of voltage-fed, variable-frequency AC drives for space power applications is discussed. The AC drives discussed include the pulse width modulated inverter (PWMI), a six-step inverter and the pulse density modulated inverter (PDMI), each individually connected to a wound-rotor induction motor. Various d-q transformation models of the induction motor are incorporated for user-selection of the most applicable model for the intended purpose. Simulation results of selected AC drives correlate satisfactorily with published results. Future additions to the algorithm are indicated. These improvements should enhance the applicability of the computer program to the design and analysis of space power systems.

  16. Implementing and Integrating Effective Teaching Strategies Including Features of Lesson Study in an Elementary Science Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs have been under attack by policy makers in the last decade, and teacher educators are constantly striving to improve their programs. Yet, there are several research-based practices that have been shown to be effective for developing teachers. In this article, the author summarizes a study in one science methods course…

  17. Government in Emergency. Suggestions for Including Civil Defense Principles in the Social Studies Curriculum, Grades 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This handbook contains suggestions for teaching the facts, principles, and behaviors relevant to civil defense in social studies classes, grades 1-12. These classes were chosen as the entry point for civil defense education because the core of the civil defense concept is government in action with other community agencies to save lives and…

  18. Issues Relating to Selective Reporting When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Healthcare Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Susan L.; Moher, David; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Shea, Beverley; Loke, Yoon; Garner, Sarah; Anderson, Laurie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: Selective outcome and analysis reporting (SOR and SAR) occur when only a subset of outcomes measured and analyzed in a study is fully reported, and are an important source of potential bias. Key methodological issues: We describe what is known about the prevalence and effects of SOR and SAR in both randomized controlled trials (RCTs)…

  19. Drug Dependence in Michigan Including A Study of Attitudes and Actions of the Young People of Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogg, Richard A.; And Others

    A 1968 study was undertaken in Michigan with the following objectives: 1) to determine drug utilization rates for public high school seniors; 2) to determine demographic, sociological, and social-psychological correlates of drug utilization; and 3) to acquire information relevant to present and future health education programs. A questionnaire…

  20. Effects of Communities of Reflecting Peers on Student-Teacher Development--Including In-Depth Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fund, Zvia

    2010-01-01

    Despite continuing interest in teacher reflection and an extensive body of research on peer assessment, the interaction between these areas has not been sufficiently investigated. This study on reflection and peer feedback is part of an ongoing action research addressing the design and pedagogical model of a theoretically oriented teacher training…

  1. Mathematical Speech and Practical Action: A Case Study of the Challenges of Including Mathematics in a School Technology Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bungum, Berit; Manshadi, Saeed; Lysne, Dag Atle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of how a teacher and nine-year-old students deal with mathematics in a practical technology project. By analysing videotaped dialogues between teacher and a pair of students working on constructing a house model, we identify challenges of meaningful inclusion of mathematics in the project. The dialogues are…

  2. Theoretical study on the low-lying excited states of the phosphorus monoiodide (PI) including the spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Xiaoting; Liang, Guiying; Li, Rui; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The potential energy curves (PECs) of the 22 Λ-S states of the phosphorus monoiodide (PI) molecule have been calculated at the level of MRCI+Q method with correlation-consistent quadruple-ζ quality basis set. The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined, which well reproduce the available measurements. The metastable a1Δ state has been reported for the first time, which lies between the X3Σ- and b1Σ+ states and have much deeper well than the ground state. The R-dependent spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements are calculated with the full-electron Breit-Pauli operator. Based on the SO matrix elements, the perturbations that the 23Π state may suffer from are analyzed in detail. The SOC effect makes the original Λ-S states split into 51 Ω states. In the zero-field splitting of the ground state X3Σ-, the spin-spin coupling contribution (2.23 cm-1) is found to be much smaller compared to the spin-orbit coupling contribution (50 cm-1). The avoided crossings between the Ω states lead to much shallower potential wells and the change of dissociation relationships of the states. The Ω-state wavefunctions are analyzed depending on their Λ-S compositions, showing the strong interactions among several quasidegenerate Λ-S states of the same total SO symmetry. The transition properties including electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), and electric quadrupole (E2) transition moments (TMs), the Franck-Condon factors, the transition probabilities and the radiative lifetimes are computed for the transitions between Ω components of a1Δ and b1Σ+ states and ground state. The transition probabilities induced by the E1, E2, and M1 transitions are evaluated. The E2 makes little effect on transition probabilities. In contrast, the E1 transition makes the main contribution to the transition probability and the M1 transition also brings the influence that cannot be neglected. Finally, the radiative lifetimes are determined with the transition moments including E

  3. Mechanism of Human Tooth Eruption: Review Article Including a New Theory for Future Studies on the Eruption Process

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Human eruption is a unique developmental process in the organism. The aetiology or the mechanism behind eruption has never been fully understood and the scientific literature in the field is extremely sparse. Human and animal tissues provide different possibilities for eruption analyses, briefly discussed in the introduction. Human studies, mainly clinical and radiological, have focused on normal eruption and gender differences. Why a tooth begins eruption and what enables it to move eruptively and later to end these eruptive movements is not known. Pathological eruption courses contribute to insight into the aetiology behind eruption. A new theory on the eruption mechanism is presented. Accordingly, the mechanism of eruption depends on the correlation between space in the eruption course, created by the crown follicle, eruption pressure triggered by innervation in the apical root membrane, and the ability of the periodontal ligament to adapt to eruptive movements. Animal studies and studies on normal and pathological eruption in humans can support and explain different aspects in the new theory. The eruption mechanism still needs elucidation and the paper recommends that future research on eruption keeps this new theory in mind. Understanding the aetiology of the eruption process is necessary for treating deviant eruption courses. PMID:24688798

  4. Active tectonic studies in the United States, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, R.J., II )

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and instrumentation used in active tectonic studies are discussed, and recent results are reviewed. It is suggested that a critical mass of data on several particular regions has been accumulated, making possible critical debates and attempts to assess earthquake hazards. Particular attention is given to studies of the Pacific Northwest region, basin and range deformation studies, and distributed deformation and hidden earthquake sources. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography for the period.

  5. Neutron Scattering Studies of Liquid on or Confined in Nano- and Mesoporous Carbons, Including Carbide-Derived Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, David J

    2014-07-01

    This project involved the synthesis of microporous graphitic-carbon powders with subnanometer average pore size, and very narrow pore size distributions, and the use of these materials in experimental studies of pore-fluid structure and dynamics. Samples of carbide-derived carbon powder, synthesized by extraction of the metal cations from TiC by a high temperature chlorination process, followed by high temperature vacuum annealing, were prepared by Ranjan Dash and his associates at CRADA partner Y-Carbon, Inc. The resulting material had average pore sizes ranging from 5 to 8 . These powders were used in two experiments conducted by researchers involved in the Energy Frontier Research Center Directed by David J. Wesolowski at ORNL, the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Center. FIRST-funded researchers at Drexel University collaborated with scientists at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, to measure the expansion and contraction of the microporous carbon particles during charging and discharging of supercapactor electrodes composed of these particles (Hantell et al., 2011, Electrochemistry Communications, v. 13, pp. 1221-1224.) in an electrolyte composed of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate dissolved in acetonitrile. In the second experiment, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Drexel University conducted quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the diffusional dynamics of water imbibed into the micropores of the same material (Chathoth et al., 2011, EuroPhysics Journal, v. 95, pp. 56001/1-6). These studies helped to establish the role of pores approaching the size of the solvent and dissolved ions in altering diffusional dynamics, ion transport and physical response of conducting substrates to ion desolvation and entry into subnamometer pores.

  6. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; MacGregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Wilson, James F.; Pennell, Craig E.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Delcourt, Cécile; Maubaret, Cecilia; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M.; Davey-Smith, George; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; MacGregor, Stuart; Lu, Yi; Jonas, Jost B.; Xu, Liang; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Jonas, Jost B.; Nangia, Vinay; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Vitart, Veronique; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Vitart, Veronique; Paterson, Andrew D.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Young, Terri L.; Feng, Sheng; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Klaver, Caroline C.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Metspalu, Andres; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Pärssinen, Olavi; Wedenoja, Juho; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Wojciechowski, Robert; Baird, Paul N.; Schache, Maria; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Höhn, René; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Peng; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Wegner, Aharon; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Pärssinen, Olavi; Yip, Shea Ping; Ho, Daniel W.H.; Pirastu, Mario; Murgia, Federico; Portas, Laura; Biino, Genevra; Wilson, James F.; Fleck, Brian; Vitart, Veronique; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Hewitt, Alex W.; Ang, Wei; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Klaver, Caroline C.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Mackey, David A.; MacGregor, Stuart; Hammond, Christopher J.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Paterson, Andrew D.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Reinhart, William; Belin, Michael W.; Schultze, Robert L.; Morason, Todd; Sugar, Alan; Mian, Shahzad; Soong, Hunson Kaz; Colby, Kathryn; Jurkunas, Ula; Yee, Richard; Vital, Mark; Alfonso, Eduardo; Karp, Carol; Lee, Yunhee; Yoo, Sonia; Hammersmith, Kristin; Cohen, Elisabeth; Laibson, Peter; Rapuano, Christopher; Ayres, Brandon; Croasdale, Christopher; Caudill, James; Patel, Sanjay; Baratz, Keith; Bourne, William; Maguire, Leo; Sugar, Joel; Tu, Elmer; Djalilian, Ali; Mootha, Vinod; McCulley, James; Bowman, Wayne; Cavanaugh, H. Dwight; Verity, Steven; Verdier, David; Renucci, Ann; Oliva, Matt; Rotkis, Walter; Hardten, David R.; Fahmy, Ahmad; Brown, Marlene; Reeves, Sherman; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Lindstrom, Richard; Hauswirth, Scott; Hamilton, Stephen; Lee, W. Barry; Price, Francis; Price, Marianne; Kelly, Kathleen; Peters, Faye; Shaughnessy, Michael; Steinemann, Thomas; Dupps, B.J.; Meisler, David M.; Mifflin, Mark; Olson, Randal; Aldave, Anthony; Holland, Gary; Mondino, Bartly J.; Rosenwasser, George; Gorovoy, Mark; Dunn, Steven P.; Heidemann, David G.; Terry, Mark; Shamie, Neda; Rosenfeld, Steven I.; Suedekum, Brandon; Hwang, David; Stone, Donald; Chodosh, James; Galentine, Paul G.; Bardenstein, David; Goddard, Katrina; Chin, Hemin; Mannis, Mark; Varma, Rohit; Borecki, Ingrid; Chew, Emily Y.; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl J.; Donnelly, Peter; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Strange, Amy; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Donnelly, Peter; Langford, Cordelia; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela; Barroso, Ines; Deloukas, Panos; Mathew, Christopher G.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Brown, Matthew A.; Corvin, Aiden; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Bettecken, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Pirastu, Mario; Portas, Laura; Nag, Abhishek; Williams, Katie M.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Paterson, Andrew D.; Genuth, S.; Nathan, D.M.; Zinman, B.; Crofford, O.; Crandall, J.; Reid, M.; Brown-Friday, J.; Engel, S.; Sheindlin, J.; Martinez, H.; Shamoon, H.; Engel, H.; Phillips, M.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Mayer, L.; Pendegast, S.; Zegarra, H.; Miller, D.; Singerman, L.; Smith-Brewer, S.; Novak, M.; Quin, J.; Dahms, W.; Genuth, Saul; Palmert, M.; Brillon, D.; Lackaye, M.E.; Kiss, S.; Chan, R.; Reppucci, V.; Lee, T.; Heinemann, M.; Whitehouse, F.; Kruger, D.; Jones, J.K.; McLellan, M.; Carey, J.D.; Angus, E.; Thomas, A.; Galprin, A.; Bergenstal, R.; Johnson, M.; Spencer, M.; Morgan, K.; Etzwiler, D.; Kendall, D.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Golden, E.; Jacobson, A.; Beaser, R.; Ganda, O.; Hamdy, O.; Wolpert, H.; Sharuk, G.; Arrigg, P.; Schlossman, D.; Rosenzwieg, J.; Rand, L.; Nathan, D.M.; Larkin, M.; Ong, M.; Godine, J.; Cagliero, E.; Lou, P.; Folino, K.; Fritz, S.; Crowell, S.; Hansen, K.; Gauthier-Kelly, C.; Service, J.; Ziegler, G.; Luttrell, L.; Caulder, S.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Colwell, J.; Soule, J.; Fernandes, J.; Hermayer, K.; Kwon, S.; Brabham, M.; Blevins, A.; Parker, J.; Lee, D.; Patel, N.; Pittman, C.; Lindsey, P.; Bracey, M.; Lee, K.; Nutaitis, M.; Farr, A.; Elsing, S.; Thompson, T.; Selby, J.; Lyons, T.; Yacoub-Wasef, S.; Szpiech, M.; Wood, D.; Mayfield, R.; Molitch, M.; Schaefer, B.; Jampol, L.; Lyon, A.; Gill, M.; Strugula, Z.; Kaminski, L.; Mirza, R.; Simjanoski, E.; Ryan, D.; Kolterman, O.; Lorenzi, G.; Goldbaum, M.; Sivitz, W.; Bayless, M.; Counts, D.; Johnsonbaugh, S.; Hebdon, M.; Salemi, P.; Liss, R.; Donner, T.; Gordon, J.; Hemady, R.; Kowarski, A.; Ostrowski, D.; Steidl, S.; Jones, B.; Herman, W.H.; Martin, C.L.; Pop-Busui, R.; Sarma, A.; Albers, J.; Feldman, E.; Kim, K.; Elner, S.; Comer, G.; Gardner, T.; Hackel, R.; Prusak, R.; Goings, L.; Smith, A.; Gothrup, J.; Titus, P.; Lee, J.; Brandle, M.; Prosser, L.; Greene, D.A.; Stevens, M.J.; Vine, A.K.; Bantle, J.; Wimmergren, N.; Cochrane, A.; Olsen, T.; Steuer, E.; Rath, P.; Rogness, B.; Hainsworth, D.; Goldstein, D.; Hitt, S.; Giangiacomo, J.; Schade, D.S.; Canady, J.L.; Chapin, J.E.; Ketai, L.H.; Braunstein, C.S.; Bourne, P.A.; Schwartz, S.; Brucker, A.; Maschak-Carey, B.J.; Baker, L.; Orchard, T.; Silvers, N.; Ryan, C.; Songer, T.; Doft, B.; Olson, S.; Bergren, R.L.; Lobes, L.; Rath, P. Paczan; Becker, D.; Rubinstein, D.; Conrad, P.W.; Yalamanchi, S.; Drash, A.; Morrison, A.; Bernal, M.L.; Vaccaro-Kish, J.; Malone, J.; Pavan, P.R.; Grove, N.; Iyer, M.N.; Burrows, A.F.; Tanaka, E.A.; Gstalder, R.; Dagogo-Jack, S.; Wigley, C.; Ricks, H.; Kitabchi, A.; Murphy, M.B.; Moser, S.; Meyer, D.; Iannacone, A.; Chaum, E.; Yoser, S.; Bryer-Ash, M.; Schussler, S.; Lambeth, H.; Raskin, P.; Strowig, S.; Zinman, B.; Barnie, A.; Devenyi, R.; Mandelcorn, M.; Brent, M.; Rogers, S.; Gordon, A.; Palmer, J.; Catton, S.; Brunzell, J.; Wessells, H.; de Boer, I.H.; Hokanson, J.; Purnell, J.; Ginsberg, J.; Kinyoun, J.; Deeb, S.; Weiss, M.; Meekins, G.; Distad, J.; Van Ottingham, L.; Dupre, J.; Harth, J.; Nicolle, D.; Driscoll, M.; Mahon, J.; Canny, C.; May, M.; Lipps, J.; Agarwal, A.; Adkins, T.; Survant, L.; Pate, R.L.; Munn, G.E.; Lorenz, R.; Feman, S.; White, N.; Levandoski, L.; Boniuk, I.; Grand, G.; Thomas, M.; Joseph, D.D.; Blinder, K.; Shah, G.; Boniuk; Burgess; Santiago, J.; Tamborlane, W.; Gatcomb, P.; Stoessel, K.; Taylor, K.; Goldstein, J.; Novella, S.; Mojibian, H.; Cornfeld, D.; Lima, J.; Bluemke, D.; Turkbey, E.; van der Geest, R.J.; Liu, C.; Malayeri, A.; Jain, A.; Miao, C.; Chahal, H.; Jarboe, R.; Maynard, J.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Quin, J.; Gaston, P.; Palmert, M.; Trail, R.; Dahms, W.; Lachin, J.; Cleary, P.; Backlund, J.; Sun, W.; Braffett, B.; Klumpp, K.; Chan, K.; Diminick, L.; Rosenberg, D.; Petty, B.; Determan, A.; Kenny, D.; Rutledge, B.; Younes, Naji; Dews, L.; Hawkins, M.; Cowie, C.; Fradkin, J.; Siebert, C.; Eastman, R.; Danis, R.; Gangaputra, S.; Neill, S.; Davis, M.; Hubbard, L.; Wabers, H.; Burger, M.; Dingledine, J.; Gama, V.; Sussman, R.; Steffes, M.; Bucksa, J.; Nowicki, M.; Chavers, B.; O’Leary, D.; Polak, J.; Harrington, A.; Funk, L.; Crow, R.; Gloeb, B.; Thomas, S.; O’Donnell, C.; Soliman, E.; Zhang, Z.M.; Prineas, R.; Campbell, C.; Ryan, C.; Sandstrom, D.; Williams, T.; Geckle, M.; Cupelli, E.; Thoma, F.; Burzuk, B.; Woodfill, T.; Low, P.; Sommer, C.; Nickander, K.; Budoff, M.; Detrano, R.; Wong, N.; Fox, M.; Kim, L.; Oudiz, R.; Weir, G.; Espeland, M.; Manolio, T.; Rand, L.; Singer, D.; Stern, M.; Boulton, A.E.; Clark, C.; D’Agostino, R.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Garvey, W.T.; Lyons, T.J.; Jenkins, A.; Virella, G.; Jaffa, A.; Carter, Rickey; Lackland, D.; Brabham, M.; McGee, D.; Zheng, D.; Mayfield, R.K.; Boright, A.; Bull, S.; Sun, L.; Scherer, S.; Zinman, B.; Natarajan, R.; Miao, F.; Zhang, L.; Chen;, Z.; Nathan, D.M.; Makela, Kari-Matti; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K.H.; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Foster, Paul J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Vithana, Eranga; Tai, E-Shyong; Fan, Qiao; Xu, Liang; Campbell, Harry; Fleck, Brian; Rudan, Igor; Aung, Tin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Bencic, Goran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Forward, Hannah; Pärssinen, Olavi; Mitchell, Paul; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hewitt, Alex W.; Williams, Cathy; Oostra, Ben A.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Hammond, Christopher J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Mackey, David A.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We identified eight genome-wide significant loci for AL (RSPO1, C3orf26, LAMA2, GJD2, ZNRF3, CD55, MIP, and ALPPL2) and confirmed one previously reported AL locus (ZC3H11B). Of the nine loci, five (LAMA2, GJD2, CD55, ALPPL2, and ZC3H11B) were associated with refraction in 18 independent cohorts (n = 23,591). Differential gene expression was observed for these loci in minus-lens-induced myopia mouse experiments and human ocular tissues. Two of the AL genes, RSPO1 and ZNRF3, are involved in Wnt signaling, a pathway playing a major role in the regulation of eyeball size. This study provides evidence of shared genes between AL and refraction, but importantly also suggests that these traits may have unique pathways. PMID:24144296

  7. Nine loci for ocular axial length identified through genome-wide association studies, including shared loci with refractive error.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M Kamran; Young, Terri L; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Vitart, Veronique; MacGregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; St Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Montgomery, Grant W; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Wilson, James F; Pennell, Craig E; van Duijn, Cornelia M; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Burdon, Kathryn P; Craig, Jamie E; Iyengar, Sudha K; Igo, Robert P; Lass, Jonathan H; Chew, Emily Y; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L; Wojciechowski, Robert; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl J; Bettecken, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Pirastu, Mario; Portas, Laura; Nag, Abhishek; Williams, Katie M; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Paterson, Andrew D; Makela, Kari-Matti; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K H; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Foster, Paul J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Vithana, Eranga; Tai, E-Shyong; Fan, Qiao; Xu, Liang; Campbell, Harry; Fleck, Brian; Rudan, Igor; Aung, Tin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Bencic, Goran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Forward, Hannah; Pärssinen, Olavi; Mitchell, Paul; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hewitt, Alex W; Williams, Cathy; Oostra, Ben A; Teo, Yik-Ying; Hammond, Christopher J; Stambolian, Dwight; Mackey, David A; Klaver, Caroline C W; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N

    2013-08-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We identified eight genome-wide significant loci for AL (RSPO1, C3orf26, LAMA2, GJD2, ZNRF3, CD55, MIP, and ALPPL2) and confirmed one previously reported AL locus (ZC3H11B). Of the nine loci, five (LAMA2, GJD2, CD55, ALPPL2, and ZC3H11B) were associated with refraction in 18 independent cohorts (n = 23,591). Differential gene expression was observed for these loci in minus-lens-induced myopia mouse experiments and human ocular tissues. Two of the AL genes, RSPO1 and ZNRF3, are involved in Wnt signaling, a pathway playing a major role in the regulation of eyeball size. This study provides evidence of shared genes between AL and refraction, but importantly also suggests that these traits may have unique pathways.

  8. Global Studies of the Sulfur Cycle Including the Influence of DMS and Fossil Fuel Sulfur on Climate and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Joyce E.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols, wherein aerosol particles are thought to increase cloud droplet concentrations and cloud lifetime, is the most uncertain component of climate forcing over the past 100 years. Here, for the first time, we use a mechanistic treatment of droplet nucleation and a prognostic treatment of the number of cloud droplets to study the indirect aerosol effect from changes in carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Cloud droplet nucleation is parameterized as a function of total aerosol number concentration, updraft velocity and a shape parameter, which takes into account the mechanism, of sulfate aerosol formation, while cloud droplet number depends on the nucleation as well as on droplet sinks. Whereas previous treatments have predicted annual average indirect effects between -1 and -2 W/sq m, we obtain an indirect aerosol effect between -0.14 W/sq m and -0.42 W/sq m in the global mean.

  9. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Mark J S

    2014-01-01

    A case study is reported whereby an individual with known sulfite and sulfonamide allergies develops hypersensitivity to taurine above a threshold level as well as to the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium, compounds that are not normally associated with allergic reactions. Sulfites, sulfonamides, taurine and acesulfame potassium all contain a SO3 moiety. Challenge tests provide evidence for the hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium. The subject is also allergic to thiuram mix and thimerosal, sulfur containing compounds, as well as to various food products. This may be the first case where hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium have been documented and reported. Several mechanistic explanations are provided for the untoward reactions to taurine and acesulfame potassium.

  10. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas. PMID:21682872

  11. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

  12. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-08-19

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  13. Pig skin includes dendritic cell subsets transcriptomically related to human CD1a and CD14 dendritic cells presenting different migrating behaviors and T cell activation capacities.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Florian; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Maisonnasse, Pauline; Elhmouzi-Younes, Jamila; Urien, Céline; Bouguyon, Edwige; Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Simon, Gaëlle; Ezquerra, Angel; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Bonneau, Michel; Dalod, Marc; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Bertho, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    Swine skin is one of the best structural models for human skin, widely used to probe drug transcutaneous passage and to test new skin vaccination devices. However, little is known about its composition in immune cells, and among them dendritic cells (DC), that are essential in the initiation of the immune response. After a first seminal work describing four different DC subpopulations in pig skin, we hereafter deepen the characterization of these cells, showing the similarities between swine DC subsets and their human counterparts. Using comparative transcriptomic study, classical phenotyping as well as in vivo and in vitro functional studies, we show that swine CD163(pos) dermal DC (DDC) are transcriptomically similar to the human CD14(pos) DDC. CD163(pos) DDC are recruited in inflamed skin, they migrate in inflamed lymph but they are not attracted toward CCL21, and they modestly activate allogeneic CD8 T cells. We also show that CD163(low) DDC are transcriptomically similar to the human CD1a(pos) DDC. CD163(low) DDC migrate toward CCL21, they activate allogeneic CD8 and CD4 T cells and, like their potential human lung counterpart, they skew CD4 T cells toward a Th17 profile. We thus conclude that swine skin is a relevant model for human skin vaccination.

  14. Amazing Social Studies Activities: Participatory Learning Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Mercedes M.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for delivering, selecting, and implementing learning activities for their classrooms. They must consider the best approaches to engage their students as well as to meet the school's standards in instruction. Here is a practical how-to book to supplement the social studies curriculum. It places at the teacher's disposal,…

  15. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  16. Pressure dependent stability and structure of carbon dioxide--a density functional study including long-range corrections.

