Science.gov

Sample records for activities includes focus

  1. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, Howard C.

    1998-01-01

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught.

  2. Non-focusing active warhead

    DOEpatents

    Hornig, H.C.

    1998-12-22

    A non-nuclear, non-focusing, active warhead that comprises a high explosive charge contained within a casing of reactive metal is disclosed. When the high explosive is detonated, the reactive metal is dispersed and reacts with the air, which significantly increases the explosive yield of the warhead. The active warhead produces therefore much higher blast effects with significantly reduced weight compared to conventional munitions. The warhead is highly effective against such targets as aircraft which typically have thin fuselages, for example. The explosiveness of this warhead can be enhanced further by elevating the temperature and therefore the reactivity of the reactive metal before or during the explosion. New methods of enhancing the reactivity of the metal are also taught. 4 figs.

  3. The 1991/92 graduate student researchers program, including the underrepresented minority focus component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP) was expanded in 1987 to include the Underrepresented Minority Focus Component (UMFC). This program was designed to increase minority participation in graduate study and research, and ultimately, in space science and aerospace technology careers. This booklet presents the areas of research activities at NASA facilities for the GSRP and summarizes and presents the objectives of the UMFC.

  4. Phenomenon of Energy Focusing in Explosive Systems which include High Modulus Elastic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagansky, I.; Hokamoto, K.; Manikandan, P.; Matrosov, A.; Stadnichenko, I.; Miyoshi, H.

    2009-06-01

    The phenomenon was observed in a passive HE charge of cast Comp. B without cumulative shape under shock wave loading by explosion of an active HE charge through water after preliminary compression by a leading wave in silicon carbide insert. The phenomenon manifested itself as a hole in identification steel specimen with depth of about 10 mm and diameter of about 5 mm. Results of experiments on studying of conditions of implementation of this phenomenon for SEP and Comp. B are presented. For each HE a number of experiments has been executed at various length of silicon carbide insert. Presence or absence of a hole in the steel specimen was determined. Also a number of optical registrations of process in framing mode with record step of 1 μs have been executed. Digital video camera SHIMADZU HPV-1 was used for optical registration. Results of experiments testify that the phenomenon is reproduced both for SEP, and for Comp. B. Focusing process is observed in conditions close to critical conditions of transfer of a detonation from active to a passive HE charge.

  5. Partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations including grazing-incidence focusing optics.

    PubMed

    Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; Reininger, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within the framework of wave optics. Here the implementation and benchmarking of a wave-optics method for the simulation of grazing-incidence mirrors based on the local stationary-phase approximation or, in other words, the local propagation of the radiation electric field along geometrical rays, is described. The proposed method is CPU-efficient and fully compatible with the numerical methods of Fourier optics. It has been implemented in the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) computer code and extensively tested against the geometrical ray-tracing code SHADOW. The test simulations have been performed for cases without and with diffraction at mirror apertures, including cases where the grazing-incidence mirrors can be hardly approximated by ideal lenses. Good agreement between the SRW and SHADOW simulation results is observed in the cases without diffraction. The differences between the simulation results obtained by the two codes in diffraction-dominated cases for illumination with fully or partially coherent radiation are analyzed and interpreted. The application of the new method for the simulation of wavefront propagation through a high-resolution X-ray microspectroscopy beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) is demonstrated.

  6. 77 FR 61012 - Expansion of Importer Self-Assessment Program To Include Qualified Importers of Focused...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Qualified Importers of Focused Assessment Audits AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... and Border Protection (CBP) laws and regulations rather than undergoing comprehensive CBP audits. This document announces that a company that has successfully undergone a CBP Focused Assessment (FA) audit...

  7. Focus-of-attention for human activity recognition from UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghouts, G. J.; van Eekeren, A. W. M.; Dijk, J.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a system to extract metadata about human activities from full-motion video recorded from a UAV. The pipeline consists of these components: tracking, motion features, representation of the tracks in terms of their motion features, and classification of each track as one of the human activities of interest. We consider these activities: walk, run, throw, dig, wave. Our contribution is that we show how a robust system can be constructed for human activity recognition from UAVs, and that focus-of-attention is needed. We find that tracking and human detection are essential for robust human activity recognition from UAVs. Without tracking, the human activity recognition deteriorates. The combination of tracking and human detection is needed to focus the attention on the relevant tracks. The best performing system includes tracking, human detection and a per-track analysis of the five human activities. This system achieves an average accuracy of 93%. A graphical user interface is proposed to aid the operator or analyst during the task of retrieving the relevant parts of video that contain particular human activities. Our demo is available on YouTube.

  8. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  9. How High Is It? An Educator's Guide with Activities Focused on Scale Models of Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This guide focuses on scale models of distances. Activities also incorporate mathematics but can be used in science and technology grades 5-8 classes. The content of the book is divided into three sections: (1) Introductory Activities; (2) Core Activities; and (3) Activity/Assessment. Activities include: (1) KWL Chart; (2) Ball and String…

  10. Form-Focused Discovery Activities in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogeyik, Muhlise Cosgun

    2011-01-01

    Form-focused discovery activities allow language learners to grasp various aspects of a target language by contributing implicit knowledge by using discovered explicit knowledge. Moreover, such activities can assist learners to perceive and discover the features of their language input. In foreign language teaching environments, they can be used…

  11. A Focused Screen Identifies Antifolates with Activity on Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuradha; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Pérez, Esther; Gonzalez, Ruben R.; Torres, Pedro; Calvo, David; Gómez, Ruben M.; Ortega, Fátima; Jiménez, Elena; Gabarro, Raquel C.; Rullás, Joaquín; Ballell, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    Antifolates are widely used to treat several diseases but are not currently used in the first-line treatment of tuberculosis, despite evidence that some of these molecules can target Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli in vitro. To identify new antifolate candidates for animal-model efficacy studies of tuberculosis, we paired knowledge and tools developed in academia with the infrastructure and chemistry resources of a large pharmaceutical company. Together we curated a focused library of 2508 potential antifolates, which were then tested for activity against live Mtb. We identified 210 primary hits, confirmed the on-target activity of potent compounds, and now report the identification and characterization of 5 hit compounds, representative of 5 different chemical scaffolds. These antifolates have potent activity against Mtb and represent good starting points for improvement that could lead to in vivo efficacy studies. PMID:26771003

  12. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  13. Focus of attention in an activity-based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Norman; Fox, Mark S.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier research in job shop scheduling has demonstrated the advantages of opportunistically combining order-based and resource-based scheduling techniques. An even more flexible approach is investigated where each activity is considered a decision point by itself. Heuristics to opportunistically select the next decision point on which to focus attention (i.e., variable ordering heuristics) and the next decision to be tried at this point (i.e., value ordering heuristics) are described that probabilistically account for both activity precedence and resource requirement interactions. Preliminary experimental results indicate that the variable ordering heuristic greatly increases search efficiency. While least constraining value ordering heuristics have been advocated in the literature, the experimental results suggest that other value ordering heuristics combined with our variable-ordering heuristic can produce much better schedules without significantly increasing search.

  14. Active and Focused Scientist Participation Improves Public Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekwurzel, B.; Grifo, F.; Cole, N.; Halpern, M.; Rogers, E.

    2007-12-01

    Scientists are often dismayed at how the public discourse of controversial topics, such as global climate change, is often missing critical science developments. Active and focused scientist participation can help turn this trend around. Researchers who receive public funding for exploration into fundamental science have a wealth of information to share when their research touches upon topics that are relevant to the public. Taking the time to translate the top findings of your research into publicly accessible language is often a rewarding experience and can make all the difference. Scientists are viewed with trust by the public, the media, and policymakers. Case studies from the northeast United States and California will illustrate the best practices to enhance the active engagement of the scientific community and demonstrate how this can create change. The public discourse on climate change is moving rapidly forward and the consequences of scientists not participating will mount.

  15. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Modeling of Nonlinear Propagation in Multi-layer Biological Tissues for Strong Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ting-Bo; Liu, Zhen-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Dong; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2009-08-01

    A theoretical model of the nonlinear propagation in multi-layered tissues for strong focused ultrasound is proposed. In this model, the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) is utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation in each layer tissue, and generalized oblique incidence theory is used to deal with the sound transmission between two layer tissues. Computer simulation is performed on a fat-muscle-liver tissue model under the irradiation of a 1 MHz focused transducer with a large aperture angle of 35°. The results demonstrate that the tissue layer would change the amplitude of sound pressure at the focal region and cause the increase of side petals.

  16. Focused ultrasound modulates region-specific brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Bystritsky, Alexander; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Fischer, Krisztina; Min, Byoung-Kyong; McDannold, Nathan J.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS) to transiently modulate (through either stimulation or suppression) the function of regional brain tissue in rabbits. FUS was delivered in a train of pulses at low acoustic energy, far below the cavitation threshold, to the animal's somatomotor and visual areas, as guided by anatomical and functional information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The temporary alterations in the brain function affected by the sonication were characterized by both electrophysiological recordings and functional brain mapping achieved through the use of functional MRI (fMRI). The modulatory effects were bimodal, whereby the brain activity could either be stimulated or selectively suppressed. Histological analysis of the excised brain tissue after the sonication demonstrated that the FUS did not elicit any tissue damages. Unlike transcranial magnetic stimulation, FUS can be applied to deep structures in the brain with greater spatial precision. Transient modulation of brain function using image-guided and anatomically-targeted FUS would enable the investigation of functional connectivity between brain regions and will eventually lead to a better understanding of localized brain functions. It is anticipated that the use of this technology will have an impact on brain research and may offer novel therapeutic interventions in various neurological conditions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21354315

  17. Effects of Endurance-Focused Physical Activity Interventions on Brain Health: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Halloway, Shannon; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2016-07-29

    Physical activity intervention studies that focus on improving cognitive function in older adults have increasingly used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in addition to neurocognitive measures to assess effects on the brain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the effects of endurance-focused physical activity randomized controlled trial (RCT) interventions on the brain as measured by MRI in community-dwelling middle-aged or older adults without cognitive impairment. Five electronic databases were searched. The final sample included six studies. None of the studies reported racial or ethnic characteristics of the participants. All studies included neurocognitive measures in addition to MRI. Five of the six interventions included laboratory-based treadmill or supervised bike exercise sessions, while one included community-based physical activity. Physical activity measures were limited to assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and, in one study, pedometer. Due to the lack of adequate data reported, effect sizes were calculated for only one study for MRI measures and two studies for neurocognitive measures. Effect sizes ranged from d = .2 to .3 for MRI measures and .2 to .32 for neurocognitive measures. Findings of the individual studies suggest that MRI measures may be more sensitive to the effects of physical activity than neurocognitive measures. Future studies are needed that include diverse, community-based participants, direct measures of physical activity, and complete reporting of MRI and neurocognitive findings.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of soy has been demonstrated to reduce circulating cholesterol levels, most notably reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The component or components that might be responsible for this effect is still a matter of debate or controversy among many researchers. Candidate agents include an activity of soy protein itself, bioactive peptides produced during the digestive process, or the soy isoflavones. Although soy intake may provide other health benefits including preventative or remediative effects on cancer, osteoporosis and symptoms of menopause, this review will focus on isoflavones as agents affecting lipid metabolism. Isoflavones were first discovered as a bioactive agent disrupting estrogen action in female sheep, thereby earning the often-used term 'phytoestrogens'. Subsequent work confirmed the ability of isoflavones to bind to estrogen receptors. Along with the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy intake, research that is more recent has pointed to a beneficial antidiabetic effect of soy intake, perhaps mediated by soy isoflavones. The two common categories of antidiabetic drugs acting on nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are the fibrates and glitazones. We and others have recently asked the research question 'do the soy isoflavones have activities as either "phytofibrates" or "phytoglitazones"?' Such an activity should be able to be confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. In both the in vivo and in vitro cases, this action has indeed been confirmed. Further work suggests a possible action of isoflavones similar to the nonestrogenic ligands that bind the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Recently, these receptors have been demonstrated to contribute to lipolytic processes. Finally, evaluation of receptor activation studies suggests that thyroid receptor activation may provide additional clues explaining the metabolic action of isoflavones. The recent

  19. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  20. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  1. Screening strategies for active tuberculosis: focus on cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Claudia Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in screening for active tuberculosis (TB), also called active case-finding (ACF), as a possible means to achieve control of the global TB epidemic. ACF aims to increase the detection of TB, in order to diagnose and treat patients with TB earlier than if they had been diagnosed and treated only at the time when they sought health care because of symptoms. This will reduce or avoid secondary transmission of TB to other people, with the long-term goal of reducing the incidence of TB. Here, the history of screening for active TB, current screening practices, and the role of TB-diagnostic tools are summarized and the literature on cost-effectiveness of screening for active TB reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that community-wide ACF can be cost-effective in settings with a high incidence of TB. ACF among close TB contacts is cost-effective in settings with a low as well as a high incidence of TB. The evidence for cost-effectiveness of screening among HIV-infected persons is not as strong as for TB contacts, but the reviewed studies suggest that the intervention can be cost-effective depending on the background prevalence of TB and test volume. None of the cost-effectiveness analyses were informed by data from randomized controlled trials. As the results of randomized controlled trials evaluating different ACF strategies will become available in future, we will hopefully gain a better understanding of the role that ACF can play in achieving global TB control. PMID:27418848

  2. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her...) Other market promotion activities. Credit-Back shall be granted for market promotion other than...

  3. Organic solar cells: an overview focusing on active layer morphology.

    PubMed

    Benanti, Travis L; Venkataraman, D

    2006-01-01

    Solar cells constructed of organic materials are becoming increasingly efficient due to the discovery of the bulk heterojunction concept. This review provides an overview of organic solar cells. Topics covered include: a brief history of organic solar cell development; device construction, definitions, and characteristics; and heterojunction morphology and its relation to device efficiency in conjugated polymer/fullerene systems. The aim of this article is to show that researchers are developing a better understanding of how material structure relates to function and that they are applying this knowledge to build more efficient light-harvesting devices.

  4. Biochemical approaches to selective antifungal activity. Focus on azole antifungals.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, H; Marichal, P; Gorrens, J; Coene, M C; Willemsens, G; Bellens, D; Roels, I; Moereels, H; Janssen, P A

    1989-01-01

    Azole antifungals (e.g. the imidazoles: miconazole, clotrimazole, bifonazole, imazalil, ketoconazole, and the triazoles: diniconazole, triadimenol, propiconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole) inhibit in fungal cells the 14 alpha-demethylation of lanosterol or 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol. The consequent inhibition of ergosterol synthesis originates from binding of the unsubstituted nitrogen (N-3 or N-4) of their imidazole or triazole moiety to the heme iron and from binding of their N-1 substituent to the apoprotein of a cytochrome P-450 (P-450(14)DM) of the endoplasmic reticulum. Great differences in both potency and selectivity are found between the different azole antifungals. For example, after 16h of growth of Candida albicans in medium supplemented with [14C]-acetate and increasing concentrations of itraconazole, 100% inhibition of ergosterol synthesis is achieved at 3 x 10(-8) M. Complete inhibition of this synthesis by fluconazole is obtained at 10(-5) M only. The agrochemical imidazole derivative, imazalil, shows high selectivity, it has almost 80 and 98 times more affinity for the Candida P-450(s) than for those of the piglet testes microsomes and bovine adrenal mitochondria, respectively. However, the topically active imidazole antifungal, bifonazole, has the highest affinity for P-450(s) of the testicular microsomes. The triazole antifungal itraconazole inhibits at 10(-5) M the P-450-dependent aromatase by 17.9, whereas 50% inhibition of this enzyme is obtained at about 7.5 x 10(-6)M of the bistriazole derivative fluconazole. The overall results show that both the affinity for the fungal P-450(14)DM and the selectivity are determined by the nitrogen heterocycle and the hydrophobic N-1 substituent of the azole antifungals. The latter has certainly a greater impact. The presence of a triazole and a long hypdrophobic nonligating portion form the basis for itraconazole's potency and selectivity.

  5. Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending?

    PubMed

    Travis, Frederick; Parim, Niyazi

    2017-02-01

    This study used subjective reports and eLORETA analysis to assess to what extent Transcendental Meditation (TM) might involve focused attention-voluntary control of mental content. Eighty-seven TM subjects with one month to five years TM experience participated in this study. Regression analysis of years TM practice and self-reported transcendental experiences (lack of time, space and body sense) during meditation practice was flat (r=.07). Those practicing Transcendental Meditation for 1month reported as much transcending as those with 5years of practice. The eLORETA comparison of eyes-closed rest/task and TM practice/task identified similar areas of activation: theta and alpha activation during rest and TM in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, part of the default mode network, and beta2 and beta3 activation during the task in anterior cingulate, ventral lateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, part of the central executive network. In addition, eLORETA comparison of rest and TM identified higher beta temporal activation during rest and higher theta orbitofrontal activation during TM. Thus, it does not seem accurate to include TM practice with meditations in the catgory of Focused Attention, which are characterized by gamma EEG and DMN deactivation. Mixing meditations with different procedures into a single study confounds exploration of meditation effects and confounds application of meditation practices to different subject populations.

  6. Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Bindu; Shack, Leslie A; Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Baumgartner, Wes; Schmidt, Ty B; Edelmann, Mariola J

    2016-12-15

    To develop a reproducible tissue lysis method that retains enzyme function for activity-based protein profiling, we compared four different methods to obtain protein extracts from bovine lung tissue: focused ultrasonication, standard sonication, mortar & pestle method, and homogenization combined with standard sonication. Focused ultrasonication and mortar & pestle methods were sufficiently effective for activity-based profiling of deubiquitinases in tissue, and focused ultrasonication also had the fastest processing time. We used focused-ultrasonicator for subsequent activity-based proteomic analysis of deubiquitinases to test the compatibility of this method in sample preparation for activity-based chemical proteomics.

  7. Nuclear actin activates human transcription factor genes including the OCT4 gene.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shota; Yamamoto, Koji; Tokunaga, Makio; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    RNA microarray analyses revealed that nuclear actin activated many human transcription factor genes including OCT4, which is required for gene reprogramming. Oct4 is known to be activated by nuclear actin in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings imply that this process of OCT4 activation is conserved in vertebrates and among cell types and could be used for gene reprogramming of human cells.

  8. Measurement of CYP1A2 activity: a focus on caffeine as a probe.

    PubMed

    Perera, Vidya; Gross, Annette S; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    The drug metabolising enzyme CYP1A2 contributes to the metabolism of a number of medicines including clozapine, olanzapine and theophylline. These medicines display a high degree of inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics and response. Measuring CYP1A2 activity in vivo can be an important tool to identify the factors that influence variability in drug pharmacokinetics and inform dose selection. Caffeine is the only currently accepted probe to conduct in vivo phenotyping of CYP1A2. Despite the number of proposed matrices (biological fluid containing the drug and/or metabolite/s of interest) and metrics (mathematical formula relating the drug and/or metabolite/s to enzyme activity) proposed to measure CYP1A2 activity using caffeine, many of these are compromised by factors related to the specific metabolic pathway studied or pharmacokinetic characteristics of caffeine and its metabolites. Furthermore, questions regarding the appropriate study design and methodology to conduct studies to evaluate CYP1A2 activity have often been overlooked. These issues include the potential influence of a methylxanthine abstinence period prior to caffeine CYP1A2 phenotyping and the impact of caffeine formulation on determining CYP1A2 activity. This review aims to discuss the various CYP1A2 matrices and metrics with a particular focus on unresolved methodological issues.

  9. [Effect of heliogeophysical factors on epizootic activity of a native focus of visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Oiburivsjuĭ, E N

    2003-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) morbidity in the population of the south-eastern Turkmenistan and the epizootic activity of a natural focus were studied. A definite cyclic recurrence of the processes occurring in the natural focus of VL, which was associated with solar activity changes was found. The regularities found make it possible to predict the increase in the epizootic tension of a natural focus of VL in this region and the incidence of this disease among the population in 2002-2004.

  10. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  11. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multi-Family Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore multiple family members’ perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home. Design Ten multi-family focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting Community setting. Participants Primarily Black and White families. Family members (n = 103) were between the ages of 8–61 years. Analysis A grounded hermeneutic approach. Phenomenon of Interest Risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home environment. Results Ten major themes were identified by family members related to health behaviors in the home environment, including: (a) accessibility to healthy foods and activity, (b) time constraints, (c) stage of youth development, (d) individual investment in health behaviors, (e) family investment in health behaviors, (f) family meals and shared activities, (g) parent modeling, (h) making health behaviors fun, (i) making health behaviors part of the family lifestyle, and (j) community investment in family health behaviors. Conclusions and Implications This study identified the importance of the family system and the reciprocal influences within the home environment on health behaviors. In addition, individual and community-level suggestions were identified. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the prevention of youth obesity. PMID:22192951

  12. Focused-ion-beam post-processing technology for active devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Chyng Wen; Lau, Fat Kit; Zhao, Xin; Penty, Richard; White, Ian

    2006-09-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) etching technology is a highly efficient post-processing technique with the functionality to perform sputter etching and deposition of metals or insulators by means of a computer-generated mask. The high resolution and the ability to remove material directly from the sample in-situ make FIB etching the ideal candidate for device prototyping of novel micro-size photonic component design. Furthermore, the fact that arbitrary profile can be etched directly onto a sample without the need to prepare conventional mask and photolithography process makes novel device research with rapid feedback from characterisation to design activities possible. In this paper, we present a concise summary of the research work in Cambridge based on FIB technology. We demonstrate the applicability of focussed ion beam post processing technology to active photonic devices research. Applications include the integration of advanced waveguide architectures onto active photonic components. We documents details on the integration of lens structure on tapered lasers, photonic crystals on active SOA-integrated waveguides and surface profiling of low-cost gain-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. Furthermore, we discuss additional functions of FIB in the measurement of buried waveguide structures or the integration of total-internal-reflection (TIR) mirror in optical interconnect structures.

  13. Overview of the Tank Focus Area HLW Tank Retrieval Activities (Remote Operations)

    SciTech Connect

    GIBBONS, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites are currently retrieving or preparing to retrieve radioactive waste from underground storage tanks with technical assistance from the Tanks Focus Area. The Tanks Focus Area is a national program that provides information and technologies to safely and effectively remediate radioactive waste stored in DOE's underground tanks. Funding for the Tanks Focus Area is provided by the DOE Offices of Science and Technology, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management. This paper provides an overview of recent remote waste retrieval activities as well as recent successes sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area.

  14. Regulation of Calcitriol Biosynthesis and Activity: Focus on Gestational Vitamin D Deficiency and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Avila, Euclides; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25584965

  15. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  16. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  17. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  18. Modifying Physical Activities to Include Individuals with Disabilities: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Effectively including individuals with disabilities in a physical activity setting can often be a challenge due to constraints related to equipment, class size, curriculum, and the various ability levels of individuals with and without disabilities. However, there are ways the instructor can control the environment and tasks to meet the needs of…

  19. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2008-09-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to have potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of such particles, and ignore interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we develop a new parameterization framework that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler Theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frankel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory, and i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH for which activation into cloud droplets is not possible, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. Parameterization formulations are developed for sectional and lognormal aerosol size distribution functions. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2 ~0.98.