    PubMed

    Gohr, Sebastian; Grimme, Stefan; Söhnel, Tilo; Paulus, Beate; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2013-11-01

    First-principles density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the solid-state modifications of carbon dioxide up to pressures of 60 GPa. All known molecular CO2 structures are investigated in this pressure range, as well as three non-molecular modifications. To account for long-range van der Waals interactions, the dispersion corrected DFT method developed by Grimme and co-workers (DFT-D3) is applied. We find that the DFT-D3 method substantially improves the results compared to the uncorrected DFT methods for the molecular carbon dioxide crystals. Enthalpies at 0 K and cohesive energies support only one possibility of the available experimental solutions for the structure of phase IV: the R3c modification, proposed by Datchi and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 185701 (2009)]. Furthermore, comparing bulk moduli with experimental values, we cannot reproduce the quite large--rather typical for covalent crystal structures--experimental values for the molecular phases II and III. PMID:24206310

  17. Electronically excited-state properties and predissociation mechanisms of phosphorus monofluoride: A theoretical study including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Le; Bian, Wensheng

    2012-07-01

    The 51 Ω states generated from the 22 Λ - S states of phosphors monofluoride have been investigated using the valence internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method with the Davidson correction and the entirely uncontracted aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. The spin-orbit coupling is computed using the state interaction approach with the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Based on the calculated potential energy curves, the spectroscopic constants of the bound and quasibound Λ - S and Ω states are obtained, and very good agreement with experiment is achieved. Several quasibound states caused by avoided crossings are found. Various curve crossings and avoided crossings are revealed, and with the help of our computed spin-orbit coupling matrix elements, the predissociation mechanisms of the a1Δ, b1Σ+, e3Π, g1Π, and (3)3Π states are analyzed. The intricate couplings among different electronic states are investigated. We propose that the avoided crossing between the A3Π0 + and b^1 {Σ }_{{0 + }}^{+ } states may be responsible for the fact that the A3Π ν' ⩾ 12 vibrational levels can not be observed in experiment. The transition properties of the A3Π - X3Σ- transition are studied, and our computed Franck-Condon factors and radiative lifetimes match the experimental results very well.

  18. Rural-urban migration including formal and informal workers in the urban sector: an agent-based numerical simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, Nilton; Oliveira, Tharnier; Silveira, Jaylson

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this work is to study rural-urban migration in the early stages of industrialization. We use an agent-based model and take into account the existence of informal and formal workers on the urban sector and possible migration movements, dependent on the agents' social and private utilities. Our agents are place on vertices of a square lattice, such that each vertex has only one agent. Rural, urban informal and urban formal workers are represented by different states of a three-state Ising model. At every step, a fraction a of the agents may change sectors or migrate. The total utility of a given agent is then calculated and compared to a random utility, in order to check if this agent turns into an actual migrant or changes sector. The dynamics is carried out until an equilibrium state is reached and equilibrium variables are then calculated and compared to available data. We find that a generalized Harris-Todaro condition is satisfied [1] on these equilibrium regimes, i.e, the ratio between expected wages between any pair of sectors reach a constant value. [4pt] [1] J. J. Silveira, A. L. Esp'indola and T. J. Penna, Physica A, 364, 445 (2006).

  19. PRKAR1A in the development of cardiac myxoma: a study of 110 cases including isolated and syndromic tumors.

    PubMed

    Maleszewski, Joseph J; Larsen, Brandon T; Kip, Nefize Sertac; Castonguay, Mathieu C; Edwards, William D; Carney, J Aidan; Kipp, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    Cardiac myxoma usually occurs as a solitary mass, but occasionally develops as part of a familial syndrome, the Carney complex (CNC). Two thirds of CNC-associated cardiac myxomas exhibit mutations in PRKAR1A. PRKAR1A mutations occur in both familial and sporadic forms of CNC but have not been described in isolated (nonsyndromic) cardiac myxomas. A total of 127 consecutive cardiac myxomas surgically resected at Mayo Clinic (1993 to 2011) from 110 individuals were studied. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were reviewed. Of these, 103 patients had isolated cardiac myxomas, and 7 patients had the tumor as a component of CNC. Age and sex distributions were different for CNC (mean 26 y, range 14 to 44 y, 71% female) and non-CNC (mean 62 y, range 18 to 92 y, 63% female) patients. PRKAR1A immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) was performed, and myxoma cell reactivity was graded semiquantitatively. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing was performed in 3 CNC patients and 29 non-CNC patients, to test for the presence of mutations in all coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the PRKAR1A gene. IHC staining showed that all 7 CNC cases lacked PRKAR1A antigenicity and that 33 (32%) isolated cardiac myxomas were similarly nonreactive. Of tumors subjected to sequencing analysis, 2 (67%) CNC myxomas and 9 (31%) non-CNC myxomas had pathogenic PRKAR1A mutations. No germline mutations were found in 4 non-CNC cases tested. PRKAR1A appears to play a role in the development of both syndromic and nonsyndromic cardiac myxomas. Routine IHC evaluation of cardiac myxomas for PRKAR1A expression may be useful in excluding a diagnosis of CNC. PMID:24618615

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  1. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  2. Brain activity mapping in Mecp2 mutant mice reveals functional deficits in forebrain circuits, including key nodes in the default mode network, that are reversed with ketamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Kron, Miriam; Howell, C James; Adams, Ian T; Ransbottom, Michael; Christian, Diana; Ogier, Michael; Katz, David M

    2012-10-01

    Excitatory-inhibitory imbalance has been identified within specific brain microcircuits in models of Rett syndrome (RTT) and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, macrocircuit dysfunction across the RTT brain as a whole has not been defined. To approach this issue, we mapped expression of the activity-dependent, immediate-early gene product Fos in the brains of wild-type (Wt) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2)-null (Null) mice, a model of RTT, before and after the appearance of overt symptoms (3 and 6 weeks of age, respectively). At 6 weeks, Null mice exhibit significantly less Fos labeling than Wt in limbic cortices and subcortical structures, including key nodes in the default mode network. In contrast, Null mice exhibit significantly more Fos labeling than Wt in the hindbrain, most notably in cardiorespiratory regions of the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS). Using nTS as a model, whole-cell recordings demonstrated that increased Fos expression in Nulls at 6 weeks of age is associated with synaptic hyperexcitability, including increased frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs and increased amplitude of evoked EPSCs in Nulls. No such effect of genotype on Fos or synaptic function was seen at 3 weeks. In the mutant forebrain, reduced Fos expression, as well as abnormal sensorimotor function, were reversed by the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. In light of recent findings that the default mode network is hypoactive in autism, our data raise the possibility that hypofunction within this meta-circuit is a shared feature of RTT and other ASDs and is reversible. PMID:23035095

  3. Study of tethered satellite active attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G.

    1982-01-01

    Existing software was adapted for the study of tethered subsatellite rotational dynamics, an analytic solution for a stable configuration of a tethered subsatellite was developed, the analytic and numerical integrator (computer) solutions for this "test case' was compared in a two mass tether model program (DUMBEL), the existing multiple mass tether model (SKYHOOK) was modified to include subsatellite rotational dynamics, the analytic "test case,' was verified, and the use of the SKYHOOK rotational dynamics capability with a computer run showing the effect of a single off axis thruster on the behavior of the subsatellite was demonstrated. Subroutines for specific attitude control systems are developed and applied to the study of the behavior of the tethered subsatellite under realistic on orbit conditions. The effect of all tether "inputs,' including pendular oscillations, air drag, and electrodynamic interactions, on the dynamic behavior of the tether are included.

  4. Study of Dependencies in Executions of E-Contract Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyasankar, K.; Krishna, P. Radha; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    An e-contract is a contract modeled, specified, executed, controlled and monitored by a software system. A contract is a legal agreement involving parties, activities, clauses and payments. The goals of an e-contract include precise specification of the activities of the contract, mapping them into deployable workflows, and providing transactional support in their execution. Activities in a contract are generally complex and interdependent. They may be executed by different parties autonomously and in a loosely coupled fashion. They differ from database transactions in many ways: (i) Different successful executions are possible for an activity; (ii) Unsuccessful executions may be compensated or re-executed to get different results; (iii) Whether an execution is successful or not may not be known until after several subsequent activities are executed, and so it may be compensated and/or re-executed at different times relative to the execution of other activities; (iv) Compensation or re-execution of an activity may require compensation or re-execution of several other activities; etc. In this paper, we study the interdependencies between the executions of e-contract activities. This study will be helpful in monitoring behavioral conditions stated in an e-contracts during its execution.

  5. Suppression of the ELO-2 FA elongation activity results in alterations of the fatty acid composition and multiple physiological defects, including abnormal ultradian rhythms, in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Sieber, Matt; McCauley, Scott; Zhang, Kang; Watts, Jennifer L; Han, Min

    2003-01-01

    While the general steps of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis are well understood, the individual enzymes involved in the elongation of long chain saturated and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) are largely unknown. Recent research indicates that these enzymes might be of considerable physiological importance for human health. We use Caenorhabditis elegans to study FA elongation activities and associated abnormal phenotypes. In this article we report that the predicted C. elegans F11E6.5/ELO-2 is a functional enzyme with the FA elongation activity. It is responsible for the elongation of palmitic acid and is involved in PUFA biosynthesis. RNAi-mediated suppression of ELO-2 causes an accumulation of palmitate and an associated decrease in the PUFA fraction in triacylglycerides and phospholipid classes. This imbalance in the FA composition results in multiple phenotypic defects such as slow growth, small body size, reproductive defects, and changes in rhythmic behavior. ELO-2 cooperates with the previously reported ELO-1 in 20-carbon PUFA production, and at least one of the enzymes must function to provide normal growth and development in C. elegans. The presented data indicate that suppression of a single enzyme of the FA elongation machinery is enough to affect various organs and systems in worms. This effect resembles syndromic disorders in humans. PMID:12586704

  6. Multiwavelength Search and Studies of Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Since 1950s, Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has always been one of the centres for surveys and studies of active galaxies. Here I review our search and studies of active galaxies during last 30 years using various wavelength ranges, as well as some recent related works. These projects since late 1980s were focused on multiwavelength search and studies of AGN and Starbursts (SB). 1103 blue stellar objects (BSOs) on the basis of their UV-excess were selected using Markarian Survey (First Byurakan Survey, FBS) plates and Markarian's criteria used for the galaxies. Among many blue stars, QSOs and Seyfert galaxies were found by follow-up observations. 1577 IRAS point sources were optically identified using FBS low-dispersion spectra and many AGN, SB and high-luminosity IR galaxies (LIRG/ULIRG) were discovered. 32 extremely high IR/opt flux ratio galaxies were studies with Spitzer. 2791 ROSAT FSC sources were optically identified using Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS) low-dispersion spectra and many AGN were discovered by follow-up observations. Fine analysis of emission line spectra was carried out using spectral line decomposition software to establish true profiles and calculate physical parameters for the emitting regions, as well as to study the spectral variability of these objects. X-ray and radio selection criteria were used to find new AGN and variable objects for further studies. Multiwavelength approach allowed revealing many new AGN and SB and obtaining a number of interesting relations using their observational characteristics and physical properties.

  7. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research.

  8. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  9. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  10. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  11. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  12. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    3) significant changes that have occurred in Antarctic exploration and research since World War II will be discussed at the end of this report. Subsequent Open-File Reports will provide a year-by-year documentation of USGS scientific activities and accomplishments in Antarctica beginning with the post-IGY, 1959-60 research team. One Open-File Report is planned to be written for each field-based season. For an example of the series format, see Open-File Reports 2006-1113 (Meunier, 2007a) and 2006-1114 (Meunier, 2007b). This report is a companion document to Open-File Report 2006-1116 (Meunier, 2007c). The USGS mapping and science programs in Antarctica are among the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). The 2005-06 field season is the 56th consecutive U.S. expedition in which USGS scientists have been participants, starting in 1946. USGS and the National Science Foundation (NSF) cooperation began with the establishment by NSF of the U.S. Antarctic (Research) Program [USA(R)P] in 1958-59 under Operation Deep Freeze IV (DF IV) and was given the responsibility for the principal coordination and management of all U.S. scientific activities in Antarctica in Deep Freeze 60 (DF 60) (1959-60). Financial support from NSF, mostly in the form of Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs) and Cooperative Agreements, extends back to this period and can be attributed to the need for accurate geologic, geophysical, and topographic base maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was driven by science and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support (Meunier, 1979 [2007], p. 38). The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, has, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some

  14. Comparative study of surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of disaccharide monoesters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air-water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect.

  15. Comparative Study of Surface-Active Properties and Antimicrobial Activities of Disaccharide Monoesters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Song, Fei; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Wei, Wei; Feng, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sugar or fatty acid in sugar ester compounds on the surface-active properties and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Disaccharides of medium-chain fatty acid monoesters were synthesized through transesterifications by immobilized lipase (Lipozyme TLIM) to yield nine monoesters for subsequent study. Their antimicrobial activities were investigated using three pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida albicans. Their surface-active properties including air–water surface tension, critical micelle concentration, and foaming and emulsion power and stability were also studied. The results showed that all of the tested monoesters were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) than against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Gram-negative bacterium). The results demonstrated that the carbon chain length was the most important factor influencing the surface properties, whereas degree of esterification and hydrophilic groups showed little effect. PMID:25531369

  16. Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Chillón, Palma; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Gottrand, Frédéric; González-Gross, Marcela; Ward, Dianne S; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-05-01

    We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.

  17. Twelve Year Study of Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals

    SciTech Connect

    M. Kay Adler Flitton; Timothy S. Yoder

    2012-03-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal facility located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho site contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term corrosion study is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in an arid vadose zone environment. The study uses non-radioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated material buried at the disposal location, namely, two types of stainless steels, welded stainless steel, welded nickel-chromium steel alloy, zirconium alloy, beryllium, and aluminum. Additionally, carbon steel (the material used in cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and duplex stainless steel (high-integrity containers) are also included in the study. This paper briefly describes the test program and presents the corrosion rate results through twelve years of underground exposure.

  18. Lunar seismic profiling experiment natural activity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duennebier, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lunar Seismic Experiment Natural Activity Study has provided a unique opportunity to study the high frequency (4-20 Hz) portion to the seismic spectrum on the moon. The data obtained from the LSPE was studied to evaluate the origin and importance of the process that generates thermal moonquakes and the characteristics of the seismic scattering zone at the lunar surface. The detection of thermal moonquakes by the LSPE array made it possible to locate the sources of many events and determine that they are definitely not generated by astronaut activities but are the result of a natural process on the moon. The propagation of seismic waves in the near-surface layers was studied in a qualitative manner. In the absence of an adequate theoretical model for the propagation of seismic waves in the moon, it is not possible to assign a depth for the scattering layer. The LSPE data does define several parameters which must be satisfied by any model developed in the future.

  19. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  20. MifM Monitors Total YidC Activities of Bacillus subtilis, Including That of YidC2, the Target of Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koreaki

    2014-01-01

    The YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 family proteins are involved in membrane protein biogenesis in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Recent studies show that YidC uses a channel-independent mechanism to insert a class of membrane proteins into the membrane. Bacillus subtilis has two YidC homologs, SpoIIIJ (YidC1) and YidC2 (YqjG); the former is expressed constitutively, while the latter is induced when the SpoIIIJ activity is compromised. MifM is a substrate of SpoIIIJ, and its failure in membrane insertion is accompanied by stable ribosome stalling on the mifM-yidC2 mRNA, which ultimately facilitates yidC2 translation. While mutational inactivation of SpoIIIJ has been known to induce yidC2 expression, here, we show that the level of this induction is lower than that observed when the membrane insertion signal of MifM is defective. Moreover, this partial induction of YidC2 translation is lowered further when YidC2 is overexpressed in trans. These results suggest that YidC2 is able to insert MifM into the membrane and to release its translation arrest. Thus, under SpoIIIJ-deficient conditions, YidC2 expression is subject to MifM-mediated autogenous feedback repression. Our results show that YidC2 uses a mechanism that is virtually identical to that used by SpoIIIJ; Arg75 of YidC2 in its intramembrane yet hydrophilic cavity is functionally indispensable and requires negatively charged residues of MifM as an insertion substrate. From these results, we conclude that MifM monitors the total activities of the SpoIIIJ and the YidC2 pathways to control the synthesis of YidC2 and to maintain the cellular capability of the YidC mode of membrane protein biogenesis. PMID:25313395

  1. Microscopic study of alkali-activated fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, A.

    1998-02-01

    The activation mechanism of fly ash in a basic environment was studied as a means to improve the reactivity of fly ash in blended cements. The experimental program included activation of fly ash by a strong base (NaOH) at different concentrations, temperatures, and water-to-fly ash ratios. It was found that the degree of reactivity, as shown by the compressive strength, increases with increasing concentration of the base (up to 4 mol of NaOH) and curing temperature (up to 90 C). Lowering the sodium hydroxide to fly ash ratio by lowering the water/fly ash ratio, while maintaining the solution concentration constant yielded a lower compressive strength in spite of the lower porosity, and the high concentration of the solution. These results indicate that activation of fly ash in blended cements depends not only on the pH of the activating ambiance but also on the ratio between the latter and the fly ash.

  2. Kinome-wide RNAi studies in human multiple myeloma identify vulnerable kinase targets, including a lymphoid-restricted kinase, GRK6

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Schmidt, Jessica; Yin, Hongwei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Que, Qiang; Basu, Gargi; Azorsa, David; Perkins, Louise M.; Braggio, Esteban; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Mousses, Spyro; Stewart, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    A paucity of validated kinase targets in human multiple myeloma has delayed clinical deployment of kinase inhibitors in treatment strategies. We therefore conducted a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) lethality study in myeloma tumor lines bearing common t(4;14), t(14;16), and t(11;14) translocations to identify critically vulnerable kinases in myeloma tumor cells without regard to preconceived mechanistic notions. Fifteen kinases were repeatedly vulnerable in myeloma cells, including AKT1, AK3L1, AURKA, AURKB, CDC2L1, CDK5R2, FES, FLT4, GAK, GRK6, HK1, PKN1, PLK1, SMG1, and TNK2. Whereas several kinases (PLK1, HK1) were equally vulnerable in epithelial cells, others and particularly G protein–coupled receptor kinase, GRK6, appeared selectively vulnerable in myeloma. GRK6 inhibition was lethal to 6 of 7 myeloma tumor lines but was tolerated in 7 of 7 human cell lines. GRK6 exhibits lymphoid-restricted expression, and from coimmunoprecipitation studies we demonstrate that expression in myeloma cells is regulated via direct association with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone. GRK6 silencing causes suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation associated with reduction in MCL1 levels and phosphorylation, illustrating a potent mechanism for the cytotoxicity of GRK6 inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. As mice that lack GRK6 are healthy, inhibition of GRK6 represents a uniquely targeted novel therapeutic strategy in human multiple myeloma. PMID:19996089

  3. Activities of the Space Studies Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Since its founding as the Space Science Board in 1958, the Space Studies Board has provided independent external scientific and technical advice on the nation's civil space program. This 1991 Annual Report of the SSB and its committees represents the first of its kind. The report contains a summary of the board's meetings, complete texts of letter reports, executive summaries of full reports issued during the year, and congressional testimony. It is intended to serve as a ready reference to board activities and advisory reports in 1991.

  4. Circadian activity rhythms and mortality: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Tranah, Gregory J.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Paudel, Misti L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Redline, Susan; Hillier, Teresa A.; Cummings, Steven R; Stone, Katie L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether circadian activity rhythms are associated with mortality in community-dwelling older women. DESIGN Prospective study of mortality. SETTING A cohort study of health and aging. PARTICIPANTS 3,027 community-dwelling women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures cohort (mean age 84 years). MEASUREMENTS Activity data were collected with wrist actigraphy for a minimum of three 24-hour periods and circadian activity rhythms were computed. Parameters of interest included height of activity peak (amplitude), mean activity level (mesor), strength of activity rhythm (robustness), and time of peak activity (acrophase). Vital status, with cause of death adjudicated through death certificates, was prospectively ascertained. RESULTS Over an average of 4.1 years of follow-up there were 444 (15%) deaths. There was an inverse association between peak activity height and all-cause mortality rates with higher mortality rates observed in the lowest activity quartile (Hazard ratio [HR]=2.18, 95% CI, 1.63–2.92) compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age, clinic site, race, BMI, cognitive function, exercise, IADL impairments, depression, medications, alcohol, smoking, self-reported health status, married status, and co-morbidities. Increased risk of all-cause mortality was observed between lower mean activity level (HR=1.71, 95% CI, 1.29–2.27) and rhythm robustness (HR=1.97, 95% CI, 1.50–2.60). Increased mortality from cancer (HR=2.09, 95% CI, 1.04–4.22) and stroke (HR=2.64, 95% CI, 1.11–6.30) was observed for a delayed timing of peak activity (after 4:33PM; >1.5 SD from mean) when compared to the mean peak range (2:50PM–4:33PM). CONCLUSION Older women with weak circadian activity rhythms have higher mortality risk. If confirmed in other cohorts, studies will be needed to test whether interventions (e.g. physical activity, bright light exposure) that regulate circadian activity rhythms will improve health outcomes in the elderly

  5. Evaluation design of a reactivation care program to prevent functional loss in hospitalised elderly: A cohort study including a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Elderly persons admitted to the hospital are at risk for hospital related functional loss. This evaluation aims to compare the effects of different levels of (integrated) health intervention care programs on preventing hospital related functional loss among elderly patients by comparing a new intervention program to two usual care programs. Methods/Design This study will include an effect, process and cost evaluation using a mixed methods design of quantitative and qualitative methods. Three hospitals in the Netherlands with different levels of integrated geriatric health care will be evaluated using a quasi-experimental study design. Data collection on outcomes will take place through a prospective cohort study, which will incorporate a nested randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a stay at the centre for prevention and reactivation for patients with complex problems. The study population will consist of elderly persons (65 years or older) at risk for functional loss who are admitted to one of the three hospitals. Data is prospectively collected at time of hospital admission (T0), three months (T1), and twelve months (T2) after hospital admission. Patient and informal caregiver outcomes (e.g. health related quality of life, activities of daily living, burden of care, (re-) admission in hospital or nursing homes, mortality) as well as process measures (e.g. the cooperation and collaboration of multidisciplinary teams, patient and informal caregiver satisfaction with care) will be measured. A qualitative analysis will determine the fidelity of intervention implementation as well as provide further context and explanation for quantitative outcomes. Finally, costs will be determined from a societal viewpoint to allow for cost effectiveness calculations. Discussion It is anticipated that higher levels of integrated hospital health care for at risk elderly will result in prevention of loss of functioning and loss of quality of life after

  6. Challenges and solutions in the bioanalysis of BMS-986094 and its metabolites including a highly polar, active nucleoside triphosphate in plasma and tissues using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Lute, John; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Bonnie; Trouba, Kevin J; Arnold, Mark E; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    BMS-986094, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, was withdrawn from clinical trials because of a serious safety issue. To investigate a potential association between drug/metabolite exposure and toxicity in evaluations conducted after the termination of the BMS-986094 development program, it was essential to determine the levels of BMS-986094 and its major metabolites INX-08032, INX-08144 and INX-09054 in circulation and the active nucleoside triphosphate INX-09114 in target and non-target tissues. However, there were many challenges in the bioanalysis of these compounds. The chromatography challenge for the extremely polar nucleoside triphosphate was solved by applying mixed-mode chromatography which combined anion exchange and reversed-phase interactions. The LC conditions provided adequate retention and good peak shape of the analyte and showed good robustness. A strategy using simultaneous extraction but separate LC analysis of the prodrug BMS-986094 and its major circulating metabolites was used to overcome a carryover issue of the hydrophobic prodrug while still achieving good chromatography of the polar metabolites. In addition, the nucleotide analytes were not stable in the presence of endogenous enzymes. Low pH and low temperature were required for blood collection and plasma sample processing. However, the use of phosphatase inhibitor and immediate homogenization and extraction were critical for the quantitative analysis of the active triphosphate, INX-09114, in tissue samples. To alleviate the bioanalytical complexity caused by multiple analytes, different matrices, and various species, a fit-for-purpose approach to assay validation was implemented based on the needs of drug safety assessment in non-clinical (GLP or non-GLP) studies. The assay for INX-08032 was fully validated in plasma of toxicology species. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00ng/mL and the linear curve range was 1.00-500.00ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2

  7. Challenges and solutions in the bioanalysis of BMS-986094 and its metabolites including a highly polar, active nucleoside triphosphate in plasma and tissues using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Lute, John; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Bonnie; Trouba, Kevin J; Arnold, Mark E; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    BMS-986094, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, was withdrawn from clinical trials because of a serious safety issue. To investigate a potential association between drug/metabolite exposure and toxicity in evaluations conducted after the termination of the BMS-986094 development program, it was essential to determine the levels of BMS-986094 and its major metabolites INX-08032, INX-08144 and INX-09054 in circulation and the active nucleoside triphosphate INX-09114 in target and non-target tissues. However, there were many challenges in the bioanalysis of these compounds. The chromatography challenge for the extremely polar nucleoside triphosphate was solved by applying mixed-mode chromatography which combined anion exchange and reversed-phase interactions. The LC conditions provided adequate retention and good peak shape of the analyte and showed good robustness. A strategy using simultaneous extraction but separate LC analysis of the prodrug BMS-986094 and its major circulating metabolites was used to overcome a carryover issue of the hydrophobic prodrug while still achieving good chromatography of the polar metabolites. In addition, the nucleotide analytes were not stable in the presence of endogenous enzymes. Low pH and low temperature were required for blood collection and plasma sample processing. However, the use of phosphatase inhibitor and immediate homogenization and extraction were critical for the quantitative analysis of the active triphosphate, INX-09114, in tissue samples. To alleviate the bioanalytical complexity caused by multiple analytes, different matrices, and various species, a fit-for-purpose approach to assay validation was implemented based on the needs of drug safety assessment in non-clinical (GLP or non-GLP) studies. The assay for INX-08032 was fully validated in plasma of toxicology species. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00ng/mL and the linear curve range was 1.00-500.00ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2

  8. Seed dormancy breaking diterpenoids, including novel brassicicenes J and K, from fungus Alternaria brassicicola, and their necrotic/apoptotic activities in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Takeue, Sayaka; Oogushi, Megumi; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Takeshi; Toyota, Masao; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2014-03-01

    To find new metabolites similar to cotylenins and fusicoccins from the fungus Alternaria brassicicola, screening tests were carried out using the lettuce seed dormancy breaking assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from the culture using the assay afforded the isolation of two novel fusicoccane diterpenoids named brassicicenes J (1) and K (2), along with three known brassicicenes A (3), B (4), and F (5). Their structures were elucidated from extensive NMR spectral data and by comparison of these with those reported in the literature. Brassicicenes (1-5) exhibited weak to moderate seed dormancy breaking activities against lettuce seeds in the presence of abscisic acid. In addition, the necrotic/apoptotic activities of the brassicicenes (1-5), fusicoccin A (6) and cotylenin A (7) were evaluated by determining their cytotoxicity, cell viability and caspase-3/7 activation on the HL-60 cell line. Brassicicene K (2) exhibited similar cytostatic profiles to that of cotylenin A (7), and brassicicenes J (1), A (3), B (4), and F (5) exhibited necrotic activity. This is the first report of the seed dormancy breaking activity of brassicicenes in plants, and of necrotic/apoptotic activity in mammalian cells. PMID:24689212

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor SNP -130 C/T associates with dioxins susceptibility through regulating its receptor activity and downstream effectors including interleukin 24.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ge; Asanoma, Kazuo; Takao, Tomoka; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka; Kato, Kiyoko; Wake, Norio

    2015-01-22

    Dioxins are persistent environmental pollutants that cause multiple adverse health effects in humans, mainly through binding to the ligand-activated transcription factor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Genetic variation in AhR may modulate the susceptibility to dioxins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -130 C/T in the AhR promoter on dioxin-inducible gene transcription, and to investigate interleukin-24 (IL-24) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as proxies for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. Using primary human chorionic stromal cells, we found that cells with the TT genotype showed higher AhR mRNA and protein levels than did those of the CC genotype. Microarray was carried out to analyze the gene expression profiles of cells (CC and TT genotype) after exposing the cells to TCDD. Several genes associated with human disorders were more highly up-regulated in cells of the TT genotype. Higher up-regulation of IL-24 and IL-1β mRNA in cells with the TT genotype was observed. Furthermore, blood samples from 64 Yusho patients who were accidentally exposed to high concentrations of dioxins were analyzed for the genotype, dioxins concentrations and serum levels of IL-24 and IL-1β. We observed higher serum IL-24 levels and lower serum IL-1β levels in Yusho patients with the TT genotype than in those with the CC genotype. AhR SNP -130 C/T affects serum IL-24 and IL-1β levels, independently of serum dioxins concentrations in Yusho patients. Our observations demonstrate that SNP -130 C/T modulates AhR expression and expression levels of IL-24 and IL-1β, and suggest an association of AhR SNP -130 C/T with the susceptibility to dioxins.

  10. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  11. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-25

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  12. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  13. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  14. Validation of the Japanese version of the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire that includes physician-based assessments in a large observational cohort.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, Y; Baba, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Gono, T; Hanaoka, M; Kawasumi, H; Yamanaka, H

    2016-04-01

    The Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) is a patient-reported outcome for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to translate it into Japanese and further investigate its validity and reliability. The English version of the SLAQ was translated into Japanese and administered to Japanese SLE patients at our university clinic. Physicians assessed disease activity using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). The patients were prospectively followed for repeat assessment a year later. Ultimately, 255 patients participated. The patients' 10-point ratings of disease activity and SLAQ scores were significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ = 0.53). The SLAQ score was weakly correlated with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K)-nolab (omitting laboratory items; ρ = 0.18) but not with the SLEDAI-2K (ρ = 0.02). These results suggested its convergent and discriminant validity. The SLAQ demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80), and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85). The effect sizes and the standardized response means of the SLAQ were as follows: clinical worsening, 0.26 and 0.31, and improvement, -0.39 and -0.41, respectively, which indicated a small but significant responsiveness. The Japanese version of the SLAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity; its performance was comparable to that of the original version.

  15. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  16. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells.

  17. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013

    PubMed Central

    SARLIS, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  18. Simulation studies for multichannel active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Balasubramaniam, R.; Praseetha, K. K.

    2003-10-01

    Traditional approach to vibration control uses passive techniques, which are relatively large, costly and ineffective at low frequencies. Active Vibration Control (AVC) is used to overcome these problems & in AVC additional sources (secondary) are used to cancel vibration from primary source based on the principle of superposition theorem Since the characteristics of the vibration source and environment are time varying, the AVC system must be adaptive. Adaptive systems have the ability to track time varying disturbances and provide optimal control over a much broader range of conditions than conventional fixed control systems. In multi channel AVC vibration fields in large dimensions are controlled & is more complicated. Therefore to actively control low frequency vibrations on large structures, multi channel AVC requires a control system that uses multiple secondary sources to control the vibration field simultaneously at multiple error sensor locations. The error criterion that can be directly measured is the sum of squares of outputs of number of sensors. The adaptive algorithm is designed to minimize this & the algorithm implemented is the "Multiple error LMS algorithm." The best known applications of multiple channel FXLMS algorithm is in real time AVC and system identification. More wider applications are in the control of propeller induced noise in flight cabin interiors. In the present paper the results of simulation studies carried out in MATLAB as well as on TMS320C32 DSP processor will be brought out for a two-channel case.

  19. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  20. FBI-1 Can Stimulate HIV-1 Tat Activity and Is Targeted to a Novel Subnuclear Domain that Includes the Tat-P-TEFb—containing Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Pendergrast, P. Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-01-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain–containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor–rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription. PMID:11907272

  1. FBI-1 can stimulate HIV-1 Tat activity and is targeted to a novel subnuclear domain that includes the Tat-P-TEFb-containing nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, P Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-03-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain-containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor-rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

  2. Active controlled studies in antibiotic drug development.

    PubMed

    Dane, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The increasing concern of antibacterial resistance has been well documented, as has the relative lack of antibiotic development. This paradox is in part due to challenges with clinical development of antibiotics. Because of their rapid progression, untreated bacterial infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As a consequence, placebo-controlled studies of new agents are unethical. Rather, pivotal development studies are mostly conducted using non-inferiority designs versus an active comparator. Further, infections because of comparator-resistant isolates must usually be excluded from the trial programme. Unfortunately, the placebo-controlled data classically used in support of non-inferiority designs are largely unavailable for antibiotics. The only available data are from the 1930s and 1940s and their use is associated with significant concerns regarding constancy and assay sensitivity. Extended public debate on this challenge has led to proposed solutions by some in which these concerns are addressed by using very conservative approaches to trial design, endpoints and non-inferiority margins, in some cases leading to potentially impractical studies. To compound this challenge, different Regulatory Authorities seem to be taking different approaches to these key issues. If harmonisation does not occur, antibiotic development will become increasingly challenging, with the risk of further decreases in the amount of antibiotic drug development. However with clarity on Regulatory requirements and an ability to feasibly conduct global development programmes, it should be possible to bring much needed additional antibiotics to patients.

  3. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  4. Physical Activity and BMI: Evidence from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohensee, Caroline W.; Nies, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the association between amount of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) percentile among middle and high school children. Total daily physical activity needs to include both in and out of school physical activity. Methods: A secondary data analysis was performed on 1306 children drawn from the Panel Study of…

  5. Active Reading Experience Questionnaire: Development and Validation of an Instrument for Studying Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Butler, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The increasing adoption of mobile platforms and digital textbooks in university classrooms continues to have a profound impact on higher education. Advocates believe that providing students digital textbooks with built-in annotation features and interactive study tools will improve learning by facilitating active reading, a task essential to…

  6. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  7. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Serapio-Palacios, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS), but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i) a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii) translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii) cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv) loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v) caspase-9 activation, (vi) cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii) an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii) PARP proteolysis, and (ix) nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC. PMID:27329750

  8. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO. PMID:21770814

  9. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: Review of methods and characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the methods and characteristics of 12 studies from developing countries included in a meta-analysis of the impact of antenatal supplements of multiple micronutrients compared with iron–folic acid on micronutrient status, maternal nutritional status, birth outcomes, and neonatal...

  10. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  12. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 15-17: Gravitation; Simple Harmonic Motion; and Traveling Waves; plus a Partial Derivatives Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 11-14: Collisions; Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies; Rotational Dynamics; and Fluid Mechanics].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  17. Flow cytometric analysis of the Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity on red cells: various Rh blood group phenotypes including Du variants.

    PubMed

    Ota, M; Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I

    1989-04-01

    Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity has been analyzed by the use of the indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometry (FCM), and the Rh blood group genotypes were able to be successfully determined from the intensity of fluorescence detected in flow cytometry using the anti-D IgG that was fractionated in a Protein A Sepharose CL-4B column as the primary antibody. The relative amount of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) bound to the D (R1R1, CDe/CDe), the high grade Du (R2r',cDE/Cde), the low grade Du (K1r, CDue/cde), and the d (rr, cde/cde) red cells was estimated from the mean fluorescent intensity. The FITC-binding activity of the high grade Du and low grade Du was 83% and 21% that of D. The antigen-antibody complex density profile was analyzed by using the FITC-conjugated protein-A in place of the second antibody. Compared with the found results using anti-human globulin as the second antibody, this method was less sensitive but it still was able to demonstrate the different degrees of fluorescence according to the Rh genotypes. The present FCM method is both simple and useful for (1) measuring the relative amount of antigens, (2) for detecting the dosage effect and (3) for deferminins the blood group genotypes.

  18. Flow cytometric analysis of the Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity on red cells: various Rh blood group phenotypes including Du variants.

    PubMed

    Ota, M; Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I

    1989-04-01

    Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity has been analyzed by the use of the indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometry (FCM), and the Rh blood group genotypes were able to be successfully determined from the intensity of fluorescence detected in flow cytometry using the anti-D IgG that was fractionated in a Protein A Sepharose CL-4B column as the primary antibody. The relative amount of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) bound to the D (R1R1, CDe/CDe), the high grade Du (R2r',cDE/Cde), the low grade Du (K1r, CDue/cde), and the d (rr, cde/cde) red cells was estimated from the mean fluorescent intensity. The FITC-binding activity of the high grade Du and low grade Du was 83% and 21% that of D. The antigen-antibody complex density profile was analyzed by using the FITC-conjugated protein-A in place of the second antibody. Compared with the found results using anti-human globulin as the second antibody, this method was less sensitive but it still was able to demonstrate the different degrees of fluorescence according to the Rh genotypes. The present FCM method is both simple and useful for (1) measuring the relative amount of antigens, (2) for detecting the dosage effect and (3) for deferminins the blood group genotypes. PMID:2509769

  19. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  20. Gastric activity studies using a magnetic tracer.

    PubMed

    Cordova-Fraga, T; Bernal-Alvarado, J J; Gutierrez-Juarez, G; Sosa, M; Vargas-Luna, M

    2004-10-01

    A magnetic pulse generator has been set up in order to study gastric activity. Two coils 1.05 m in diameter, arranged in a Helmholtz configuration, were used. The system generated magnetic field pulses higher than 15 mT, of duration 17.3+/-1.2 ms. Measurements were performed in 11 male volunteers, with average age 29.3+/-6.4 years and body mass index 26.0+/-4.8 kg m(-2). Magnetite (Fe3O4) particles with diameters from 75 to 125 microm were used as magnetic tracers, which were mixed in 250 ml of yogurt in concentrations from 2 to 5 g. Signals were registered by using a high speed 3 axis fluxgate digital magnetometer and processed to determine the relaxation of the magnetic tracers by fitting a first-order exponential function to the data, a mean relaxation constant K = 116+/-40 s(-1) was obtained. Also, an average gastric peristaltic frequency was measured; a value of 3.2+/-0.3 cpm was determined. PMID:15535190

  1. Elementary Social Studies: Activities for Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Helen N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents fifteen activities designed to lead children from the enactive, iconic, and symbolic levels of understanding map symbols, perspective, direction, distance, location, scale, relief and elevation. (JDH)

  2. Issues Relating to Study Design and Risk of Bias When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Julian P. T.; Ramsay, Craig; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Shea, Beverley; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George

    2013-01-01

    Non-randomized studies may provide valuable evidence on the effects of interventions. They are the main source of evidence on the intended effects of some types of interventions and often provide the only evidence about the effects of interventions on long-term outcomes, rare events or adverse effects. Therefore, systematic reviews on the effects…

  3. Who is healthy? Aspects to consider when including healthy volunteers in QST--based studies-a consensus statement by the EUROPAIN and NEUROPAIN consortia.

    PubMed

    Gierthmühlen, Janne; Enax-Krumova, Elena K; Attal, Nadine; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Finnerup, Nanna B; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Jensen, Troels S; Freynhagen, Rainer; Kennedy, Jeffrey D; Mainka, Tina; Rice, Andrew S C; Segerdahl, Märta; Sindrup, Søren H; Serra, Jordi; Tölle, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Clinical and human experimental pain studies often include so-called "healthy" controls in investigations of sensory abnormalities, using quantitative sensory testing (QST) as an outcome measure. However, the criteria for what is considered "healthy" vary among the different studies and between study centers and investigators, partly explaining the high variability of the results. Therefore, several aspects should be considered during inclusion of healthy volunteers in QST-based trials to have homogenous groups of healthy controls with less variability between human experimental studies, so that results are less likely to be false negative or false positive because of subject-related factors. The EUROPAIN and NEUROPAIN consortia aimed to define factors influencing the variability in selection of healthy subjects in QST-based studies before the start of both projects and to give recommendations how to minimize it based on the current literature and expertise of the participants. The present suggestions for inclusion criteria of healthy volunteers into QST-based trials describe a 2-level approach including standardized questionnaires enabling the collection of relevant information on sociodemographic data, medical history, current health status, coping strategies in dealing with pain, and the motivation of the volunteer to participate in the study. These suggestions are believed to help researchers interpret their results in comparison with others and improve the quality of clinical studies including healthy volunteers as controls or in human experimental pain studies. They aim to reduce any confounding factors. Furthermore, the acquired information will allow post hoc analyses of variance for different potential influencing factors.

  4. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation. PMID:26901703

  5. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  6. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation.

  7. Internet Reporting of Weekly Physical Activity Behaviors: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Tyson; Frierson, Georita M.; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Morrow, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-report measures have been validated and are widely used. Interest currently lies in the development of simple, valid methods that can be used in any location to determine level of PA in large populations/samples. The purpose of this report is to illustrate tracking of physical activity behaviors and musculoskeletal injury reports on a weekly basis via the Internet. Methods The Women’s Injury Study (WIN) methodology includes use of BRFSS-related physical activity items that are completed online by more than 800 women weekly for an average of 3 years. Results With more than 45,000 weekly physical activity and injury logs, the percentage of total logs submitted via online records is 91%. Self-reported pedometer steps are consistent with similar, smaller research samples. Conclusions This report suggests that Internet tracking is a viable means of assessing nearly real-time physical activity, describes the process of developing and monitoring self-reported physical activity behaviors via the Internet, and provides recommendations for others considering such methods. PMID:20683095

  8. Selected Theoretical Studies Group contributions to the 14th International Cosmic Ray conference. [including studies on galactic molecular hydrogen, interstellar reddening, and on the origin of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The galactic distribution of H2 was studied through gamma radiation and through X-ray, optical, and infrared absorption measurements from SAS-2 and other sources. A comparison of the latitude distribution of gamma-ray intensity with reddening data shows reddening data to give the best estimate of interstellar gas in the solar vicinity. The distribution of galactic cosmic ray nucleons was determined and appears to be identical to the supernova remnant distribution. Interactions between ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray nuclei and intergalactic photon radiation fields were calculated, using the Monte Carlo method.

  9. Allelopathic activity studies of Mikania scandens.

    PubMed

    Piyasena, K G Nelum P; Dharmaratne, H Ranjith W

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary investigation of a number of plant extracts for allelopathic activity using seed germination inhibition bioassay showed a promising activity of the water extract of the aerial parts of Mikania scandens. Activity-guided fractionation of the M. scandens extract led to the isolation of the highly allelopathic active compound mikanolide, with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.083 µM mL(-1). As M. scandens is a highly abundant invasive plant in Sri Lanka and other South Asian countries, this plant could be developed as an environment friendly natural herbicide, either in crude form as shredded plant material or as pure mikanolide, which is the major constituent (∼0.02%) in the plant. PMID:22288603

  10. Challenges and perspectives in the geological study of active faults.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizza, M.

    2011-12-01

    Identification of active faults is important for understanding regional seismicity and seismic hazard. A large part of the world's population lives in areas where destructive earthquakes or tsunamis were recorded in the past. Most of the difficulties in estimating seismic hazard and anticipating earthquakes are due to a lack of knowledge about the location of active faults and their seismic history. Even where active faults are known the characteristics of past earthquakes and the seismic cycle are uncertain and subject to discussion. Investigations carried out on active faults during the past decade, however, have provided new high-quality data and powerful tools to better understand crustal deformation and the recurrence of earthquakes. In morphotectonic studies, the ever-improving resolution of satellites images allows geologists to identify with more certainty the traces of active faults and even earthquake surface ruptures of the past. The advantage of satellite imagery for identifying neotectonic features is it gives access to large areas, sometimes difficult to reach in the field and provides synoptic views. Using the potential of high-resolution imagery and digital elevation models, geologists can produce detailed 3D reconstructions of fault morphology and geometry, including the kinematics of repeated slip. The development of new dating techniques, coupled with paleoseismology and quantitative geomorphology, now allows bracketing the occurrence of paleoearthquakes back to several thousand years, as well as analyzing long time sequences of events. Despite such wealth of new data, however, the work remaining to do is huge. Earthquake forecast (location, timing, magnitude) remains an unsolved problem for the earthquake community at large (seismologists, geodesists, paleoseismologists and modelers). The most important challenges in the next decade will be to increase the efficiency of neotectonic studies to create more complete active fault databases and

  11. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  12. The infrared spectrum of isothiazole in the range 600-1500 cm-1, including a high-resolution study of the ν studies of the full spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Wugt Larsen, R.; Aitken, R. A.; Kraus, H.; Nicolaisen, F. M.; Palmer, M. H.

    The gas-phase high-resolution infrared spectrum of isothiazole in the range 600-1500 cm-1 has been recorded, and revised band centres obtained for a number of vibrations. An analysis of the ν11(A') band at 818 cm-1 and the ν16(A'') band at 727 cm-1 has been performed, using the Watson Hamiltonian, A-reduction, IIIr representation. These were combined with previous microwave spectral data to provide combined analyses for rotational constants and quartic centrifugal distortion constants ΔJ, ΔJK, ΔK, δJ and δK. These extend the knowledge derived from previous microwave and IR spectral studies. The equilibrium structures and the derived harmonic frequencies were calculated by ab initio methods, using a variety of basis sets with MP2, MP4 and CCSD(T) methods, and a comparison of these with experimental data is discussed. At a pragmatic level, the closest correlation of the rotational constants with experiment is not obtained with the most sophisticated methodology. Similarly, the vibration frequencies and intensities also vary strongly with the procedure. In particular, we found that the cc-pVTZ+MP2 results probably provide the best numerical comparison with experimental IR data for this molecule.

  13. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  14. A Disability Studies Framework for Policy Activism in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses disability studies and the social model of disability as theoretical foundations for policy activism in postsecondary education. The social model is discussed and a model for policy activism is described. A case study of how disability studies and policy activism can be applied is provided utilizing the "3C Project to Provide…

  15. Studies on marine algae for haemagglutinic activity.

    PubMed

    Alam, M T; Usmanghani, K

    1994-07-01

    Lectins (agglutinins) are important in medical and immunological applications. Phytohaemagglutinins have been found useful in blood banking. Keeping in view of these facts, the marine algae found at Karachi coastal region have been screened for agglutinic activity by using human erythrocytes of A, B, AB and 0 group. Altogether 53 algal samples were collected and subjected to extraction, fractionation serial dilution and titre determinations. The total marine algae screened for haemagglutinic activity were 44 out of these 14, 13 and 17 belonged to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta respectively. Among these three groups the Rhodophyta showed the highest number of lytic activity. The green marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema showed a titre value between 2(2) and 2(3), which is statistically significant. In case of brown marine algae Colpomenia sinuosa was found to be active (titre 2(3)), while Dictyota dichotoma, D. indica and Iyengaria stellata, furnished week titre value as 2(2). The red marine algae screened were 17, out of these 4 spp. showed significant activity (titre 2(3)), and these are Gelidium usmanghani, Gracilaria foliifera Hypnea pannosa and Hynea valentiae. While Scinaia fascicularis, Scinaia indica and Champia parvula were found to be weak in their onset on human erythrocytes. The results obtained were quite in agreement with those reported in the literature. PMID:16414751

  16. Synthesis and Exploratory Catalysis of 3d Metals: Group-Transfer Reactions, and the Activation and Functionalization of Small Molecules Including Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2014-05-07

    Our work over the past three years has resulted in the development of electron rich and low-coordinate vanadium fragments, molecular nitrides of vanadium and parent imide systems of titanium, and the synthesis of phosphorus containing molecules of the 3d transition metal series. Likewise, with financial support from BES Division in DOE (DE-FG02-07ER15893), we now completed the full characterization of the first single molecular magnet (SMM) of Fe(III). We demonstrated that this monomeric form of Fe(III) has an unusual slow relaxation of the magnetization under zero applied field. To make matters more interesting, this system also undergoes a rare example of an intermediate to high-spin transition (an S = 3/2 to S = 5/2 transition). In 2010 we reported the synthesis of the first neutral and low-coordinate vanadium complexes having the terminal nitride functionality. We have now completed a full study to understand formation of the nitride ligand from the metastable azide precursor, and have also explored the reactivity of the nitride ligand in the context of incomplete and complete N-atom transfer. During the 2010-2013 period we also discovered a facile approach to assemble low-coordinate and low-valent vanadium(II) complexes and exploit their multielectron chemistry ranging from 1-3 electrons. Consequently, we can now access 3d ligand frameworks such as cyclo-P3 (and its corresponding radical anion), nitride radical anions and cations, low-coordinate vanadium oxo’s, and the first example of a vanadium thionitrosyl complex. A cis-divacant iron(IV) imido having some ligand centered radical has been also discovered, and we are in the process of elucidating its electronic structure (in particular the sign of zero field splitting and the origin of its magnitude), bonding and reactivity. We have also revisited some paramagnetic and classic metallocene compounds with S >1/2 ground states in order to understand their reactivity patterns and electronic structure. Lastly

  17. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  18. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  19. Association between Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Clinical Factors Including Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression: Pilot Study Using Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Geum; Kong, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Koo, Bon-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory. PMID:27776391