  20. Family Planning Practices, Programmes and Policies in India Including Implants and Injectables with a Special Focus on Jharkhand, India: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 clearly delineates that the usage of contraceptive practices has increased considerably but is more inclined toward terminal methods of contraception especially the female sterilization. The fact is also evident from various studies carried out from time to time in different Indian states. Given the context we carried out a short review to understand the family planning practices, programs and policies in India including implants and injectable contraceptives with a special focus on the state of Jharkhand. We found that among the reversible methods IUCD (intra uterine contraceptive devices), OC (oral contraceptive) pills and condoms are the most commonly used methods. In this review, in addition to national picture, we specially focused on the state of Jharkhand owing to its very gloomy picture of family planning practices as per NFHS -3 reports. The current usage of any methods of contraception in Jharkhand is only 35.7% out of which terminal methods especially female sterilization accounts to 23.4% and male sterilization being only 0.4%. Similar picture is also reflected in the conventional methods such as; IUCD-0.6%, oral pill -3.8% and condom-2.7%. Compared to the national figure the unmet need for family planning in Jharkhand is also relatively high for the conventional reversible methods than that of terminal methods which is 11.9 and 11.3 respectively. Injectable contraceptives are available only through private or social marketing channels, because of which their use is limited. The studies carried out in different Indian states show improvement in contraceptive prevalence but the same needs further improvement. PMID:26674943

  1. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  2. Individual Focus in an Activity Centre: An Observational Study among Persons with Profound and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, S. J.; Vlaskamp, C.; Wiersma, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are being offered more--and more frequent--day services at activity centres. Little is known about the way direct support persons (DSP) in activity centres divide their time over the various tasks they have to perform and to what extent they are focused on…

  3. Focused Campaign Increases Activity among Participants in "Nature's Notebook," a Citizen Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants' activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a…

  4. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.

  5. Management options for echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cysts: a review including Australian Association of Obstetrical and Gynaecological Ultrasonologists consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Bethune, M

    2007-08-01

    Echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cysts are common findings at the midtrimester ultrasound. These findings have been linked with an increased risk of Down syndrome and trisomy 18. Most fetuses with these findings will, however, not have chromosomal abnormalities, especially when these findings are isolated. Patients experience considerable anxiety when informed of these findings and require extensive counselling in order to minimize anxiety not only about aneuploidy but also about the structure and development of the heart and brain. Although early studies showed an association with aneuploidies, several recent studies have cast doubt on this association. Many of the early studies were carried out in high-risk populations or in populations that had not had the benefit of other screening tests. Many Australian and New Zealand patients will access screening tests designed to detect these aneuploidies before presenting for a midtrimester ultrasound. Patients who have been screened by nuchal translucency, maternal serum screening or some combination of the two will already have had most cases of Down syndrome and trisomy 18 detected, and any soft marker found will almost certainly be a false positive. It is time to rethink the management of these markers. Recent evidence indicates that if these markers are found in isolation in an otherwise low-risk pregnancy, then there is minimal or no increase in the risk of Down syndrome or trisomy 18: these markers should be considered normal variants. The Australian Association of Obstetrical and Gynaecological Ultrasonologists consensus statement on these markers is included.

  6. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P

    1998-11-06

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that employs

  7. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-02-01

    In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw control is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.

  8. Mimetics of caloric restriction include agonists of lipid-activated nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Corton, J Christopher; Apte, Udayan; Anderson, Steven P; Limaye, Pallavi; Yoon, Lawrence; Latendresse, John; Dunn, Corrie; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Voss, Kenneth A; Swanson, Cynthia; Kimbrough, Carie; Wong, Jean S; Gill, Sarjeet S; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Stulnig, Thomas M; Steffensen, Knut R; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mehendale, Harihara M

    2004-10-29

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized countries is associated with increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and certain types of cancer. In animal models, caloric restriction (CR) suppresses these diseases as well as chemical-induced tissue damage. These beneficial effects of CR overlap with those altered by agonists of nuclear receptors (NR) under control of the fasting-responsive transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha). In a screen for compounds that mimic CR effects in the liver, we found statistically significant overlaps between the CR transcript profile in wild-type mice and the profiles altered by agonists of lipid-activated NR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), liver X receptor, and their obligate heterodimer partner, retinoid X receptor. The overlapping genes included those involved in CVD (lipid metabolism and inflammation) and cancer (cell fate). Based on this overlap, we hypothesized that some effects of CR are mediated by PPARalpha. As determined by transcript profiling, 19% of all gene expression changes in wild-type mice were dependent on PPARalpha, including Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14, involved in fatty acid omega-oxidation, acute phase response genes, and epidermal growth factor receptor but not increases in PGC-1alpha. CR protected the livers of wild-type mice from damage induced by thioacetamide, a liver toxicant and hepatocarcinogen. CR protection was lost in PPARalpha-null mice due to inadequate tissue repair. These results demonstrate that PPARalpha mediates some of the effects of CR and indicate that a pharmacological approach to mimicking many of the beneficial effects of CR may be possible.

  9. Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can be focused at sites of tumor growth by products of macrophage activation

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, R.J.; Gruber, S.A.; Sawyer, M.D.; Hoffman, R.; Ochoa, A.; Bach, F.H.; Simmons, R.L.

    1987-08-01

    Successful adoptive cancer immunotherapy presumably depends on the accumulation of tumoricidal leukocytes at the sites of tumor growth. Large numbers of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can be generated in vitro by growth in high concentrations of interleukin-2 (IL-2), but relatively few arrive at the tumor site after intravenous injection. We hypothesize that the delivery of LAK cells to tumor sites may be augmented by previously demonstrated lymphocyte-recruiting factors, including activated macrophage products such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor. /sup 111/Indium-labeled LAK cells were injected intravenously into syngeneic mice bearing the macrophage activator endotoxin (LPS) in one hind footpad, and saline solution was injected into the contralateral footpad. Significantly more activity was recovered from the LPS-bearing footpad at all times during a 96-hour period. Recombinant IL-1 also attracted more LAK cells after injection into tumor-free hind footpads. Furthermore, LAK cells preferentially homed to hind footpads that were bearing 3-day established sarcomas after intralesional injections of LPS, IL-1, or tumor necrosis factor when compared with contralateral tumor-bearing footpads injected with saline solution alone. In preliminary experiments, mice with hind-footpad tumors appeared to survive longer after combined systemic IL-2 and LAK therapy if intralesional LPS was administered. These studies demonstrate that macrophage activation factors that have been shown capable of attracting circulating normal lymphocytes can also effectively attract LAK cells from the circulation. By the stimulation of macrophages at the sites of tumor growth, more LAK cells can be attracted. It is hoped that by focusing the migration of LAK cells to tumors, LAK cells and IL-2 would effect tumor regression more efficiently and with less toxicity.

  10. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G P

    1998-08-19

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed waste low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) is developing the Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of .their classification; low level, transuranic or provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non

  11. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  12. Nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in Chichaoua, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Guernaoui, S; Boussaa, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2006-02-01

    The nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was studied "at an epidemic focus" on human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica Wright in Chichaoua province, in Morocco. Sandflies were collected using light and sticky-paper traps changed at 2-h intervals, inside and around houses, in August and October 2004. Overall, 633 sandflies, belonging to six species of Phlebotomus and three of Sergentomyia, were collected. Sandfly activity was nocturnal and higher at twilight. Several activity patterns were observed according to the species. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, 1917, the suspected vector of L. tropica in this focus, was caught during each collection performed from 1900 to 0500 hours, the numbers of species caught peaked at 1900-2100 hours. There were seasonal variations of the nocturnal activity, which could be related to the variations in temperature and relative humidity.

  13. Comparing Neighborhood-Focused Activism and Volunteerism: Psychological Well-Being and Social Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilster, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    Does participating in neighborhood-focused activism confer different benefits than volunteering? The engagement of community members in neighborhood civic life has been identified as an important component of safe and healthy communities. Research on community engagement has encompassed voluntary associations, volunteering, as well as…

  14. Developing L2 Listening Fluency through Extended Listening-Focused Activities in an Extensive Listening Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C-S.; Millett, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects on developing L2 listening fluency through doing extended listening-focused activities after reading and listening to audio graded readers. Seventy-six EFL university students read and listened to a total of 15 graded readers in a 15-week extensive listening programme. They were divided into three groups (Group…

  15. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  16. Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in

  17. Rapid volumetric temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy of neural activity: theory, image processing, and experimental realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Hod; Marom, Anat; Kruger, Nimrod; Ellman, Aviv; Shoham, Shy

    2012-03-01

    The development of rapid volumetric imaging systems for functional multiphoton microscopy is essential for dynamical imaging of large-scale neuronal network activity. Here, we introduce a line-illuminating temporal-focusing microscope capable of rapid three-dimensional imaging at 10-20 volumes/sec, and study the system's characteristics both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate that our system is capable of functional volumetric calcium imaging of distributed neuronal activity patterns, and introduce a computational strategy for activity reconstruction in strongly scattering media.

  18. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.623 How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  19. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans including syndecan-3 modulate BMP activity during limb cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie C; Li, Yingcui; Seghatoleslami, M Reza; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in multiple aspects of limb development including regulation of cartilage differentiation. Several BMPs bind strongly to heparin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix have recently been implicated as modulators of BMP signaling in some developing systems. Here we have explored the role of HSPGs in regulating BMP activity during limb chondrogenesis by evaluating the effects of exogenous heparan sulfate (HS), heparitinase treatment, and overexpression of the HSPG syndecan-3 on the ability of BMP2 to modulate the chondrogenic differentiation of limb mesenchymal cells in micromass culture. Exogenous HS dramatically enhances the ability of BMP2 to stimulate chondrogenesis and cartilage specific gene expression, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to stimulate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, HS stimulates BMP2-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8, transcriptional mediators of BMP2 signaling, indicating that HS enhances the interaction of BMP2 with its receptors. Pretreatment of micromass cultures with heparitinase to degrade endogenous HSPGs also enhances the chondrogenic activity of BMP2, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together these results indicate that exogenous HS or heparitinase enhance the chondrogenic activity of BMP2 by interfering with its interaction with endogenous HSPGs that would normally restrict its interaction with its receptors. Consistent with the possibility that HSPGs are negative modulators of BMP signaling during chondrogenesis, we have found that overexpression of syndecan-3, which is one of the major HSPGs normally expressed during chondrogenesis, greatly impairs the ability of BMP2 to promote cartilage differentiation. Furthermore, retroviral overexpression of syndecan-3 inhibits BMP2-mediated Smad phosphorylation in the regions of the cultures in which chondrogenesis is

  20. Comparing Neighborhood-Focused Activism and Volunteerism: Psychological Well-Being and Social Connectedness

    PubMed Central

    Gilster, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Does participating in neighborhood-focused activism confer different benefits than volunteering? The engagement of community members in neighborhood civic life has been identified as an important component of safe and healthy communities. Research on community engagement has encompassed voluntary associations, volunteering, as well as participation in neighborhood activism. A diverse set of research suggests that there are psychological and social benefits to community engagement, but also suggests that there are differences between forms of participation. In order to understand these differences, I examine the relationship of both volunteerism and neighborhood activism to psychosocial outcomes using survey data from a neighborhood-based sample of Chicago residents (n=3105). Findings suggest that activism is different—activists have higher neighborhood and personal mastery than those who only volunteer. Participation in neighborhood activism is also associated with an increased likelihood of contact with local officials and social ties in the neighborhood. PMID:27087709

  1. Comparing Neighborhood-Focused Activism and Volunteerism: Psychological Well-Being and Social Connectedness.

    PubMed

    Gilster, Megan E

    2012-09-01

    Does participating in neighborhood-focused activism confer different benefits than volunteering? The engagement of community members in neighborhood civic life has been identified as an important component of safe and healthy communities. Research on community engagement has encompassed voluntary associations, volunteering, as well as participation in neighborhood activism. A diverse set of research suggests that there are psychological and social benefits to community engagement, but also suggests that there are differences between forms of participation. In order to understand these differences, I examine the relationship of both volunteerism and neighborhood activism to psychosocial outcomes using survey data from a neighborhood-based sample of Chicago residents (n=3105). Findings suggest that activism is different-activists have higher neighborhood and personal mastery than those who only volunteer. Participation in neighborhood activism is also associated with an increased likelihood of contact with local officials and social ties in the neighborhood.

  2. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  3. Modelling of an activated primary settling tank including the fermentation process and VFA elutriation.

    PubMed

    Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2002-10-01

    A complete model of a primary settler including both sedimentation and biological processes is presented. It is a one-dimensional model based on the solids flux concept and the conservation of mass that uses the Takács model for the settling velocity, which is corrected by a compression function in the lower layers. The biological model is based on the ASM2 and enlarged with the fermentation model proposed by this research group. The settler was split in ten layers and the flux terms in the mass balance for each layer is obtained by means of the settling model. A pilot plant has been operated to study the primary sludge fermentation and volatile fatty acids (VFA) elutriation in a primary settler tank. The model has been tested with pilot plant experimental data with very good results. It has been able to simulate the VFA production in the settler and their elutriation with the influent wastewater for all the studied experiments. The developed model is easily applicable to secondary settlers and thickeners, also taking into account biological activity inside them.

  4. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  5. Physical activity in subjects with multiple sclerosis with focus on gender differences: a survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing research that examines gender-issues in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little focus has been placed on gender-issues regarding physical activity. The aim of the present study was to describe levels of physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, fall-related self-efficacy, social support for physical activity, fatigue levels and the impact of MS on daily life, in addition to investigating gender differences. Methods The sample for this cross-sectional cohort study consisted of 287 (84 men; 29.3%) adults with MS recruited from the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects consisting of the self-administrated measurements: Physical Activity Disability Survey – Revised, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Falls- Efficacy Scale (Swedish version), Social Influences on Physical Activity, Fatigue Severity Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Response rate was 58.2%. Results Men were less physically active, had lower self-efficacy for physical activity and lower fall-related self-efficacy than women. This was explained by men being more physically affected by the disease. Men also received less social support for physical activity from family members. The level of fatigue and psychological consequences of the disease were similar between the genders in the total sample, but subgroups of women with moderate MS and relapsing remitting MS experienced more fatigue than men. Conclusions Men were less physically active, probably a result of being more physically affected by the disease. Men being more physically affected explained most of the gender differences found in this study. However, the number of men in the subgroup analyses was small and more research is needed. A gender perspective should be considered in strategies for promoting physical activity in subjects with MS, e.g. men may need more support to be physically active. PMID:24612446

  6. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  7. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  8. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  9. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  10. Potential for early-life immune insult including developmental immunotoxicity in autism and autism spectrum disorders: focus on critical windows of immune vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Dietert, Rodney R; Dietert, Janice M

    2008-10-01

    Early-life immune insults (ELII) including xenobiotic-induced developmental immunotoxicity (DIT) are important factors in childhood and adult chronic diseases. However, prenatal and perinatal environmentally induced immune alterations have yet to be considered in depth in the context of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Numerous factors produce early-life-induced immune dysfunction in offspring, including exposure to xenobiotics, maternal infections, and other prenatal-neonatal stressors. Early life sensitivity to ELII, including DIT, results from the heightened vulnerability of the developing immune system to disruption and the serious nature of the adverse outcomes arising after disruption of one-time immune maturational events. The resulting health risks extend beyond infectious diseases, cancer, allergy, and autoimmunity to include pathologies of the neurological, reproductive, and endocrine systems. Because these changes may include misregulation of resident inflammatory myelomonocytic cells in tissues such as the brain, they are a potential concern in cases of prenatal-neonatal brain pathologies and neurobehavioral deficits. Autism and ASDs are chronic developmental neurobehavioral disorders that are on the rise in the United States with prenatal and perinatal environmental factors suspected as contributors to this increase. Evidence for an association between environmentally associated childhood immune dysfunction and ASDs suggests that ELII and DIT may contribute to these conditions. However, it is not known if this linkage is directly associated with the brain pathologies or represents a separate (or secondary) outcome. This review considers the known features of ELII and DIT and how they may provide important clues to prenatal brain inflammation and the risk of autism and ASDs.

  11. Real-time fMRI links subjective experience with brain activity during focused attention

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Kathleen A.; Scheinost, Dustin; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Elwafi, Hani M.; Thornhill, Thomas A.; Thompson, Evan; Saron, Clifford; Desbordes, Gaëlle; Kober, Hedy; Hampson, Michelle; Gray, Jeremy R.; Constable, R. Todd; Papademetris, Xenophon; Brewer, Judson A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in brain imaging have improved the measure of neural processes related to perceptual, cognitive and affective functions, yet the relation between brain activity and subjective experience remains poorly characterized. In part, it is a challenge to obtain reliable accounts of participant’s experience in such studies. Here we addressed this limitation by utilizing experienced meditators who are expert in introspection. We tested a novel method to link objective and subjective data, using real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI) to provide participants with feedback of their own brain activity during an ongoing task. We provided real-time feedback during a focused attention task from the posterior cingulate cortex, a hub of the default mode network shown to be activated during mind-wandering and deactivated during meditation. In a first experiment, both meditators and non-meditators reported significant correspondence between the feedback graph and their subjective experience of focused attention and mind-wandering. When instructed to volitionally decrease the feedback graph, meditators, but not non-meditators, showed significant deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex. We were able to replicate these results in a separate group of meditators using a novel step-wise rt-fMRI discovery protocol in which participants were not provided with prior knowledge of the expected relationship between their experience and the feedback graph (i.e., focused attention versus mind-wandering). These findings support the feasibility of using rt-fMRI to link objective measures of brain activity with reports of ongoing subjective experience in cognitive neuroscience research, and demonstrate the generalization of expertise in introspective awareness to novel contexts. PMID:23684866

  12. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  13. Active echolocation beam focusing in the false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Laura N; Nachtigall, Paul E; Donahue, Megan J; Breese, Marlee

    2012-04-15

    The odontocete sound production system is highly complex and produces intense, directional signals that are thought to be focused by the melon and the air sacs. Because odontocete echolocation signals are variable and the emitted click frequency greatly affects the echolocation beam shape, investigations of beam focusing must account for frequency-related beam changes. In this study we tested whether the echolocation beam of a false killer whale changed depending on target difficulty and distance while also accounting for frequency-related changes in the echolocation beam. The data indicate that the false killer whale changes its beam size according to target distance and difficulty, which may be a strategy of maximizing the energy of the target echo. We propose that the animal is using a strategy of changing the focal region according to target distance and that this strategy is under active control.

  14. High intensity focused ultrasound-induced gene activation in sublethally injured tumor cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunbo; Kon, Takashi; Li, Chuanyuan; Zhong, Pei

    2005-11-01

    Cultured human cervical cancer (HeLa) and rat mammary carcinoma (R3230Ac) cells were transfected with vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of hsp70B promoter. Aliquots of 10-μl transfected cells (5×107 cells/ml) were placed in 0.2-ml thin-wall polymerase chain reaction tubes and exposed to 1.1-MHz high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) at a peak negative pressure P-=2.68 MPa. By adjusting the duty cycle of the HIFU transducer, the cell suspensions were heated to a peak temperature from 50 to 70 °C in 1-10 s. Exposure dependent cell viability and gene activation were evaluated. For a 5-s HIFU exposure, cell viability dropped from 95% at 50 °C to 13% at 70 °C. Concomitantly, gene activation in sublethally injured tumor cells increased from 4% at 50 °C to 41% at 70 °C. A similar trend was observed at 60 °C peak temperature as the exposure time increased from 1 to 5 s. Further increase of exposure duration to 10 s led to significantly reduced cell viability and lower overall gene activation in exposed cells. Altogether, maximum HIFU-induced gene activation was achieved at 60 °C in 5 s. Under these experimental conditions, HIFU-induced gene activation was found to be produced primarily by thermal rather than mechanical stresses.

  15. Inotropes and inodilators for acute heart failure: sarcomere active drugs in focus.

    PubMed

    Nagy, László; Pollesello, Piero; Papp, Zoltán

    2014-09-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) emerges as a major and growing epidemiological concern with high morbidity and mortality rates. Current therapies in patients with acute heart failure rely on different strategies. Patients with hypotension, hypoperfusion, or shock require inotropic support, whereas diuretics and vasodilators are recommended in patients with systemic or pulmonary congestion. Traditionally inotropic agents, referred to as Ca mobilizers load the cardiomyocyte with Ca and thereby increase oxygen consumption and risk for arrhythmias. These limitations of traditional inotropes may be avoided by sarcomere targeted agents. Direct activation of the cardiac sarcomere may be achieved by either sensitizing the cardiac myofilaments to Ca or activating directly the cardiac myosin. In this review, we focus on sarcomere targeted inotropic agents, emphasizing their mechanisms of action and overview the most relevant clinical considerations.

  16. FT-midIR determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, in bakery products after focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Jiménez, J; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2006-08-01

    A study of the feasibility of Fourier transform medium infrared spectroscopy (FT-midIR) for analytical determination of fatty acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, is presented. The training and validation sets-75% (102 samples) and 25% (36 samples) of the samples once the spectral outliers have been removed-to develop FT-midIR general equations, were built with samples from 140 commercial and home-made bakery products. The concentration of the analytes in the samples used for this study is within the typical range found in these kinds of products. Both sets were independent; thus, the validation set was only used for testing the equations. The criterion used for the selection of the validation set was samples with the highest number of neighbours and the most separation between them (H<0.6). Partial least squares regression and cross validation were used for multivariate calibration. The FT-midIR method does not require post-extraction manipulation and gives information about the fatty acid profile in two min. The 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:2 fatty acids can be determined with excellent precision and other fatty acids with good precision according to the Shenk criteria, R (2)>/=0.90, SEP=1-1.5 SEL and R (2)=0.70-0.89, SEP=2-3 SEL, respectively. The results obtained with the proposed method were compared with those provided by the conventional method based on GC-MS. At 95% significance level, the differences between the values obtained for the different fatty acids were within the experimental error.

  17. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  18. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  19. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  20. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  1. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  2. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  3. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  4. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  5. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  6. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  7. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  8. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  9. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  10. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    PubMed

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Park, Choongseok; Ben-Tal, Alona; Smith, Jeffrey C; Rubin, Jonathan E; Rybak, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2) exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient ventilation. The model

  11. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  12. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, intrahepatic cholestasis, and other cholestatic conditions. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of the disease pathophysiology, our understanding of the effects of UDCA remains unclear. Possibly underlying its cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative effects, UDCA was reported to regulate the expression of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines. However, it is not known if this effect involves also modulation of ADAM family of metalloproteinases, which are responsible for release of ectodomains of inflammatory cytokines from the cell surface. We hypothesized that UDCA modulates ADAM17 activity, resulting in amelioration of cholestasis in a murine model of bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The effect of UDCA on ADAM17 activity was studied using the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Untransfected cells or cells ectopically expressing human ADAM17 were cultured with or without UDCA and further activated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The expression and release of ADAM17 substrates, TNFα, TGFα, and c-Met receptor (or its soluble form, sMet) were evaluated using ELISA and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Immunoblotting analyses were conducted to evaluate expression and activation of ADAM17 as well as the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after UDCA treatment. The regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) by UDCA was studied using zymography and qRT-PCR. A mouse model of acute cholestasis was induced by common BDL technique, during which mice received daily orogastric gavage with either UDCA or vehicle only. Liver injury was quantified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP), relative liver weight, and confirmed by histological analysis. ADAM17 substrates in sera were assessed using a bead multiplex assay. Results UDCA decreases amount of shed TNFα, TGFα, and sMet in cell culture media and the phosphorylation of

  13. A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cangiani, A; Natalini, R

    2010-12-21

    We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.

  14. Impaired dual tasking in Parkinson's disease is associated with reduced focusing of cortico-striatal activity.

    PubMed

    Nieuwhof, Freek; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Reelick, Miriam F; Aarts, Esther; Maidan, Inbal; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Toni, Ivan; Helmich, Rick C

    2017-03-17

    Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits. Second, the known dorso-posterior to ventro-anterior gradient of dopamine depletion in patients with Parkinson's disease may cause a funnelling of motor and cognitive processes into the relatively spared ventro-anterior putamen, causing a neural bottleneck. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain activity in 19 patients with Parkinson's disease and 26 control subjects during performance of a motor task (auditory-cued ankle movements), a cognitive task (implementing a switch-stay rule), and both tasks simultaneously (dual task). The distribution of task-related activity respected the known segregation between motor and cognitive territories of the putamen in both groups, with motor-related responses in the dorso-posterior putamen and task switch-related responses in the ventro-anterior putamen. During dual task performance, patients made more motor and cognitive errors than control subjects. They recruited a striatal territory (ventro-posterior putamen) not engaged during either the cognitive or the motor task, nor used by controls. Relatively higher ventro-posterior putamen activity in controls was associated with worse dual task performance. These observations suggest that dual task impairments in Parkinson's disease are related to reduced spatial focusing of striatal activity. This pattern of striatal activity may be explained by a loss of functional segregation

  15. pH-degradable imidazoquinoline-ligated nanogels for lymph node-focused immune activation

    PubMed Central

    Nuhn, Lutz; Vanparijs, Nane; De Beuckelaer, Ans; Lybaert, Lien; Verstraete, Glenn; Deswarte, Kim; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Shukla, Nikunj M.; Salyer, Alex C. D.; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Grooten, Johan; David, Sunil A.; De Koker, Stefaan; De Geest, Bruno G.

    2016-01-01

    Agonists of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are potent activators of the innate immune system and hold promise as vaccine adjuvant and for anticancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, in soluble form they readily enter systemic circulation and cause systemic inflammatory toxicity. Here we demonstrate that by covalent ligation of a small-molecule imidazoquinoline-based TLR7/8 agonist to 50-nm-sized degradable polymeric nanogels the potency of the agonist to activate TLR7/8 in in vitro cultured dendritic cells is largely retained. Importantly, imidazoquinoline-ligated nanogels focused the in vivo immune activation on the draining lymph nodes while dramatically reducing systemic inflammation. Mechanistic studies revealed a prevalent passive diffusion of the nanogels to the draining lymph node. Moreover, immunization studies in mice have shown that relative to soluble TLR7/8 agonist, imidazoquinoline-ligated nanogels induce superior antibody and T-cell responses against a tuberculosis antigen. This approach opens possibilities to enhance the therapeutic benefit of small-molecule TLR agonist for a variety of applications. PMID:27382168

  16. Whole blood assay for trypsin activity using polyanionic focusing gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Roy B; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W; Heller, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    The measurement of trypsin activity directly in blood is important for the development of novel diagnostics and for biomedical research. Presently, most degradative enzyme assays require sample preparation, making them time consuming, costly, and less accurate. We recently demonstrated a simple and rapid electrophoretic assay for the measurement of trypsin activity directly in whole blood. This assay utilizes a charge-changing fluorescent peptide substrate that produces a positively charged fluorescent product fragment upon cleavage by the target enzyme. This fragment is then rapidly separated from whole blood by electrophoresis and quantified with a fluorescent detector. In this study, we demonstrate that polyanionic poly-L-glutamic acid-doped polyacrylamide gels can focus the fluorescent cleavage product and markedly improve the LODs of the assay. A LOD of 2 pg in 6 microL (0.3 ng/mL) in whole human blood was achieved after a 1-h reaction of enzyme and substrate followed by 10 min of electrophoresis. This is 50- to 200-fold better than the estimated reference levels for trypsin (15-60 ng/mL) in blood. This straightforward technique now allows for the rapid measurement of clinically relevant levels of trypsin activity in microliter volumes of whole blood, providing a useful tool for the development of novel point-of-care diagnostics.

  17. Removal of daytime thermal deformations in the GBT active surface via out-of-focus holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. R.; Mello, M.; Nikolic, B.; Mason, B.; Schwab, F.; Ghigo, F.; Dicker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The 100-m diameter Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built with an active surface of 2209 actuators in order to achieve and maintain an accurate paraboloidal shape. While much of the large-scale gravitational deformation of the surface can be described by a finite element model, a significant uncompensated gravitational deformation exists. In recent years, the elevation-dependence of this residual deformation has been successfully measured during benign nighttime conditions using the out-of-focus (OOF) holography technique (Nikolic et al, 2007, A&A 465, 685). Parametrized by a set of Zernike polynomials, the OOF model correction was implemented into the active surface and has been applied during all high-frequency observations since Fall 2006, yielding a consistent gain curve that is flat with elevation. However, large-scale thermal deformation of the surface has remained a problem for daytime high-frequency observations. OOF holography maps taken throughout a clear winter day indicate that surface deformations become significant whenever the Sun is above 10 degrees elevation, but that they change slowly while tracking a single source. In this paper, we describe a further improvement to the GBT active surface that allows an observer to measure and compensate for the thermal surface deformation using the OOF technique. In order to support high-frequency observers, "AutoOOF" is a new GBT Astrid procedure that acquires a quick set of in-focus and out-of-focus on-the-fly continuum maps on a quasar using the currently active receiver. Upon completion of the maps, the data analysis software is launched automatically which produces and displays the surface map along with a set of Zernike coefficients. These coefficients are then sent to the active surface manager which combines them with the existing gravitational Zernike terms and FEM in order to compute the total active surface correction. The end-to-end functionality has been tested on the sky at Q-Band and Ka-band during

  18. Removal of daytime thermal deformations in the GBT active surface via out-of-focus holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. R.; Mello, M.; Nikolic, B.; Mason, B. S.; Schwab, F. R.; Ghigo, F. D.; Dicker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    The 100-m diameter Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built with an active surface of 2209 actuators in order to achieve and maintain an accurate paraboloidal shape. While much of the large-scale gravitational deformation of the surface can be described by a finite element model, a significant uncompensated gravitational deformation exists. In recent years, the elevation-dependence of this residual deformation has been successfully measured during benign nighttime conditions using the out-of-focus (OOF) holography technique (Nikolic et al, 2007, A&A 465, 685). Parametrized by a set of Zernike polynomials, the OOF model correction was implemented into the active surface and has been applied during all high frequency observations since Fall 2006, yielding a consistent gain curve that is constant with elevation. However, large-scale thermal deformation of the surface has remained a problem for daytime high-frequency observations. OOF holography maps taken throughout a clear winter day indicate that surface deformations become significant whenever the Sun is above 10 degrees elevation, but that they change slowly while tracking a single source. In this paper, we describe a further improvement to the GBT active surface that allows an observer to measure and compensate for the thermal surface deformation using the OOF technique. In order to support high-frequency observers, "AutoOOF" is a new GBT Astrid procedure that acquires a quick set of in-focus and out-of-focus on-the-fly continuum maps on a quasar using the currently active receiver. Upon completion of the maps, the data analysis software is launched automatically which produces and displays the surface map along with a set of Zernike coefficients. These coefficients are then sent to the active surface manager which combines them with the existing gravitational Zernike terms and FEM in order to compute the total active surface correction. The end-to-end functionality has been tested on the sky at Q-Band and Ka

  19. Land Use and Climate Impacts on Fluvial Systems (LUCIFS): A PAGES - Focus 4 (PHAROS) research activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearing, John; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    LUCIFS is a global research program which is concerned with understanding past interactions between climate, human activity and fluvial systems. Its focus is on evaluating the geomorphic impact of humans on landscapes, with a strong emphasis on geomorphological and sedimentological perspectives on mid- to long-term man-landscape interactions. Of particular relevance are aspects of sediment redistribution systems such as non-linear behaviour, the role of system configuration, scale effects, and emergent properties Over the last decade the LUCIFS program has been investigating both contemporary and long-term river response to global change with the principal aims of i)quantifying land use and climate change impacts of river-borne fluxes of water, sediment, C, N and P; ii) identification of key controls on these fluxes at the catchment scale; and iii) identification of the feedback on both human society and biogeochemical cycles of long-term changes in the fluxes of these materials The major scientific tasks of the LUCIFS-program are: • synthesising results of regional case studies • identify regional gaps and encouraging new case studies • addressing research gaps and formulating new research questions • organising workshops and conferences In this paper we present the LUCIFS program within the new PAGES structure. LUCIFS is located in the Focus 4 (PHAROS) dealing with how a knowledge of human-climate-ecosystem interactions in the past can help inform understanding and management today. In conjunction with the other working groups HITE (Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems), LIMPACS (Human Impacts on Lake Ecosystems) and IHOPE (Integrated History of People on Earth) PHAROS aims to compare regional-scale reconstructions of environmental and climatic processes using natural archives, documentary and instrumental data, with evidence of past human activity obtained from historical, paleoecological and archaeological records.

  20. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  1. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  2. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  3. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  4. [Development of asymmetric synthesis of optically active compounds including fluoroorganic molecules].

    PubMed

    Iseki, K

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis of chiral fluorinated molecules is important in the biological and medicinal chemistry fields in view of the influence of fluorine's unique properties on biological activity. In recent years, we have studied asymmetric synthesis focussing on such optically active compounds. This review describes 1) diastereoselective trifluoromethylation of chiral N-acyloxazolidinones, 2) catalytic enantioselective aldol reactions of fluorine-substituted ketene silyl acetals, and 3) catalytic enantioselective allylation of aldehydes mediated by chiral Lewis bases. The trifluoromethylation of lithium enolates of N-acyloxazolidinones with iodotrifluoromethane is mediated by triethylborane to give the corresponding trifluoromethylated products with up to 86% diastereomeric excess. The stereoselective reaction is considered to proceed through the attack of the trifluoromethyl radical on the less hindered face of the lithium imide. Difluoroketene and bromofluoroketene trimethylsilyl ethyl acetals react with various aldehydes in the presence of chiral Lewis acids to afford the corresponding desired aldols with up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee). It is noteworthy that the aldol reactions of the fluorine-substituted acetals at -78 degrees C and at higher temperatures (-45 or -20 degrees C) provide the (+)- and (-)-aldols, respectively, with excellent-to-good enantioselectivity. Chiral phosphoramides newly prepared from (S)-proline were found to catalyze the allylation and crotylation of aromatic aldehydes with allylic trichlorosilanes in good enantioselective yields (up to 90% ee). (S,S)-Bis(alpha-methylbenzyl)formamide developed as an efficient catalyst for the allylation and crotylation of aliphatic aldehydes mediates the enantioselective addition with the assistance of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% ee.

  5. Distinct neural activity associated with focused-attention meditation and loving-kindness meditation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tatia M C; Leung, Mei-Kei; Hou, Wai-Kai; Tang, Joey C Y; Yin, Jing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lee, Chack-Fan; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM) and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM) on BOLD signals during cognitive (continuous performance test, CPT) and affective (emotion-processing task, EPT, in which participants viewed affective pictures) processing. Twenty-two male Chinese expert meditators (11 FAM experts, 11 LKM experts) and 22 male Chinese novice meditators (11 FAM novices, 11 LKM novices) had their brain activity monitored by a 3T MRI scanner while performing the cognitive and affective tasks in both meditation and baseline states. We examined the interaction between state (meditation vs. baseline) and expertise (expert vs. novice) separately during LKM and FAM, using a conjunction approach to reveal common regions sensitive to the expert meditative state. Additionally, exclusive masking techniques revealed distinct interactions between state and group during LKM and FAM. Specifically, we demonstrated that the practice of FAM was associated with expertise-related behavioral improvements and neural activation differences in attention task performance. However, the effect of state LKM meditation did not carry over to attention task performance. On the other hand, both FAM and LKM practice appeared to affect the neural responses to affective pictures. For viewing sad faces, the regions activated for FAM practitioners were consistent with attention-related processing; whereas responses of LKM experts to sad pictures were more in line with differentiating emotional contagion from compassion/emotional regulation processes. Our findings provide the first report of distinct neural activity associated with forms of meditation during sustained attention and emotion processing.

  6. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  7. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  8. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  9. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  10. Manipulation of acoustic focusing with an active and configurable planar metasurface transducer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiajun; Ye, Huapeng; Huang, Kun; Chen, Zhi Ning; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    It has a pivotal role in medical science and in industry to concentrate the acoustic energy created with piezoelectric transducers (PTs) into a specific area. However, previous researches seldom consider the focal resolution, whose focal size is much larger than one wavelength. Furthermore, there is to date no such design method of PTs that allows a large degree of freedom to achieve designed focal patterns. Here, an active and configurable planar metasurface PT prototype is proposed to manipulate the acoustic focal pattern and the focal resolution freely. By suitably optimized ring configurations of the active metasurface PT, we demonstrate the manipulation of focal patterns in acoustic far fields, such as the designed focal needle and multi foci. Our method is also able to manipulate and improve the cross-sectional focal resolution from subwavelength to the extreme case: the deep sub-diffraction-limit resolution. Via the acoustic Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral (RSI) cum the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), the free manipulation of focusing properties is achieved in acoustics for the first time. Our approach may offer more initiatives where the strict control of acoustic high-energy areas is demanding. PMID:25174409

  11. Parents' and children's perceptions of active video games: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Meagher-Lundberg, Patricia; Widdowson, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    Energy expenditure studies have shown that playing Active Video Games (AVGs) is positively associated with increases in heart rate and oxygen consumption. It is proposed that playing AVGs may be a useful means of addressing inactivity and obesity in children. This study explored children's and parents' perceptions of AVGs and the likely facilitators and barriers to sustained use of AVGs. Data were gathered using focus group interviews: seven with children, four with adults. Both children and parents reported that AVGs offered a way to increase activity and improve fitness. Barriers to sustained engagement, according to parents, were the cost of AVGs and lack of space in the home to play the games. According to children, the likelihood of long-term engagement with AVGs depended on game content and child age, with AVGs being seen as more appropriate for younger children than teenagers. It would appear that there is potential for AVGs to reduce inactivity in young people. However, barriers to widespread, sustainable adoption would need to be addressed if this potential is to be realized.

  12. Manipulation of acoustic focusing with an active and configurable planar metasurface transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiajun; Ye, Huapeng; Huang, Kun; Chen, Zhi Ning; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-09-01

    It has a pivotal role in medical science and in industry to concentrate the acoustic energy created with piezoelectric transducers (PTs) into a specific area. However, previous researches seldom consider the focal resolution, whose focal size is much larger than one wavelength. Furthermore, there is to date no such design method of PTs that allows a large degree of freedom to achieve designed focal patterns. Here, an active and configurable planar metasurface PT prototype is proposed to manipulate the acoustic focal pattern and the focal resolution freely. By suitably optimized ring configurations of the active metasurface PT, we demonstrate the manipulation of focal patterns in acoustic far fields, such as the designed focal needle and multi foci. Our method is also able to manipulate and improve the cross-sectional focal resolution from subwavelength to the extreme case: the deep sub-diffraction-limit resolution. Via the acoustic Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral (RSI) cum the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), the free manipulation of focusing properties is achieved in acoustics for the first time. Our approach may offer more initiatives where the strict control of acoustic high-energy areas is demanding.

  13. Does goal setting in activity-focused interventions for children with cerebral palsy influence treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Brogren Carlberg, Eva; Löwing, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Today, treatment for children with cerebral palsy predominantly aims at improving the children's possibilities to perform everyday activities in their natural environment. The activities in focus for intervention are often expressed as specific goals, frequently defined in a collaborative goal-setting process between professionals and parents. The role of goal setting to improve the outcome of the intervention has not been shown in the literature so far. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore if goal setting has an impact on treatment outcome assessed by standardized measures. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched from January 2000 to October 2012, resulting in a final selection of 13 articles, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was assessed and study characteristics were analysed descriptively. Subject characteristics, type of intervention/s, frequency, and intensity of therapy varied largely. Outcome was assessed by standardized outcome measures as well as evaluated through aspects of goal attainment. Most studies showed robust within-group changes according to study-appropriate standardized measures, whereas the between-group comparisons exhibited less consistent differences in outcome. The review does not provide support for a positive effect of goal setting per se on treatment outcome. Studies that specifically measure the effect of goal setting on treatment outcome are needed.

  14. Focused campaign increases activity among participants in Nature's Notebook, a citizen science project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants’ activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a national-scale citizen science program. The campaign that we implemented was designed to answer a compelling scientific question. We invited participants in the phenology-observing program, Nature’s Notebook, to track trees throughout the spring of 2012, to ascertain whether the season arrived as early as the anomalous spring of 2010. Consisting of a series of six electronic newsletters and costing our office slightly more than 1 week of staff resources, our effort was successful; compared with previous years, the number of observations collected in the region where the campaign was run increased by 184%, the number of participants submitting observations increased by 116%, and the number of trees registered increased by 110%. In comparison, these respective metrics grew by 25, 55, and 44%, over previous years, in the southeastern quadrant of the United States, where no such campaign was carried out. The campaign approach we describe here is a model that could be adapted by a wide variety of programs to increase engagement and thereby positively influence participant retention.

  15. A new focus on operation and maintenance activities and the role of EPA

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, J.A.; Hopkins, N.; Taylor, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Superfund program, which was established pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response. Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, governs the cleanup of domestic hazardous waste sites. After Superfund sites undergo the cleanup process, additional site activities may be necessary to ensure that the remedy continues to operate effectively and the cleanup continues to protect human health and the environment. Examples of these operation and maintenance (O and M) activities include the maintenance of contaminated soil covers to prevent erosion, the continuing operation of treatment systems for contaminated groundwater or surface water, and the ongoing monitoring of land or water use restrictions. According to a May 1995 General Accounting Office (GAO) report, Information on Operations and Maintenance Activities and Costs, roughly 62 percent of the 229 National Priorities List (NPL) sites reviewed where the remedy had been constructed required some long-term actions resulting from the remedy choice. EPA monitors the O and M activities of states and PRPs to ensure that they are being performed. Monitoring O and M activities, which is vital to preserving the integrity of cleanup remedies, includes the requirement that EPA review certain sites every five years. This paper will highlight EPA`s policies for managing O and M issues throughout the Superfund pipeline, transferring O and M to the state, performing O and M review, and termination of O and M. This paper also generally covers O and M issues of concern to PRPs.

  16. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  17. Differentiating incretin therapies based on structure, activity, and metabolism: focus on liraglutide.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    The incretin effect, mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), plays an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion in response to oral glucose. The discovery of deficiencies in incretin pathways associated with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus has propelled the growth of incretin-based therapies in patients with this disease. The basic rationale for incretin-based therapies, including both GLP-1-receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors is reviewed, focusing on their roles in glucose regulation and potential therapeutic benefits. Increased awareness of the differences among incretin mimetics, GLP-1 analogs, and DPP-4 inhibitors, including their structures, half-lives, dosages, hemoglobin A(1c)-lowering capacities, effects on weight, and adverse events will help shape the future of these therapeutic agents. Improved understanding of the mechanism of action and clinical effects of incretin-based therapies will help advance their appropriate use within clinical practice.

  18. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities; modifications. 440.11 Section 440.11 Aeronautics and... Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted...

  19. 77 FR 28894 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection for Office of... sure to add ``1615-NEW, Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups'' in the subject box...: Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  20. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  1. Antioxidant and antiplatelet activity by polyphenol-rich nutrients: focus on extra virgin olive oil and cocoa.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Nocella, Cristina; Violi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the Western world. In the last decades nutraceutical approaches have been proposed to counteract atherosclerotic complications. In particular, polyphenols, a class of bio-active molecules prevalently contained in foods such as cocoa, fruits, vegetables, wine and tea, have been widely studied for their beneficial properties. Several epidemiological and interventional studies have shown that polyphenol-rich nutrients, as in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and cocoa, are associated with a risk reduction of cardiovascular events and/or modulation of cardiovascular risk factors. Definition of the mechanisms accounting for this putative cardio-protective effect is still elusive. This review focuses on the mechanisms that may be implicated in the beneficial effects of EVOO and cocoa, including down-regulation of oxidative stress and platelet aggregation, improvement of endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factor such as blood pressure, serum cholesterol and insulin sensitivity.

  2. Hybrid active focusing with adaptive dispersion for higher defect sensitivity in guided wave inspection of cylindrical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, P. S.; Sanderson, R.; Boulgouris, N. V.; Gan, T. H.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave inspection is widely used for scanning prismatic structures such as pipes for metal loss. Recent research has investigated focusing the sound energy into predetermined regions of a pipe in order to enhance the defect sensitivity. This paper presents an active focusing technique which is based on a combination of numerical simulation and time reversal concept. The proposed technique is empirically validated using a 3D laser vibrometry measurement of the focal spot. The defect sensitivity of the proposed technique is compared with conventional active focusing, time reversal focusing and synthetic focusing through an empirically validated finite element parametric study. Based on the results, the proposed technique achieves approximately 10 dB improvement of signal-to-coherent-noise ratio compared to the conventional active focusing and time reversal focusing. It is also demonstrated that the proposed technique to have an amplitude gain of around 5 dB over synthetic focusing for defects <0.5λs. The proposed technique is shown to have the potential to improve the reliably detectable flaw size in guided wave inspection from 9% to less than 1% cross-sectional area loss.

  3. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  4. 78 FR 48722 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Focus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... household American Life Panel (ALP) via the Internet and to conduct four focus groups of non-panel members...,900 ALP respondents. For additional substantive information about this ICR, see the related...

  5. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities.

    PubMed

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-03-29

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  6. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases. PMID:27043533

  7. Highly Sensitive and Multiple Enzyme Activity Assay Using Reagent-release Capillary-Isoelectric Focusing with Rhodamine 110-based Substrates.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Kenji; Nogawa, Yuto; Sugawara, Kasumi; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple and highly sensitive enzyme activity assay based on reagent-release capillary-isoelectric focusing is described. Reagent-release capillaries containing a fluorescent substrate, which produces fluorescent products possessing an isoelectric point after reaction with enzymes, provides a simple procedure. This is because it allows to spontaneously inject a sample solution into the capillary by capillary action, mixing reagents, and subsequently concentrating the fluorescent products based on isoelectric focusing. Fluorescent rhodamine 110 and its monoamide derivative, which were generated as a final product and an intermediate, respectively, were then focused and separated by reagent-release capillary-isoelectric focusing. After 30 min of enzyme reactions, two focused fluorescent bands were clearly isolated along the prepared capillaries. Employing the focused band of rhodamine 110 monoamide allowed for highly sensitive detection of enzyme activity in the 10 pg mL(-1) order, while that of the conventional assay using a microplate was in the ng mL(-1) order. Furthermore, arraying reagent-release capillaries of different substrates on a chip allowed for simultaneous multi-assay of enzyme activity with good sensitivity in the pg mL(-1) order for each protein.