  20. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  1. Detailed diesel exhaust characteristics including particle surface area and lung deposited dose for better understanding of health effects in human chamber exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, Aneta; Nilsson, Patrik T.; Rissler, Jenny; Sallsten, Gerd; Xu, Yiyi; Pagels, Joakim H.; Albin, Maria; Österberg, Kai; Strandberg, Bo; Eriksson, Axel; Bohgard, Mats; Bergemalm-Rynell, Kerstin; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Several diesel exhaust (DE) characteristics, comprising both particle and gas phase, recognized as important when linking with health effects, are not reported in human chamber exposure studies. In order to understand effects of DE on humans there is a need for better characterization of DE when performing exposure studies. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify detailed DE characteristics during human chamber exposure. Additionally to compare to reported DE properties in conducted human exposures. A wide battery of particle and gas phase measurement techniques have been used to provide detailed DE characteristics including the DE particles (DEP) surface area, fraction and dose deposited in the lungs, chemical composition of both particle and gas phase such as NO, NO2, CO, CO2, volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes, benzene, toluene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eyes, nose and throat irritation effects were determined. Exposure conditions with PM1 (<1 μm) mass concentration 280 μg m-3, number concentration 4 × 105 cm-3 and elemental to total carbon fraction of 82% were generated from a diesel vehicle at idling. When estimating the lung deposited dose it was found that using the size dependent effective density (in contrast to assuming unity density) reduced the estimated respiratory dose by 132% by mass. Accounting for agglomerated structure of DEP prevented underestimation of lung deposited dose by surface area by 37% in comparison to assuming spherical particles. Comparison of DE characteristics reported in conducted chamber exposures showed that DE properties vary to a great extent under the same DEP mass concentration and engine load. This highlights the need for detailed and standardized approach for measuring and reporting of DE properties. Eyes irritation effects, most probably caused by aldehydes in the gas phase, as well as nose irritation were observed at exposure levels below current occupational exposure limit

  2. Scheduled Follow-Up Referrals and Simple Prevention Kits Including Counseling to Improve Post-Discharge Outcomes Among Children in Uganda: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Matthew O; Kumbakumba, Elias; Larson, Charles P; Moschovis, Peter P; Barigye, Celestine; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Ndamira, Andrew; English, Lacey; Kissoon, Niranjan; Zhou, Guohai; Ansermino, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Recurrent illness following hospital discharge is a major contributor to childhood mortality in resource-poor countries. Yet post-discharge care is largely ignored by health care workers and policy makers due to a lack of resources to identify children with recurrent illness and a lack of cohesive systems to provide care. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a bundle of interventions at discharge to improve health outcomes during the vulnerable post-discharge period. Methods: The study was conducted between December 2014 and April 2015. Eligible children were between ages 6 months and 5 years who were admitted with a suspected or proven infectious disease to one of two hospitals in Mbarara, Uganda. A bundle of interventions was provided at the time of discharge. This bundle included post-discharge referrals for follow-up visits and a discharge kit. The post-discharge referral was to ensure follow-up with a nearby health care provider on days 2, 7, and 14 following discharge. The discharge kit included brief educational counseling along with simple preventive items as incentives (soap, a mosquito net, and oral rehydration salts) to reinforce the education. The primary study outcome was the number of post-discharge referral visits completed. Secondary study outcomes included satisfaction with the intervention, rates of readmission after 60 days, and post-discharge mortality rates. In addition, outcomes were compared with a historical control group, enrolled using the same inclusion criteria and outcome-ascertainment methods. Results: During the study, 216 children were admitted, of whom 14 died during hospitalization. Of the 202 children discharged, 85% completed at least 1 of the 3 follow-up referral visits, with 48% completing all 3 visits. Within 60 days after discharge, 22 children were readmitted at least once and 5 children (2.5%) died. Twelve (43%) readmissions occurred during a scheduled follow

  3. Zebrafish homologs of genes within 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes.

    PubMed

    Blaker-Lee, Alicia; Gupta, Sunny; McCammon, Jasmine M; De Rienzo, Gianluca; Sive, Hazel

    2012-11-01

    Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, indicating the importance of gene dosage in this copy number variant region (CNV). The core of this CNV includes 25 genes; however, the number of genes that contribute to these phenotypes is not known. Furthermore, genes whose functional levels change with deletion or duplication (termed 'dosage sensors'), which can associate the CNV with pathologies, have not been identified in this region. Using the zebrafish as a tool, a set of 16p11.2 homologs was identified, primarily on chromosomes 3 and 12. Use of 11 phenotypic assays, spanning the first 5 days of development, demonstrated that this set of genes is highly active, such that 21 out of the 22 homologs tested showed loss-of-function phenotypes. Most genes in this region were required for nervous system development - impacting brain morphology, eye development, axonal density or organization, and motor response. In general, human genes were able to substitute for the fish homolog, demonstrating orthology and suggesting conserved molecular pathways. In a screen for 16p11.2 genes whose function is sensitive to hemizygosity, the aldolase a (aldoaa) and kinesin family member 22 (kif22) genes were identified as giving clear phenotypes when RNA levels were reduced by ∼50%, suggesting that these genes are deletion dosage sensors. This study leads to two major findings. The first is that the 16p11.2 region comprises a highly active set of genes, which could present a large genetic target and might explain why multiple brain function, and other, phenotypes are associated with this interval. The second major finding is that there are (at least) two genes with deletion dosage sensor properties among the 16p11.2 set, and these could link this CNV to brain disorders such as ASD and IDD. PMID:22566537

  4. Psychosocial Factors and Theory in Physical Activity Studies in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Methods Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Results Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Conclusions Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA. PMID:25290599

  5. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume I - Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume I of a two volume set, consists of many tested water pollution study activities. The activities are grouped into four headings: (1) Hydrologic Cycle, (2) Human Activities, (3) Ecological Perspectives, and (4) Social and Political Factors. Three levels of activities are provided: (1) those which increase awareness, (2)…

  6. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 5--Science & Social Studies (Interdisciplinary) Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Forestry is the main focus of this fifth booklet in the series "101 Environmental Education Activities" by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center. Designed for students in the intermediate grades and junior high school, the booklet contains 9 science and social studies activities and 5 interdisciplinary activities. Most activity descriptions…

  7. A reliability study on brain activation during active and passive arm movements supported by an MRI-compatible robot.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Natalia; Yu, Ningbo; Brügger, Mike; Villiger, Michael; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Riener, Robert; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-11-01

    In neurorehabilitation, longitudinal assessment of arm movement related brain function in patients with motor disability is challenging due to variability in task performance. MRI-compatible robots monitor and control task performance, yielding more reliable evaluation of brain function over time. The main goals of the present study were first to define the brain network activated while performing active and passive elbow movements with an MRI-compatible arm robot (MaRIA) in healthy subjects, and second to test the reproducibility of this activation over time. For the fMRI analysis two models were compared. In model 1 movement onset and duration were included, whereas in model 2 force and range of motion were added to the analysis. Reliability of brain activation was tested with several statistical approaches applied on individual and group activation maps and on summary statistics. The activated network included mainly the primary motor cortex, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal cortex, medial and lateral premotor regions, and subcortical structures. Reliability analyses revealed robust activation for active movements with both fMRI models and all the statistical methods used. Imposed passive movements also elicited mainly robust brain activation for individual and group activation maps, and reliability was improved by including additional force and range of motion using model 2. These findings demonstrate that the use of robotic devices, such as MaRIA, can be useful to reliably assess arm movement related brain activation in longitudinal studies and may contribute in studies evaluating therapies and brain plasticity following injury in the nervous system.

  8. An Activity Theory View on Learning Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosvold, Reidar; Bjuland, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Learning study has been used by many to develop exemplary teaching in school, and this approach has recently been adopted for use in kindergarten as well. When using such approaches in different settings than they were intended for, several challenges potentially arise. This article discusses the implementation of a learning study approach in a…

  9. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Itshak; Elbar, Ori; Tsedek, Irit; Oddsson, Lars IE

    2008-01-01

    Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136). Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88) with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training). Voluntary step reaction times

  10. Listening to Include

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  11. Soils Activity Mobility Study: Methodology and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, Alissa; Yucel, Vefa

    2014-09-29

    This report presents a three-level approach for estimation of sediment transport to provide an assessment of potential erosion risk for sites at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are posted for radiological purposes and where migration is suspected or known to occur due to storm runoff. Based on the assessed risk, the appropriate level of effort can be determined for analysis of radiological surveys, field experiments to quantify erosion and transport rates, and long-term monitoring. The method is demonstrated at contaminated sites, including Plutonium Valley, Shasta, Smoky, and T-1. The Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee (PSIAC) procedure is selected as the Level 1 analysis tool. The PSIAC method provides an estimation of the total annual sediment yield based on factors derived from the climatic and physical characteristics of a watershed. If the results indicate low risk, then further analysis is not warranted. If the Level 1 analysis indicates high risk or is deemed uncertain, a Level 2 analysis using the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) is proposed. In addition, if a sediment yield for a storm event rather than an annual sediment yield is needed, then the proposed Level 2 analysis should be performed. MUSLE only provides sheet and rill erosion estimates. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) provides storm peak runoff rate and storm volumes, the inputs necessary for MUSLE. Channel Sediment Transport (CHAN-SED) I and II models are proposed for estimating sediment deposition or erosion in a channel reach from a storm event. These models require storm hydrograph associated sediment concentration and bed load particle size distribution data. When the Level 2 analysis indicates high risk for sediment yield and associated contaminant migration or when there is high uncertainty in the Level 2 results, the sites can be further evaluated with a Level 3 analysis using more complex

  12. Study of the nanomaterials and their antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadi, Muntaha

    In the last decade, the world faced huge problems associated with the spread of antimicrobial resistant infections that are essentially untreatable such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. These infections have begun to occur in both hospital and community environments. Developing new antimicrobial surface coatings can hold a great promise to minimize and control various problems that associated with the spreading of infections and biofilms formation, these coatings can be used in medicine where medical devices associated with severe infections, in construction industry and the in food packaging industry. It has been established that single-walled CNTs exhibit a strong antimicrobial activity and can pierce bacterial cell walls. Recently, nanomaterial structures that made from pure carbon such as CNTs have been seen as promising candidates for many potential applications in Biotechnology and bioscience due to the combination of their extraordinary properties that arise from surface area, light weight, strength, flexibility, unique electrical conductivity and many more novel physical and chemical properties at nanoscale level. CNTs have been used widely in biomedical field including drug delivery, gene therapy and creating new biomedical devices with novel properties. Researchers have now made a first step to add carbon nanotubes to antimicrobial agents list. There are two types of CNTs have been used in biomedical research. The first one is a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and the second is a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT). Recent in vitro studies suggest that carbon nanotubes have antimicrobial activity and coating CNTs with nickel nanoparticle could enhance the antimicrobial activity of cabon nanotubes. In order to test this hypothesis, nickel nanoparticles were deposited on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by electrochemical deposition. The carbon nanotubes used in this study were XD-CNTs, SWNTs and Ni-coated CNTs. The structure and

  13. Potentiometric study of antioxidant activity: development and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A V; Gerasimova, E L; Brainina, Kh Z

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the study of the antioxidant activity of different objects is caused by an unbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the performance of the antioxidant system in humans under certain conditions, which leads to oxidative stress and pathological states of the organism. This article presents a brief critical review of the methods that are used to measure integrated antioxidant activity (AOA). It is shown that the most promising methods for measuring AOA are electrochemical ones, particularly potentiometry, as it best fits the nature of the processes causing oxidative stress. The article gives the theoretical rational for requirements that an oxidizer of antioxidants (AO) should meet. The work presents the thermodynamic grounds for the use of an earlier proposed mediator system, kinetics of chemical reactions between AO and the mediator system. In order to confirm reliability and accuracy of the results, numerous correlation studies were conducted, aiming to compare the data obtained with the use the proposed method and independent analytical methods. The article presents the results of the potentiometric study of AOA for a variety of objects, including individual antioxidant → nutritional supplements → food → blood and blood fractions.

  14. Study of Seismic Activity at Ceboruco Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero, C. R.; Rodríguez Ayala, N. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2013-12-01

    risk that represent to the surrounding communities and economic activities. Since March 2012 we installed four seismic stations, each includes a digital acquisition system TAURUS of Nanometrics and a Lennartz 3D lite (1Hz) seismometer. Batteries are change and data collected monthly. We use the data to establish the average seismic activity rate; we also aim to corroborate previous studies that showed four families of seismic events; and to localize and make preliminary evaluations of the events.

  15. Risk of mortality (including sudden cardiac death) and major cardiovascular events in atypical and typical antipsychotic users: a study with the general practice research database.

    PubMed

    Murray-Thomas, Tarita; Jones, Meghan E; Patel, Deven; Brunner, Elizabeth; Shatapathy, Chetan C; Motsko, Stephen; Van Staa, Tjeerd P

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Antipsychotics have been associated with increased cardiac events including mortality. This study assessed cardiac events including mortality among antipsychotic users relative to nonusers. Methods. The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was used to identify antipsychotic users, matched general population controls, and psychiatric diseased nonusers. Outcomes included cardiac mortality, sudden cardiac death (SCD), all-cause mortality (excluding suicide), coronary heart disease (CHD), and ventricular arrhythmias (VA). Sensitivity analyses were conducted for age, dose, duration, antipsychotic type, and psychiatric disease. Results. 183,392 antipsychotic users (115,491 typical and 67,901 atypical), 544,726 general population controls, and 193,920 psychiatric nonusers were identified. Nonusers with schizophrenia, dementia, or bipolar disorder had increased risks of all-cause mortality compared to general population controls, while nonusers with major depression had comparable risks. Relative to psychiatric nonusers, the adjusted relative ratios (aRR) of all-cause mortality in antipsychotic users was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.64-1.87); cardiac mortality 1.72 (95% CI: 1.42-2.07); SCD primary definition 5.76 (95% CI: 2.90-11.45); SCD secondary definition 2.15 (95% CI: 1.64-2.81); CHD 1.16 (95% CI: 0.94-1.44); and VA 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02-1.31). aRRs of the various outcomes were lower for atypical versus typical antipsychotics (all-cause mortality 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80-0.85); cardiac mortality 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.97); and SCD secondary definition 0.76 (95% CI: 0.55-1.04). Conclusions. Antipsychotic users had an increased risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and SCD compared to a psychiatric nonuser cohort.

  16. [Activities of System Studies and Simulation, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Launch Vehicle Interface Work Performed: a. S3 provided to KSC the new launch inclination targets needed for the April '04 launch date. 2. Prelaunch operations work performed: a. S3 updated the staffing plan for MSFC on-console personnel\\during the Final Countdown prior to launch. 3. Software Assessment Work Performed: a. S3 evaluated and recommended approval for Program Control Board (PCB) proposed change 649 for ground software changes, as well as change 650 and 650A for Stored Program Commands. 4. Education and Public Outreach Work Performed: a. S3 continues to coordinate the effort for the design and fabrication of scale models of the GP-3 for use at the launch site, education forums, and management/technical briefings. S3 also prepared a Change Request for additional funds needed for fabrication of additional scale models. S3 drafted the planned uses of these models, including the possibility of participation in the Boston, MA showings of the traveling Einstein Exhibit. 5. Program Management Support Work Performed: a. S3 prepared the input for and closed three MSFC Centerwide Action Item Tracking Systems (CAITS) actions during this period.

  17. Extravehicular activity translation arm (EVATA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Stammreich, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a deployable Extravehicular Activity Translation Arm (EVATA) assembly which will allow an EVA crewman to perform tasks in the vicinity of the External TNK (ET) umbilical doors and to inspect most of the underside of the shuttle spacecraft is reported. The concept chosen for the boom structure was the Astro Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which formed the main structure for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna System on the SEASAT A spacecraft. This structure is a deployable triangular truss. A comparison of the EVATA and the SEASAT A ESS is shown. The development of status of the ESS is shown. The satellite configuration, the stowed truss load path, and the envelope deployment sequence for the ESS are also shown.

  18. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Patnaik, Santosh; Mishra, Pravash; Behera, Priyamadhaba; Dwivedi, Sada Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. Materials and Methods: We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. Results: The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or “frosties,” show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50–85%). Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol. PMID:27512686

  19. Effects of changes in basal/total daily insulin ratio in type 2 diabetes patients on intensive insulin therapy including insulin glargine (JUN-LAN Study 6).

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Motoyuki; Shimizu, Tomoaki; Kanazawa, Akio; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Hirose, Takahisa

    2008-08-01

    Intensive insulin therapy composed of bolus and basal insulin has been believed as the most powerful recipe for glycemic control of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of changes in basal/total daily insulin ratio (B/TD ratio) in type 2 diabetes patients on intensive insulin therapy including insulin glargine. The B/TD ratio used in our Japanese patients was about 0.35, and the ratio was increased up to about 0.46+/-0.12 without change of total insulin daily dose. After 24-week-treatment, mean glycated albumin of the patients whose B/TD ratio was increased was significantly lower than those of the patients whose B/TD ratio was not changed. Our results suggest that adequate supplementation of basal insulin may be important for maximum effect of bolus insulin even in Japanese who have serious defect in postprandial rapid insulin secretion.

  20. Absorption spectrometric study of charge transfer complex formation between 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol) and a series of quinones including Vitamin K 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Avijit; Mukherjee, Asok K.

    2004-07-01

    The formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes of 4-acetamidophenol (commonly called 'paracetamol') and a series of quinones (including Vitamin K 3) has been studied spectrophotometrically in ethanol medium. The vertical ionisation potential of paracetamol and the degrees of charge transfer of the complexes in their ground state has been estimated from the trends in the charge transfer bands. The oscillator and transition dipole strengths of the complexes have been determined from the CT absorption spectra at 298 K. The complexes have been found by Job's method of continuous variation to have the uncommon 2:1 (paracetamol:quinone) stoichiometry in each case. The enthalpies and entropies of formation of the complexes have been obtained by determining their formation constants at five different temperatures.

  1. Feasibility study of advanced technology hov systems. Volume 3. Benefit implications of alternative policies for including hov lanes in route guidance networks. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Chira-Chavala, T.; Lin, W.H.

    1992-12-01

    This study aims to investigate whether it would be beneficial to include HOV lanes in route guidance networks when high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lanes exist on the corridors. This is an important policy issue for a number of reasons. First, HOV lanes are integral parts of many urban corridors in the U.S., and there is no compelling reason at this time to exclude them from route-guidance networks. Second, HOVs share same roadways with single-occupancy-vehicles (SOVs) outside HOV lanes, thus congestion outside HOV lanes also affects HOVs. Therefore, HOVs can conceivably benefit from having route guidance information to guide their journey. Third, evidence suggests that HOV lanes are a good public policy, thus it appears desirable to continue to provide travel-time advantages to HOVs over SOVs even when advanced route guidance technologies become available.

  2. The effectiveness of including support people in a cognitive behavioural weight loss maintenance programme for obese adults: study rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Rieger, E; Treasure, J; Swinbourne, J; Adam, B; Manns, C; Caterson, I

    2014-04-01

    The well-documented finding that obese adults have a high likelihood of weight regain following participation in behavioural weight loss programmes highlights the importance of developing more effective approaches for weight loss maintenance. One promising approach is to improve the quality of social support for effective weight control available to an obese individual by including support people in behavioural weight loss programmes. This paper describes the rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial that evaluates the effectiveness of training support people to assist obese adults in their weight management. The study entails a two-arm randomized controlled trial in which obese participants take part in a 1-year (26-session) cognitive behaviour therapy group weight management programme, including motivational interviewing strategies (CBT-MI). In one arm, participants receive CBT-MI alone, while in the second arm (CBT-MI-SP), participants also have a support person who attends 10 group sessions designed to teach effective skills for supporting an individual in healthy weight control. More specifically, support people will be trained in skills that aim to promote self-motivation for weight management. Assessments of anthropometric, medical, behavioural, motivational, psychological and social functioning take place at pre-treatment, post-treatment and a 1-year follow-up. By helping obese participants to increase and sustain their motivation and skills for weight control both during treatment and in the crucial period after treatment cessation through the ongoing input of support people, the CBT-MI-SP approach of the current study has the potential to effectively help patients to achieve sustained weight loss while minimizing the patient's need for ongoing, intensive weight control treatment with its attendant costs. PMID:25826731

  3. Studies on yeast nucleoside triphosphate-nucleoside diphosphate transphosphorylase (nucleoside diphosphokinase). IV. Steady-state kinetic properties with thymidine nucleotides (including 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine analogues).

    PubMed

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Alber, T; Richardson, D; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M

    1991-01-01

    A study of the steady-state kinetics of the crystalline brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis) nucleoside diphosphokinase, with the magnesium complexes of the adenine and thymidine nucleotides as reactants, has led to a postulated kinetic mechanism which proceeds through a substituted enzyme. This agrees with the earlier conclusions of Garces and Cleland [Biochemistry 1969; 8:633-640] who characterized a reaction between the magnesium complexes of the adenine and uridine nucleotides. An advantage of using thymidine nucleotides as reactants is that they permit accurate, rapid and continuous assays of the enzymatic activity in coupled-enzymatic tests. Through measurements of the initial velocities and product inhibition studies, the Michaelis constants, maximum velocities, and inhibition constants could be evaluated for the individual substrates. Competitive substrate inhibition was encountered at relatively high substrate concentrations, which also permitted an evaluation of their ability to act as 'dead-end' inhibitors. The Michaelis constants for the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AzT) analogues were also evaluated and, although these values were only somewhat higher than those of their natural substrates, the Km's for the adenine nucleotides as paired substrates were lower and the Vmax's were drastically reduced. The pharmacological implications of these observations are touched upon and extrapolated to the cases where therapeutic doses of AzT may be employed.

  4. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  5. Advanced Study for Active Noise Control in Aircraft (ASANCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Ingo U.; Emborg, Urban; Sollo, Antonio; Waterman, Elly H.; Paillard, Jacques; Larsen, Peter N.; Venet, Gerard; Goeransson, Peter; Martin, Vincent

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft interior noise and vibration measurements are included in this paper from ground and flight tests. In addition, related initial noise calculations with and without active noise control are conducted. The results obtained to date indicate that active noise control may be an effective means for reducing the critical low frequency aircraft noise.

  6. Solar Activity Studies using Microwave Imaging Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of solar cycle 24 based on polar prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness enhancement (MBE) information obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph. The north polar region of the Sun had near-zero field strength for more than three years (2012-2015) and ended only in September 2015 as indicated by the presence of polar PEs and the lack of MBE. The zero-polar-field condition in the south started only around 2013, but it ended by June 2014. Thus the asymmetry in the times of polarity reversal switched between cycle 23 and 24. The polar MBE is a good proxy for the polar magnetic field strength as indicated by the high degree of correlation between the two. The cross-correlation between the high- and low-latitude MBEs is significant for a lag of approximately 5.5 to 7.3 years, suggesting that the polar field of one cycle indicates the sunspot number of the next cycle in agreement with the Babcock-Leighton mechanism of solar cycles. The extended period of near-zero field in the north-polar region should result in a weak and delayed sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere in cycle 25.

  7. Activity space environment and dietary and physical activity behaviors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Matthews, Stephen A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and weight-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants' movement was tracked for 7 days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors.

  8. Activity Space Environment and Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Matthews, Stephen A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and obesity-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants’ movement was tracked for seven days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors. PMID:21696995

  9. [The motor activity study segment as pilot study of The Child and Adolescent Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Kahl, H; Emmel, J

    2002-12-01

    In the Health Survey for Children and Adolescents the examination of motor activity is one aspect of physical health covered by the study. This underlines the importance of physical activity for physical development in early years. This first representative child and adolescent study for Germany intends to obtain data on motor activity and to allow for the implementation of specific intervention programmes encouraging physical activity. The specific general conditions under which the survey is conducted restrict the selection and scope of possible instruments to a minimal programme, including fitness tests, strength in combination with endurance and coordinative skills as well as flexibility. In a pilot study the suitability, feasibility and the obtained evidence of selected single motor tests were tested. This article explains the choice of instruments and methods used in the examination of physical fitness. It also discusses methodological difficulties which affect the standardisation of tests and the requirements regarding personnel. A major concern of the pilot study was the evaluation of tested instruments with regard to gender and age differences. For the main survey the following tests are recommended: coordination (balancing backwards, one-leg-footing, sideway jumping), perseverance (sit-ups, push-ups), and flexibility (trunk bending).

  10. Studying Doctoral Education: Using Activity Theory to Shape Methodological Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Catherine; Jazvac-Martek, Marian; McAlpine, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The study reported here, one part of a larger study on doctoral education, describes a pilot study that used Activity Theory to shape a methodological tool for better understanding the tensions inherent in the doctoral experience. As doctoral students may function within a range of activity systems, we designed data collection protocols based on…

  11. The Use of Art Activities in Social Studies Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure how effective the use of art activities is at achieving the goals of social studies program and to introduce a model practice that social studies teachers can follow. Accordingly, certain objectives were selected from among the main objectives of social studies program and the activities prepared for a…

  12. Genomic markers of panitumumab resistance including ERBB2/HER2 in a phase II study of KRAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Garrett S.; Cheang, Maggie C.; Chang, Hector Li; Kennecke, Hagen F.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to identify biomarkers associated with resistance to panitumumab monotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients with previously treated, codon 12/13 KRAS wt, mCRC were prospectively administered panitumumab 6 mg/kg IV q2weeks. Of 34 panitumumab-treated patients, 11 (32%) had progressive disease at 8 weeks and were classified as non-responders. A Nanostring nCounter-based assay identified a 5-gene expression signature (ERBB2, MLPH, IRX3, MYRF, and KLK6) associated with panitumumab resistance (P = 0.001). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization determined that the HER2 (ERBB2) protein was overexpressed in 4/11 non-responding and 0/21 responding cases (P = 0.035). Two non-responding tumors had ERBB2 gene amplification only, and one demonstrated both ERBB2 amplification and mutation. A non-codon 12/13 KRAS mutation occurred in one panitumumab-resistant patient and was mutually exclusive with ERBB2/HER2 abnormalities. This study identifies a 5-gene signature associated with non-response to single agent panitumumab, including a subgroup of non-responders with evidence of aberrant ERBB2/HER2 signaling. KRAS wt tumors resistant to EGFRi may be identified by gene signature analysis, and the HER2 pathway plays an important role in resistance to therapy. PMID:26980732

  13. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  14. Cost effectiveness of non-invasive tests including duplex scanning for diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. A prospective study carried out on 511 patients.