  8. Nonprofit Organizations and Outcome Measurement: From Tracking Program Activities to Focusing on Frontline Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lehn M.

    2012-01-01

    Why do we continue to see evidence that nonprofit staff feel like outcome measurement is missing important aspects of their work? Based on an analysis of over 1,000 pages of material in 10 outcome measurement guides and a focused literature review of frontline work in three types of nonprofit organizations, this article shows that existing outcome…

  9. 78 FR 38993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... defined need for direct and informal opinion on a specific topic and as a qualitative research tool have... generally conduct further research before making important decisions such as adopting new policies and... and Research, Office of the Commissioner, and any other Centers or Offices conducting focus...

  10. 2015 Focus Groups on Sexual Assualt and Response Among Active Duty Members (2015 FGSAPR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ofsexualassault response and prevention. 15. SUBJECT TERMS " ~~ Perceptions about Unwanted Gender-Related Behaviors , Options for Reporting Sexual Assault...unwanted gender-related behaviors ; the focus groups provide deeper insights into the dynamics behind the survey results and help better understand...gender-related behaviors at their base/installation, but they do not portray a statistical report on prevalence rates or quantitative evaluation of

  11. Lack of Active Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Northern Chiapas Focus of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Morales-Castro, Alba L.; Richards, Frank; Peña-Flores, Graciela P.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Prado-Velasco, Gibert

    2010-01-01

    The northern Chiapas onchocerciasis focus has undergone 11 years of ivermectin mass treatment. No evidence of microfilariae in the cornea and/or anterior chamber of the eye or in skin snips was seen in residents examined in 2006 in two sentinel communities (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval [UL 95% CI] = 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively). In children 10 and under, 0 of 305 were found to harbor antibodies to Ov16, a marker of parasite exposure; 0 of 4,400 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected in 2005 contained parasite DNA, giving an UL 95% CI for the infective rate of 0.9/2,000, and an UL 95% CI of the seasonal transmission potential of 1.2 L3/person. These data, assumed to be representative of the focus as a whole, suggest that there is no ongoing transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the northern Chiapas focus. Community-wide treatments with ivermectin were halted in 2008, and a post-treatment surveillance phase was initiated. PMID:20595471

  12. Nondestructive Waste Assay Using Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2123

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    This project was supported by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and the Federal Environmental Technology Center (FETC) to develop an improved nondestructive assay (NDA) capability that uses gamma-ray computed tomography and gamma-energy spectral analysis techniques to perform waste assay measurements. It was the intent of the Gamma-Ray Active & Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) development and demonstration project to enhance the overall utility of waste assay through the implementation of techniques that can accommodate known measurement complications, e.g., waste matrix and radioactive material distribution heterogeneities. This technology can measure the radionuclide content in all types of waste regardless of their classification as low level (LLW), transuranic (TRU) or mixed (MLLW or MTRU). The nondestructive waste assay capability needed to support Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste characterization needs is necessarily a function of the waste form configurations in inventory. These waste form configurations exhibit a number of variables impacting assay system response that must be accounted for to ensure valid measurement data. Such variables include: matrix density, matrix elemental composition, matrix density distribution, radioactive material radionuclidic/isotopic composition, radioactive material physical/chemical form, and physical distribution in the waste matrix. Existing nondestructive assay technologies have identified capability limits with respect to these variables. Certain combinations of these variables result in waste configurations within the capability of one or more of the existing systems. Other combinations that are prevalent in the inventory are outside of the capability of such systems.

  13. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  14. The Animal Exhibits at the Field Museum. Activities for Focused Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickland, Thomas, J.

    Museum visits allow students to see animals from South America, North America, Africa, Asia, and the North Pole without rain, snow, or mosquitoes. This activity guide was developed for teachers, chaperones, and students to use with the animal exhibits in the Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Wing of the Field Museum of Chicago. Activities are designed for…

  15. "My hair or my health:" Overcoming barriers to physical activity in African American women with a focus on hairstyle-related factors.

    PubMed

    Huebschmann, Amy G; Campbell, Lucille Johnson; Brown, Candace S; Dunn, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity disparities among African American (AA) women may be related to sociocultural barriers, including difficulties with restyling hair after exercise. We sought to identify physical activity barriers and facilitators in AA women with a focus on sociocultural factors related to hairstyle maintenance. Participants (n = 51) were AA women aged 19-73 years who completed valid surveys and participated in structured focus groups, stratified by age and physical activity levels, from November 2012 to February 2013. The Constant Comparison method was used to develop qualitative themes for barriers and facilitators. The most frequently reported general physical activity barrier among exercisers was "lack of money" (27%) and among non-exercisers was "lack of self-discipline" (57%). A hairstyle-related barrier of "sweating out my hairstyle" was reported by 7% of exercisers and 29% of non-exercisers. This hairstyle-related barrier included the need for extra time and money to restyle hair due to perspiration. Hairstyle-related facilitators included: prioritizing health over hairstyle and high self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration. Participants were interested in resources to simplify hairstyle maintenance. AA women whose hairstyle is affected by perspiration may avoid physical activity due to time and financial burdens. Increasing self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration may help to overcome this barrier.

  16. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and

  17. Ion focusing

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  18. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  19. Seasonal and hourly activity of Rhombomys opimus in the endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sahabi, Z; Goodarzian, P; Nadim, A

    1983-01-01

    For the study of the seasonal and hourly activity of the great gerbil, Rhombomys opimus in an endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (Isfahan), two colonies were selected in which the number of gerbils was counted by visual sighting. The study shows that the gerbils are quite active from August through December. After a decrease in January and February, once again they become active but not as much as early Autumn. In the hot months of the year the gerbils are active only early in the morning and late in the afternoon. In the cooler months, they are active in the middle of the day. In cold parts of the year the activity of gerbils decreases very considerably.

  20. A gene-centric analysis of activated partial thromboplastin time and activated protein C resistance using the HumanCVD focused genotyping array.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Tom R; Lowe, Gordon D O; Lawlor, Debbie A; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Day, Ian N M

    2013-07-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is an important routine measure of intrinsic blood coagulation. Addition of activated protein C (APC) to the aPTT test to produce a ratio, provides one measure of APC resistance. The associations of some genetic mutations (eg, factor V Leiden) with these measures are established, but associations of other genetic variations remain to be established. The objective of this work was to test for association between genetic variants and blood coagulation using a high-density genotyping array. Genetic association with aPTT and APC resistance was analysed using a focused genotyping array that tests approximately 50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nearly 2000 cardiovascular candidate genes, including coagulation pathway genes. Analyses were conducted on 2544 European origin women from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. We confirm associations with aPTT at the coagulation factor XII (F12)/G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) and kininogen 1 (KNG1)/histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) loci, and identify novel SNPs at the ABO locus and novel locus kallikrein B (KLKB1)/F11. In addition, we confirm association between APC resistance and factor V Leiden mutation, and identify novel SNP associations with APC resistance in the HRG and F5/solute carrier family 19 member 2 (SLC19A2) regions. In conclusion, variation at several genetic loci influences intrinsic blood coagulation as measured by both aPTT and APC resistance.

  1. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  2. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  3. What's the Diagnosis? An Inquiry-Based Activity Focusing on Mole-Mass Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2011-01-01

    An inquiry-based mole-to-mass activity is presented associated with the analysis of blood. Students working in groups choose between two medical cases to determine if the "patient" has higher or lower concentrations of minerals than normal. The data are presented such that students must convert moles to mass in order to compare the patient values…

  4. Focus on Crisis Prevention: A Manual for School Administrators and Student Activities Personnel. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Previdi, Caesar; Weiss, Mark

    Strategies, materials, techniques, and practices actually utilized to alleviate crisis conditions and to promote constructive school atmosphere in integrated schools in New York City are described in this report. The activities detailed here were developed as part of New York City's Easing Student Adjustment Program, but they are suitable for…

  5. Aquatic Activities for Middle School Children. A Focus on the Effects of Acid Precipitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Minnesota Sea Grant Program.

    Basic water-related concepts and underlying principles of acid rain are described in this curriculum in a manner that young children can understand. The curriculum consists of activities presented in four units: Background Unit, Earth Science Unit, Life Science Unit, and Extension Unit. The first three units consist of several modules, each module…

  6. Practical Activities that Focus on the Decision-Making Process. TEAL Occasional Papers, Vol. 2, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Nancy

    This paper demonstrates how a diagram of a Safeway supermarket can be the vehicle for a language lesson based on Lawrence's cognitive categories (classification, definition, spatial order, chronological order, generalizations and specifics, and cause and effect). A wide variety of decision-making activities based on this diagram are described.…

  7. Still Focusing on the "Essential 2:1": Exploring Student Attitudes to Extra-Curricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In order to compete for positional advantage in the graduate labour market students need more than a good degree classification. The evidence suggests that participation in extra-curricular activities (ECAs) can have a significant influence on labour market outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which…

  8. Use of Activation Technique and MCNP Calculations for Measurement of Fast Neutron Spatial Distribution at the MJ Plasma Focus Device.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienkowska, B.; Scholz, M.; Wincel, K.; Zaręba, B.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper Plasma-Focus (PF) neutron emission properties have been studied using Monte Carlo calculations for neutron and photon transport. A Thermal Neutron Scaling Factor as a function of angular position of silver activation detectors placed around MJ Plasma Focus (PF-1000) device has been calculated. Detector responses calculated for 2.5 MeV neutrons and neutrons produced by Am-Be calibration source have been obtained .The results have shown the detector response dependence on the kind of calibration neutron source and on local geometrical/structural characteristics of the PF-1000 devices. Thus the proper calibration procedure ought to be performed for correct measurement of neutron yield within Plasma-Focus devices.

  9. 75 FR 13548 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... consumer, patient, or healthcare professional perceptions and use of drug products and related materials... allow for a more in-depth understanding of individuals' attitudes, beliefs, motivations, and feelings... professional perceptions and use of drug products and related materials, including but not limited to,...

  10. Functional analysis of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) β-thymosin: Focus on antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Seo, Jung-Kil; Lee, Min Jeong; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Park, Nam Gyu

    2015-07-01

    An antimicrobial peptide, ∼5 kDa in size, was isolated and purified in its active form from the mantle of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by C18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight analysis revealed 4656.4 Da of the purified and unreduced peptide. A comparison of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of oyster antimicrobial peptide with deduced amino acid sequences in our local expressed sequence tag (EST) database of C. gigas (unpublished data) revealed that the oyster antimicrobial peptide sequence entirely matched the deduced amino acid sequence of an EST clone (HM-8_A04), which was highly homologous with the β-thymosin of other species. The cDNA possessed a 126-bp open reading frame that encoded a protein of 41 amino acids. To confirm the antimicrobial activity of C. gigas β-thymosin, we overexpressed a recombinant β-thymosin (rcgTβ) using a pET22 expression plasmid in an Escherichia coli system. The antimicrobial activity of rcgTβ was evaluated and demonstrated using a bacterial growth inhibition test in both liquid and solid cultures.

  11. [Active immunotherapy of prostate cancer with a focus on dendritic cells].

    PubMed

    Thomas-Kaskel, A K; Veelken, H

    2007-06-01

    Recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer is generally considered an incurable disease. Given the transient benefit from hormone deprivation therapy and limited successes of systemic chemotherapy, alternative treatment modalities are needed both in the situation of PSA recurrence and in hormone-refractory disease. Prostate cancer cells express several tumor associated antigens which are currently being evaluated as targets for active and specific immunotherapy approaches. Dendritic cells (DC) are the most powerful antigen-presenting cells (APC), able to prime naive T cells and to break peripheral tolerance and thus induce tumor immune responses. Close to 1000 prostate cancer patients have been treated with DC-based or other forms of active immunotherapy to date. Vaccination-induced immune responses have been reported in two thirds of DC trials, and favorable changes in the clinical course of the disease in almost half of the patients treated. Most responses, however, were modest and transient. Therefore, mechanisms of treatment failure and possibilities to improve vaccination efficacy are being discussed.

  12. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    PubMed

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  13. A double-blind, randomized trial, including frequent patient–physician contacts and Ramadan-focused advice, assessing vildagliptin and gliclazide in patients with type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan: the STEADFAST study

    PubMed Central

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Abdallah, Khalifa; Schweizer, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background Several observational studies were conducted with vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fasting during Ramadan, showing significantly lower incidences of hypoglycemia with vildagliptin versus sulfonylureas, including gliclazide. It was of interest to complement the existing real-life evidence with data from a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01758380. Methods This multiregional, double-blind study randomized 557 patients with T2DM (mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], 6.9%), previously treated with metformin and any sulfonylurea to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or gliclazide plus metformin. The study included four office visits (three pre-Ramadan) and multiple telephone contacts, as well as Ramadan-focused advice. Hypoglycemic events were assessed during Ramadan; HbA1c and weight were analyzed before and after Ramadan. Results The proportion of patients reporting confirmed (<3.9 mmol/L and/or severe) hypoglycemic events during Ramadan was 3.0% with vildagliptin and 7.0% with gliclazide (P=0.039; one-sided test), and this was 6.0% and 8.7%, respectively, for any hypoglycemic events (P=0.173). The adjusted mean change pre- to post-Ramadan in HbA1c was 0.05%±0.04% with vildagliptin and −0.03%±0.04% with gliclazide, from baselines of 6.84% and 6.79%, respectively (P=0.165). In both groups, the adjusted mean decrease in weight was −1.1±0.2 kg (P=0.987). Overall safety was similar between the treatments. Conclusion In line with the results from previous observational studies, vildagliptin was shown in this interventional study to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with T2DM fasting during Ramadan, with a consistently low incidence of hypoglycemia across studies, accompanied by good glycemic and weight control. In contrast, gliclazide showed a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in the present interventional than the previous observational studies. This

  14. Strong nonlinear focusing of light in nonlinearly controlled electromagnetic active metamaterial field concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Yu G.; Boardman, A. D.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. M.; Kalinich, N.

    2014-05-01

    The idea of nonlinear ‘transformation optics-inspired’ [1-6] electromagnetic cylindrical field concentrators has been taken up in a preliminary manner in a number of conference reports [7-9]. Such a concentrator includes both external linear region with a dielectric constant increased towards the centre and internal region with nonlinearity characterized by constant coefficients. Then, in the process of farther investigations we realized the following factors considered neither in [7-9] nor in the recent paper [10]: saturation of nonlinearity, nonlinear losses, linear gain, numerical convergence, when nonlinear effect becomes very strong and formation of ‘hotspots’ starts. It is clearly demonstrated here that such a strongly nonlinear process starts when the nonlinear amplitude of any incident beam(s) exceeds some ‘threshold’ value. Moreover, it is shown that the formation of hotspots may start as the result of any of the following processes: an increase of the input amplitude, increasing the linear amplification in the central nonlinear region, decreasing the nonlinear losses, a decrease in the saturation of the nonlinearity. Therefore, a tendency to a formation of ‘hotspots’ is a rather universal feature of the strongly nonlinear behaviour of the ‘nonlinear resonator’ system, while at the same time the system is not sensitive to the ‘prehistory’ of approaching nonlinear threshold intensity (amplitude). The new proposed method includes a full-wave nonlinear solution analysis (in the nonlinear region), a new form of complex geometric optics (in the linear inhomogeneous external cylinder), and new boundary conditions, matching both solutions. The observed nonlinear phenomena will have a positive impact upon socially and environmentally important devices of the future. Although a graded-index concentrator is used here, it is a direct outcome of transformation optics. Numerical evaluations show that for known materials these nonlinear effects

  15. The Composition and Biological Activity of Honey: A Focus on Manuka Honey

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y.; Mazzoni, Luca; Giampieri, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been used as a food and medical product since the earliest times. It has been used in many cultures for its medicinal properties, as a remedy for burns, cataracts, ulcers and wound healing, because it exerts a soothing effect when initially applied to open wounds. Depending on its origin, honey can be classified in different categories among which, monofloral honey seems to be the most promising and interesting as a natural remedy. Manuka honey, a monofloral honey derived from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium), has greatly attracted the attention of researchers for its biological properties, especially its antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. Our manuscript reviews the chemical composition and the variety of beneficial nutritional and health effects of manuka honey. Firstly, the chemical composition of manuka honey is described, with special attention given to its polyphenolic composition and other bioactive compounds, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Then, the effect of manuka honey in wound treatment is described, as well as its antioxidant activity and other important biological effects.

  16. Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.

  17. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  18. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  19. EGFR-activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Heike N; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H; Sequist, Lecia V; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-10-15

    In patients with lung cancer whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGF receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared with wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of cross-linker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2-M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR-mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer.

  20. Project-focused activity and knowledge tracker: a unified data analysis, collaboration, and workflow tool for medicinal chemistry project teams.

    PubMed

    Brodney, Marian D; Brosius, Arthur D; Gregory, Tracy; Heck, Steven D; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn L; Poss, Christopher S

    2009-12-01

    Advances in the field of drug discovery have brought an explosion in the quantity of data available to medicinal chemists and other project team members. New strategies and systems are needed to help these scientists to efficiently gather, organize, analyze, annotate, and share data about potential new drug molecules of interest to their project teams. Herein we describe a suite of integrated services and end-user applications that facilitate these activities throughout the medicinal chemistry design cycle. The Automated Data Presentation (ADP) and Virtual Compound Profiler (VCP) processes automate the gathering, organization, and storage of real and virtual molecules, respectively, and associated data. The Project-Focused Activity and Knowledge Tracker (PFAKT) provides a unified data analysis and collaboration environment, enhancing decision-making, improving team communication, and increasing efficiency.

  1. Exploring Marine Ecosystems with Elementary School Portuguese Children: Inquiry-Based Project Activities Focused on "Real-Life" Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…

  2. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  3. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  4. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  5. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  6. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  7. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... licensed launch or permitted activities is sufficiently small that financial responsibility is no...

  8. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  9. Focusing on Increasing Velocity during Heavy Resistance Knee Flexion Exercise Boosts Hamstring Muscle Activity in Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Muscle strength is markedly reduced in stroke patients, which has negative implications for functional capacity and work ability. Different types of feedback during strength training exercises may alter neuromuscular activity and functional gains. Objective. To compare levels of muscle activity during conditions of blindfolding and intended high contraction speed with a normal condition of high-intensity knee flexions. Methods. Eighteen patients performed unilateral machine knee flexions with a 10-repetition maximum load. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the quadrics and hamstring muscles and normalized to maximal EMG (nEMG) of the nonparetic limb. Results. For the paretic leg, the speed condition showed higher values of muscle activity compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for both biceps femoris and semitendinosus. Likewise, the speed condition showed higher co-contraction values compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for the vastus lateralis. No differences were observed between exercise conditions for the nonparetic leg. Conclusion. Chronic stroke patients are capable of performing heavy resistance training with intended high speed of contraction. Focusing on speed during the concentric phase elicited higher levels of muscle activity of the hamstrings compared to normal and blindfolded conditions, which may have implications for regaining fast muscle strength in stroke survivors. PMID:27525118

  10. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  11. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  12. The activation of tissue factor by high intensity focused ultrasound—a pathway to acoustic-biochemical hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinmai; Barber, Frank E.; Morrissey, James H.; Church, Charles C.

    2006-05-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is believed to have great potential for inducing hemostasis in severely bleeding trauma victims. The addition of HIFU-activated biomolecular substances to the blood during treatment could significantly reduce the time required to achieve hemostasis, but such substances must remain inactive everywhere except at the site of injury. The integral-membrane protein, tissue factor (TF), is by far the most potent known trigger for the blood clotting cascade. We propose to employ liposomes with the extracellular domain of TF facing the lumen ("encrypted TF") to allow the TF molecules to be introduced into the blood stream without causing systemic activation of coagulation. HIFU sonication at the site of injury will be used to break up the liposomes and thereby expose TF to the plasma, thus combining the hemostatic potential of HIFU along with an increase in the rate of clot formation triggered by TF. In our initial studies we have produced a range of concentrations of liposomes containing encrypted TF in a buffer solution and exposed them to ultrasound at a number of different intensity levels and duty cycles. Clotting assays were performed to determine the level of the desired effect of the ultrasound. The results suggest that HIFU can be effective in exposing active TF from the encrypted liposomes to accelerate blood clotting at the site of exposure.

  13. Differentiation and activation of γδ T Lymphocytes: Focus on CD27 and CD28 costimulatory receptors.

    PubMed

    Ribot, Julie C; Silva-Santos, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    γδ T lymphocytes are major providers of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) at early stages of (auto)immune responses. We and others have recently described the phenotype and differentiation requirements of two distinct murine γδ T cell subsets producing either IFN-γ or IL-17. Here we summarize our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control γδ T cell differentiation, which is programmed in the thymus, and peripheral activation upon infection. We focus on the costimulatory receptors CD27 and CD28, which play independent and non-redundant roles in the physiology of γδ T cells in mice and in humans.

  14. Duration of hexobarbital-induced sleep and monoamine oxidase activities in rat brain: Focus on the behavioral activity and on the free-radical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Tseilikman, Vadim E; Kozochkin, Denis A; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Downey, H Fred; Tseilikman, Olga B; Misharina, Maria E; Nikitina, Anna A; Komelkova, Maria V; Lapshin, Maxim S; Kondashevskaya, Marina V; Lazuko, Svetlana S; Kusina, Oxana V; Sahabutdinov, Marat V

    2016-04-01

    The present study is focused on the relationship between monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and hepatic content of cytochrome P450 (CYP), which reflects the status of microsomal oxidation. For vital integrative evaluation of hepatic microsomal oxidation in rats, the hexobarbital sleep test was used, and content of CYP was measured in hepatic microsomes. Rats with short hexobarbital sleep time (SHST) had higher content of microsomal CYP than rats with long hexobarbital sleep time (LHST). Whole brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities, serotonin and carbonylated protein levels were higher in SHST than in LHST rats. MAO-A and MAO-B activities were higher in brain cortex of SHST rats; MAO-A activity was higher only in hypothalamus and medulla of LHST. The same brain regions of LHST rats had higher concentrations of carbonylated proteins and lipid peroxidation products than in SHST rats. MAO activity was correlated with microsomal oxidation phenotype. Rats with higher hepatic content of CYP had higher activities of MAO-A and MAO-B in the brain and higher plasma serotonin levels than rats with lower microsomal oxidation. In conclusion, data obtained in this study showed a correlation between MAO activity and microsomal oxidation phenotype.

  15. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials with activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiruveedhula, V.V.N. Phani Babu; Witzigmann, Christopher M.; Verma, Ranjit; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Rott, Marc; Schwan, William R.; Medina-Bielski, Sara; Lane, Michelle; Close, William; Polanowski, Rebecca L.; Sherman, David; Monte, Aaron; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Cook, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase in bacterial resistance over the last decade along with a dramatic decrease in new treatments for infections has led to problems in the healthcare industry. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths per year. A world-wide threat with HIV co-infected with multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of TB has emerged. In this regard, herein, novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives were synthesized in simple, efficient routes and evaluated as potential agents against several Mycobacterium species. These were synthesized via a stereospecific process for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays indicated that esters 12, 13, and 20 exhibited greater in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis than rifampin, one of the current, first-line anti-mycobacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Based on these studies the acrylic ester 20 has been developed as a potential lead compound which was found to have an MIC value of 0.4 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The SAR and biological activity of this series is presented; a Michael – acceptor mechanism appears to be important for potent activity of this series of analogs. PMID:24200931

  16. Autonomic control network active in Aplysia during locomotion includes neurons that express splice variants of R15-neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; McKay, Natasha; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Koester, John

    2007-01-01

    Splice-variant products of the R15 neuropeptide gene are differentially expressed within the CNS of Aplysia. The goal of this study was to test whether the neurons in the abdominal ganglion that express the peptides encoded by this gene are part of a common circuit. Expression of R15 peptides had been demonstrated previously in neuron R15. Using a combination of immunocytochemical and analytical methods, this study demonstrated that R15 peptides are also expressed in heart exciter neuron RB(HE), the two L9(G) gill motoneurons, and L40--a newly identified interneuron. Mass spectrometric profiling of individual neurons that exhibit R15 peptide-like immunoreactivity confirmed the mutually exclusive expression of two splice-variant forms of R15 peptides in different neurons. The L9(G) cells were found to co-express pedal peptide in addition to the R15 peptides. The R15 peptide-expressing neurons examined here were shown to be part of an autonomic control circuit that is active during fictive locomotion. Activity in this circuit contributes to implementing a central command that may help to coordinate autonomic activity with escape locomotion. Chronic extracellular nerve recording was used to determine the activity patterns of a subset of neurons of this circuit in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using shared patterns of neuropeptide expression as a guide for neural circuit identification.

  17. Electrophoretic Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic focusing is a new method of continuous flow electrophoresis that introduces precision flow control to achieve high resolution separations. The electric field is applied perpendicular to an incoming sample lamina and buffer but also perpendicular to the broad faces of the thin rectangular chamber. A uniform fluid cross-flow then enters and exits the separation chamber through the same broad faces which are porous. A balance is achieved by adjusting either the electric field or the cross-flow so the desired sample fraction with its specific migration velocity encounters an opposing flow of the same velocity. Applying an electric field transverse to the incoming sample lamina and opposing this field with a carefully configured buffer flow, a sample constituent can be selected and focused into a narrow stream for subsequent analysis. Monotonically changing either electric field or buffer cross-flow will yield a scan of all constituents of the sample. Stopping the scan increases the collection time for minor constituents to improve their analysis. Using the high voltage gradients and/or cross-flow to rapidly deflect extraneous sample through the porous screens and into either of the side (purge) chambers, the selected sample is focused in the center plane of the separation chamber and collected without contact or interaction with the separation chamber walls. Results will be presented on the separation of a range of materials including dyes, proteins, and monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Sources of sample dispersion inherent in other electrokinetic techniques will be shown to be negligible for a variety of sample concentrations, buffer properties and operating conditions.

  18. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  19. An Intramolecular Silylene Borane Capable of Facile Activation of Small Molecules, Including Metal-Free Dehydrogenation of Water.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhenbo; Szilvási, Tibor; Zhou, Yu-Peng; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    The first single-component N-heterocyclic silylene borane 1 (LSi-R-BMes2 ; L=PhC(N(t) Bu)2 ; R=1,12-xanthendiyl spacer; Mes=2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 ), acting as a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) in small-molecule activation, can be synthesized in 65 % yields. Its HOMO is largely localized at the silicon(II) atom and the LUMO has mainly boron 2p character. In small-molecule activation 1 allows access to the intramolecular silanone-borane 3 featuring a Si=O→B interaction through reaction with O2 , N2 O, or CO2 , and formation of silanethione borane 4 from reaction with S8 . The Si(II) center in 1 undergoes immediate hydrogenation if exposed to H2 at 1 atm pressure in benzene, affording the silane borane 5-H2 , L(H2 )Si-R-BMes2 . Remarkably, no H2 activation occurs if the single silylene LSiPh and Mes3 B intermolecularly separated are exposed to dihydrogen. Unexpectedly, the pre-organized Si-B separation in 1 enables a metal-free dehydrogenation of H2 O to give the silanone-borane 3 as reactive intermediate.

  20. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  1. Predicted residual activity of rilpivirine in HIV-1 infected patients failing therapy including NNRTIs efavirenz or nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Theys, K; Camacho, R J; Gomes, P; Vandamme, A M; Rhee, S Y

    2015-06-01

    Rilpivirine is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) currently indicated for first-line therapy, but its clinical benefit for HIV-1 infected patients failing first-generation NNRTIs is largely undefined. This study quantified the extent of genotypic rilpivirine resistance in viral isolates from 1212 patients upon failure of efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing antiretroviral treatment, of whom more than respectively 80% and 90% showed high-level genotypic resistance to the failing NNRTI. Of all study patients, 47% showed a rilpivirine resistance-associated mutation (RPV-RAM), whereas preserved residual rilpivirine activity was predicted in half of the patients by three genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms. An NNRTI-dependent impact on rilpivirine resistance was detected. Compared with the use of nevirapine, the use of efavirenz was associated with a 32% lower risk of having a RPV-RAM and a 50% lower risk of predicted reduced rilpivirine susceptibility. Most prevalent RPV-RAMs after nevirapine experience were Y181C and H221Y, whereas L100I+K103N, Y188L and K101E occurred most in efavirenz-experienced patients. Predicted rilpivirine activity was not affected by HIV-1 subtype, although frequency of individual mutations differed across subtypes. In conclusion, this genotypic resistance analysis strongly suggests that the latest NNRTI, rilpivirine, may retain activity in a large proportion of HIV-1 patients in whom resistance failed while they were on an efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing regimen, and may present an attractive option for second-line treatment given its good safety profile and dosing convenience. However, prospective clinical studies assessing the effectiveness of rilpivirine for NNRTI-experienced patients are warranted to validate knowledge derived from genotypic and phenotypic drug resistance studies.

  2. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  3. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  4. In Vivo Anti-Candida Activity of Phenolic Extracts and Compounds: Future Perspectives Focusing on Effective Clinical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Candida species have increasingly deserved a special attention among the medical community. In spite of the presence of Candida species as a human commensal, alarming rates of local and systemic infections have been observed, varying from moderate to severe impact. Currently available antifungal drugs have progressively lost their effectiveness, pointing urgently the problem of the microorganisms with acquired-resistance. Natural matrices are secularly used for numerous purposes, being inclusive and highly effective as antimicrobials. Increasing evidence gives a particular emphasis to the contribution of phenolic extracts and related individual compounds. In vitro studies clearly confirm their prominent effects, but the confirmation through in vivo studies, including the involved mechanisms of action, is not so much deepened. Therefore, the present report aims to provide extensive knowledge about all these aspects, highlighting the most efficient phytochemical formulations, including therapeutic doses. Further studies need to be incited to deepen knowledge on this area, namely, focused on clinical trials to provide safer and more effective antimicrobials than the current ones. PMID:26380266

  5. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  6. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  7. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  8. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  9. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  10. Individual, social, and environmental barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among Latinas living in San Diego County: focus group results.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Arredondo, Elva M; Perez, Gabriela; Baquero, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to and facilitators of physical activity (PA) relevant to a faith-based community living in a border region. Two focus groups were conducted with 25 Latina churchgoers. Latinas identified barriers to PA that included individual (eg, lack of motivation and time, language, economics, social support, family/household responsibilities), sociocultural (eg, fear of border patrol, machismo, and neighborhood safety), and environmental barriers (eg, traffic-related and dogs). Facilitators of PA were PA knowledge, child care, time management, and advocacy skills. The authors concluded that a church-based multilevel intervention targeting Latinas may be ideal for promoting PA and facilitating environmental changes.

  11. High content screening of a kinase-focused library reveals compounds broadly-active against dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Deu John M; Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Taniguchi, Juliana Bosso; Li, Xiaolan; Milan Bonotto, Rafaela; No, Joo Hwan; Kim, Keum Hyun; Baek, Sungmin; Kim, Hee Young; Windisch, Marc Peter; Pamplona Mosimann, Ana Luiza; de Borba, Luana; Liuzzi, Michel; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Freitas-Junior, Lucio Holanda

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has a large impact in global health. It is considered as one of the medically important arboviruses, and developing a preventive or therapeutic solution remains a top priority in the medical and scientific community. Drug discovery programs for potential dengue antivirals have increased dramatically over the last decade, largely in part to the introduction of high-throughput assays. In this study, we have developed an image-based dengue high-throughput/high-content assay (HT/HCA) using an innovative computer vision approach to screen a kinase-focused library for anti-dengue compounds. Using this dengue HT/HCA, we identified a group of compounds with a 4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-methylthiazol-2-amine as a common core structure that inhibits dengue viral infection in a human liver-derived cell line (Huh-7.5 cells). Compounds CND1201, CND1203 and CND1243 exhibited strong antiviral activities against all four dengue serotypes. Plaque reduction and time-of-addition assays suggests that these compounds interfere with the late stage of viral infection cycle. These findings demonstrate that our image-based dengue HT/HCA is a reliable tool that can be used to screen various chemical libraries for potential dengue antiviral candidates.

  12. Wavelet-transform-based active imaging of cavitation bubbles in tissues induced by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runna; Xu, Shanshan; Hu, Hong; Huo, Rui; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    Cavitation detection and imaging are essential for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapies. In this paper, an active cavitation imaging method based on wavelet transform is proposed to enhance the contrast between the cavitation bubbles and surrounding tissues. The Yang-Church model, which is a combination of the Keller-Miksis equation with the Kelvin-Voigt equation for the pulsations of gas bubbles in simple linear viscoelastic solids, is utilized to construct the bubble wavelet. Experiments with porcine muscles demonstrate that image quality is associated with the initial radius of the bubble wavelet and the scale. Moreover, the Yang-Church model achieves a somewhat better performance compared with the Rayleigh-Plesset-Noltingk-Neppiras-Poritsky model. Furthermore, the pulse inversion (PI) technique is combined with bubble wavelet transform to achieve further improvement. The cavitation-to-tissue ratio (CTR) of the best tissue bubble wavelet transform (TBWT) mode image is improved by 5.1 dB compared with that of the B-mode image, while the CTR of the best PI-based TBWT mode image is improved by 7.9 dB compared with that of the PI-based B-mode image. This work will be useful for better monitoring of cavitation in HIFU-induced therapies.

  13. Effect of the Heat-exposure on Peripheral Sudomotor Activity Including the Density of Active Sweat Glands and Single Sweat Gland Output.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2010-10-01

    Tropical inhabitants are able to tolerate heat through permanent residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. The goal of this study was to clarify the peripheral mechanisms involved in thermal sweating pre and post exposure (heat-acclimatization over 10 days) by studying the sweating responses to acetylcholine (ACh), a primary neurotransmitter of sudomotor activity, in healthy subjects (n=12). Ten percent ACh was administered on the inner forearm skin for iontophoresis. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing, after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with ACH, was performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, as well as oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The post exposure activity had a short onset time (p<0.01), higher active sweat rate [(AXR (p<0.001) and DIR (p<0.001)], higher sweat output per gland (p<0.001) and higher transepidermal water loss (p<0.001) compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The activated sweat rate in the sudomotor activity increased the output for post-exposure compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The results suggested that post-exposure activity showed a higher active sweat gland output due to the combination of a higher AXR (DIR) sweat rate and a shorter onset time. Therefore, higher sudomotor responses to ACh receptors indicate accelerated sympathetic nerve responsiveness to ACh sensitivity by exposure to environmental conditions.

  14. Antibacterial Honey (Medihoney™): in-vitro Activity Against Clinical Isolates of MRSA, VRE, and Other Multiresistant Gram-negative Organisms Including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    George, Narelle May; Cutting, Keith F

    2007-09-01

    The clinical use of honey has received increasing interest in recent years, particularly its use as a topical antibacterial dressing. Results thus far are extremely encouraging, and demonstrate that honey is effective against a broad range of microorganisms, including multiresistant strains. This in-vitro study complements the work of others and focuses on the impact that a standardized honey can have on multiresistant bacteria that are regularly found in wounds and are responsible for increased morbidity.

  15. Regulation of Chemokine Activity – A Focus on the Role of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV/CD26

    PubMed Central

    Metzemaekers, Mieke; Van Damme, Jo; Mortier, Anneleen; Proost, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines are small, chemotactic proteins that play a crucial role in leukocyte migration and are, therefore, essential for proper functioning of the immune system. Chemokines exert their chemotactic effect by activation of chemokine receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and interaction with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Furthermore, the exact chemokine function is modulated at the level of posttranslational modifications. Among the different types of posttranslational modifications that were found to occur in vitro and in vivo, i.e., proteolysis, citrullination, glycosylation, and nitration, NH2-terminal proteolysis of chemokines has been described most intensively. Since the NH2-terminal chemokine domain mediates receptor interaction, NH2-terminal modification by limited proteolysis or amino acid side chain modification can drastically affect their biological activity. An enzyme that has been shown to provoke NH2-terminal proteolysis of various chemokines is dipeptidyl peptidase IV or CD26. This multifunctional protein is a serine protease that preferably cleaves dipeptides from the NH2-terminal region of peptides and proteins with a proline or alanine residue in the penultimate position. Various chemokines possess such a proline or alanine residue, and CD26-truncated forms of these chemokines have been identified in cell culture supernatant as well as in body fluids. The effects of CD26-mediated proteolysis in the context of chemokines turned out to be highly complex. Depending on the chemokine ligand, loss of these two NH2-terminal amino acids can result in either an increased or a decreased biological activity, enhanced receptor specificity, inactivation of the chemokine ligand, or generation of receptor antagonists. Since chemokines direct leukocyte migration in homeostatic as well as pathophysiologic conditions, CD26-mediated proteolytic processing of these chemotactic proteins may have significant consequences for appropriate functioning

  16. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  17. Ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Zhang, Siyuan; Fu, Quanyou; Xu, Zhian; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping applicable in a liquid or liquid filled tissue cavities exposed by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Scattered signals from cavitation bubbles were obtained in a scan line immediately after one HIFU exposure, and then there was a waiting time of 2 s long enough to make the liquid back to the original state. As this pattern extended, an image was built up by sequentially measuring a series of such lines. The acquisition of the beamformed radiofrequency (RF) signals for a scan line was synchronized with HIFU exposure. The duration of HIFU exposure, as well as the delay of the interrogating pulse relative to the moment while HIFU was turned off, could vary from microseconds to seconds. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in tap-water and a tap-water filled cavity in the tissue-mimicking gelatin-agar phantom as capable of observing temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud with temporal resolution of several microseconds, lateral and axial resolution of 0.50 mm and 0.29 mm respectively. The dissolution process of cavitation bubble cloud and spatial distribution affected by cavitation previously generated were also investigated. Although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid (e.g. tap water, etc.) that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, the technique may be a useful tool in spatial-temporal cavitation mapping for HIFU with high precision and resolution, providing a reference for clinical therapy.

  18. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering.

  19. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiping; Lester, Robert L; Dickson, Robert C

    2005-06-17

    The Pkh1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes. Phytosphingosine (PHS), a sphingoid long chain base, is hypothesized to be a lipid activator of Pkh1 and thereby controls the activity of Ypk1/2. Here we present biochemical evidence supporting this hypothesis, and in addition we demonstrate that PHS also stimulates autophosphorylation and activation of Ypk1/2. Greatest stimulation of Ypk1/2 phosphorylation and activity are achieved by inclusion of both PHS and Pkh1 in an in vitro kinase reaction. We also demonstrate for the first time that Pkh1 phosphorylates the Sch9 protein kinase in vitro and that such phosphorylation is stimulated by PHS. This is the first biochemical demonstration of Sch9 activators, and the results further support roles for long chain bases in heat stress resistance in addition to implying roles in chronological aging and cell size determination, since Sch9 functions in these processes. Thus, our data support a model in which PHS, rather than simply being an upstream activator of Pkh1, also activates kinases that are downstream targets of Pkh1 including Ypk1/2 and Sch9.

  20. [Publication activity of the Russian medicine in focus of national science policy: estimating the feasibility of policy targets].

    PubMed

    Starodubov, V I; Kuznetsov, S L; Kurakova, N G; Tsvetkova, L A; Aref'ev, P G; Ivanov, A V; Eremchenko, O A

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of National research policy papers issued over the past 6 years was carried out. A set of problems concerning the quality of predicted values of some bibliometric indicators reflecting the level of research performance and publication activity that were declared in governmental documents was discussed. Basic metrics of scientific performance that should be required to achieve the goals declared in the recent governmental policy papers including President's Executive Order No 599 of May 7, 2012 (increasing the share of Russian researchers' publications in the total number of publications in international scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science up to 2.44% in 2015). Taking into account the current structure of modern global science in which papers in biomedical subjects make up for approximately one third of the total world scientific output, it becomes obvious how difficult is the governmental task set up to the researchers--to double the number of journal publications indexed in Web of Science in the short-term period of the nearest three years. The priorities and reasonable goal-oriented efforts to meet the targets are proposed in the paper.

  1. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  2. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. Regional Planning: Focus on the Toronto-Centered Plan, Implications and Reactions. Instructional Activities Series IA/S-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, William S.

    This activity is one of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. This activity is a report or case study which looks at the implications, problems, and reactions to a regional comprehensive plan to regulate growth patterns in a 15,000 square-mile area of Toronto,…

  4. Implementation of a comprehensive program including psycho-social and treatment literacy activities to improve adherence to HIV care and treatment for a pediatric population in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Van Winghem, Joelle; Telfer, Barbara; Reid, Tony; Ouko, Judith; Mutunga, Angela; Jama, Zaina; Vakil, Shobha

    2008-01-01

    Background To achieve good clinical outcomes with HAART, patient adherence to treatment and care is a key factor. Since the literature on how to care for pediatric HIV patients is limited, we describe here adherence interventions implemented in our comprehensive care program in a resource-limited setting in Kenya. Methods We based our program on factors reported to influence adherence to HIV care and treatment. We describe, in detail, our program with respect to how we adapted our clinical settings, implemented psycho-social support activities for children and their caregivers and developed treatment literacy for children and teenagers living with HIV/AIDS. Results This paper focused on the details of the program, with the treatment outcomes as secondary. However, our program appeared to have been effective; for 648 children under 15 years of age who were started on HAART, the Kaplan-Meier mortality survival estimate was 95.27% (95%CI 93.16–96.74) at 12 months after the time of initiation of HAART. Conclusion Our model of pediatric HIV/AIDS care, focused on a child-centered approach with inclusion of caregivers and extended family, addressed the main factors influencing treatment adherence. It appeared to produce good results and is replicable in resource-limited settings. PMID:19025581

  5. Electromagnetic fields: activities in the European Commission with a focus on research projects and the Scientific Committee of Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR).

    PubMed

    Meroni, Donata; Schreck, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    The article summarizes the main activities of the European Commission concerning electromagnetic fields. It explains also the regulatory context, with a special focus on past and current research projects funded by the European Union and the role of the SCENIHR in assessing risks related to EMF. Main conclusions of the SCENIHR opinion adopted in 2015 on EMF are reported.

  6. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID ACTIVITY IN THE FEMALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid activity in the female rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations.

    Goldman JM, Laws SC, Balchak SK, Cooper RL, Kavlock RJ.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National H...

  7. Development of Students' Critical-Reasoning Skills through Content-Focused Activities in a General Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fencl, Heidi S.

    2010-01-01

    Students in a general education science course made significant gains in scientific reasoning skills when they were taught using carefully designed hands-on activities and writing assignments. The activities required students to make use of scientific skills such as graphing, predicting outcomes under changing conditions, or designing experiments,…

  8. Finnish Students' Reasons for Their Achievement in Classroom Activities: Focus on Features That Support Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Perry, Nancy; Järvelä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how finnish students explain factors that contribute to their achievement in classroom learning activities and whether these factors are related to support of self-regulated learning (SRL) in classroom. Over seven weeks, 24 primary school students were videotaped during their typical classroom activities in…

  9. A proposed 30-45 minute 4 page standard protocol to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) that includes measures of inflammatory activity, joint damage, and longterm outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pincus, T; Brooks, R H; Callahan, L F

    1999-02-01

    A proposed 4 page, 30-45 minute standard protocol to assess rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) is described that includes all relevant measures of inflammatory activity such as joint swelling, measures of joint damage such as joint deformity, and outcomes such as joint replacement surgery, to monitor patients in longterm observational studies. Forms are included: (1) a patient self-report modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ) to assess function, pain, fatigue, psychological distress, symptoms, and drugs used; (2) assessor-completed forms: "RA clinical features" --criteria for RA, functional class, family history, extraarticular disease, comorbidities, joint surgery, radiographic score, and laboratory findings. (3) A 32 joint count with 5 variables: (a) a "shorthand" normal/abnormal so that normal joints require no further detailed assessment; (b) tenderness or pain on motion; (c) swelling; (d) limited motion or deformity; (e) previous surgeries; physical measures of function, i.e., grip strength, walk time, and button test. (4) Medication review of previous disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD), work history, and years of education. The forms allow cost effective acquisition of all relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in routine clinical care, and allow recognition that measures of activity may show similar or improved values over 5-10 years, while measures of damage and outcomes indicate severe progression in the same patients. The SPERA is feasible to acquire most known relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in RA in 30-45 min in usual clinical settings, to provide a complete database for analyses of longterm outcomes.

  10. Nocturnal activity patterns of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Nocturnal activity of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was studied from August 1991 to July 1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. During 2 or 3 nights each month, sand flies were collected with hand-held aspirators each hour between 1730 and 0630 hours, from a pigpen and a cattle corral located 30 m apart. Host-seeking activity of L. longipalpis adults was characterized by 2 general patterns: (1) adult sand fly activity increased shortly after sunset and continued until just after sunrise, and (2) peak sand fly activity was greatest early in the evening (1830-2330 hours) and then declined steadily toward morning. Female L. longipalpis activity generally increased after 2030 hours, whereas that of males remained constant or declined as the evening progressed. There were seasonal differences in sand fly abundance between the 2 sites: peak abundance in the cattle corral occurred during hot, dry periods, whereas maximum abundance in the pigpen occurred when relative humidity was higher. Influence of relative humidity on activity varied with season. Sand fly activity tended to decrease at temperatures below 24 degrees C and increase in the presence of moonlight.

  11. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS].

    PubMed

    Popov, N V; Udovikov, A I; Eroshenko, G A; Karavaeva, T B; Yakovlev, S A; Porshakov, A M; Zenkevich, E S; Kutyrev, V V

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that in 1923-2014 the sharp aggravations of the epizootic situation of plague in the area of its Caspian sandy natural focus after long interepizootic periods are in time with the ups of the Caspian Sea in the extrema of 11-year solar cycles. There were cases of multiple manifestations of plague in the same areas in the epizootic cycles of 1946-1954, 1979-1996, 2001, and 2013-2014. The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations.