    PubMed

    Bendayan, P; Boccalon, H

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have elucidated the cost-effectiveness of various diagnostic methods used to detect deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs. These methods include Doppler, plethysmography and labelled fibrogen tests. However, duplex scanning has recently proven to be a more reliable examination. With a view to establishing a realistic appraisal of matters as they stand, the authors have carried out a prospective study to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of purely physical examination, duplex scanning associated with strain-gauge plethysmography, contrast venography indicated for each proximal DVT, and contrast venography as a first-choice examination. 511 consecutive patients suspected of DVT of the lower limbs were examined using the various non-invasive methods cited above. 185 of the patients underwent contrast venography. When compared with those of the non-invasive tests, the results of the latter examination provided for extrapolation to the total population of 511 patients so as to better evaluate costs. We are able to conclude that physical examination alone is neither cost-effective nor risk free. Non-invasive tests, which are more reliable, provide annual savings greater than 1,500,000 FF ($ 240,000) with respect to venography. Performing venography for each proximal DVT increases spending by little: savings are again greater than 1,200,000 FF ($ 192,000).

  15. Genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder in Canadian and UK populations corroborates disease loci including SYNE1 and CSMD1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for cases versus controls using single nucleotide polymorphism microarray data have shown promising findings for complex neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD). Methods Here we describe a comprehensive genome-wide study of bipolar disorder (BD), cross-referencing analysis from a family-based study of 229 small families with association analysis from over 950 cases and 950 ethnicity-matched controls from the UK and Canada. Further, loci identified in these analyses were supported by pathways identified through pathway analysis on the samples. Results Although no genome-wide significant markers were identified, the combined GWAS findings have pointed to several genes of interest that support GWAS findings for BD from other groups or consortia, such as at SYNE1 on 6q25, PPP2R2C on 4p16.1, ZNF659 on 3p24.3, CNTNAP5 (2q14.3), and CDH13 (16q23.3). This apparent corroboration across multiple sites gives much confidence to the likelihood of genetic involvement in BD at these loci. In particular, our two-stage strategy found association in both our combined case/control analysis and the family-based analysis on 1q21.2 (closest gene: sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 gene, S1PR1) and on 1q24.1 near the gene TMCO1, and at CSMD1 on 8p23.2, supporting several previous GWAS reports for BD and for schizophrenia. Pathway analysis suggests association of pathways involved in calcium signalling, neuropathic pain signalling, CREB signalling in neurons, glutamate receptor signalling and axonal guidance signalling. Conclusions The findings presented here show support for a number of genes previously implicated genes in the etiology of BD, including CSMD1 and SYNE1, as well as evidence for previously unreported genes such as the brain-expressed genes ADCY2, NCALD, WDR60, SCN7A and SPAG16. PMID:24387768

  16. FEL Design Studies at LBNL: Activities and Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, John N.; Fawley, W.; Lidia, S.; Padmore, H.; Penn, G.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wan, W.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2007-03-01

    LBNL staff are currently pursuing R&D for future x-ray FELs, and participate in two FEL construction projects. Our strategy is to address the most fundamental challenges, which are the cost-drivers and performance limitations of FEL facilities. An internally funded R&D program is aimed at investigating accelerator physics and technologies in three key areas: (1) Theoretical study, modeling, and experimental development of low emittance, high quantum efficiency cathodes; (2) Design studies of electron beam delivery systems, including emittance manipulations, high-resolution modeling of 6-D phase space, and low-emittance beam transport; and (3) Design studies of optical manipulations of electron beams for seeded and SASE FELs, providing short x-ray pulses of variable duration, synchronous with the seed and pump laser sources, and also long transform-limited pulses with a narrow bandwidth. Design studies of means for production of attosecond x-ray pulses at various wavelengths. We are collaborators in the FERMI{at}Elettra seeded FEL facility under construction at Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, participating in accelerator design and FEL physics studies, and mechanical and electrical engineering. We are participating in the LCLS project at SLAC, implementing our design of stabilized timing and synchronization systems. Here we outline our long-term objectives, and current activities.

  17. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  18. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J; Perreira, Krista M; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively); however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]). For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family

  19. Single molecule study of ClpP enzymatic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouchi, Amir; Yu, Angela; Houry, Walid; Gradinaru, Claudiu

    2009-03-01

    Elementary processes that form the basis of biological activities pass through a number of short-lived intermediate states while progressing from initial state to final state. Single-molecule techniques, unlike ensemble averaging measurements, are often able to resolve these transient states. ClpP, a known target of antibacterial drugs like acydepsipeptides (ADEPs), is a classical representative of serine proteases, enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins. We performed single-molecule fluorescence measurements including burst spectroscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to address unknown aspects of this degradation process. Our study reveals important molecular details of protein degradation, such as the enzyme-substrate binding rate, the lifetime distribution of the conjugated state and the probability of substrate cleavage upon conjugation.

  20. Essential key indicators for disaster medical response suggested to be included in a national uniform protocol for documentation of major incidents: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Registration of data from a major incident or disaster serves several purposes such as to record data for evaluation of response as well as for research. Data needed can often be retrieved after an incident while other must be recorded during the incident. There is a need for a consensus on what is essential to record from a disaster response. The aim of this study was to identify key indicators essential for initial disaster medical response registration. By this is meant nationally accepted processes involved, from the time of the emergency call to the emergency medical communication centre until medical care is provided at the emergency department. Methods A three round Delphi study was conducted. Thirty experts with a broad knowledge in disaster and emergency response and medical management were invited. In this study we estimated 30 experts to be approximately one third of the number in Sweden eligible for recruitment. Process, structure and outcome indicators for the initial disaster medical response were identified. These were based on previous research and expressed as statements and were grouped into eight categories, and presented to the panel of experts. The experts were instructed to score each statement, using a five point Likert scale, and were also invited to include additional statements. Statements reaching a predefined consensus level of 80% were considered as essential to register. Results In total 97 statements were generated, 77 statements reached consensus. The 77 statements covered parts of all relevant aspects involved in the initial disaster medical response. The 20 indicators that did not reach consensus mostly concerned patient related times in hospital, types of support systems and security for health care staff. Conclusions The Delphi technique can be used for reaching consensus of data, comprising process, structure and outcome indicators, identified as essential for recording from major incidents and disasters. PMID

  1. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  2. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  3. Dermoscopic patterns in patients with a clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis—results of a prospective study including data of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture examination

    PubMed Central

    Jesús-Silva, Miriam América; Fernández-Martínez, Ramón; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease, representing 50% of cases affecting the nail apparatus. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination along with the KOH exam of the nail and culture of the sample. However, not all dermatologists have access to a mycology lab. Objective: To determine the correlation between KOH examination and dermoscopic patterns in patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis. Patients/Methods: A descriptive, open, observational, prospective, cross-sectional study of 178 patients with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis was conducted. All patients underwent clinical examination, dermoscopy with a DermLite PHOTO dermatoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA), KOH assessment and culture analysis. The most frequent dermoscopic patterns were identified and their correlation with the clinical subtype of onychomycosis was analyzed. Results: The study included 178 patients with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. Of these, 155 (87.1%) had positive direct KOH examination for onychomycosis. Eighty-seven patients (56.13%) presented with clinical onychomycosis pattern of total dystrophic onychomycosis (TDO), 67 (43.23%) with distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), 1 (0.65%) with trachyonychia). Dermoscopic patterns of onychomycosis showed the following frequencies: the spiked pattern was present in 22 patients (14.19%), longitudinal striae pattern in 51 patients (32.9%) and linear edge pattern in 21 patients (13.55%). We identified a pattern described as “distal irregular termination” in 41 patients with TDO and 26 with DLSO. Conclusions: This is the fist study conducted in a Mexican population that uses dermoscopy as a diagnostic tool along with the KOH examination for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Dermoscopy may be used as an important diagnostic tool when evaluating nail disease. However, it should not be used as the only diagnostic criteria for onychomycosis. PMID:26114050

  4. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  5. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Jonathan J.; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E.; Appleyard, Sharon A.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; White, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species’ life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were  L¯∞ = 159 cm TL and  L¯0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more

  6. A Kinetic Modeling study on the Oxidation of Primary Reference Fuel?Toluene Mixtures Including Cross Reactions between Aromatics and Aliphatics

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y; Miyoshi, A; Koshi, M; Pitz, W J

    2008-01-09

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the mixtures of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF: n-heptane and iso-octane) and toluene has been proposed. This model is divided into three parts; a PRF mechanism [T. Ogura et al., Energy & Fuels 21 (2007) 3233-3239], toluene sub-mechanism and cross reactions between PRF and toluene. Toluene sub-mechanism includes the low temperature kinetics relevant to engine conditions. A chemical kinetic mechanism proposed by Pitz et al. [Proc. the 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Combust. Institute (2001)] was used as a starting model and modified by updating rate coefficients. Theoretical estimations of rate coefficients were performed for toluene and benzyl radical reactions important at low temperatures. Cross-reactions between alkane, alkene, and aromatics were also included in order to account for the acceleration by the addition of toluene into iso-octane recently found in the shock tube study of the ignition delay [Y. Sakai et al, SAE 2007-01-4014 (2007)]. Validations of the model were performed with existing shock tube and flow tube data. The model well predicts the ignition characteristics of toluene and PRF/Toluene mixtures under the wide range of temperatures (500-1700 K) and pressures (2-50 atm). It is found that reactions of benzyl radical with oxygen molecule determine the reactivity of toluene at low temperature. Although the effect of toluene addition to iso-octane is not fully resolved, the reactions of alkene with benzyl radical have the possibility to account for the kinetic interactions between PRF and toluene.

  7. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Aljos?a

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…

  8. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  9. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  10. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10−8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  11. A study of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of three men with sex chromosome mosaicism including a 45,X cell line.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Huong; Morel, Frederic; Bujan, Louis; May-Panloup, Pascale; De Braekeleer, Marc; Perrin, Aurore

    2015-06-01

    Meiotic segregation of mosaic males with a 45,X cell line has been little examined. In this study, we evaluated the risk of aneuploid gametes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA fragmentation in ejaculated spermatozoa of three men with sex chromosome mosaicism including a 45,X cell line. Triple- and dual-color FISH were performed. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected using the TUNEL assay. A significantly increased frequency of XY disomic spermatozoa was observed for patients (P)1 and P2. A significant increase in diploidy and autosomal aneuploidy was found in P2 and P3, respectively. The rate of DNA fragmentation was not different from that observed in a control group. Data from the literature are scarce (only 3 cases reported), making comparison of the present data difficult, especially as the frequencies of the cell lines comprising the mosaicism differed between patients. Furthermore, the proportion of the different cell lines can differ from one tissue to another in the same patient. Whether the relative levels of the several cell lines present in the mosaicism can influence the rate of aneuploid spermatozoa remains unknown.

  12. Zebrafish homologs of genes within 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes

    PubMed Central

    Blaker-Lee, Alicia; Gupta, Sunny; McCammon, Jasmine M.; De Rienzo, Gianluca; Sive, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, indicating the importance of gene dosage in this copy number variant region (CNV). The core of this CNV includes 25 genes; however, the number of genes that contribute to these phenotypes is not known. Furthermore, genes whose functional levels change with deletion or duplication (termed ‘dosage sensors’), which can associate the CNV with pathologies, have not been identified in this region. Using the zebrafish as a tool, a set of 16p11.2 homologs was identified, primarily on chromosomes 3 and 12. Use of 11 phenotypic assays, spanning the first 5 days of development, demonstrated that this set of genes is highly active, such that 21 out of the 22 homologs tested showed loss-of-function phenotypes. Most genes in this region were required for nervous system development – impacting brain morphology, eye development, axonal density or organization, and motor response. In general, human genes were able to substitute for the fish homolog, demonstrating orthology and suggesting conserved molecular pathways. In a screen for 16p11.2 genes whose function is sensitive to hemizygosity, the aldolase a (aldoaa) and kinesin family member 22 (kif22) genes were identified as giving clear phenotypes when RNA levels were reduced by ∼50%, suggesting that these genes are deletion dosage sensors. This study leads to two major findings. The first is that the 16p11.2 region comprises a highly active set of genes, which could present a large genetic target and might explain why multiple brain function, and other, phenotypes are associated with this interval. The second major finding is that there are (at least) two genes with deletion dosage sensor properties among the 16p11.2 set, and these could link this CNV to brain disorders such as ASD and IDD. PMID

  13. Self-Reported Health Experiences of Children Living with Congenital Heart Defects: Including Patient-Reported Outcomes in a National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Valerija; Hogan, Ailbhe; Bull, Catherine; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta; Dezateux, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding children’s views about living with congenital heart defects (CHDs) is fundamental to supporting their successful participation in daily life, school and peer relationships. As an adjunct to a health and quality of life outcomes questionnaire, we asked school-age children who survived infant heart procedures to describe their experiences of living with CHDs. Methods In a UK-wide cohort study, children aged 10 to 14 years with CHDs self-completed postal questionnaires that included an open question about having a ‘heart problem’. We compared the characteristics of children with more and less severe cardiac diagnoses and, through collaborative inductive content analysis, investigated the subjective experiences and coping strategies described by children in both clinical severity groups. Results Text and/or drawings were returned by 436 children (246 boys [56%], mean age 12.1 years [SD 1.0; range 10–14]); 313 had less severe (LS) and 123 more severe (MS) cardiac diagnoses. At the most recent hospital visit, a higher proportion of the MS group were underweight (more than two standard deviations below the mean for age) or cyanosed (underweight: MS 20.0%, LS 9.9%; cyanosed: MS 26.2%, LS 3.5%). Children in the MS group described concerns about social isolation and feeling ‘different’, whereas children with less severe diagnoses often characterised their CHD as ‘not a big thing’. Some coping strategies were common to both severity groups, including managing health information to avoid social exclusion, however only children in the LS group considered their CHD ‘in the past’ or experienced a sense of survivorship. Conclusions Children’s reported experiences were not dependent on their cardiac diagnosis, although there were clear qualitative differences by clinical severity group. Children’s concerns emphasised social participation and our findings imply a need to shift the clinical focus from monitoring cardiac function to

  14. Active Learning in the Library Instruction Environment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alanna; Furno, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study investigating the impact of problem-based learning and clicker technology as active learning strategies at the American University of Sharjah Library, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Studies compared traditional and active learning classes. The present article maps the successes and challenges of these unique…

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates in south Sweden including a 13-year follow-up study of some respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, A; Walder, M

    1994-03-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility of consecutive isolates of the upper respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus, (100 strains of each species collected each year during March through April 1985, 1988 and 1992) to penicillin V, amoxycillin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, doxycycline, erythromycin, and cotrimoxazole was investigated by MIC determination on PDM and PDM II agar. The MICs of the upper respiratory isolates from 1992 supplemented with 100 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus collected during 1992 were determined against the above antibiotics plus cefadroxil, cefpodoxime, roxithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and BAY Y 3118. Beta-lactamase production was found in 10% of H. influenzae and 80-90% of S. aureus and B. catarrhalis in 1992. Among H. influenzae isolates, non-beta-lactamase-induced resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics was first detected in 1988 and amounted to 3% of isolates in 1992. Decreased susceptibility of S. preumoniae to penicillin (> or = 0.12 mg/l), co-trimoxazole > or = 32 mg/l, doxycycline (> or = 2 ml/l) and erythromycin (> or = 1 mg/l) was detected in 11%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, in 1992, which is significantly higher than in previous years at the same laboratory. Decreased susceptibility of S. pyogenes to doxycycline and erythromycin was detected in 11% and 9% in 1992. The two most recently developed antibiotics, cefpodoxime and BAY Y 3118, showed high antibacterial activity. The study emphasizes the need to screen for resistance mechanisms such as beta-lactamase production and lowered penicillin affinity.

  16. Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Korfel, Agnieszka; Elter, Thomas; Thiel, Eckhard; Hänel, Matthias; Möhle, Robert; Schroers, Roland; Reiser, Marcel; Dreyling, Martin; Eucker, Jan; Scholz, Christian; Metzner, Bernd; Röth, Alexander; Birkmann, Josef; Schlegel, Uwe; Martus, Peter; Illerhaus, Gerard; Fischer, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with central nervous system relapse of aggressive lymphoma is very poor with no therapy established so far. In a prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated a potentially curative chemotherapy-only regimen in these patients. Adult immunocompetent patients 65 years of age or under received induction chemotherapy with MTX/IFO/DEP (methotrexate 4 g/m2 intravenously (i.v.) Day 1, ifosfamide 2 g/m2 i.v. Days 3– 5 and liposomal cytarabine 50 mg intrathecally (i.th) Day 6) and AraC/TT/DEP (cytarabine 3g/m2 i.v. Days 1–2, thiotepa 40 mg/m2 i.v. Day 2 and i.th. liposomal cytarabine 50 mg i.th. Day 3) followed by high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine 400 mg/m2 i.v. Day −5, thiotepa 2×5 mg/kg i.v. Days −4 to −3 and etoposide 150 mg/m2 i.v. Days −5 to −3, and autologous stem cell transplantation Day 0 (HD-ASCT). Thirty eligible patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled. After HD-ASCT (n=24), there was a complete remission in 15 (63%), partial remission in 2 (8%) and progressive disease in 7 (29%) patients. Myelotoxicity was the most adverse event with CTC grade 3/4 infections in 12% of MTX/IFO/DEP courses, 21% of AraC/TT/DEP courses and 46% of HD-ASCT courses. The 2-year time to treatment failure was 49%±19 for all patients and 58%±22 for patients completing HD-ASCT. The protocol assessed proved feasible and highly active with long-lasting remissions in a large proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier NCT01148173) PMID:23242601

  17. Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S. ); Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand.

  18. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Watershed Investigations and Environmental Studies, Volume 6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gail, Peter A.; And Others

    This curriculum activities guide provides the teacher with a model for a comprehensive program in watershed studies. With increased concern over water pollution, a study of the watershed is important to complete an understanding of water drainage problems. This guide includes a rationale for the study of watersheds and develops methods of…

  19. Preferred computer activities among individuals with dementia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sunghee H; Zhang, Hongmei; Hong, Song Hee

    2015-03-01

    Computers offer new activities that are easily accessible, cognitively stimulating, and enjoyable for individuals with dementia. The current descriptive study examined preferred computer activities among nursing home residents with different severity levels of dementia. A secondary data analysis was conducted using activity observation logs from 15 study participants with dementia (severe = 115 logs, moderate = 234 logs, and mild = 124 logs) who participated in a computer activity program. Significant differences existed in preferred computer activities among groups with different severity levels of dementia. Participants with severe dementia spent significantly more time watching slide shows with music than those with both mild and moderate dementia (F [2,12] = 9.72, p = 0.003). Preference in playing games also differed significantly across the three groups. It is critical to consider individuals' interests and functional abilities when computer activities are provided for individuals with dementia. A practice guideline for tailoring computer activities is detailed.

  20. In vitro activity of the new fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) against a large collection of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and international reference strains, including those with high-level antimicrobial resistance: potential treatment option for gonorrhea?

    PubMed

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-05-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea.

  1. Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Disability in National Assessment: Comparison of Three Country Case Studies through an Inclusive Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Graeme; McLinden, Mike; Robertson, Christopher; Travers, Joseph; Smith, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of educational progress and outcomes of pupils is important to all concerned with education. This includes testing which is undertaken for accountability and award bearing purposes. This article examines how students with special educational needs and disability (SEND) are included in assessment. An "inclusive assessment"…

  2. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions. PMID:23302074

  3. Randomized comparison of renal denervation versus intensified pharmacotherapy including spironolactone in true-resistant hypertension: six-month results from the Prague-15 study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ján; Widimský, Petr; Toušek, Petr; Petrák, Ondřej; Čurila, Karol; Waldauf, Petr; Bednář, František; Zelinka, Tomáš; Holaj, Robert; Štrauch, Branislav; Šomlóová, Zuzana; Táborský, Miloš; Václavík, Jan; Kociánová, Eva; Branny, Marian; Nykl, Igor; Jiravský, Otakar; Widimský, Jiří

    2015-02-01

    This prospective, randomized, open-label multicenter trial evaluated the efficacy of catheter-based renal denervation (Symplicity, Medtronic) versus intensified pharmacological treatment including spironolactone (if tolerated) in patients with true-resistant hypertension. This was confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring after excluding secondary hypertension and confirmation of adherence to therapy by measurement of plasma antihypertensive drug levels before enrollment. One-hundred six patients were randomized to renal denervation (n=52), or intensified pharmacological treatment (n=54) with baseline systolic blood pressure of 159±17 and 155±17 mm Hg and average number of drugs 5.1 and 5.4, respectively. A significant reduction in 24-hour average systolic blood pressure after 6 months (-8.6 [95% cofidence interval: -11.8, -5.3] mm Hg; P<0.001 in renal denervation versus -8.1 [95% cofidence interval: -12.7, -3.4] mm Hg; P=0.001 in pharmacological group) was observed, which was comparable in both groups. Similarly, a significant reduction in systolic office blood pressure (-12.4 [95% cofidence interval: -17.0, -7.8] mm Hg; P<0.001 in renal denervation versus -14.3 [95% cofidence interval: -19.7, -8.9] mm Hg; P<0.001 in pharmacological group) was present. Between-group differences in change were not significant. The average number of antihypertensive drugs used after 6 months was significantly higher in the pharmacological group (+0.3 drugs; P<0.001). A significant increase in serum creatinine and a parallel decrease of creatinine clearance were observed in the pharmacological group; between-group difference were borderline significant. The 6-month results of this study confirmed the safety of renal denervation. In conclusion, renal denervation achieved reduction of blood pressure comparable with intensified pharmacotherapy.

  4. Studies of morphological and molecular phylogenetic divergence in spiders (Araneae: Homalonychus) from the American southwest, including divergence along the Baja California Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Crews, Sarah C; Hedin, Marshal

    2006-02-01

    Comparative phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses have revealed a pervasive midpeninsular divergence in the mitochondrial genealogies of numerous vertebrate taxa distributed on the Baja California Peninsula. In this study, we extend the investigation of regional vicariance in Baja California to an arthropod taxon by examining patterns of phylogenetic and morphological divergence in the spider genus Homalonychus (Araneae, Homalonychidae). We analyzed data from two mtDNA genes (16S rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit (1) and a nuclear gene (28S rRNA) using maximum parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, and also conducted geometric morphometric analyses employing landmark data on male and female genitalia. Genes and morphology both reveal a deep split across the Colorado River and Gulf of California, separating Homalonychus selenopoides on the east side of river from its congener Homalonychus theologus on the west side of the river, including the Baja California Peninsula. Along the north-south axis of the Baja Peninsula, an apparently more recent midpeninsular phylogenetic break is evident within H. theologus in the mitochondrial genome and in female genitalia. However, there is no measurable divergence between northern and southern populations in either nuclear DNA or male genitalia. We suggest that this discordance between datasets reflects either a difference in rates of evolution between male versus female systems, or that male-based nuclear gene flow is obscuring a phylogenetic split that is fixed in the female-based systems. Our findings provide additional support for a midpeninsular Baja divergence event, although the timing and geological evidence for such an event remain elusive.