  12. Mental stress and trapezius muscle activation under psychomotor challenge: a focus on EMG gaps during computer work.

    PubMed

    Schleifer, Lawrence M; Spalding, Thomas W; Kerick, Scott E; Cram, Jeffrey R; Ley, Ronald; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2008-05-01

    Momentary reductions in the electrical activity of working muscles (EMG gaps) contribute to the explanation for the relationship between psychosocial stress and musculoskeletal problems in computer work. EMG activity and gaps in the left and right trapezii were monitored in 23 participants under low and high mental workload (LMW and HMW) demands during computer data entry. Increases in EMG activity and decreases in EMG-gap frequencies in both left and right trapezius muscles were greater during HMW than LMW. In addition, heart period and end-tidal CO2 were lower during HMW, whereas self-reported mood states were higher during HMW. The correspondence between lower end-tidal CO2 and lower EMG-gap frequencies suggests that hyperventilation (overbreathing) may mediate trapezius muscle activation. The reduction of EMG gaps suggests that the salutary benefits of momentary rest from musculoskeletal work are diminished during mental stress.

  13. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit. PMID:27248826

  14. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, BA; Jones, A; Biggs, BK; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8–14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. Methods This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Results Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) “very easy” or “easy” to use. Conclusion The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies. PMID:27042382

  15. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P < 0.002) influencing all enzyme expressions but not activities. The cholesterol supplement decreased most enzyme expression and activity. W-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of GPx, GR, Mn-SOD, and Cu,Zn-SOD and decreased that of catalase. N-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of catalase and Mn-SOD. GR activity increased in W-RM rats while SOD activity increased, but that of Se-GPx decreased in N animals. W-RM increased total and reduced glutathione and decreased the redox index. CN diet induced significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) than the CW diet. In conclusion, Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  16. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: focus on post-translational modifications and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Shirinian, Margret; Kfoury, Youmna; Dassouki, Zeina; El-Hajj, Hiba; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients resulting in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 post-translational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein-protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-κB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax-2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-κB activation, and protein-protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro.

  17. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  18. A New Approach toward Digital Storytelling: An Activity Focused on Writing Self-Efficacy in a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yan; Park, Hyungsung; Baek, Youngkyun

    2011-01-01

    Recently, computer technology and multimedia elements have been developed and integrated into teaching and learning. Entertainment-based learning environments can make learning contents more attractive, and thus can lead to learners' active participation and facilitate learning. A significant amount of research examines using video editing…

  19. Are firms' voluntary environmental management activities beneficial for the environment and business? An empirical study focusing on Japanese manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Kimitaka; Kaneko, Shinji; Fujii, Hidemichi; Komatsu, Satoru

    2012-08-30

    In this paper, to clarify whether a firm's voluntary approach to environmental protection is beneficial for both the environment and business, we analyze whether a firm's voluntary implementation of an environmental management system (EMS) simultaneously reduces its environmental impacts and improves its productivity. Using data on Japanese manufacturing firms for 2002-2008, we find empirical support for the view that the implementation of an EMS simultaneously reduces environmental impacts and improves productivity, and that a reduction in environmental impacts also improves productivity. However, in the context of this relationship, the direct effect of implementing an EMS on productivity is conditional. If various other activities designed to improve productivity implemented in response to market discipline are also taken into account, the effect of implementing an EMS is hidden by the effects of these activities. This implies that voluntary environmental management activities are merely a minor component of these activities. Therefore, the relationship between the implementation of an EMS and productivity improvement is not strong, although implementing an EMS indirectly improves productivity by reducing environmental impacts.

  20. EFL Teaching in the Amazon Region of Ecuador: A Focus on Activities and Resources for Teaching Listening and Speaking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Paul F.; Ochoa, Cesar A.; Cabrera, Paola A.; Castillo, Luz M.; Quinonez, Ana L.; Solano, Lida M.; Espinosa, Franklin O.; Ulehlova, Eva; Arias, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    Research on teaching listening and speaking skills has been conducted at many levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current implementation of classroom and extracurricular activities, as well as the use of educational resources for teaching both skills in public senior high schools in the Amazon region of Ecuador, particularly in…

  1. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the NPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Woods, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Since 2001, four national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted four samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the most recent being that of the NPL (UK). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 8 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  2. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the CIEMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; García-Toraño, E.; Los Arcos, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, five national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted five samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the CIEMAT (Spain). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  3. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kossert, K.; Janßen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted six samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the PTB (Germany). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value, with the agreement of the CCRI(II). The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been recalculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  4. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  5. Focused Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Gary M.; Jordan, Janice M.

    1996-01-01

    In "The Discipline of Market Leaders" (1995), Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersama argue that an enterprise cannot be successful unless it actively pursues one of three value propositions: operational leadership, customer intimacy, or product leadership. Schools, too, must make a strategic decision to devote energies, policies, and practices…

  6. In vitro activity of fosfomycin against blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, including those nonsusceptible to tigecycline and/or colistin.

    PubMed

    Endimiani, Andrea; Patel, Gopi; Hujer, Kristine M; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Perez, Federico; Rice, Louis B; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In vitro activity of fosfomycin was evaluated against 68 bla(KPC)-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpKPC) isolates, including 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains. By agar dilution, 93% of the overall KpKPC were susceptible (MIC(50/90) of 16/64 microg/ml, respectively). The subgroup of 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains showed susceptibility rates of 87% (MIC(50/90) of 32/128 microg/ml, respectively). Notably, 5 out of 6 extremely drug-resistant (tigecycline and colistin nonsusceptible) KpKPC were susceptible to fosfomycin. Compared to agar dilution, disk diffusion was more accurate than Etest.

  7. Natural product derivatives with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joshua B; Smith, Adrienne E; Kusche, Brian R; Bessette, Bradley A; Swain, P Whitney; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McMills, Mark C; Wright, Dennis L; Priestley, Nigel D

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that the intentional engineering of a natural product biosynthesis pathway is a useful way to generate stereochemically complex scaffolds for use in the generation of combinatorial libraries that capture the structural features of both natural products and synthetic compounds. Analysis of a prototype library based upon nonactic acid lead to the discovery of triazole-containing nonactic acid analogs, a new structural class of antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against drug resistant, Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  8. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  9. A matrix-focused structure-activity and binding site flexibility study of quinolinol inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A.

    PubMed

    Harrell, William A; Vieira, Rebecca C; Ensel, Susan M; Montgomery, Vicki; Guernieri, Rebecca; Eccard, Vanessa S; Campbell, Yvette; Roxas-Duncan, Virginia; Cardellina, John H; Webb, Robert P; Smith, Leonard A

    2017-02-01

    Our initial discovery of 8-hydroxyquinoline inhibitors of BoNT/A and separation/testing of enantiomers of one of the more active leads indicated considerable flexibility in the binding site. We designed a limited study to investigate this flexibility and probe structure-activity relationships; utilizing the Betti reaction, a 36 compound matrix of quinolinol BoNT/A LC inhibitors was developed using three 8-hydroxyquinolines, three heteroaromatic amines, and four substituted benzaldehydes. This study has revealed some of the most effective quinolinol-based BoNT/A inhibitors to date, with 7 compounds displaying IC50 values ⩽1μM and 11 effective at ⩽2μM in an ex vivo assay.

  10. Volcanology and volcanic activity with a primary focus on potential hazard impacts for the Hawaii geothermal project

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B.; Delaney, P.T.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews published references about potential volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii that are pertinent to drilling and operating geothermal wells. The first two sections of this annotated bibliography list the most important publications that describe eruptions of Kilauea volcano, with special emphasis on activity in and near the designated geothermal subzones. References about historic eruptions from Mauna Loa`s northeast rift zone, as well as the most recent activity on the southern flank of dormant Mauna Kea, adjacent to the Humu`ula Saddle are described. The last section of this annotated bibliography lists the most important publications that describe and analyze deformations of the surface of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes.

  11. Kinetic Structure of Large-Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channels Suggests that the Gating Includes Transitions through Intermediate or Secondary States

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Brad S.; Magleby, Karl L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms for the Ca2+-dependent gating of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were developed using two-dimensional analysis of single-channel currents recorded with the patch clamp technique. To extract and display the essential kinetic information, the kinetic structure, from the single channel currents, adjacent open and closed intervals were binned as pairs and plotted as two-dimensional dwell-time distributions, and the excesses and deficits of the interval pairs over that expected for independent pairing were plotted as dependency plots. The basic features of the kinetic structure were generally the same among single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but channel-specific differences were readily apparent, suggesting heterogeneities in the gating. Simple gating schemes drawn from the Monod- Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model for allosteric proteins could approximate the basic features of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. However, consistent differences between the observed and predicted dependency plots suggested that additional brief lifetime closed states not included in MWC-type models were involved in the gating. Adding these additional brief closed states to the MWC-type models, either beyond the activation pathway (secondary closed states) or within the activation pathway (intermediate closed states), improved the description of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. Secondary closed states are consistent with the closing of secondary gates or channel block. Intermediate closed states are consistent with mechanisms in which the channel activates by passing through a series of intermediate conformations between the more stable open and closed states. It is the added secondary or intermediate closed states that give rise to the majority of the brief closings (flickers) in the gating. PMID:9607935

  12. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  13. Focus: International Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gerald J.; Watts, Michael W.; Wentworth, Donald R.

    The "Focus" series, part of the National Council on Economic Education's (NCEE) EconomicsAmerica program, uses economics to enhance learning in subjects such as history, geography, civics, and personal finance, as well as economics. Activities are interactive, reflecting the belief that students learn best through active, highly…

  14. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  15. Live Music Therapy as an Active Focus of Attention for Pain and Behavioral Symptoms of Distress During Pediatric Immunization.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Sumathy; Ramesh, Bhuvaneswari; Dixit, Priyanka B; Venkatesh, Soma; Das, Prarthana; Gunasekaran, Dhandapany

    2016-07-01

    A total of 100 children coming for routine immunization to pediatric outpatient department were included and were divided into experiment (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups. Experiment group received live music therapy during immunization procedure. Control group received no intervention. The Modified Behavior Pain Scale (MBPS), 10-point pain levels, and 10-point distress levels were documented by parents. Duration of crying was recorded by investigators. Pre- and postimmunization blood pressures and heart rates of parents holding the children were also measured and recorded by investigators. Independent and paired t tests were used for analysis. All 3 domains of the Modified Behavior Pain Scale and duration of crying showed significant improvement (P < .05) in the experiment group. Pain and distress levels also showed statistically nonsignificant improvement in experiment group. Blood pressure and heart rate of parents showed no difference. Music therapy could be helpful to children, parents, and health care providers by reducing discomfort of the child during pediatric immunization.

  16. Focusing on customer service.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  17. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  18. Green chemistry focus on optimization of silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM) and mosquitocidal activity: Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini

    2015-01-01

    There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control.

  19. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  20. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  1. Vector-Host Interactions of Culiseta melanura in a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Southeastern Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Goudarz; Armstrong, Philip M.; Abadam, Charles F.; Akaratovic, Karen I.; Kiser, Jay P.; Andreadis, Theodore G.

    2015-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern USA. Culiseta (Cs.) melanura is the primary vector of EEEV in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-Atlantic region. The objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of Cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in enzootic amplification of EEEV, 2) assess spatial and temporal patterns of virus activity during a season of intense virus transmission, and 3) investigate the potential role of Cs. melanura in epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans and equines. Accordingly, we collected mosquitoes at 55 sites in Suffolk, Virginia in 2013, and identified the source of blood meals in engorged mosquitoes by nucleotide sequencing PCR products of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We also examined field-collected mosquitoes for evidence of infection with EEEV using Vector Test, cell culture, and PCR. Analysis of 188 engorged Cs. melanura sampled from April through October 2013 indicated that 95.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5% obtained blood meals from avian, mammalian, and reptilian hosts, respectively. American Robin was the most frequently identified host for Cs. melanura (42.6% of blood meals) followed by Northern Cardinal (16.0%), European Starling (11.2%), Carolina Wren (4.3%), and Common Grackle (4.3%). EEEV was detected in 106 mosquito pools of Cs. melanura, and the number of virus positive pools peaked in late July with 22 positive pools and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) infection rate of 4.46 per 1,000 mosquitoes. Our findings highlight the importance of Cs. melanura as a regional EEEV vector based on frequent feeding on virus-competent bird species. A small proportion of blood meals acquired from mammalian hosts suggests the possibility that this species may occasionally

  2. Establishment of reference intervals for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in dogs including an assessment of the effects of sex and anticoagulant use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Eralp, Oya; Moritz, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF)- and kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) have been performed in a small number of healthy dogs, but reference intervals have not been assessed in a larger number of dogs. The goal of the current study was to establish reference intervals and assess intra-assay repeatability for kaolin-activated TEG in dogs. Additionally, the impact of sex and the influence of anticoagulant (native blood vs. recalcified citrate anticoagulated blood) were evaluated. Thromboelastography analyses were performed in 56 healthy dogs including German Shepherd Dogs (n = 19), Beagles (n = 15), and others (n = 22). Median age was 2 years (range: 1-6 years) and sex was evenly distributed (31 males and 25 females). To establish reference intervals, citrated whole-blood samples were collected, and TEG was performed 1 hr after sampling. Five TEG variables (R = reaction time; K = clot formation time; alpha = angle alpha; MA = maximal amplitude; G-value reflecting clot stability) were evaluated, and reference intervals were defined as the mean +/- 1.96-fold standard deviation. Intra-assay repeatability was assessed by calculating the pooled variance estimate in duplicate measurements of 6 healthy dogs. The effect of anticoagulant was assessed in 17 specimens. Reference intervals were as follows: R = 1.8-8.6 min; angle alpha = 36.9-74.6 degrees; K = 1.3-5.7 min; MA = 42.9-67.9 mm, and G = 3.2-9.6 Kdyn/cm(2). Coefficients of variation for R, K, angle alpha, MA, and G were 7.6%, 17.7%, 7.4%, 2.9%, and 6.6%, respectively. There was no significant impact of sex or anticoagulant on results. Interindividual variation was higher in native samples than in citrated whole blood. A limitation of the current study was that most of the samples were obtained from Beagles and German Shepherd Dogs. This study provides useful reference intervals for kaolin-activated TEG.

  3. Young Children. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman)…

  4. Instructional Technology. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on implementing instructional technology in ways that benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Cruising the Web with English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) presents three scenarios using the World…

  5. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    PubMed

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect.

  6. The electromagnetic ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostick, W. H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-01-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield as spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev E 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by ser action near the centers of active galaxies.

  7. The electromagnetic Ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, W. H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-08-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield as spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev E 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by ser action near the centers of active galaxies.

  8. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  9. Dysfunctional Activation and Brain Network Profiles in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Focus on the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate during Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Burgess, Ashley; Hong, Ella; Rix, Carrie; Arnold, Paul D.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Brain network dysfunction is emerging as a central biomarker of interest in psychiatry, in large part, because psychiatric conditions are increasingly seen as disconnection syndromes. Understanding dysfunctional brain network profiles in task-active states provides important information on network engagement in an experimental context. This in turn may be predictive of many of the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. Here we investigated brain network profiles in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), contrasting them with a group of age-comparable controls. Network interactions were assessed during simple working memory: in particular, we focused on the modulation by the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of cortical, striatal, and thalamic regions. The focus on the dACC was motivated by its hypothesized role in the pathophysiology of OCD. However, its task-active network signatures have not been investigated before. Network interactions were modeled using psychophysiological interaction, a simple directional model of seed to target brain interactions. Our results indicate that OCD is characterized by significantly increased dACC modulation of cortical, striatal, and thalamic targets during working memory, and that this aberrant increase in OCD patients is maintained regardless of working memory demand. The results constitute compelling evidence of dysfunctional brain network interactions in OCD and suggest that these interactions may be related to a combination of network inefficiencies and dACC hyper-activity that has been associated with the phenotype. PMID:25852529

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  11. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  12. Gadd45a and Gadd45b protect hematopoietic cells from UV-induced apoptosis via distinct signaling pathways, including p38 activation and JNK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mamta; Gupta, Shiv Kumar; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2006-06-30

    Gadd45a, Gadd45b, and Gadd45g (Gadd45/MyD118/CR6) are genes that are rapidly induced by genotoxic stress and have been implicated in genotoxic stress-induced responses, notably in apoptosis. Recently, using myeloid-enriched bone marrow (BM) cells obtained from wild-type (WT), Gadd45a-deficient, and Gadd45b-deficient mice, we have shown that in hematopoietic cells Gadd45a and Gadd45b play a survival function to protect hematopoietic cells from DNA-damaging agents, including ultra violet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to decipher the molecular paths that mediate the survival functions of Gadd45a and Gadd45b against genotoxic stress induced by UV radiation. It is shown that in hematopoietic cells exposed to UV radiation Gaddd45a and Gadd45b cooperate to promote cell survival via two distinct signaling pathways involving activation of the GADD45a-p38-NF-kappaB-mediated survival pathway and GADD45b-mediated inhibition of the stress response MKK4-JNK pathway.

  13. Narratives of Compensated Dating of Girls in Hong Kong Using Routine Activity Theory: Results of a Focus Group Study of Guardians.

    PubMed

    Li, Jessica C M; Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Cindy X S; Yu, Yolanda M Y; Nguyen, Ping

    2016-05-13

    This article presents public discourses on compensated dating of adolescent girls in Chinese society. Data are obtained from eight focus groups comprising 50 guardians at private, parochial, and public levels (i.e., social workers, police officers, parents of students, and community representatives). Qualitative data are used to demonstrate how the guardians conceptualize and contextualize compensated dating as an outcome of the dynamics of societal features. Social features such as contemporary ideologies, Internet technology advancement, commercialization of human relationships, and ambiguity between "right" and "wrong" motivate the service providers and customers of compensated dating, and accelerate their convergence and weakened levels of guardianship in society. This study is the first to connect the features of compensated dating of adolescent girls with recent societal changes using the routine activity approach. The findings confirm the application of the routine activity approach in the phenomenon of girls' compensated dating, and also offer theoretical and practical implications.

  14. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Research & Extension Center during 2013 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center (SVREC) in Frankenmuth, MI in 2013 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot and Rhizoctonia seedling disease performance of a wide range of Beta vulgaris materials. Leaf spot trials were conducted in conjunction w...

  15. Focus on the Rashba effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  16. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  17. One-step combined focused epPCR and saturation mutagenesis for thermostability evolution of a new cold-active xylanase.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Juan Pablo; Reetz, Manfred T; Asenjo, Juan A; Parra, Loreto P

    2017-05-01

    Enzymes active at low temperature are of great interest for industrial bioprocesses due to their high efficiency at a low energy cost. One of the particularities of naturally evolved cold-active enzymes is their increased enzymatic activity at low temperature, however the low thermostability presented in this type of enzymes is still a major drawback for their application in biocatalysis. Directed evolution of cold-adapted enzymes to a more thermostable version, appears as an attractive strategy to fulfill the stability and activity requirements for the industry. This paper describes the recombinant expression and characterization of a new and highly active cold-adapted xylanase from the GH-family 10 (Xyl-L), and the use of a novel one step combined directed evolution technique that comprises saturation mutagenesis and focused epPCR as a feasible semi-rational strategy to improve the thermostability. The Xyl-L enzyme was cloned from a marine-Antarctic bacterium, Psychrobacter sp. strain 2-17, recombinantly expressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) and characterized enzymatically. Molecular dynamic simulations using a homology model of the catalytic domain of Xyl-L were performed to detect flexible regions and residues, which are considered to be the possible structural elements that define the thermolability of this enzyme. Mutagenic libraries were designed in order to stabilize the protein introducing mutations in some of the flexible regions and residues identified. Twelve positive mutant clones were found to improve the T50(15) value of the enzyme, in some cases without affecting the activity at 25°C. The best mutant showed a 4.3°C increase in its T50(15). The efficiency of the directed evolution approach can also be expected to work in the protein engineering of stereoselectivity.

  18. Development and results of a new methodology to perform focus group with preschool children on their beliefs and attitudes on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Cammisa, Maria; Montrone, Rosa; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test a method to perform focus groups (FGs) and to elicit the subjective views of preschool-age children on physical activity and perceived kindergarten barriers to practice it. FGs have been held in three different kindergarten classes with 49 children who were 4-5 years old. Children were asked to draw themselves in their preferred way of playing and were asked few questions about their drawings to understand their behaviours and ideas. In class A and B, 67% and 75% of the children, respectively, drew sedentary plays (table and impersonation games). Children referred that the main obstacle to perform active games outside home/kindergarten was the parents' and teachers' perceived risk that they could be hurt or catch a cold. The children would like to have more table games in the kindergarten. 81% of children in class C drew active group games. All these children were well satisfied with their kindergarten environment and did not refer to any adults' fear regarding active play. This class teacher spent a lot of time to develop children's motor abilities through active games and often used the garden to let the children to play freely. The use of drawings to understand children's habits on physical activity has turned out to be a reliable and easy tool in preschool children. The different results obtained in the two children groups show the need to change the beliefs and the behaviours of teachers and parents who seem to be non-architectural "invisible" barriers to be knocked down. This protocol has been developed by ASL Brindisi within the framework of PERISCOPE's objective to develop new methodologies.

  19. Focus on Basics, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Together, these four newsletters contain 36 articles devoted to adult literacy research and practice and the relationship between them. The following articles are included: "A Productive Partnership" (Richard J. Murnane, Bob Bickerton); "Welcome to 'Focus on Basics'" (Barbara Garner); "Applying Research on the Last Frontier" (Karen Backlund, Kathy…

  20. Focus on Grandparents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1990-01-01

    Following the birth of a handicapped child, both parent and grandparent experience similar feelings of consternation, shock, and grief. The grandparents' reaction is double, however, as they suffer not only for the newborn but for their own child's pain as well. This article focuses on dealing with grief and its stages, including numbness, denial,…

  1. Focus on Phase Electives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Victor H., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    In this thematic issue, articles focus on the use of phase electives in the English classroom. Discussions include "Death in the Classroom,""Soapbox Operas in the English Classroom,""Language and History in Phase-Elective Programs,""Phase Electives and the Problem of Composition," and "Phase Electives and College Preparation.""Phase Electives Are…

  2. Focus on Godard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Royal S., Ed.

    This Film Focus series presents selected information about the respected and controversial French filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard and his films. Information is documented through reports of interviews, reviews, essays, and commentaries. Included are filmographies of Godard's films, beginning in 1954 and continuing through 1972. Also, there is a selected…

  3. Focus on Refugees. Transcript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandel, Sarah; And Others

    This is the transcript of the "Focus on Refugees," proqram conducted by the Overseas Development Council. Remarks from the following participants are included: (1) Sarah Brandel, Associate Fellow at the Overseas Development Council; (2) Gary Perkins, Chief of Mission of the Washington Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees…

  4. Education Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational policy in the Texas legislature in relation to student retention, Internet access, and sexual harassment. "1999 Texas Legislative Session--End of an Era?" (Albert Cortez, Maria Robledo Montecel) examines educational equity issues facing legislators: school funding,…

  5. Theme: Focus on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "The More Things Change..." (Connors); "Students--Bored of Education?" (Earle); "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow" (Wesch et al.); "Attitude and the Value of Environment" (Foster); "Fins, Feathers and Fur" (Crank); "Greenhouse as a Focus for Agriscience" (Hurst); and "Agricultural and Environmental Education at Milton Hershey School"…

  6. Immigrant Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on immigrant education that focus on successful school programs and educational policy issues. In "Immigrant Education from the Administrators' Perspective" (Pam McCollum, Juanita Garcia), three principals of south Texas secondary schools with successful immigrant programs discuss their views on the…

  7. [The Present Status of, and Issues Related to, Mental Health Activities in the Ishinomaki Region, with a Focus on Outreach Activities].