  5. EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis: report of a task force of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    PubMed Central

    Combe, B; Landewe, R; Lukas, C; Bolosiu, H D; Breedveld, F; Dougados, M; Emery, P; Ferraccioli, G; Hazes, J M W; Klareskog, L; Machold, K; Martin‐Mola, E; Nielsen, H; Silman, A; Smolen, J; Yazici, H

    2007-01-01

    Objective To formulate EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis. Methods In accordance with EULAR's “standardised operating procedures”, the task force pursued an evidence based approach and an approach based on expert opinion. A steering group comprised of 14 rheumatologists representing 10 European countries. The group defined the focus of the process, the target population, and formulated an operational definition of “management”. Each participant was invited to propose issues of interest regarding the management of early arthritis or early rheumatoid arthritis. Fifteen issues for further research were selected by use of a modified Delphi technique. A systematic literature search was carried out. Evidence was categorised according to usual guidelines. A set of draft recommendations was proposed on the basis of the research questions and the results of the literature search.. The strength of the recommendations was based on the category of evidence and expert opinion. Results 15 research questions, covering the entire spectrum of “management of early arthritis”, were formulated for further research; and 284 studies were identified and evaluated. Twelve recommendations for the management of early arthritis were selected and presented with short sentences. The selected statements included recognition of arthritis, referral, diagnosis, prognosis, classification, and treatment of early arthritis (information, education, non‐pharmacological interventions, pharmacological treatments, and monitoring of the disease process). On the basis of expert opinion, 11 items were identified as being important for future research. Conclusions 12 key recommendations for the management of early arthritis or early rheumatoid arthritis were developed, based on evidence in the literature and expert consensus. PMID:16396980

  6. Community perceptions and treatment-seeking behaviour regarding reproductive tract infections including sexually transmitted infections in Lao PDR: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sihavong, Amphoy; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Syhakhang, Lamphone; Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Wahlström, Rolf; Freudenthal, Solveig

    2011-05-01

    Creating community awareness of reproductive tract infections (RTI), including sexually transmitted infections (STI), and how to prevent them is essential to minimize their spread. Data on people's views about RTI/STI are entirely lacking in Laos. The aim of this study was thus to explore people's perceptions, treatment-seeking behaviour and understanding of information about RTI/STI, in urban and rural communities in two provinces in Laos. Fourteen focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews were held with 76 women and 56 men, selected purposively to provide diversity of socio-demographic backgrounds. Qualitative content analysis was employed for the data analysis. The major finding was that both male and female participants had a variety of misconceptions about the causes and symptoms of RTI/STI and their cure, and a reluctance to seek health care, which could cause delay in appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The most common treatment-seeking behaviour was self-medication through private pharmacies, following advice mostly given by friends and drug sellers. The main reasons for not going to health facilities were fear of social discrimination or shyness of genital examination. Complaints were also made about clinicians' negative attitudes towards 'dirty disease'. Although condom use was mentioned as a way to prevent RTI/STI, an unwillingness to use condoms was commonly expressed. The main media sources of RTI/STI information were radio and television, and access to health information was more difficult in rural areas. The health messages provided were mostly understood, except for some technical terms. The findings indicate that strengthening health education and promotion through interventions at the community level is recommended to improve quality of RTI/STI management. Health education messages should be more accessible in rural areas. There is also an urgent need to improve communication between RTI/STI patients and clinicians. PMID:21211093

  7. An active debris removal parametric study for LEO environment remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2011-06-01

    Recent analyses on the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are, however, monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of its effectiveness must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the need and feasibility of using ADR to better preserve the future environment and to explore different operational options to maximize the benefit-to-cost ratio. This paper describes a new sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of several key parameters, including target selection criteria/constraints and the starting epoch of ADR implementation. Additional analyses on potential ADR targets among the existing satellites and the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers are also included.

  8. Improved survival of children with advanced neuroblastoma treated by intensified therapy including myeloablative chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis from the Tohoku Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, M; Watanabe, A; Kikuta, A; Takano, T; Ito, E; Shimizu, T; Tsuchiya, S; Iinuma, K; Konno, T; Ohi, R; Hayashi, Y

    2001-10-01

    In the hospitals of the Tohoku Neuroblastoma Study Group (TNBSG), treatment for children with advanced neuroblastoma (NB) was intensified in the mid-1990's with the introduction of myeloablative therapy (MT) with stem cell transplantation (SCT) including the use of autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In this report, we examined whether the intensified therapy improved the outcome of children with advanced NB (age> 12 months) who were diagnosed between 1991 and 1997. Patients were 36 children (23 boys and 13 girls) with an average age of 3.4 years (range; 1 to 14 years). Six of them had stage III disease, and the other 30 had stage IV. They were treated initially with induction chemotherapy, surgery, and post-operative chemoradiotherapy, after which 17 of them continued further chemotherapy and the other 19 received MT/SCT (18 with PBSCT and 1 with BMT). Progression-free survival (PFS) rate at seven years from diagnosis was 43.5% for all patients, 66.7% for stage III patients and 38.2% for stage IV patients. The difference between stage III and IV patients was not significant. Among the 30 patients with stage IV disease, PFS at seven years was significantly higher in the 19 patients who received MT/SCT (55.6%) than in the 11 patients who did not receive it (12.5%). There was no difference in clinical and biological risk factors between these two groups, except for the proportion of patients with favorable response to initial therapy (36% and 80% for patients without and with MT/SCT, respectively). Furthermore, the proportion of patients with N-myc amplification was significantly higher in patients with progressive disease (PD) after MT/SCT than in those in CR after MT/SCT. The results of this retrospective study of children with advanced NB suggest that therapy intensification involving MT/SCT might result in lengthened survival time for patients with stage IV disease, and that post-transplant PD remains a risk for

  9. RARE DECAYS INCLUDING PENGUINS

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, G

    2003-12-04

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B decays, B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}, and the extraction of the CKM parameters V{sub ub}. IN a data sample of 55 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they measure a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}) = (3.39 {+-} 0.44{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys} {+-} 0.60{sub th}) x 10{sup -4} yielding |V{sub ub}| = (3.69 {+-} 0.23{sub stat} {+-} 0.27{sub sys -0.59th}{sup +0.40}) x 10{sup -3}. Next, they report on a preliminary study of the radiative penguin modes B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. In a data sample of 84 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they observe a significant signal (4.4{sigma}) in B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, yielding a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.78{sub -0.20-0.18}{sup +0.24+0.11}) x 10{sup -6}. In B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} the observed yield is not yet significant (2.8{sigma}), yielding an upper limit of the branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) 3.0 x 10{sup -6} {at} 90% confidence level. Finally, they summarize preliminary results of searches for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  10. Evolution of Deformation Studies on Active Hawaiian Volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, Robert; Okamura, Arnold; Miklius, Asta; Poland, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Everything responds to pressure, even rocks. Deformation studies involve measuring and interpreting the changes in elevations and horizontal positions of the land surface or sea floor. These studies are variously referred to as geodetic changes or ground-surface deformations and are sometimes indexed under the general heading of geodesy. Deformation studies have been particularly useful on active volcanoes and in active tectonic areas. A great amount of time and energy has been spent on measuring geodetic changes on Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes in Hawai`i. These changes include the build-up of the surface by the piling up and ponding of lava flows, the changes in the surface caused by erosion, and the uplift, subsidence, and horizontal displacements of the surface caused by internal processes acting beneath the surface. It is these latter changes that are the principal concern of this review. A complete and objective review of deformation studies on active Hawaiian volcanoes would take many volumes. Instead, we attempt to follow the evolution of the most significant observations and interpretations in a roughly chronological way. It is correct to say that this is a subjective review. We have spent years measuring and recording deformation changes on these great volcanoes and more years trying to understand what makes these changes occur. We attempt to make this a balanced as well as a subjective review; the references are also selective rather than exhaustive. Geodetic changes caused by internal geologic processes vary in magnitude from the nearly infinitesimal - one micron or less, to the very large - hundreds of meters. Their apparent causes also are varied and include changes in material properties and composition, atmospheric pressure, tidal stress, thermal stress, subsurface-fluid pressure (including magma pressure, magma intrusion, or magma removal), gravity, and tectonic stress. Deformation is measured in units of strain or displacement. For example, tilt

  11. Telmisartan Modulates Glial Activation: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Torika, Nofar; Asraf, Keren; Danon, Abraham; Apte, Ron N.; Fleisher-Berkovich, Sigal

    2016-01-01

    The circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including the biologically active angiotensin II, is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of blood pressure conserved through evolution. Angiotensin II components of the RAS have also been identified in the brain. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II can induce (through angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R)) some of the inflammatory actions of brain glial cells and influence brain inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) models, where neuroinflammation occurs, increased levels of cortical AT1Rs have been shown. Still, the precise role of RAS in neuroinflammation is not completely clear. The overall aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of RAS in the modulation of glial functions and AD pathology. To reach this goal, the specific aims of the present study were a. to investigate the long term effect of telmisartan (AT1R blocker) on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL1-β) and nitric oxide (NO) release from glial cells. b. to examine the effect of intranasally administered telmisartan on amyloid burden and microglial activation in 5X familial AD (5XFAD) mice. Telmisartan effects in vivo were compared to those of perindopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor). Long-term-exposure of BV2 microglia to telmisartan significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced NO, inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL1-β synthesis. The effect of Telmisartan on NO production in BV2 cells was confirmed also in primary neonatal rat glial cells. Intranasal administration of telmisartan (1 mg/kg/day) for up to two months significantly reduced amyloid burden and CD11b expression (a marker for microglia) both in the cortex and hipoccampus of 5XFAD. Based on the current view of RAS and our data, showing reduced amyloid burden and glial activation in the brains of 5XFAD transgenic mice, one may envision potential intervention with the progression

  12. Telmisartan Modulates Glial Activation: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Torika, Nofar; Asraf, Keren; Danon, Abraham; Apte, Ron N; Fleisher-Berkovich, Sigal

    2016-01-01

    The circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including the biologically active angiotensin II, is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of blood pressure conserved through evolution. Angiotensin II components of the RAS have also been identified in the brain. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II can induce (through angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R)) some of the inflammatory actions of brain glial cells and influence brain inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, where neuroinflammation occurs, increased levels of cortical AT1Rs have been shown. Still, the precise role of RAS in neuroinflammation is not completely clear. The overall aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of RAS in the modulation of glial functions and AD pathology. To reach this goal, the specific aims of the present study were a. to investigate the long term effect of telmisartan (AT1R blocker) on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL1-β) and nitric oxide (NO) release from glial cells. b. to examine the effect of intranasally administered telmisartan on amyloid burden and microglial activation in 5X familial AD (5XFAD) mice. Telmisartan effects in vivo were compared to those of perindopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor). Long-term-exposure of BV2 microglia to telmisartan significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced NO, inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL1-β synthesis. The effect of Telmisartan on NO production in BV2 cells was confirmed also in primary neonatal rat glial cells. Intranasal administration of telmisartan (1 mg/kg/day) for up to two months significantly reduced amyloid burden and CD11b expression (a marker for microglia) both in the cortex and hipoccampus of 5XFAD. Based on the current view of RAS and our data, showing reduced amyloid burden and glial activation in the brains of 5XFAD transgenic mice, one may envision potential intervention with the progression of

  13. 43 CFR 404.20 - What information must I include in my full proposal to conduct an appraisal or a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.20 What information must I include in my full proposal to conduct...

  14. Plasminogen activator activity in cultures from human tissues. An immunological and histochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Bernik, Maria B.; Kwaan, Hau C.

    1969-01-01

    Human tissues and cells from pre- and postnatal life were cultivated and studied for plasminogen activator activity. Cultures were obtained from kidney, renal blood vessels, ureter, bladder, lung, and heart. Local activator activity of cells was demonstrated by histochemical techniques. Activator released by cells into the supernatant culture media was assayed by fibrin plate techniques and was investigated for immunological identity using specific antisera to an activator of human origin, urokinase (UK). Plasminogen activator was produced in primary cultures where cells retain specific functions and generally reflect the enzyme pattern of the tissues of origin. Cells from fetal and adult sources were found to yield activator antigenically identical to UK, as well as activator activity which differed from that of UK in immunoassays and which may represent tissue type activator. Such activity was released after injury or death of cells while UK was produced in cultures containing live, metabolizing cells. Primary cultures of kidney confirmed that this organ is a rich source of UK and demonstrated, in addition, that UK is produced from the early stages of gestation and in increasing amounts thereafter. However, primary cultures also demonstrated that the ability to produce UK is not limited to the kidney but is a function of cells which are distributed widely in body tissues. Thus, activator antigenically identical to UK accumulated progressively after many refeedings in culture supernates of fetal lung and ureter, as well as in supernates of renal blood vessels of adults. These findings indicate continuous formation of UK by the cultured cells and, furthermore, provide evidence of UK production in blood vessels. In cultures from other tissues, particularly those from fetal heart and adult lung and bladder, investigation of activator was hindered by inhibitory activity which accumulated in the supernates. Such activity was derived from cells in culture and was

  15. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some

  16. HLA typing with monoclonal antibodies: evaluation of 356 HLA monoclonal antibodies including 181 studied during the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop.

    PubMed

    Colombani, J; Lepage, V; Raffoux, C; Colombani, M

    1989-08-01

    During the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop (10th WS), 181 HLA MoAbs were studied using lymphocytotoxicity micro-technique (LCT) and/or enzyme immuno-assay (EIA), and their capacity to serve as typing reagents was evaluated. 129 MoAbs were tested by both techniques. Results obtained with 92 class I and 86 class II polymorphic MoAbs (10th WS) were compared to published data concerning 180 class I and 176 class II polymorphic MoAbs, listed in an HLA-MoAbs Register maintained in our laboratory. The following conclusions can be proposed: 1/HLA-A, B typing by LCT with MoAbs is possible for about 14 specificities. Some specificities are clearly recognized (HLA-A3, B8, B13, Bw4, Bw6), others are recognized as cross-reacting groups (B7+27+w22+40), others are not currently recognized by any MoAb with restricted specificity (B5, B15). Several MoAbs confirmed the existence of shared epitopes between products from a single locus (A2-A28, A25-A32), or from A and B loci (A2-B17, Bw4-A9-A32). A single HLA-Cw MoAb has been described. 2/HLA class II typing by LCT with MoAbs is more difficult than class I typing. DR2, DR3, DR4, DR5 and DR7 as well as DRw52 and DRw53 are well defined; other DR specificities are poorly or not at all defined. Particular associations (DR1+DR4, DR3+DRw6, all DR except DR7) are recognized by several MoAbs. All DQw specificities are well recognized, including new specificities defined only by MoAbs: WA (DQw4), TA10 (DQw7), 2B3 (DQw6+w8+w9). Only two HLA-DP MoAbs have been described. 3/Satisfactory results, similar to those of LCT, were obtained with EIA using lymphoid cell lines as targets. 4/Human MoAbs (12 in the Register) are satisfactory typing reagents. They could represent in the future a significant contribution to HLA typing with MoAbs. PMID:2609328

  17. Pulmonary Response to Surface-Coated Nanotitanium Dioxide Particles Includes Induction of Acute Phase Response Genes, Inflammatory Cascades, and Changes in MicroRNAs: A Toxicogenomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Halappanavar, Sabina; Jackson, Petra; Williams, Andrew; Jensen, Keld A; Hougaard, Karin S; Vogel, Ulla; Yauk, Carole L; Wallin, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nanoTiO2) are used in various applications including in paints. NanoTiO2 inhalation may induce pulmonary toxicity and systemic effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of inhaled surface-coated nanoTiO2 on pulmonary global messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse were characterized to provide insight into the molecular response. Female C57BL/6BomTac mice were exposed for 1 hr daily to 42.4 ± 2.9 (SEM) mg surface-coated nanoTiO2/m3 for 11 consecutive days by inhalation and were sacrificed 5 days following the last exposure. Physicochemical properties of the particles were determined. Pulmonary response to nanoTiO2 was characterized using DNA microarrays and pathway-specific PCR arrays and related to data on pulmonary inflammation from bronchial lavages. NanoTiO2 exposure resulted in increased levels of mRNA for acute phase markers serum amyloid A-1 (Saa1) and serum amyloid A-3 (Saa3), several C-X-C and C-C motif chemokines, and cytokine tumor necrosis factor genes. Protein analysis of Saa1 and 3 showed selective upregulation of Saa3 in lung tissues. Sixteen miRNAs were induced by more than 1.2-fold (adjusted P-value < 0.05) following exposure. Real time polymerase chain reaction confirmed the upregulation of miR-1, miR-449a and revealed dramatic induction of miR-135b (60-fold). Thus, inhalation of surface-coated nanoTiO2 results in changes in the expression of genes associated with acute phase, inflammation and immune response 5 days post exposure with concomitant changes in several miRNAs. The role of these miRNAs in pulmonary response to inhaled particles is unknown and warrants further research. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.† PMID:21259345

  18. A Study of the Extended Lipid Profile including Oxidized LDL, Small Dense LDL, Lipoprotein (a) and Apolipoproteins in the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Hypothyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sanjiv Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypothyroidism is one of the most common metabolic disorders associated with dyslipidemia which poses a higher risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in such patients. Biochemical markers which can pick up the risk promptly are becoming imperative now-a-days and thus the assessment beyond the conventional lipid profile is the need of the hour. Aims To assess the association of non-conventional lipid parameters like small dense Low Density Lipoprotein (sd LDL), oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (ox LDL), Apolipoprotein A (Apo A1), Apolipoprotein B (Apo B) and Lipoprotein (a) {Lp(a)} in hypothyroid patients and compare their values with the conventional lipid parameters such as Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C). Materials and Methods One hundred and thirty clinically proven patients of hypothyroidism aged 20-60 years and equal number of age and gender matched healthy individuals were included in this case control study. Serum sd LDL, ox LDL, Apo A1, Apo B, Lp (a), lipid profile, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Free Triiodothyronine (FT3) and Free Tetraiodothyronine (FT4) levels were measured in both the groups. The data was recorded and analysed on SPSS system. The results of cases and controls were compared by student t-test and one-way ANOVA. All the parameters were correlated with TSH by Pearson’s correlation. Results We found significantly high levels of sd LDL, ox LDL, Apo B, Lp (a), TC, TG, LDL-C in cases as compared to the controls. Ox LDL has shown maximum correlation with serum TSH (p<0.0001, r=0.801) followed by sd LDL (p<0.0001, r=0.792), Apo B (p<0.001, r=0.783) and LDL-C (p<0.001, r=0.741). Moreover, ox LDL and sd LDL were found to be increased in normolipidemic hypothyroid patients thereby giving a strong supportive evidence that estimation of these parameters can become fundamental in prompt identification of the high risk patients of

  19. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Hagberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. Methods and analysis This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery. The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A–C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. Trial registration number NCT02492191; Pre

  20. Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses--in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Abirami, C P; Venugopal, Pankajalakshmi V

    2005-01-01

    Mouthrinses are nowadays routinely included in the home care oral hygiene maintenance besides dentifrice/tooth paste. Mouthrinses prevent bacterial attachment and prevent or slow down bacterial proliferation. Fungal organisms have now gained more importance due to increased incidence of AIDS/HIV. This has necessitated for mouthrinses to possess antifungal activity also. The mouthrinses used were Povidone iodine ( Wokadine), Thymol with Eucalyptol and Benzoic acid (Listerine) and fluoride with Triclosan (Colgate Plax), which were tested against oral isolates of different species of Candida. The agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the mouthrinses and all of them exhibited antifungal activity especially against Candida albicans. PMID:16758789

  1. Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses--in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Abirami, C P; Venugopal, Pankajalakshmi V

    2005-01-01

    Mouthrinses are nowadays routinely included in the home care oral hygiene maintenance besides dentifrice/tooth paste. Mouthrinses prevent bacterial attachment and prevent or slow down bacterial proliferation. Fungal organisms have now gained more importance due to increased incidence of AIDS/HIV. This has necessitated for mouthrinses to possess antifungal activity also. The mouthrinses used were Povidone iodine ( Wokadine), Thymol with Eucalyptol and Benzoic acid (Listerine) and fluoride with Triclosan (Colgate Plax), which were tested against oral isolates of different species of Candida. The agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the mouthrinses and all of them exhibited antifungal activity especially against Candida albicans.

  2. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance.

  3. Active Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Bertet, Héléna; Faucanie, Marie; Amour, Julien; Blanloeil, Yvonnick; Lanquetot, Hervé; Ouattara, Alexandre; Picot, Marie Christine

    2016-01-01

    Main Objectives To estimate the incidence of active bleeding after cardiac surgery (AB) based on a definition directly related on blood flow from chest drainage; to describe the AB characteristics and its management; to identify factors of postoperative complications. Methods AB was defined as a blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or in case of reoperation for hemostasis during the first 12 postoperative hours. The definition was applied in a prospective longitudinal observational study involving 29 French centers; all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included over a 3-month period. Perioperative data (including blood product administration) were collected. To study possible variation in clinical practice among centers, patients were classified into two groups according to the AB incidence of the center compared to the overall incidence: “Low incidence” if incidence is lower and “High incidence” if incidence is equal or greater than overall incidence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors of postoperative complications. Results Among 4,904 patients, 129 experienced AB (2.6%), among them 52 reoperation. Postoperative bleeding loss was 1,000 [820;1,375] ml and 1,680 [1,280;2,300] ml at 6 and 24 hours respectively. Incidence of AB varied between centers (0 to 16%) but was independent of in-centre cardiac surgical experience. Comparisons between groups according to AB incidence showed differences in postoperative management. Body surface area, preoperative creatinine, emergency surgery, postoperative acidosis and red blood cell transfusion were risk factors of postoperative complication. Conclusions A blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or early reoperation for hemostasis seems a relevant definition of AB. This definition, independent of transfusion, adjusted to body weight, may assess real time bleeding occurring

  4. Motivating the Study of International Trade: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a classroom activity for use in introductory economics courses to motivate the study of international trade. The learning activity highlights the importance of international trade in students' everyday lives by having students inventory their on-hand belongings and identify where the items were manufactured.…

  5. Tips for Social Studies Teachers: Activities from ERIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    Action-oriented learning activities, most drawn from resources in the ERIC system, are designed to stimulate elementary and junior high school students' interest and participation while conveying important social studies content and skills. The activities are organized into six sections. The first section focuses on developing social studies…

  6. Incorporating Active Learning with Videos: A Case Study from Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kester J.; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2008-01-01

    Watching a video often results in passive learning and does not actively engage students. In this study, a class of 20 HSC Physics students were introduced to a teaching model that incorporated active learning principles with the watching of a video that explored the Meissner Effect and superconductors. Students would watch short sections of the…

  7. Continuing French in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching French to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This teacher's guide for use in a fourth-grade French course concentrates on the development of basic audiolingual skills. Twelve lessons, each containing an exposition, dialogue, teaching procedures, and dialogue adaptation, emphasize the use of French during classroom instruction. Lessons include: (1) a review unit, (2) "La chemise neuve," (3)…

  8. Continuing Spanish in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fourteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, (2) Review Unit 2, (3) Special Unit A--"Cristobal Colon," (4) Review Unit 3, (5)…

  9. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  10. Beginning Spanish in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Third-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) More…

  11. Continuing Spanish in Grade Five: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fifth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…

  12. Continuing German in Grade Five: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching German to Fifth-Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memming, Agnes K.; And Others

    This teacher's guide, for use in a fifth-grade German course, contains 12 units of instructional materials which concentrate on the development of basic audiolingual skills. Each of the units consists of conversational skits, dialogue adaptation, directed dialogue review, and classroom drills. Units include: (1) Das Aufstehen und das Fruhstuck,…

  13. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  14. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 124, LAPs 29 Through 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Mary Ann

    A set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on western civilization at the twelfth grade level includes the following units: Establishment of Western Civilization; Middle Period of Western Civilization; Islam and the Saracenic Civilization; the Renaissance and Reformation; and Modern Western…

  15. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 112, LAPs 17 Through 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Jane

    A set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction in United States history at the eleventh grade level includes the following topics: New World Settlement and Colonial Growth; American Revolution and the New Nation; Developing an Effective National Government; The Growth of Nationalism and Democracy…

  16. A Validation Study of the Web-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire Active-Q Against the GENEA Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Patrick; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background Valid physical activity assessment in epidemiological studies is essential to study associations with various health outcomes. Objective To validate the Web-based physical activity questionnaire Active-Q by comparing results of time spent at different physical activity levels with results from the GENEA accelerometer and to assess the reproducibility of Active-Q by comparing two admissions of the questionnaire. Methods A total of 148 men (aged 33 to 86 years) responded to Active-Q twice and wore the accelerometer during seven consecutive days on two occasions. Time spent on six different physical activity levels including sedentary, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) as well as additional combined categories of sedentary-to-light and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity was assessed. Validity of Active-Q was determined using Spearman correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and the Bland-Altman method. Reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) comparing two admissions of the questionnaire. Results The validity correlation coefficients were statistically significant for time spent at all activity levels; sedentary (r=0.19, 95% CI: 0.04-0.34), LPA (r=0.15, 95% CI: 0.00-0.31), sedentary-to-light (r=0.35, 95% CI: 0.19-0.51), MPA (r=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.42), VPA (r=0.54, 95% CI: 0.42-0.67), and MVPA (r=0.35, 95% CI: 0.21-0.48). The Bland-Altman plots showed a negative mean difference for time in LPA and positive mean differences for time spent in MPA, VPA and MVPA. The ICCs of test-retest reliability ranged between r=0.51-0.80 for the different activity levels in Active-Q. Conclusions More moderate and vigorous activities and less light activities were reported in Active-Q compared to accelerometer measurements. Active-Q shows comparable validity and reproducibility to other physical activity questionnaires used today. PMID:26183896

  17. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION AND INFRARED REACTIVATION: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study evaluated the effectiveness and cost of removing trace organic contaminants and surrogates from drinking water by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The effect of multiple reactivations of spent GAC was also evaluated. Results indicated that reactivated GAC eff...