    PubMed

    Hara, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was a colossal event, registering a magnitude of 9.0 and causing huge tsunami that in some places were more than 40 meters in height. As of March 31, 2014, the number of dead nationwide stood at 15,882, while 2,668 persons were listed as missing; 3,089 other deaths have also been classified as being disaster-related. There were 5,500 victims in the Ishinomaki area alone. The disaster, comprising the earthquake itself, the subsequent tsunami, fires, and the nuclear power plant accident, was a combined natural and man-made catastrophe of epic proportions, affecting a broad, underpopulated region. Those hit by the disaster were affected not only by the loss of life, but also the loss of homes and livelihoods. These people experience psychological stress, fear, and anxiety as a result of lifestyle and environmental changes associated with moving from evacuation areas to prefab temporary housing, or the homes of parents, siblings, relatives, friends, or acquaintances, followed by attempts to rebuild their own homes. Other changes, such as the loss of employment, the transition to new workplaces, or having to change schools, also take a psychological and emotional toll. Delays in the construction of new housing and the resulting prolongation of life as evacuees only serve to increase anxiety and the sense of stagnation. With the above as a backdrop, the author will report on activities being conducted by his organization, particularly outreach efforts.

  8. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  9. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  10. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  11. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance.

  12. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  13. Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Zhong; Zhong , Hanson; Jonathan , Hastings; Jerome , Kao; Chi-Chang , Lenhard; Anthony , Siddons; David Peter , Zhong; Hui

    2009-03-24

    An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

  14. The effects of hand strength on upper extremity function and activities of daily living in stroke patients, with a focus on right hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, DeokJu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hand strength on upper extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with right hemiplegia, as well as to provide important fundamental data for rehabilitation after stroke. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted from May 1 to December 30, 2013, at the Department of Rehabilitation of P Hospital in Seoul and included subjects hospitalized with a diagnosis of stroke. Patients with right hemiplegia were selected, and their hand strength, upper extremity function, and activities of daily living were evaluated. Hand strength was measured by grip, lateral pinch, and three-point pinch strength. [Results] The effects of hand strength on upper extremity function were evaluated. The results showed that all types of hand strength significantly influenced upper extremity function. However, only grip strength influenced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] In rehabilitation of stroke patients, it is necessary to first improve their general physical condition and basic activities of daily living, and then improve hand movement and hand muscle strength for instrumental activities of daily living training, which requires detailed hand movements. PMID:27799695

  15. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  16. Dystonia redefined as central non-paretic loss of control of muscle action: a concept including inability to activate muscles required for a specific movement, or 'negative dystonia'.

    PubMed

    Mezaki, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. Although this definition comprises an essential feature of dystonia, the clinical observation indicates that there is an additional aspect of dystonia; failure to adequately activate muscles required for specific movement, exemplified by the lack of contractions of the levator palpebrae superioris muscles in apraxia of lid opening, as well as by inability to activate appropriate muscles in cervical dystonia or in the paretic form of writer's cramp, and possibly by dropped head syndrome or camptocormia seen in parkinsonian patients without apparent truncal dystonia or rigidity. Taking this "negative dystonia" into consideration, the author proposes a revised definition of dystonia as a symptom characterized by the central non-paretic loss of voluntary control of muscle activities, which may result in either excessive or deficient contractions of muscles, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, limitation of movements, or abnormal postures.

  17. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells.

  18. FBI-1 can stimulate HIV-1 Tat activity and is targeted to a novel subnuclear domain that includes the Tat-P-TEFb-containing nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, P Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-03-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain-containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor-rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

  19. What practices do parents perceive as effective or ineffective in promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and less sitting in children: parent focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support parents in improving the health of their young children, examples of effective parenting practices for a healthy diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are needed. This study explores perceived effective and ineffective parenting practices in difficult situations concerning raising healthy children and investigates their relationship with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The current study is formative work to inform the content of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Four focus groups were conducted between June and October 2012 at worksites during lunch break. A total of 21 unrelated parents of primary schoolchildren (6 fathers, 15 mothers) participated. A short written questionnaire introduced typical difficult situations derived from parental anecdotal reports, concerning healthy diet, PA and SB. These situations formed the backbone for the subsequent focus group discussion. In October 2012, discussions were audio-recorded and analyzed in Nvivo to identify key response items using thematic analysis. Results Parents experienced explaining why the child should behave healthily, monitoring, being consistent, offering alternatives, reacting empathetically, modeling, motivating, increasing intrinsic value and availability, and using time-out as effective practices, whereas anger was considered ineffective. Opinions were mixed about the effectiveness of giving as much freedom as possible, obliging, rewarding and punishing, and setting rules and agreements. Parenting practices were consistent with principles from both SDT and SCT. Conclusions Parents identified numerous perceived effective practices to respond to their child’s health-related behavior. Since many of them coincide with the evidence base and the success of a parenting program depends upon the degree to which parents’ concerns and motivations are integrated into the program design, important opportunities are created for future

  20. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  1. Mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, derived from mefloquine and arenecarbaldehydes: In vitro activity including against the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strain T113.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Raoni S B; Kaiser, Carlos R; Lourenço, Maria C S; Bezerra, Flavio A F M; de Souza, Marcus V N; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Henriques, Maria das Graças M de O; Costa, Thadeu

    2012-01-01

    Ten new mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(aryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (1: aryl=substituted phenyl) and 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(heteroaryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline [2: heteroaryl=5-nitrothien-2-yl (2a); 5-nitrofuran-2-yl (2b) and 4H-imidazol-2-yl) (2c)], have been synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compounds 1f (aryl=3-ethoxyphenyl), 1g (Ar=3,4,5-(MeO)(3)-C(6)H(2)) and 2c were slightly more active than mefloquine (MIC=33μM) with MICs=24.5, 22.5 and 27.4, respectively, whereas compounds 1e (aryl=3,4-(MeO)(2)-C(6)H(3)) and 2a (MICs=11.9 and 12.1μM, respectively) were ca. 2.7 times more active than mefloquine, with a better tuberculostatic activity than the first line tuberculostatic agent ethambutol (MIC=15.9). The compounds were also assayed against the MDR strain T113 and the same MICs were observed. Thus the new derivatives have advantages over such anti-TB drugs as isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and ofloxacin, for which this strain is resistant. The most active compounds were not cytotoxic to Murine Macrophages Cells in a concentration near their MIC values.

  2. Changes in free amino acid content and activities of amination and transamination enzymes in yeasts grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Norkrans, B; Tunblad-Johansson, I

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns inter- and intraspecific differences between yeasts at assimilation of different nitrogen sources. Alterations in the content of free amino acids in cells and media as well as in the related enzyme activities during growth were studied. The hydroxylamine (HA)-tolerant Endomycopsis lipolytica was examined and compared with the nitrate-reducing Cryptococcus albidus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. Special attention was paid to alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, the amino acids closely related to the Krebs cycle keto acids. The amino acids were analyzed as their n-propyl N-acetyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The composition of the amino acid pool was similar for the three yeasts. Glutamic acid was predominant; in early log-phase cells of E. lipolytica contents of 200-234 micromol . g(-1) dry weight were found. A positive correlation between the specific growth rate and the size of the amino acid pool was observed. The assimilation of ammonia was mediated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The NADP-GDH was the dominating enzyme in all three yeasts showing the highest specific activity in Cr. albidus grown on nitrate (6980 nmol . (min(-1)).(mg protein(-1)). Glutamine synthetase (GS) displayed a high specific activity in S. cerevisiae, which also had a high amount of glutamine. The assimilation of HA did not differ greatly from the assimilation of ammonium in E. lipolytica. The existing differences could rather be explained as provoked by the concentration of available nitrogen.

  3. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  4. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO.

  5. The toxicity of very prolonged courses of PEGasparaginase or Erwinia asparaginase in relation to asparaginase activity, with a special focus on dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wing H; Pieters, Rob; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A; Hop, Wim C J; Boos, Joachim; Tissing, Wim J E; van der Sluis, Inge M

    2014-11-01

    We prospectively studied the incidence and clinical course of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia during very prolonged use of asparaginase in relation to levels of asparaginase activity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We also evaluated the incidence of pancreatitis, thrombosis, hyperammonemia and central neurotoxicity and their association with asparaginase activity levels. Eighty-nine patients were treated according to the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 10 medium-risk intensification protocol, which includes 15 doses of PEGasparaginase (2,500 IU/m(2)) over 30 weeks. Erwinia asparaginase (20,000 IU/m(2)) was administered when allergy to or silent inactivation of PEGasparaginase occurred. Triglyceride, cholesterol and ammonia levels increased rapidly in children treated with PEGasparaginase and remained temporarily elevated, but normalized after administration of the last asparaginase dose. Among the patients treated with PEGasparaginase, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia (grade 3/4) were found in 47% and 25%, respectively. The correlation between PEGasparaginase activity levels and triglyceride levels was strongest at week 5 (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.36, P = 0.005). The triglyceride levels were higher in children ≥ 10 years old than in younger patients (<10 years old) after adjustment for type of asparaginase preparation: median 4.9 mmol/L versus 1.6 mmol/L (P<0.001). In patients receiving Erwinia asparaginase, triglyceride levels increased in the first weeks as well, but no grade 3/4 dyslipidemia was found. Hyperammonemia (grade 3/4) was only found in patients treated with Erwinia asparaginase (9%). Thrombosis occurred in 4.5%, pancreatitis in 7%, and central neurotoxicity in 9% of patients using either of the two agents; these toxicities were not related to levels of asparaginase activity or to triglyceride levels. In conclusion, severe dyslipidemia occurred frequently, but was

  6. Neocortical focus: experimental view.

    PubMed

    Timofeev, Igor; Chauvette, Sylvain; Soltani, Sara

    2014-01-01

    All brain normal or pathological activities occur in one of the states of vigilance: wake, slow-wave sleep, or REM sleep. Neocortical seizures preferentially occur during slow-wave sleep. We provide a description of neuronal behavior and mechanisms mediating such a behavior within neocortex taking place in natural states of vigilance as well as during seizures pointing to similarities and differences exhibited during sleep and seizures. A concept of epileptic focus is described using a model of cortical undercut, because in that model, the borders of the focus are well defined. In this model, as in other models of acquired epilepsy, the main factor altering excitability is deafferentation, which upregulates neuronal excitability that promotes generation of seizures. Periods of disfacilitation recorded during slow-wave sleep further upregulate neuronal excitability. It appears that the state of neurons and neuronal network in the epileptic focus produced by deafferentation are such that seizures cannot be generated there. Instead, seizures always start around the perimeter of the undercut cortex. Therefore, we define these areas as the seizure focus. In this zone, neuronal connectivity and excitability are moderately enhanced, lowering the threshold for seizure generation.

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

    2009-09-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents Electronic properties of graphene and graphene nanoribbons with 'pseudo-Rashba' spin-orbit coupling Tobias Stauber and John Schliemann Strained graphene: tight-binding and density functional calculations R M Ribeiro, Vitor M Pereira, N M R Peres, P R Briddon and A H Castro Neto The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fürst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P López-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J González and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square

  8. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution.

    PubMed

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-10-24

    A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au_NRsd) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au_NRsd was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au_NRsd and Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au_NRsd was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10(7) in magnitude, which increased ≈10(12) in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au_NRsd. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10(-3) to 10(-12)M) in water or milk solution upon Au_NRsd or Ag NPs/Au_NRsd were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm(-1) for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm(-1) was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au_NRsd) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au_NRsd) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au_NRsd and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au_NRsd is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for screening MEL in complex matrices such as adulteration in e.g., food and pharmaceutical products.

  9. The Brd4 Extraterminal Domain Confers Transcription Activation Independent of pTEFb by Recruiting Multiple Proteins, Including NSD3 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shaila; Sowa, Mathew E.; Ottinger, Matthias; Smith, Jennifer A.; Shi, Yang; Harper, J. Wade; Howley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) plays critical roles in development, cancer progression, and virus-host pathogenesis. To gain mechanistic insight into the various biological functions of Brd4, we performed a proteomic analysis to identify and characterize Brd4-associated cellular proteins. We found that the extraterminal (ET) domain, whose function has to date not been determined, interacts with NSD3, JMJD6, CHD4, GLTSCR1, and ATAD5. These ET-domain interactions were also conserved for Brd2 and Brd3, the other human BET proteins tested. We demonstrated that GLTSCR1, NSD3, and JMJD6 impart a pTEFb-independent transcriptional activation function on Brd4. NSD3 as well as JMJD6 is recruited to regulated genes in a Brd4-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that depletion of Brd4 or NSD3 reduces H3K36 methylation, demonstrating that the Brd4/NSD3 complex regulates this specific histone modification. Our results indicate that the Brd4 ET domain through the recruitment of the specific effectors regulates transcriptional activity. In particular, we show that one of these effectors, NSD3, regulates transcription by modifying the chromatin microenvironment at Brd4 target genes. Our study thus identifies the ET domain as a second important transcriptional regulatory domain for Brd4 in addition to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) that interacts with pTEFb. PMID:21555454

  10. Effects of activated protein C on the size of modeled ischemic focus and morphometric parameters of neurons and neuroglia in its perifocal zone.

    PubMed

    Khudoerkov, R M; Savinkova, I G; Strukova, S M; Gorbacheva, L R; Gulyaev, M V; Pirogov, Yu A; Sal'kov, V N; Sobolev, V B; Gavrilova, S A; Koshelev, V B

    2014-08-01

    The effects of activated protein C (APC) on the quantitative parameters of neurons and neuroglia in the perifocal zone of infarction induced in the left hemispheric cortex were studied in two groups of rats. Group 1 animals served as control (control infarction). Group 2 rats were injected with APC (50 μg/kg) in the right lateral cerebral ventricle 3 h after infarction was induced, and after 72 h the infarction size was evaluated and the neurons and neuroglia in the perifocal zone were counted. APC reduced the infarction size 2.5 times in comparison with the control and reduced by 16% the neuronal death in the perifocal zone layer V, causing no appreciable changes in layer III, and did not change the size of neuronal bodies but increased (by 11%) the size of neuronal nuclei in layer III. The protein maintained the sharply increased count of gliocytes in the perifocal zone of infarction and promoted their growth. Hence, APC protected the neurons from death in the ischemic focus by increasing the gliocyte count and stimulating the compensatory reparative processes.

  11. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: “Juniors for Seniors”

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowska, Małgorzata; Pluta, Beata; Maciaszek, Janusz; Tomczak, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity (PA) in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program “Junior for Seniors” by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children (“juniors,” 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M = 7.96 ± 0.69) and 22 parents (“seniors,” 14 mothers aged M = 38.86 ± 2.96 and 8 fathers aged M = 37.38 ± 2.97) were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives), or simply improved quality of “do-together” leisure time PA. PMID:27766262

  12. Activation of signaling pathways following localized delivery of systemically administered neurotrophic factors across the blood-brain barrier using focused ultrasound and microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baseri, Babak; Choi, James J.; Deffieux, Thomas; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Olumolade, Oluyemi; Small, Scott A.; Morrison, Barclay, III; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-04-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to have broad neuroprotective effects in addition to its therapeutic role in neurodegenerative disease. In this study, the efficacy of delivering exogenous BDNF to the left hippocampus is demonstrated in wild-type mice (n = 7) through the noninvasively disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) using focused ultrasound (FUS). The BDNF bioactivity was found to be preserved following delivery as assessed quantitatively by immunohistochemical detection of the pTrkB receptor and activated pAkt, pMAPK, and pCREB in the hippocampal neurons. It was therefore shown for the first time that systemically administered neurotrophic factors can cross the noninvasively disrupted BBB and trigger neuronal downstream signaling effects in a highly localized region in the brain. This is the first time that the administered molecule is tracked through the BBB and localized in the neuron triggering molecular effects. Additional preliminary findings are shown in wild-type mice with two additional neurotrophic factors such as the glia-derived neurotrophic factor (n = 12) and neurturin (n = 2). This further demonstrates the impact of FUS for the early treatment of CNS diseases at the cellular and molecular level and strengthens its premise for FUS-assisted drug delivery and efficacy.

  13. Effect of pH, water activity and gel micro-structure, including oxygen profiles and rheological characterization, on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Theys, T E; Geeraerd, A H; Verhulst, A; Poot, K; Van Bree, I; Devlieghere, F; Moldenaers, P; Wilson, D; Brocklehurst, T; Van Impe, J F

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tryptic Soy Broth was examined at different pH (4.50-5.50), water activity a(w) (0.970-0.992) and gelatin concentration (0%, 1% and 5% ) at 20 degrees C. Experiments in TSB with 0% gelatin were carried out in shaken erlenmeyers, in the weak 1% gelatin media in petri plates and in the firm 5% gelatin media in gel cassettes. A quantification of gel strength was performed by rheological measurements and the influence of oxygen supply on the growth of S. Typhimurium was investigated. pH, as well as a(w) as well as gelatin concentration had an influence on the growth rate. Both in broth and in gelatinized media, lowering pH or water activity caused a decrease of growth rate. In media with 1% gelatin a reduction of growth rate and maximal cell density was observed compared to broth at all conditions. However, the effects of decreasing pH and a(w) were less pronounced. A further increase in gelatin concentration to 5% gelatin caused a small or no additional drop of growth rate. The final oxygen concentration dropped from 5.5 ppm in stirred broth to anoxic values in petri plates, also when 0% and 5% gelatin media were tested in this recipient. Probably, not stirring the medium, which leads to anoxic conditions, has a more pronounced effect on the growth rate of S. Typhimurium then medium solidness. Finally, growth data were fitted with the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J. and Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294]. An additional factor was introduced into the secondary model of Ross et al. [Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. and Mellefont, L. A. and McMeekin, T. A., 2003. Modelling the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth rate of Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 33-43.] to incorporate the effect of gelatin concentration, next to

  14. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  15. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  16. Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Duhnam-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Cruz, Adriana R.; Moore, Meagan W.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Velez-Climent, Leonor; Shupe, Jonathan; Krueger, Winfried; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-β and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1β, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-β and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. PMID:19461888

  17. In Planta Expression Screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effectors Reveal Diverse Phenotypes, Including Activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum Disease Resistance Protein Rpi-blb2[W

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cano, Liliana M.; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I.B.; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A.G.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2009-01-01

    The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD3645-1, suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34–amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

  18. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research.

  19. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  20. Parent Leadership and Family Involvement (Special Focus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kathy Goetz, Ed.; Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This "Special Focus" issue of "America's Family Support Magazine," focuses on parent leadership and family involvement. Articles pertaining to this focus include: (1) "Forging Equal Partnerships" (Ahsan); (2) "Who Best Represents the Voice of Parents?" (Foster); (3) "Parent Leadership Training…

  1. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  2. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  3. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  4. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  5. Dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device

    DOEpatents

    James, Conrad D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark S.

    2010-05-11

    A dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device uses interdigitated microelectrodes to provide a spatially non-uniform electric field in a fluid that generates a dipole within particles in the fluid. The electric field causes the particles to either be attracted to or repelled from regions where the electric field gradient is large, depending on whether the particles are more or less polarizable than the fluid. The particles can thereby be forced into well defined stable paths along the interdigitated microelectrodes. The device can be used for flow cytometry, particle control, and other process applications, including cell counting or other types of particle counting, and for separations in material control.

  6. Identification of barriers to the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness in Latino farmworkers using activity-oriented, participatory rural appraisal focus group methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat-related illness (HRI) is an important cause of non-fatal illness and death in farmworkers. We sought to identify potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in Latino farmworkers. Methods We conducted three semi-structured focus group discussions with 35 Latino farmworkers in the Central Washington, USA area using participatory rural appraisal techniques. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed in Spanish. Three researchers reviewed and coded transcripts and field notes, and investigator triangulation was used to identify relevant themes and quotes. Results Although the majority of participants in our study reported never receiving formal HRI training, most participants were aware that extreme heat can cause illness and were able to accurately describe HRI symptoms, risk factors, and certain prevention strategies. Four main observations regarding farmworkers’ HRI-relevant beliefs and attitudes were identified: 1) farmworkers subscribe to varying degrees to the belief that cooling treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, with some believing that such treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, and others encouraging the use of such treatments; 2) the desire to lose weight may be reflected in behaviors that promote increased sweating; 3) highly caffeinated energy drinks are preferred to increase work efficiency and maintain alertness; and 4) the location of drinking water at work (e.g. next to restrooms) and whether water is clean, but not necessarily chemically-treated, are important considerations in deciding whether to drink the water provided at worksites. Conclusions We identified potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment related to hydration, certain HRI treatments, clothing use, and the desire to lose weight among Latino farmworkers. Strategies to address potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in this population may include engineering, administrative, and health education and health promotion

  7. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  8. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of…

  9. Emotions in solution-focused therapy: a re-examination.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; de Shazer, S

    2000-01-01

    This article re-examines whether and how emotions are an aspect of solution-focused therapy. A major theme in the article focuses on the usual ways that therapists define and discuss emotions in solution-focused and other therapies. We argue that these discussions are a source of much confusion about emotions and about solution-focused therapy, including the confusing idea that emotions are neglected in solution-focused therapy. The second major theme describes an alternative approach to these issues, one that we believe better fits with the assumptions and concerns of solution-focused therapy. The approach is based on Wittgenstein's writings about language games, private experience, and how emotions are rule-following activities. Viewed from this perspective, solution-focused therapists take account of their clients' emotions by helping clients to create new emotion rules to follow.

  10. HINS Linac front end focusing system R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, G.; Carcagno, R.H.; Dimarco, J.; Huang, Y.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Page, T.M.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab /Argonne

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes current status of an R&D program to develop a focusing system for the front end of a superconducting RF linac. Superconducting solenoids will be used as focusing lenses in the low energy accelerating sections of the front end. The development of focusing lenses for the first accelerating section is in the production stage, and lens certification activities are in preparation at FNAL. The report contains information about the focusing lens design and performance, including solenoid, dipole corrector, and power leads, and about cryogenic system design and performance. It also describes the lens magnetic axis position measurement technique and discusses scope of an acceptance/certification process.