  18. Further investigation of the spontaneous and evoked activity of the primary neurons of statoreceptors (and other receptors) of the labyrinth of the bullfrog before, during and after an extended period of weightlessness, including alternative intervals of artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Vestibular neuron activity was examined by studying nerve stimulation and evoked response. A cooling element, applied to the nerve consisted of a silver hook through which a coolant fluid flowed. Temperature changes were recorded via microtermistors on an eight channel brush recorder, together with response. Diffusion of the cooling effect was measured, recovery time was assessed, and the nerve was then studied hystologically and ultrastructurally. Problems in frog preparation were discussed along with problems in maintaining healthy specimens and bacteria controlled aquaria.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor I induces proliferation and migration of porcine trophectoderm cells through multiple cell signaling pathways, including protooncogenic protein kinase 1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Song, Gwonhwa; Bazer, Fuller W; Kim, Jinyoung

    2014-03-25

    During early pregnancy, the developing conceptus is dependent upon a wide range of growth factors and nutrients that are secreted by or transported by uterine epithelia into the uterus at the maternal-conceptus interface for successful implantation and placentation. Among these factors, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is known to play an important role in development of the early embryo and uterine endometrium. However, few studies have been conducted with pigs to determine IGF-I-induced functional effects on peri-implantation embryos such as activation of cell signaling cascades responsible for growth, proliferation and differentiation of cells of the conceptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze mRNA expression of endometrial IGF-I and its receptor, to examine the functional role of IGF-I on primary porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells and to assess potential signaling pathways responsible for biological activities of IGF-1. In the present study, expression of endometrial type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA increased significantly from Day 10 to Day 12 of pregnancy and the increase was greater for pregnant than cyclic gilts. Both IGF-I and IGF-IR mRNAs were abundant in endometrial luminal-, glandular epithelia, and stratum compactum stroma on Day 12 of pregnancy. In addition, IGF-I significantly induced phosphorylation of AKT1, ERK1/2 and RPS6 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in pTr cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that IGF-I treated pTr cells exhibited increased abundance of phosphorylated (p)-AKT1 and p-ERK1/2 MAPK proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and p-RPS6 proteins in the cytosol as compared to non-treated pTr cells. In the presence of the ERK1/2 MAPK inhibitor (U0126), IGF-I-induced AKT1 phosphorylation was not affected, whereas the PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) decreased IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT1 proteins, and both the PI3K-AKT1 and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways were blocked by LY294002. Furthermore

  20. Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines and Musculoskeletal Injury: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, James R.; DeFina, Laura F.; Leonard, David; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Custodio, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The United States Department of Health and Human Services disseminated physical activity guidelines for Americans in 2008. The guidelines are based on appropriate quantities of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity and resistance exercise associated with decreased morbidity and mortality risk and increased health benefits. However, increases in physical activity levels are associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries. We related the amount and type of physical activity conducted on a weekly basis with the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Methods Prospective, observational study using weekly Internet tracking of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and resistance exercise behaviors and musculoskeletal injuries in 909 community-dwelling women for up to 3 years. Primary outcome was self-reported musculoskeletal injuries (total, physical activity-related, and non physical activity-related) interrupting typical daily work and/or exercise behaviors for ≥2 days or necessitating health care provider visit. Results Meeting versus not meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with more musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 – 1.85, P = 0.02), but was not associated with musculoskeletal injuries unrelated to physical activity (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.75 – 1.29, P = 0.92), or with musculoskeletal injuries overall (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.95 – 1.39, P = 0.14). Conclusions Results illustrate the risk of musculoskeletal injury with physical activity. Musculoskeletal injury risk rises with increasing physical activity. Despite this modest increase in musculoskeletal injuries, the known benefits of aerobic and resistance physical activities should not hinder physicians from encouraging patients to meet current physical activity guidelines for both moderate-to-vigorous exercise and resistance exercise behaviors with the intent of achieving health benefits

  1. Studies on stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Colorado with eastern faunal affinities, including a new state record of the midwestern salmonfly, Pteronarcys pictetii hagen (Plecoptera: Pteronarcyidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Hood, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Pteronarcys pictetii Hagen nymphs were collected and reared from the South Platte River at Julesburg in eastern Colorado. Including P. pictetii, eight species are now known from Colorado that exhibit eastern North American affinities, Paracapnia angulata Hanson, Taeniopteryx burksi Ricker and Ross, Taeniopteryx parvula Banks, Acroneuria abnormis (Newman), Perlesta decipiens (Walsh), Isoperla bilineata (Say), and Isoperla marlynia (Needham and Claassen). A brief discussion of the dispersal of these species into Colorado is presented.

  2. Growing up Active: A Study into Physical Activity in Long Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashmore, Aaron W.; Jones, Sandra C.

    2008-01-01

    The child care center is an ideal setting in which to implement strategies to promote physical activity and healthy weight, but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on factors that influence physical activity in these settings. The current study gathered initial qualitative data to explore these factors. Child care workers from five long day…

  3. Synthesis, antifungal activity, and QSAR study of novel trichodermin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Li; Zheng, Min; Yao, Ting-Ting; Li, Xiao-Liang; Zhao, Jin-Hao; Xia, Min; Zhu, Guo-Nian

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to discover more potential antifungal agents, in this study, 21 novel trichodermin derivatives containing conjugated oxime ester (5a-5u) were designed and synthesized and were screened for in vitro antifungal activity. The bioassay tests showed that some of them exhibited good inhibitory activity against the tested pathogenic fungi. Compound 5a exhibited better activity against Pyricularia oryzae and Sclerotonia sclerotiorum than trichodermin, and compound 5j showed particular activity against P.oryzae and Botrytis cinerea. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) indicated that log P and hardness were two critical parameters for the biological activities. The result suggested that these would be potential lead compounds for the development of fungicides with further structure modification. PMID:25290081

  4. Studies on the active site of pig plasma amine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Collison, D; Knowles, P F; Mabbs, F E; Rius, F X; Singh, I; Dooley, D M; Cote, C E; McGuirl, M

    1989-01-01

    Amine oxidase from pig plasma (PPAO) has two bound Cu2+ ions and at least one pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) moiety as cofactors. It is shown that recovery of activity by copper-depleted PPAO is linear with respect to added Cu2+ ions. Recovery of e.s.r. and optical spectral characteristics of active-site copper parallel the recovery of catalytic activity. These results are consistent with both Cu2+ ions contributing to catalysis. Further e.s.r. studies indicate that the two copper sites in PPAO, unlike those in amine oxidases from other sources, are chemically distinct. These comparative studies establish that non-identity of the Cu2+ ions in PPAO is not a requirement for amine oxidase activity. It is shown through the use of a new assay procedure that there are two molecules of PQQ bound per molecule of protein in PPAO; only the more reactive of these PQQ moieties is required for activity. PMID:2559715

  5. Telemetric motor activity in children. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Foster, F G; McPartland, R J; Kupfer, D J

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight telemetric mobility sensing system was used to study the relationship between high levels of motor activity during free-play and school performance. Among the 21 normal children, there was a significant correlation between high ankle motor activity during free-play, poor school achievement, the presence of neurological soft signs, and a poor self-image. Those normals whose free-play ankle activity was above the mean, also had significantly more errors and performed at a significantly lower level on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test than children whose activity was below the mean. This preliminary study suggests that the telemetric mobility sensing system can be easily applied to children to assess clinically relevant components of psychomotor activity.

  6. Studies on cell migration, adenylate cyclase and membrane-coating granules in the buccal epithelium of the zinc-deficient rabbit, including the influence of isoproterenol.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y

    1988-01-01

    Cell migration was slightly increased; cytochemical reaction deposits of adenylate cyclase and the area density of membrane-coating granules (MCG) were significantly increased. Upon isoproterenol stimulation, the MCG area density was significantly increased, whereas the cell migration rate was unchanged. Thus in zinc deficiency, there may be a simultaneous increase in the production and secretion of MCGs, in adenylate cyclase activity, and in cell migration. The non-significantly increased cell migration rate may not keep pace with the significantly increased cell-production rate, resulting in thickening of the epithelium.

  7. PNRC: a proline-rich nuclear receptor coregulatory protein that modulates transcriptional activation of multiple nuclear receptors including orphan receptors SF1 (steroidogenic factor 1) and ERRalpha1 (estrogen related receptor alpha-1).

    PubMed

    Zhou, D; Quach, K M; Yang, C; Lee, S Y; Pohajdak, B; Chen, S

    2000-07-01

    PNRC (proline-rich nuclear receptor coregulatory protein) was identified using bovine SF1 (steroidogenic factor 1) as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening of a human mammary gland cDNA expression library. PNRC is unique in that it has a molecular mass of 35 kDa, significantly smaller than most of the coregulatory proteins reported so far, and it is proline-rich. PNRC's nuclear localization was demonstrated by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. In the yeast two-hybrid assays, PNRC interacted with the orphan receptors SF1 and ERRalpha1 in a ligand-independent manner. PNRC was also found to interact with the ligand-binding domains of all the nuclear receptors tested including estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor (PR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), retinoic acid receptor (RAR), and retinoid X receptor (RXR) in a ligand-dependent manner. Functional AF2 domain is required for nuclear receptors to bind to PNRC. Furthermore, in vitro glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assay was performed to demonstrate a direct contact between PNRC and nuclear receptors such as SF1. Coimmunoprecipitation experiment using Hela cells that express PNRC and ER was performed to confirm the interaction of PNRC and nuclear receptors in vivo in a ligand-dependent manner. PNRC was found to function as a coactivator to enhance the transcriptional activation mediated by SF1, ERR1 (estrogen related receptor alpha-1), PR, and TR. By examining a series of deletion mutants of PNRC using the yeast two-hybrid assay, a 23-amino acid (aa) sequence in the carboxy-terminal region, aa 278-300, was shown to be critical and sufficient for the interaction with nuclear receptors. This region is proline rich and contains a SH3-binding motif, S-D-P-P-S-P-S. Results from the mutagenesis study demonstrated that the two conserved proline (P) residues in this motif are crucial for PNRC to interact with the nuclear receptors. The exact 23

  8. The level of intracellular glutathione is a key regulator for the induction of stress-activated signal transduction pathways including Jun N-terminal protein kinases and p38 kinase by alkylating agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, D; Bender, K; Knebel, A; Angel, P

    1997-01-01

    Monofunctional alkylating agents like methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) are potent inducers of cellular stress leading to chromosomal aberrations, point mutations, and cell killing. We show that these agents induce a specific cellular stress response program which includes the activation of Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the upstream kinase SEK1/MKK4 and which depends on the reaction mechanism of the alkylating agent in question. Similar to another inducer of cellular stress, UV irradiation, damage of nuclear DNA by alkylation is not involved in the MMS-induced response. However, in contrast to UV and other inducers of the JNK/SAPKs and p38 pathways, activation of growth factor and G-protein-coupled receptors does not play a role in the MMS response. We identified the intracellular glutathione (GSH) level as critical for JNK/SAPK activation by MMS: enhancing the GSH level by pretreatment of the cells with GSH or N-acetylcysteine inhibits, whereas depletion of the cellular GSH pool causes hyperinduction of JNK/SAPK activity by MMS. In light of the JNK/SAPK-dependent induction of c-jun and c-fos transcription, and the Jun/Fos-induced transcription of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, these data provide a potential critical role of JNK/SAPK and p38 in the induction of a cellular defense program against cytotoxic xenobiotics such as MMS. PMID:9234735

  9. Logistic distributed activation energy model--Part 1: Derivation and numerical parametric study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junmeng; Jin, Chuan; Yang, Songyuan; Chen, Yong

    2011-01-01

    A new distributed activation energy model is presented using the logistic distribution to mathematically represent the pyrolysis kinetics of complex solid fuels. A numerical parametric study of the logistic distributed activation energy model is conducted to evaluate the influences of the model parameters on the numerical results of the model. The parameters studied include the heating rate, reaction order, frequency factor, mean of the logistic activation energy distribution, standard deviation of the logistic activation energy distribution. The parametric study addresses the dependence on the forms of the calculated α-T and dα/dT-T curves (α: reaction conversion, T: temperature). The study results would be very helpful to the application of the logistic distributed activation energy model, which is the main subject of the next part of this series.

  10. Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES): Study protocol for a randomized trial evaluating a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a recognized public health concern. Inadequate proportions of children in the U.S, including those of preschool age, are meeting physical activity recommendations. In response to low numbers of preschool children attaining appropriate physical activity levels, combined with the large number of young children who attend preschool, researchers have identified the need to devise interventions to increase physical activity at preschools. However, few multi-component interventions to increase physical activity in preschool children exist. The aims of this study were to observe the effects of a multi-component intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure in 3-5 year-old children; identify factors that associate with change in those variables; and evaluate the process of implementing the multi-component intervention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the study design and intervention protocol. Methods/design The overall design of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) was a two-year randomized trial (nested cohort design), with two conditions, two measurement occasions, and preschool serving as the unit of analysis. Sixteen schools (eight intervention and eight control) were enrolled. The intervention protocol was based on the social ecological model and included four main components: (a) indoor physical activity (“move inside”), (b) recess (“move outside”), (c) daily lessons (“move to learn”), and (d) social environment. Components were implemented using teacher and administrator trainings and workshops, site support visits, newsletters, and self-monitoring methods. Outcomes included accelerometer assessment of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure; weight status; and demographic factors; family/home social and physical environment; and parental characteristics. An extensive process evaluation

  11. Study of antimalarial activity of chemical constituents from Diospyros quaesita.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui-Ying; Musoke, Sebisubi Fred; Tan, Ghee Teng; Sydara, Kongmany; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Southavong, Bounhoong; Soejarto, D Doel; Fong, Harry H S; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2008-11-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation led to the isolation of seven compounds from a sample of the dried leaves, twigs, and branches of Diospyros quaesita Thw. (Ebenaceae). One of the isolates, betulinic acid 3-caffeate (1), showed in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum clones D(6) (chloroquine-sensitive) and W(2) (chloroquine-resistant) with IC(50) values of 1.40 and 0.98 microM, respectively. Evaluation of compound 1 in the human oral epidermoid (KB) cancer cell line revealed cytotoxicity at ED(50) of 4.0 microM. In an attempt to reduce the cytotoxicity of 1, the acetylated derivative 1a and betulinic acid (1b) were prepared. Of the seven isolates, diospyrosin (2) was determined to be a new neolignan. In addition to 1, other known compounds isolated in this study were pinoresinol, lariciresinol, N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol, scopoletin, and poriferast-5-en-3beta,7alpha-diol. The structure of 2 was elucidated based on spectroscopic data analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. PMID:19035573

  12. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-08-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal data and eye-tracking data were collected as indications of students' learning activities. For the verbal data, we applied a fine-grained coding scheme to optimally describe students' learning activities. For the eye-tracking data, we used fixation time and transitions between areas of interest in the process diagrams as indices of learning activities. Various learning activities while studying process diagrams were found that distinguished between more and less successful students. Results showed that between-student variance in comprehension score was highly predicted by meaning making of the process arrows (80%) and fixation time in the main area (65%). Students employed successful learning activities consistently across learning tasks. Furthermore, compared to unsuccessful students, successful students used a more coherent approach of interrelated learning activities for comprehending process diagrams.

  13. How hard can it be to include research evidence and evaluation in local health policy implementation? Results from a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although an evidence-based approach is the ideal model for planning and delivering healthcare, barriers exist to using research evidence to implement and evaluate service change. This paper aims to inform policy implementation and evaluation by understanding the role of research evidence at the local level through implementation of a national chronic conditions management policy. Methods We conducted a national email survey of health service commissioners at the most devolved level of decision-making in Wales (Local Health Boards – LHBs) followed by in-depth interviews with representatives of LHBs, purposively selecting five to reflect geographic and economic characteristics. Survey data were analysed descriptively; we used thematic analysis for interview data. Results All LHBs (n = 22) completed questionnaires. All reported they routinely assessed the research literature before implementing interventions, but free-text answers revealed wide variation in approach. Most commonly reported information sources included personal contacts, needs assessments, information or research databases. No consistent approach to evaluation was reported. Frequently reported challenges were: insufficient staff capacity (17/22); limited skills, cost, limited time, competing priorities (16/22); availability and quality of routine data (15/22). Respondents reported they would value central guidance on evaluation. Five interviews were held with managers from the five LHBs contacted. Service delivery decisions were informed by Welsh Government initiatives and priorities, budgets, perceived good practice, personal knowledge, and local needs, but did not include formal research evidence, they reported. Decision making was a collaborative process including clinical staff, patient representatives, and partner organization managers with varying levels of research experience. Robust evaluation data were required, but they were constrained by a lack of skills, time, and resources

  14. Including land cover change in analysis of greenness trends using all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images: A case study from Guangzhou, China (2000–2014)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhe; Fu, Yingchun; Woodcock, Curtis; Olofsson, Pontus; Vogelmann, James; Holden, Christopher; Wang, Min; Dai, Shu; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of the consistency of surface reflectance from Landsat 8 with past Landsat sensors indicates biases in the visible bands of Landsat 8, especially the blue band. Landsat 8 NDVI values were found to have a larger bias than the EVI values; therefore, EVI was used in the analysis of greenness trends for Guangzhou. In spite of massive amounts of development in Guangzhou from 2000 to 2014, greenness was found to increase, mostly as a result of gradual change. Comparison of the greening magnitudes estimated from the approach presented here and a Simple Linear Trend (SLT) method indicated large differences for certain time intervals as the SLT method does not include consideration for abrupt land cover changes. Overall, this analysis demonstrates the importance of considering land cover change when analyzing trends in greenness from satellite time series in areas where land cover change is common.

  15. 4-Component correlated all-electron study on Eka-actinium Fluoride (E121F) including Gaunt interaction: Accurate analytical form, bonding and influence on rovibrational spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Davi H. T.; de Oliveira, Heibbe C. B.; Sambrano, Julio R.; Gargano, Ricardo; de Macedo, Luiz Guilherme M.

    2016-10-01

    A prolapse-free basis set for Eka-Actinium (E121, Z = 121), numerical atomic calculations on E121, spectroscopic constants and accurate analytical form for the potential energy curve of diatomic E121F obtained at 4-component all-electron CCSD(T) level including Gaunt interaction are presented. The results show a strong and polarized bond (≈181 kcal/mol in strength) between E121 and F, the outermost frontier molecular orbitals from E121F should be fairly similar to the ones from AcF and there is no evidence of break of periodic trends. Moreover, the Gaunt interaction, although small, is expected to influence considerably the overall rovibrational spectra.

  16. Bioinformatic analyses of the publicly accessible crustacean expressed sequence tags (ESTs) reveal numerous novel neuropeptide-encoding precursor proteins, including ones from members of several little studied taxa.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Durkin, Christopher S; Hartline, Niko; Ohno, Paul; Lenz, Petra H

    2010-05-15

    ESTs have been generated for many crustacean species, providing an invaluable resource for peptide discovery in members of this arthropod subphylum. Here, these data were mined for novel peptide-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides encoded by them predicted using a combination of online peptide prediction programs and homology to known arthropod sequences. In total, 70 mature full-length/partial peptides representing members of 16 families/subfamilies were predicted, the vast majority being novel; the species from which the peptides were identified included members of the Branchiopoda (Daphnia carinata and Triops cancriformis), Maxillopoda (Caligus clemensi, Caligus rogercresseyi, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Lernaeocera branchialis) and Malacostraca (Euphausia superba, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, Homarus americanus, Petrolisthes cinctipes, Callinectes sapidus and Portunus trituberculatus). Of particular note were the identifications of an intermediate between the insect adipokinetic hormones and crustacean red pigment concentrating hormone and a modified crustacean cardioactive peptide from the daphnid D. carinata; Arg(7)-corazonin was also deduced from this species, the first identification of a corazonin from a non-decapod crustacean. Our data also include the first reports of members of the calcitonin-like diuretic hormone, FMRFamide-related peptide (neuropeptide F subfamily) and orcokinin families from members of the Copepoda. Moreover, the prediction of a bursicon alpha from the euphausid E. superba represents the first peptide identified from any member of the basal eucaridean order Euphausiacea. In addition, large collections of insect eclosion hormone- and neuroparsin-like peptides were identified from a variety of species, greatly expanding the number of known members of these families in crustaceans.

  17. Studies on medically important flies in Thailand VII. Report on 42 species of calliphorid flies, including the taxonomic keys (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Tumrasvin, W; Kurahashi, H; Kano, R

    1979-12-01

    The calliphorid flies collected from different localities in Thailand were examined to study their medical importance as well as to study from the zoogeographical standpoint of view. Fourty-two species of 15 genera, Bengalia, Caliphora, Catapicephala, Chrysomya, Hemipyrellia, Hypopygiopsis, Lucilia, Melinda, Onesia, Phumosia, Pollenia, Polleniopsis, Tainanina, Tricycleopsis and Verticia belonging to both the subfamilies Calliphorinae and Chrysomyinae were found in Thailand. Many species are newly recorded from this country. The little known species, which are redescribed in detail with the illustration of the male genitalia and female ovipositors, and the key, which is revised to the genera and species, are also presented in this paper.

  18. Fully correlated study of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 6}He hypernucleus including {lambda}N space-exchange correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, A. A.; Hasan, Z.

    2006-09-15

    We present a fully correlated study of the six-body {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 6}He hypernucleus. The wave function involves all relevant dynamic correlations as well as the space-exchange correlation (SEC). Calculations for energy breakdown, {lambda}{lambda}-separation energy, nuclear core polarization, and point proton radius have been performed. The baryon density profiles have also been calculated. Effect of SEC on all these physical observables is found to be significant. The findings suggest that a study ignoring SEC would be deficient.

  19. Use of an Aptitude Test in University Entrance--A Validity Study: Updated Analyses of Higher Education Destinations, Including 2007 Entrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Catherine; Wheater, Rebecca; Morrison, Jo; Durbin, Ben

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) was commissioned to evaluate the potential value of using an aptitude test as an additional tool in the selection of candidates for admission to higher education (HE). This five-year study is co-funded by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER), the Department for…

  20. Timelines for English Language Acquisition: A Study of the Rates of Second Language Acquisition among Hispanic English Language Learners Including Exceptionalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores No Child Left Behind's required timetable for English language learners (ELLs) to reach English language proficiency within five years, as outlined in the Annual Measurable Achievement Outcomes (AMAOs), despite the lack of research evidence to support this as a reasonable expectation. Analysis was conducted on the archived data…

  1. Improving Indonesia's Cities: A Case Study of Economic Development, Including a Teaching Guide and An Economic Summary of Indonesia. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Harriet, Ed.; Rosen, Carol, Ed.

    This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is designed to teach secondary school social studies students the impact of rapid urbanization on Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a filmstrip, and a teacher's guide. The pamphlet, "An Economic Summary of Indonesia" provides students with the structure, recent…

  2. Studies on medically important flies in Thailand. III. Report of species belonging to the genus Musca Linné, including the taxonomic key (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Tumrasvin, W; Shinonaga, S

    1977-09-01

    Twenty species belonging to the genus Musca Linné are reported from Thailand with taxonomic key. This study is based on the specimens available in the authors' collection and 8 species are the new records from this country. The newly recorded species are Musca interrupta pilifacies, M. lucens, M. fasciata, M. pattoni, M. planiceps, M. xanthomelas, M. bezzii and M. convexifrons.

  3. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 27-30: Direct-Current Circuits; Magnetic Forces; Ampere's Law; and Faraday's Law].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules indlude study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  4. Issues Relating to Confounding and Meta-analysis When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding caused by selection bias is often a key difference between non-randomized studies (NRS) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions. Key methodological issues: In this third paper of the series, we consider issues relating to the inclusion of NRS in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. We discuss…

  5. State Support of Higher Education: From Expansion to Steady State to Decline, 1969 to 1989, Including an Illinois Case Study. MacArthur/Spencer Series Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Edward R.; And Others

    Trends in state higher education funding over a 20-year period from 1969 to 1989 were studied. The four analysis objectives were to: examine aggregate state tax appropriations for higher education annually from 1969 to 1989 in the 50 states; analyze state tax appropriations in each state on a per capita basis; compare state tax appropriations per…

  6. Who Serves the Migrant? An Inquiry into Migrant Library Services in Selected States Including Studies of Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvella, Shirley M.

    The study's purpose was to: (1) determine how the library as an institution can become more responsive to the needs of migrant agricultural workers and families; (2) explore the problems which inhibit the extension of these services; and (3) discover what programs now exist in libraries, public institutions, and private agencies which provide…

  7. Study protocol. The Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (The CHAMPS-study DK)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increasingly passive life-style in the Western World has led to a rise in life-style related disorders. This is a major concern for all segments of society. The county council of the municipality of Svendborg in Denmark, created six Sport Schools with increased levels of suitable physical activities, which made it possible to study the health outcomes in these children whilst comparing them to children who attended the ‘normal’ schools of the region using the design of a “natural experiment”. Methods Children from the age of 6 till the age of 10, who accepted to be included in the monitoring process, were surveyed at baseline with questionnaires, physical examinations and physical and biological testing, including DXA scans. The physical examination and testing was repeated during the early stage of the study. Every week over the whole study period, the children will be followed with an automated mobile phone text message (SMS-Track) asking questions on their leisure time sports activities and the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. Children who report any such problems are monitored individually by health care personnel. Data are collected on demography, health habits and attitudes, physical characteristics, physical activity using accelerometers, motor performance, fitness, bone health, life-style disorders, injuries and musculoskeletal problems. Data collection will continue at least once a year until the children reach grade 9. Discussion This project is embedded in a local community, which set up the intervention (The Sport Schools) and thereafter invited researchers to provide documentation and evaluation. Sport schools are well matched with the ‘normal’ schools, making comparisons between these suitable. However, subgroups that would be specifically targeted in lifestyle intervention studies (such as the definitely obese) could be relatively small. Therefore, results specific to minority groups may be diluted. Nonetheless, the

  8. 78 FR 18676 - Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies ACTION: 30-day...) approval of the information collection--Rail Depreciation Studies-- further described below. The Board previously published a notice about this collection in the Federal Register on July 30, 2012, at 77 FR...

  9. Videogames, Tools for Change: A Study Based on Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez, Laura; Lacasa, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for analysis from which to interpret the transformations that take place, as perceived by the participants, when commercial video games are used in the classroom. We will show how Activity Theory (AT) is able to explain and interpret these changes. Method: Case studies are…

  10. Active commuting to elementary school and adiposity: An observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth grade adiposity. This study was a secondary analysis of the Early ...

  11. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  12. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  13. Studying the Activities of Microorganisms in Soil Using Slides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullimore, D. Roy; Pipe, Annette E.

    1980-01-01

    Two implanted slide techniques are described by which activity of proteolylic bacteria and the growth of algae in the soil can be readily studied by school students using simple apparatus and methods. Variations are suggested for studying the effects of agricultural practices and environmental conditions on the soil bacteria and algae. (Author/DS)

  14. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  15. Feasibility of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing will lead to increasing pressure on visual rehabilitation services, which need to be efficiently organised in the near future. The Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI) was developed to assess the rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons. This pilot study tests the feasibility of the D-AI using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Methods In addition to the regular intake, the first version of the D-AI was assessed in 20 patients. Subsequently, patients and intake assessors were asked to fill in an evaluation form. Based on these evaluations, a new version of the D-AI was developed. Results Mean administration time of the D-AI was 88.8 (± 41.0) minutes. Overall, patients and assessors were positive about the D-AI assessment. However, professionals and 60% of the patients found the administration time to be too long. All included items were considered relevant and only minor adjustments were recommended. Conclusion The systematic character of the revised D-AI will prevent topics from being overlooked and indicate which needs have the highest priority from a patient-centred perspective. Moreover, ongoing assessment of the D-AI will enhance evaluation of the rehabilitation process. To decrease administration time, in the revised D-AI only the top priority goals will be fully assessed. Using the D-AI, a rehabilitation plan based on individual needs can be developed for each patient. Moreover, it enables better evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation. A larger validation study is planned. PMID:21110871

  16. Studies on the kinetics of plasminogen activation by tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Rånby, M

    1982-06-24

    The steady-state rate of plasminogen activation by tissue plasminogen activator has been determined at various plasminogen concentrations. A plasmin substrate method similar to that presented by Christensen and Müllertz (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 480 (1977) 257-281) was used. The reaction was studied using one-chain type and two-chain type tissue plasminogen activator, N-terminal glutamic acid and N-terminal lysine plasminogen in the presence and in the absence of fibrin (eight studies). The kinetic data were fitted to a general Wong-Hanes equation and the simplest equation with significant parameters was found. In the absence of fibrin N-terminal glutamic acid plasminogen activation obeyed the Michaelis-Menten rate equation (Km 4.9 and 7.6 micro M and kcat 0.0013 and 0.0078 s-1 for one-chain type and two-chain type tissue plasminogen activator, respectively. In the absence of fibrin the activation of N-terminal lysine plasminogen activation failed to obey the Michaelis-Menten rate equation. Fibrin was found to stimulate greatly (up to 1000-fold) the steady-state activation rate. A theory for the fibrin stimulating mechanism is presented.

  17. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  18. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  19. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  20. Which Lifelong Activities Are Held in Highest Regard by Physical Education Stakeholders in Michigan: Can Stakeholders Agree? A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Mackey, Marcia J.; Rollenhagen, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify what lifelong activities stakeholders agree upon as most important to include in physical education programs. Little research has been conducted regarding which lifelong activities are most important to include in the curriculum and if there is consensus in priorities across program stakeholders. Consensus…

  1. SU-E-J-144: Low Activity Studies of Carbon 11 Activation Via GATE Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Elmekawy, A; Ewell, L; Butuceanu, C; Qu, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of a Monte Carlo simulation code with low levels of activity (∼1,000Bq). Such activity levels are expected from phantoms and patients activated via a proton therapy beam. Methods: Three different ranges for a therapeutic proton radiation beam were examined in a Monte Carlo simulation code: 13.5, 17.0 and 21.0cm. For each range, the decay of an equivalent length{sup 11}C source and additional sources of length plus or minus one cm was studied in a benchmark PET simulation for activities of 1000, 2000 and 3000Bq. The ranges were chosen to coincide with a previous activation study, and the activities were chosen to coincide with the approximate level of isotope creation expected in a phantom or patient irradiated by a therapeutic proton beam. The GATE 7.0 simulation was completed on a cluster node, running Scientific Linux Carbon 6 (Red Hat©). The resulting Monte Carlo data were investigated with the ROOT (CERN) analysis tool. The half-life of{sup 11}C was extracted via a histogram fit to the number of simulated PET events vs. time. Results: The average slope of the deviation of the extracted carbon half life from the expected/nominal value vs. activity showed a generally positive value. This was unexpected, as the deviation should, in principal, decrease with increased activity and lower statistical uncertainty. Conclusion: For activity levels on the order of 1,000Bq, the behavior of a benchmark PET test was somewhat unexpected. It is important to be aware of the limitations of low activity PET images, and low activity Monte Carlo simulations. This work was funded in part by the Philips corporation.

  2. Active Control of Fan Noise-Feasibility Study. Volume 1; Flyover System Noise Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Robert E.; Janardan, B. A.; Kontos, G. C.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been completed to examine the potential reduction of aircraft flyover noise by the method of active noise control (ANC). It is assumed that the ANC system will be designed such that it cancels discrete tones radiating from the engine fan inlet or fan exhaust duct. Thus, without considering the engineering details of the ANC system design, tone levels are arbitrarily removed from the engine component noise spectrum and the flyover noise EPNL levels are compared with and without the presence of tones. The study was conducted for a range of engine cycles, corresponding to fan pressure ratios from 1.3 to 1.75. The major conclusions that can be drawn are that, for a fan pressure ratio of 1.75, ANC of tones gives about the same suppression as acoustic treatment without ANC, and for a fan pressure ratio of 1.45, ANC appears to offer less effectiveness than passive treatment. Additionally, ANC appears to be more effective at sideline and cutback conditions than at approach. Overall EPNL suppressions due to tone removal range from about 1 to 3 dB at takeoff engine speeds and from 1 to 5 db at approach speeds. Studies of economic impact of the installation of an ANC system for the four engine cases indicate increases of DOC ranging from 1 to 2 percent, favoring the lower fan pressure ratio engines. Further study is needed to confirm the results by examining additional engine data, particularly at low fan pressure ratios, and studying the details of the current results to obtain a more complete understanding. Further studies should also include determining the effects of combining passive and active treatment.

  3. Active control of fan noise-feasibility study. Volume 1: Flyover system noise studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Robert E.; Janardan, B. A.; Kontos, G. C.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1994-10-01

    A study has been completed to examine the potential reduction of aircraft flyover noise by the method of active noise control (ANC). It is assumed that the ANC system will be designed such that it cancels discrete tones radiating from the engine fan inlet or fan exhaust duct. Thus, without considering the engineering details of the ANC system design, tone levels are arbitrarily removed from the engine component noise spectrum and the flyover noise EPNL levels are compared with and without the presence of tones. The study was conducted for a range of engine cycles, corresponding to fan pressure ratios from 1.3 to 1.75. The major conclusions that can be drawn are that, for a fan pressure ratio of 1.75, ANC of tones gives about the same suppression as acoustic treatment without ANC, and for a fan pressure ratio of 1.45, ANC appears to offer less effectiveness than passive treatment. Additionally, ANC appears to be more effective at sideline and cutback conditions than at approach. Overall EPNL suppressions due to tone removal range from about 1 to 3 dB at takeoff engine speeds and from 1 to 5 db at approach speeds. Studies of economic impact of the installation of an ANC system for the four engine cases indicate increases of DOC ranging from 1 to 2 percent, favoring the lower fan pressure ratio engines. Further study is needed to confirm the results by examining additional engine data, particularly at low fan pressure ratios, and studying the details of the current results to obtain a more complete understanding. Further studies should also include determining the effects of combining passive and active treatment.

  4. A Multi-observer Study of the Effects of Including Point-of-care Patient Photographs with Portable Radiography: A Means to Detect Wrong-Patient Errors

    PubMed Central

    Tridandapani, Srini; Ramamurthy, Senthil; Provenzale, James; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Evanoff, Michael G.; Bhatti, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether the presence of facial photographs obtained at the point-of-care of portable radiography leads to increased detection of wrong-patient errors. Materials and Methods In this IRB-approved study, 166 radiograph-photograph combinations were obtained from 30 patients. Consecutive radiographs from the same patients resulted in 83 unique pairs (i.e., a new radiograph and prior, comparison radiograph) for interpretation. To simulate wrong-patient errors, mismatched pairs were generated by pairing radiographs from different patients chosen randomly from the sample. Ninety radiologists each interpreted a unique randomly chosen set of 10 radiographic pairs, containing up to 10% mismatches (i.e., error pairs). Radiologists were randomly assigned to interpret radiographs with or without photographs. The number of mismatches identified and interpretation times were recorded. Results Ninety radiologists with 21 ± 10 (mean ± SD) years of experience were recruited to participate in this observer study. With the introduction of photographs, the proportion of errors detected increased from 31% (9/29) to 77% (23/30) (P = 0.006). The odds ratio for detection of error with photographs to detection without photographs was 7.3 (95% CI: 2.29, 23.18). Observer qualifications, training or practice in cardiothoracic radiology did not influence sensitivity for error detection. There is no significant difference in interpretation time for studies without photographs and those with photographs (60 ± 22 seconds vs 61 ± 25 seconds; P=0.77). Conclusion In this observer study, facial photographs obtained simultaneously with portable chest radiographs increased the identification of any wrong-patient errors, without substantial increase in interpretation time. This technique offers a potential means to increase patient safety through correct patient identification. PMID:25018076

  5. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific ‘learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (−0.002 kg m−2 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (−94 kcal, 95% CI −122 to −66), with no difference versus water (−2 kcal, 95% CI −30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; −1.35 kg, 95% CI –2.28 to −0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; −1.24 kg, 95% CI –2.22 to −0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI

  6. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  7. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-03-01

    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  8. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-03-01

    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system. PMID:26562487

  9. Computational study on the aminolysis of beta-hydroxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated ester via the favorable path including the formation of alpha-oxo ketene intermediate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu; Xue, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Kim, Chan Kyung; Xie, Dai Qian; Yan, Guo Sen

    2008-05-15

    The possible mechanisms of the aminolysis of N-methyl-3-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-hydroxy-2-pyridone (beta-hydroxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated ester) with dimethylamine are investigated at the hybrid density functional theory B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level in the gas phase. Single-point computations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and the Becke88-Becke95 1-parameter model BB1K/6-311++G(d,p) levels are performed for more precise energy predictions. Solvent effects are also assessed by single-point calculations at the integral equation formalism polarized continuum model IEFPCM-B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and IEFPCM-BB1K/6-311++G(d,p) levels on the gas-phase optimized geometries. Three possible pathways, the concerted pathway (path A), the stepwise pathway involving tetrahedral intermediates (path B), and the stepwise pathway via alpha-oxo ketene intermediate due to the participation of beta-hydroxy (path C), are taken into account for the title reaction. Moreover, path C includes two sequential processes. The first process is to generate alpha-oxo ketene intermediate via the decomposition of N-methyl-3-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-hydroxy-2-pyridone; the second process is the addition of dimethylamine to alpha-oxo ketene intermediate. Our results indicate that path C is more favorable than paths A and B both in the gas phase and in solvent (heptane). In path C, the first process is the rate-determining step, and the second process is revealed to be a [4+2] pseudopericyclic reaction without the energy barrier. Being independent of the concentration of amine, the first process obeys the first-order rate law. PMID:18402429

  10. Ab initio study on the low-lying excited states of gas-phase PH+ cation including spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yan, Bing

    2015-05-01

    Ab initio calculations have been performed on the low-lying excited and ground states of PH+. The potential energy curves (PECs) of the Λ-S states were calculated with multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method along with the basis sets at 5-ξ level. In order to improve the PECs, the Davidson(+Q) correction and the Scalar relativistic effect are included. The corresponding spectroscopic constants were determined and good agreements with the available measurement were found. The interactions of the A2Δ-4Π and 12Σ+-4Π by the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effect were well described by the spin-orbit matrix elements. The SOC effect makes the original 8 Λ-S states split into 15 Ω states. The Ω = 1/2 state generated from the X2Π state is confirmed to the ground Ω state. And the SOC splitting for the X2Π is calculated to be 294 cm-1. The SOC effect has large effect on the PECs of the A2Δ and 12Σ+ states, leading to much more shallow potential wells as well as potential barriers. The analysis of the wavefunction for the Ω states shows that the strong spin-orbit interaction exists near the crossing points of the PECs for the Λ-S states. The transition dipole moments (TDMs) of transitions A2Δ-X2Π and 12Σ--X2Π are evaluated with the MRCI wavefunction. Based on the TDMs along with the calculated Franck-Condon factors, the radiative lifetimes for the selected vibrational levels of A2Δ and 12Σ- states are predicted at the microseconds (μs). Good agreement with the measurement shows that the lowest vibrational level for A2Δ state is almost uninfluenced by the perturbation via the SOC effect.

  11. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymers that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.

  12. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    DOE PAGES

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymersmore » that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.« less

  13. Usability of a novel disposable autoinjector device for ixekizumab: results from a qualitative study and an open-label clinical trial, including patient-reported experience

    PubMed Central

    Callis Duffin, Kristina; Bukhalo, Michael; Bobonich, Margaret A; Shrom, David; Zhao, Fangyi; Kershner, James R; Gill, Anne; Pangallo, Beth; Shuler, Catherine L; Bagel, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Most biologic therapies for psoriasis are delivered via subcutaneous injection. Ixekizumab, an anti-interleukin 17A monoclonal antibody approved for patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, is delivered subcutaneously via prefilled syringe or autoinjector. Here we report the results of an ixekizumab autoinjector usability study as well as the patient-reported experience with the autoinjector in a clinical trial. Methods The usability study enrolled 49 subjects (patients with a range of autoimmune conditions or their caregivers). Subjects were randomized to a trained or untrained group and were evaluated for their ability to perform an injection successfully when provided the device and the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, 102 subjects (patients with psoriasis or their caregivers) used the autoinjector to deliver injections of ixekizumab (80 mg every 2 weeks after a starting dose of 160 mg). At weeks 0, 4, and 8, subjects completed the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire, which assesses the ease of use and confidence with using an injection device. Results In the usability study, all subjects in the untrained arm performed successful injections, while two subjects in the trained arm had an injection failure. These incidences were not consistent with any pattern of issues with the device or the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, there were two injection failures of 674 total self-injections performed over 12 weeks. At the first use of the device, 95% of subjects either agreed or strongly agreed that the device was “overall easy to use”, and they felt “confident the dose was complete” according to the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire. Conclusion The ixekizumab autoinjector was used successfully by patients and caregivers with or without training. Subjects using the autoinjector in a clinical trial felt it was easy to use and felt confident while using it. PMID:27785115

  14. Including the effect of molecular interference in the coherent x-ray scattering modeling in MC-GPU and PENELOPE for the study of novel breast imaging modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghammraoui, B.; Peng, R.; Suarez, I.; Bettolo, C.; Badal, A.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To present upgraded versions of MC-GPU and PenEASY Imaging, two open-source Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of radiographic projections and CT. The codes have been extended with the aim of studying breast imaging modalities that rely on the accurate modeling of coherent x-ray scatter. Methods: The simulation codes were extended to account for the effect of molecular interference in coherent scattering using experimentally measured molecular interference functions. The validity of the new model was tested experimentally using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction (EDXRD) technique with a polychromatic x-ray source and an energy-resolved Germanium detector at a fixed scattering angle. Experiments and simulations of a full field digital mammography system with and without a 1D focused antiscatter grid were conducted for additional validation. The modified MC-GPU code was also used to examine the possibility of characterizing breast cancer within a mathematical breast phantom using the EDXRD technique. Results: The measured EDXRD spectra were correctly reproduced by the simulation with the modified code while the previous code using the Independent Atomic Approximation led to large errors in the predicted diffraction spectra. There was good agreement between the simulated and measured rejection factor for the 1D focused antiscatter grid with both models. The simulation study in a whole breast showed that the x-ray scattering profiles of adipose, fibrosis, cancer and benign tissues are differentiable. Conclusion: MC-GPU and PENELOPE were successfully extended and validated for accurate modeling of coherent x-ray scatter. The EDXRD technique with pencil-cone geometry in a whole breast was investigated by a simulation study and it was concluded that this technique has potential to characterize breast cancer lesions.

  15. The fine structure of colleterial glands in two cockroaches and three termites, including a detailed study of Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattaria, Cryptocercidae) and Mastotermes darwiniensis (Isoptera, Mastotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Courrent, Annie; Quennedey, André; Nalepa, Christine A; Robert, Alain; Lenz, Michael; Bordereau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The colleterial glands of insects are organs associated with the female genital apparatus. In cockroaches, these glands produce secretions that cover two parallel rows of eggs during oviposition, and in oviparous species, these secretions become the tanned, sculpted, rigid outer casing of the ootheca. The goal of this study was to compare the gross anatomy of the colleterial glands and the ultrastructure of their component tubules in the phylogenetically significant genera Cryptocercus (Blattaria) and Mastotermes (Isoptera). Recent studies indicate that cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus are the sister group of termites, and Mastotermes is the only termite known to produce a cockroach-like ootheca. One additional oviparous cockroach, Therea, and two additional termites, Zootermopsis and Pseudacanthotermes, were also examined. As in other cockroaches, the colleterial glands of Cryptocercus and Therea are asymmetrical, with a well developed bipartite left gland and a smaller right gland. In the termites Mastotermes, Zootermopsis, and Pseudacanthotermes, the colleterial glands are composed of a well-developed, paired, anterior gland and a small posterior gland; histological staining and cytological evidence suggest that these are homologues of the left and the right colleterial glands of cockroaches, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, colleterial gland tubules are made of cells belonging to a modified class 1 type cell in the cockroaches, in Mastotermes, and in Zootermopsis; the latter lays its eggs singly, without a surrounding ootheca-like structure. In the advanced termite Pseudacanthotermes, the tubules are made of secretory units belonging to the class 3 cell type. This study demonstrates that the cytological characteristics of colleterial glands in basal termites are similar to those of cockroaches, whether the termite secretes an oothecal casing that covers two parallel rows of eggs, as in Mastotermes, or lays its eggs singly, as in Zootermopsis

  16. Clinical and Radiographic Mid-Term Outcomes After Total Shoulder Replacement: A Retrospective Study Protocol Including 400 Anatomical and Reverse Prosthetic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Tartarone, Antonio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain outcomes data on anatomical and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty by analysis of clinical scores and standard radiographs. Subject selection and enrollment: 400 consecutive series of patients replaced with anatomical and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (minimum 3 years follow-up). Study Design: retrospective monocenter. Preoperative assessment: Demographics, clinical scores (Constant-Murley) as available, shoulder X-ray (AP, outlet and axillary views) . Last follow-up: Postoperative radiographhs and clinical scores. Adverse events and complications to be reported as occurred since implantation. Statistical analysis: Data collected will be summarized and analyzed for statistical significance. PMID:27326389

  17. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Ti) scintillation detection system for 12 24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems.

  18. Fluorinated Dodecaphenylporphyrins: Synthetic and Electrochemical Studies Including the First Evidence of Intramolecular Electron Transfer Between an Fe(II) Porphyrin -Anion Radical and an Fe(I) Porphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, F.; Forsyth, T.P.; Fukuzumi, S.; Kadish, K.M.; Krattinger, B.; Lin, M.; Medforth, C.J.; Nakanishi, I.; Nurco, D.J.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smith, K.M.; Van Caemelbecke, E.

    1998-10-19

    Dodecaphenylporphyrins with varying degrees of fluorination of the peripheral phenyl rings (FXDPPS) were synthesized as model compounds for studying electronic effects in nonplan~ porphyrins, and detailed electrochemical studies of the chloroiron(HI) complexes of these compounds were undertaken. The series of porphyrins, represented as FeDPPCl and as FeFXDPPCl where x = 4, 8 (two isomers), 12, 20,28 or 36, could be reversibly oxidized by two electrons in dichloromethane to give n-cation radicals and n-dications. All of the compounds investigated could also be reduced by three electrons in benzonitrile or pyridine. In benzonitrile, three reversible reductions were observed for the unfluorinated compound FeDPPC1, whereas the FeFXDPPCl complexes generally exhibited irreversible first and second reductions which were coupled to chemical reactions. The chemical reaction associated with the first reduction involved a loss of the chloride ion after generation of Fe FXDPPC1. The second chemical reaction involved a novel intramolecular electron transfer between the initially generated Fe(H) porphyrin n-anion radical and the final Fe(I) porphyrin reduction product. In pyridine, three reversible one electron reductions were observed with the second reduction affording stable Fe(II) porphyrin o - anion radicals for ail of the complexes investigated.

  19. Development of a Large Animal Long-Term Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture Model That Includes the Bony Vertebrae for Ex Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Grant, Michael; Epure, Laura M; Salem, Omar; AlGarni, Nizar; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Alaqeel, Motaz; Antoniou, John; Mwale, Fackson

    2016-07-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common cause of low back pain. Testing potential therapeutics in the regeneration of the disc requires the use of model systems. Although several animal models have been developed to investigate IVD degeneration, they are technically challenging to prepare, expensive, present with limitations when performing biomechanical studies on the disc, and are impractical in large-scale screening of novel anabolic and scaffolding agents. An IVD organ culture system offers an inexpensive alternative. In the current paradigm, the bony endplates are removed to allow for nutrient diffusion and maintenance of disc cell viability. Although this is an excellent system for testing biologics, it results in concave cartilage endplates and, as such, requires special platens for loading purposes in a bioreactor as flat ones can overload the annular disc region leading to improper loading. Furthermore, the absence of bone makes it unsuitable for applying complex cyclic loading, a topic of interest in the study of chronic progressive degeneration, as multiaxial loading is more representative of daily forces encountered by the IVD. We have developed and validated a novel long-term IVD organ culture model that retains vertebral bone and is easy to prepare. Our model is ideal for testing potential drugs and alternate-based therapies, in addition to investigating the long-term effects of loading paradigms on disc degeneration and repair. PMID:27216856

  20. Blockage and flow studies of a generalized test apparatus including various wing configurations in the Langley 7-inch Mach 7 Pilot Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    A 1/12th scale model of the Curved Surface Test Apparatus (CSTA), which will be used to study aerothermal loads and evaluate Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) on a fuselage-type configuration in the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Structures Tunnel (8 ft HTST), was tested in the Langley 7-Inch Mach 7 Pilot Tunnel. The purpose of the tests was to study the overall flow characteristics and define an envelope for testing the CSTA in the 8 ft HTST. Wings were tested on the scaled CSTA model to select a wing configuration with the most favorable characteristics for conducting TPS evaluations for curved and intersecting surfaces. The results indicate that the CSTA and selected wing configuration can be tested at angles of attack up to 15.5 and 10.5 degrees, respectively. The base pressure for both models was at the expected low level for most test conditions. Results generally indicate that the CSTA and wing configuration will provide a useful test bed for aerothermal pads and thermal structural concept evaluation over a broad range of flow conditions in the 8 ft HTST.