  11. Improving focus performance at litho using diffraction-based focus metrology, novel calibration methods, interface, and control loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiarui; Chen, Y. L.; Chen, K. H.; Lee, Brian; Tsai, Frankie; Ke, C. M.; Liao, C. H.; Ngo, Desmond; Gosali, Benny; Tijssen, Robin; Huang, Vincent; Tu, Ward; Noot, Marc; Escalante Marun, Maryana; Leewis, Christian; Luijten, Carlo; Staals, Frank; Van Veen, Martijn; Furthner, Francois; Young, Stuart; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve

    2016-03-01

    In advanced optical lithography the requirements of focus control continues to tighten. Usable depth of focus (DoF) is already quite low due to typical sources of focus errors, such as topography, wafer warpage and the thickness of photoresist. And now the usable DoF is further decreased by hotspots (design and imaging hotspots). All these have put extra challenges to improve focus metrology, scanner focus stability calibrations and on-product correction mechanisms. Asymmetric focus targets are developed to address robustness in focus measurements using diffraction-based focus (DBF and μDBF) metrology. A new layout specific calibration methodology is introduced for baseline focus setup and control in order to improve scanner focus uniformity and stability using the measurements of the above mentioned asymmetric targets. A similar metrology is also used for on product focus measurements. Moreover, a few novel alternative methods are also investigated for on-product focus measurements. Data shows good correlation between DBF and process on record (POR) method using traditional FEM. The new focus calibration demonstrated robustness, stability and speed. This technical publication will report the data from all the above activities including results from various product layers.

  12. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  13. Including lifestyle medicine in undergraduate medical curricula

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Edward; Pojednic, Rachele; Polak, Rani; Bush, Jennifer; Trilk, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Currently, there is no model to integrate the discipline of lifestyle medicine (LM) into undergraduate medical education. Furthermore, there are no guidelines, validated assessment tools, or evaluation or implementation plans in place. Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020, two-thirds of disease worldwide will be the result of poor lifestyle choices. Fewer than 50% of US primary care physicians routinely provide specific guidance on nutrition, physical activity, or weight control. Methods We are establishing a plan to integrate LM into medical school education in collaboration with the investing stakeholders, including medical school deans and students, medical curriculum developers and researchers, medical societies, governing bodies, and policy institutes. Three planning and strategy meetings are being held to address key areas of focus – with a particular interest in nutrition, physical activity, student self-care, and behavior change – to develop specific implementation guidelines and landmarks. Results After the first two meetings, the proposed areas of focus were determined to be: 1) supporting of deans and key personnel, 2) creation of federal and state policy commitments, 3) use of assessment as a driver of LM, 4) provision of high-quality evidence-based curricular material on an easily navigated site, and 5) engaging student interest. Implementation strategies for each focus area will be addressed in an upcoming planning meeting in early 2015. Conclusion This initiative is expected to have important public health implications by efficiently promoting the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic disease with a scalable and sustainable model to educate physicians in training and practice. PMID:25652118

  14. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  15. Segregation or "Thinking Black"?: Community Activism and the Development Of Black-Focused Schools in Toronto and London, 1968-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: On January 29, 2008 the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) approved a city-wide Africentric elementary school under their Alternative School policy, sparking a contentious debate. Calls for Black-focused schools also arose in 2008 in London in response to the disengagement of African Caribbean youth. The historical record…

  16. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

  17. Isoelectric focusing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.; Egen, N. B.; Mosher, R. A.; Twitty, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of space electrophoresis is conditioned by the fact that all electrophoretic techniques require the suppression of gravity-caused convection. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a powerful variant of electrophoresis, in which amphoteric substances are separated in a pH gradient according to their isoelectric points. A new apparatus for large scale IEF, utilizing a recycling principle, has been developed. In the ground-based prototype, laminar flow is provided by a series of parallel filter elements. The operation of the apparatus is monitored by an automated array of pH and ultraviolet absorption sensors under control of a desk-top computer. The apparatus has proven to be useful for the purification of a variety of enzymes, snake venom proteins, peptide hormones, and other biologicals, including interferon produced by genetic engineering techniques. In planning for a possible space apparatus, a crucial question regarding electroosmosis needs to be addressed To solve this problem, simple focusing test modules are planned for inclusion in an early Shuttle flight.

  18. Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The effects of intensive training for children with cerebral palsy (CP) remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. Methods A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after intervention. Twenty-two children with hemiplegia (n = 7), diplegia (n = 11), quadriplegia (n = 2) and ataxia (n = 2) participated, age ranging 3-9 y. All levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) were represented. Parents and professionals participated in goal setting and training. ANOVA was used to analyse change over repeated measures. Results A main effect of time was shown in the primary outcome measure; Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66), mean change being 4.5 (p < 0.01) from last baseline to last follow up assessment. An interaction between time and GMFCS-levels was found, implying that children classified to GMFCS-levels I-II improved more than children classified to levels III-V. There were no main or interaction effects of age or anti-spastic medication. Change scores in the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) ranged 2.0-6.7, p < 0.01 in the Self-care domain of the Functional Skills dimension, and the Self-care and Mobility domains of the Caregiver Assistance dimension. The children's individual goals were on average attained, Mean Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) T-score being 51.3. Non-significant improved scores on the Gross Motor Performance Measure (GMPM) and the Quality of Upper Extremities Skills Test (QUEST) were demonstrated. Significant improvement in GMPM scores were found in improved items of the GMFM, not in items that maintained the same score. Conclusions Basic motor abilities and self

  19. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  20. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk…

  1. Teaching and Learning. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes four articles that focus on teaching and learning strategies to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Would You Read Me a Story?: In Search of Reading Strategies That Work for the Early Childhood Classroom" (Hilaria Bauer)…

  2. "How Can We Stay Healthy When You're Throwing All of This in Front of Us?" Findings from Focus Groups and Interviews in Middle Schools on Environmental Influences on Nutrition and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Yang, Y. Wendy; Austin, S. Bryn

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors in school physical and social environments that may facilitate or compete with programs and policies to improve student physical activity and nutrition. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with students, faculty, and staff of two public middle schools. Participants identified numerous aspects of the…

  3. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Automated detection of ocular focus.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David G; Nusz, Kevin J; Gandhi, Nainesh K; Quraishi, Imran H; Gramatikov, Boris I; Guyton, David L

    2004-01-01

    We characterize objectively the state of focus of the human eye, utilizing a bull's eye photodetector to detect the double-pass blur produced from a point source of light. A point fixation source of light illuminates the eye. Fundus-reflected light is focused by the optical system of the eye onto a bull's eye photodetector [consisting of an annulus (A) and a center (C) of approximately equal active area]. To generate focus curves, C/A is measured with a range of trial lenses in the light path. Three human eyes and a model eye are studied. In the model eye, the focus curve showed a sharp peak with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of +/-0.25 D. In human eyes, the ratio C/A was >4 at best focus in all cases, with a FWHM of +/-1 D. The optical apparatus detects ocular focus (as opposed to refractive error) in real time. A device that can assess focus rapidly and objectively will make it possible to perform low-cost, mass screening for focusing problems such as may exist in children at risk for amblyopia.

  5. Focus Curriculum Manual; A Focus Dissemination Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resource Associates, Inc., Hastings, Minn.

    This training manual is for use in preparing staff members to use the Focus Model, which is a "school within a school" for disaffected high school students. The material is designed to be used as a resource aid following participation in an in-service workshop. Information is presented to help implement a contracting system to establish…

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  7. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  8. Alternating phase focused linacs

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    A heavy particle linear accelerator employing rf fields for transverse and ongitudinal focusing as well as acceleration. Drift tube length and gap positions in a standing wave drift tube loaded structure are arranged so that particles are subject to acceleration and succession of focusing and defocusing forces which contain the beam without additional magnetic or electric focusing fields.

  9. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-10-01

    A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode was required for application of the sensor for microbial activity measurement, while biofilm-colonized anode was needed for utilizing the sensor for BOD content measurement. The current density of SUMFC sensor equipped with a biofilm-colonized anode showed linear relationship with BOD content, to up to 250 mg/L (∼233 ± 1 mA/m(2)), with a response time of <0.67 h. This sensor could, however, not measure microbial activity, as indicated by the indifferent current produced at varying active microorganisms concentration, which was expressed as microbial adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) concentration. On the contrary, the current density (0.6 ± 0.1 to 12.4 ± 0.1 mA/m(2)) of the SUMFC sensor equipped with a fresh anode showed linear relationship, with active microorganism concentrations from 0 to 6.52 nmol-ATP/L, while no correlation between the current and BOD was observed. It was found that temperature, pH, conductivity, and inorganic solid content were significantly affecting the sensitivity of the sensor. Lastly, the sensor was tested with real contaminated groundwater, where the microbial activity and BOD content could be detected in <3.1 h. The microbial activity and BOD concentration measured by SUMFC sensor fitted well with the one measured by the standard methods, with deviations ranging from 15% to 22% and 6% to 16%, respectively. The SUMFC sensor provides a new way for in situ and quantitative monitoring contaminants content and biological activity during bioremediation process in variety of anoxic aquifers.

  10. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  11. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  12. Environmental variability in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy): Focusing on the response of microbial activities and prokaryotic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Gabriella; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Decembrini, Franco; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Maimone, Giovanna; De Pasquale, Francesca; Monticelli, Luis Salvador; Zaccone, Renata; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    The response of both microbial activities and prokaryotic abundances to environmental variability was studied in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy) during two yearly surveys (1997-'98 and 2005-'06). The total enzymatic (leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase) and respiratory activity rates as well as of the abundances of total prokaryotes, culturable heterotrophic bacteria, faecal coliforms and enterococci were measured in surface waters of four brackish ponds, together with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen determinations. The seasonal and interannual patterns of microbial parameters were investigated in relation to environmental variations.

  13. Identification of a residue crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase by focusing on its molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Terumasa; Miyanokoshi, Miki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Wakasugi, Keisuke

    2016-04-20

    Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) exists in two forms: a full-length TrpRS and a mini TrpRS. We previously found that human mini, but not full-length, TrpRS is an angiostatic factor. Moreover, it was shown that the interaction between mini TrpRS and the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is crucial for its angiostatic activity. However, the molecular mechanism of the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS is only partly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of truncated (mini) form of TrpRS proteins from human, bovine, or zebrafish on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that both human and bovine mini TrpRSs inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial migration, whereas zebrafish mini TrpRS did not. Next, to identify residues crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS, we prepared several site-directed mutants based on amino acid sequence alignments among TrpRSs from various species and demonstrated that a human mini K153Q TrpRS mutant cannot inhibit VEGF-stimulated HUVEC migration and cannot bind to the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin. Taken together, we conclude that the Lys153 residue of human mini TrpRS is a VE-cadherin binding site and is therefore crucial for its angiostatic activity.

  14. Identification of a residue crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase by focusing on its molecular evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Terumasa; Miyanokoshi, Miki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Wakasugi, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) exists in two forms: a full-length TrpRS and a mini TrpRS. We previously found that human mini, but not full-length, TrpRS is an angiostatic factor. Moreover, it was shown that the interaction between mini TrpRS and the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is crucial for its angiostatic activity. However, the molecular mechanism of the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS is only partly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of truncated (mini) form of TrpRS proteins from human, bovine, or zebrafish on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that both human and bovine mini TrpRSs inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial migration, whereas zebrafish mini TrpRS did not. Next, to identify residues crucial for the angiostatic activity of human mini TrpRS, we prepared several site-directed mutants based on amino acid sequence alignments among TrpRSs from various species and demonstrated that a human mini K153Q TrpRS mutant cannot inhibit VEGF-stimulated HUVEC migration and cannot bind to the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin. Taken together, we conclude that the Lys153 residue of human mini TrpRS is a VE-cadherin binding site and is therefore crucial for its angiostatic activity. PMID:27094087

  15. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  16. Effects of At-Home Reading Activities and Parental Involvement on Classroom Communication Arts Assessments: Focus on the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, George

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation was written collaboratively by Cynthia Warren, Linetta Carter, and George Edwards with the exception of chapter 4 which is the individual effort of the aforementioned researchers. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of at-home reading activities and parental involvement on classroom communication arts assessments…

  17. Focusing on flu

    PubMed Central

    Short, Mary B; Middleman, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine. Results: Participants were generally found to be knowledgeable about influenza and to have positive attitudes toward receiving the vaccine via SLIP. Students were more willing to participate in a SLIP if it were low cost or free, less time-consuming than going to a doctor, and if they felt they could trust vaccinators. Overall, high school and middle school students ranked the benefits of SLIP similarly to each other. Methods: Focus groups using nominal group method were conducted with middle and high school students in a large, urban school district. Responses were recorded by each school, and then, responses were ranked across all participating schools for each question. Conclusions: A wide range of issues are important to middle and high school students when considering participation in SLIPs including convenience, public health benefits, trust in the program, program safety, and sanitary issues. Further research will be needed regarding the generalizability of these findings to larger populations of students. PMID:24018398

  18. Focus on Fitness: Q&A with Dr. Greene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Greene answers the following question in this brief article focusing on fitness: Everyone knows that children need plenty of exercise to stay healthy--But what does "fitness" really involve for young children? Following this discussion, the topics presented include: snack of the month; nutrition fact; and activities, "Move to the Music" and…

  19. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication.

  20. The relationship between physical activity and the living environment: a multi-level analyses focusing on changes over time in environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A M; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-03-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether individual-level PA was associated with changes in fear of crime, social cohesion, green spaces, parking facilities, social disorder, and physical disorder that occurred over the past 3 years. In general, in neighborhoods where residents had more favorable perceptions of the environment in 2006, residents were more likely to be physically active in 2009. In addition, improvements between 2006 and 2009 with respect to perceived social cohesion, green spaces, social disorder, and physical disorder were associated with increased odds of being active in 2009. For both the levels in 2006 and trends in the period 2006-2009, the associations were somewhat stronger among women than among men, but associations did not vary by age or length of residence. For several environmental factors, we observed that not only the levels at a certain point in time, but also recent improvements over time were related to PA. These results provide new support for a causal relationship between these environmental factors and PA.

  1. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Silva, Yanis Ricardo Espinosa; Fernandez, Nelson; Gutierrez, Reynaldo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7%) predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia) sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase.

  2. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Silva, Yanis Ricardo Espinosa; Fernandez, Nelson; Gutierrez, Reynaldo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7%) predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia) sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase. PMID:23778653

  3. How the Human Eye Focuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Jane F.; Handelman, George H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the decline in people's ability to focus their eyes as their age increases. Discusses probable causes of this effect including changes in the eye's geometry and biochemistry. Diagrammatically illustrates age related changes in the lens of the human eye. (CW)

  4. Standards and Assessment. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes three articles, two of which focus on standards for student evaluation and for admission to higher education. "A Measuring Stick for Standards and TEKS: Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green, Adela Solis) examines beliefs embodied in the notion of standards; defines content,…

  5. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  6. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  7. Focus, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus, 2001

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of 2000-2001 "Focus" present a collection of papers focusing on issues related to poverty. The first issue discusses child support enforcement policy and low-income families, highlighting such issues as fragile families and child wellbeing; low-income families and the child support enforcement system; child support…

  8. Diet-induced obesity progressively alters cognition, anxiety-like behavior and lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior: focus on brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation.

    PubMed

    André, Caroline; Dinel, Anne-Laure; Ferreira, Guillaume; Layé, Sophie; Castanon, Nathalie

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of mood symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions that emerges as significant risk factors for important health complications such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is therefore important to identify the dynamic of development and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these neuropsychiatric symptoms. Obesity is also associated with peripheral low-grade inflammation and increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. Excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines and the resulting activation of the brain tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) have been shown to promote neurobehavioral complications, particularly depression. In that context, questions arise about the impact of diet-induced obesity on the onset of neuropsychiatric alterations and the increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases displayed by obese patients, particularly through brain IDO activation. To answer these questions, we used C57Bl/6 mice exposed to standard diet or western diet (WD; consisting of palatable energy-dense food) since weaning and for 20 weeks. We then measured inflammatory and behavioral responses to a systemic immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in experimental conditions known to alter cognitive and emotional behaviors independently of any motor impairment. We first showed that in absence of LPS, 9 weeks of WD is sufficient to impair spatial recognition memory (in the Y-maze). On the other hand, 18 weeks of WD increased anxiety-like behavior (in the elevated plus-maze), but did not affect depressive-like behavior (in the tail-suspension and forced-swim tests). However, 20 weeks of WD altered LPS-induced depressive-like behavior compared to LPS-treated lean mice and exacerbated hippocampal and hypothalamic proinflammatory cytokine expression and brain IDO activation. Taken together, these results show that WD exposure alters cognition and anxiety in unstimulated

  9. Is Focus on Prevention Missing in National Health Programs? A Situation Analysis of IEC/BCC/Health Promotion Activities in a District Setting of Punjab and Haryana

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Jaswal, Nidhi; Grover, Ashoo

    2017-01-01

    Context: Health promotion (HP) has been an integral part of all national programs although it has been a low priority in India, which has resulted in a failure to achieve the desired results. Settings and Design: Situation analysis of information education communication (IEC)/behavior change communication (BCC)/HP activities within the existing national health programs was undertaken in the district of Hoshiarpur in Punjab and the district of Ambala in Haryana during 2013-14. Materials and Methods: Facility-based assessments were done by conducting in-depth interviews with stakeholders, program officers, medical officers, health workers, and counselors. Household survey (332 individuals) and exit interview (102 interviews) were conducted to assess the knowledge of the community regarding key risk factors. Results: There was a high vacancy in the mass media division with 40% (2 out of 5) and 89% (8 out of 9) of the sanctioned positions vacant in Hoshiarpur and Ambala, respectively, with low capacity of staff and budget. There was no annual calendar, logbook of activities with poor recording of IEC material received and disseminated. The knowledge of community members regarding key risk factors such as tobacco use, salt intake, blood pressure level, anemia, and tuberculosis was 77.3%, 26.4%, 16.4%, 32.7%, and 91.8%, respectively, in the district of Ambala as compared to 77.5%, 37.5%, 33.3%, 25.8%, and 88.3%, respectively, in the district of Hoshiarpur. The village health and sanitation committee (VHSC) in the district of Hoshiarpur and village level core committee (VLCC) in the district of Ambala were found to be nonfunctional with no Iec/Bcc activities in the covered villages in the last month. Monitoring and supervision of Iec/Bcc activities were poor in both the districts. Conclusions: Iec/Bcc/HP is a neglected area in national health programs in the selected districts with inadequate budget, human resources with poor implementation, and requires strengthening for

  10. Eco: An Island Simulation Game. [Includes Packet of Population Education Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Anita; Landahl, John

    These materials, developed for upper elementary and junior high school students, focus on a selected core of population learning objectives. Included are 24 self-contained student activities designed to be integrated into the existing curriculum. The activities relate to population concepts that can be investigated through mathematics, science,…

  11. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-03-10

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  12. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 85Sr to include the 2009 result of the POLATOM (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Dziel, T.; Listkowska, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1975, ten laboratories have submitted 27 samples of known activity of 85Sr to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.2 MBq and 19 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the primary standardization result for the POLATOM, Poland. There are now four results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. [Anti-doping policy development process in the sports world (1968~1999): focusing on IOC activities and passive response from Korea].

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eui-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the anti-doping policy promoted by the IOC historical sociologically focusing on the period from 1968 to 1999. Public opinion surrounding doping control has emerged as a large amount of drug possession by athletes who had participated in the 1952 Olympics was caught, as well as following the accident where an athlete had died during the competition as a result of doping. From 1960, as many doping cases in sports games were exposed, several international organizations proclaimed fight against doping in order to seek a preventive measure. In 1961, the IOC newly established a medical commission within the organization. It was decided to implement doping control and female sex testing at the same time for all athletes who participated in the 1967 Olympics, and they were implemented from 1968 winter and summer Olympic Games. In 1971, the provisions for the tests were prescribed as mandatory on the IOC charter. From 1989, the OCT system was introduced as a measure to overcome limitations of the detection during competition period. As political problems and limitations emerged, WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) was established in 1999 to professionally manage and push for doping control. Female sex testing policy contributed to preventing males from participating in female competition by deceiving their gender to some extent. However, it was abolished due to strong public condemnation such as women's rights issues, social stigma and pain, and gender discrimination debate. In 1984, a doping control center was established in Korea, which enabled drug use or doping in the sports world to emerge to the surface in our society. Korea Sports Council and KOC articles of association that supervise doping related matters of Korean athletes were revised in 1990. The action of inserting doping related issue in the articles of association was taken 20 years after the start of IOC doping policy. Beginning with two international competitions in the 1980s, Korean

  14. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated.

  15. NEUROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDERS : A FOCUS ON TARDIVE DYSKINESIA AND SOFT NEUROLOGICAL SIGNS IN RELATION TO SERUM DOPAMINE BETA HYDROXYLASE ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Utpal; Basu, S.; Khastgir, U.; Kumar, Unnati; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Sagar, Rajesh; Bapna, J.S.; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Moore, P. Brain; Ferrier, I. Nicol

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the prognostic determinants were investigated involving bipolar patients classified into two groups-one with favourable course and outcome, and the other with clearly unfavourable prognosis, based on certain recommended criteria, with intermediate prognosis were excluded. As compared to the poor prognosis group, the good prognosis group had lower social dysfunctions, lower ratings on psychopathotogy fewer indicators of neurodysfunction in form of neurological soft signs (NSS) and tardive dyskinesia (TD). The poor prognosis group was characterized by: (i) older age at onset; (ii) more manic than depressive episodes (5:1) and (HI) lower levels of serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity (DBH). The association between poor prognosis bipolar disorder having neuroleptic intolerance (TD and NSS) with low serum DBH, suggests that it is genetically governed. Further research in this direction seems in order, particularly the follow up of first episode manic disorders. PMID:21494474

  16. Responses of Nigella sativa L. to Zinc Excess: Focus on Germination, Growth, Yield and Yield Components, Lipid and Terpene Metabolism, and Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Marichali, Ahmed; Dallali, Sana; Ouerghemmi, Saloua; Sebei, Houcine; Casabianca, Hervé; Hosni, Karim

    2016-03-02

    A comprehensive analysis of the responses of Nigella sativa L. to elevated zinc concentrations was assessed in pot experiments. Zn excess supply did not affect the germination but drastically reduced radicle elongation. A concentration-dependent reduction in all growth parameters, yield, and yield components was observed. With the increasing Zn concentrations, total lipid contents decreased and changes in fatty composition toward the production of saturated ones were underscored. Despite the reduction in the seeds essential oil yield, a redirection of the terpene metabolism toward the synthesis of oxygenated compounds has been evidenced. A significant increase in the total phenols and flavonoids contents concomitant with improved antioxidant activities has also been found. Collectively, these results highlight the possible use of N. sativa L. in phytoremediation applications, on the one hand, and that Zn excess could represent an excellent alternative to improve the nutritional attributes of this important species, on the other hand.

  17. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions.

    PubMed

    Travis, Fred; Shear, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a third meditation-category--automatic self-transcending--to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects.

  18. Vocational Rehabilitation: An Employment Program. Hearing on Examining the Vocational Rehabilitation System and the Rehabilitation Act, Focusing Slightly and Explore Some of the Issues, Including Linkage, the VR System Faces in Ohio, (Columbus, OH) before the Subcommittee on Employment and Training of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional report contains testimony examining the vocational rehabilitation system and the Vocational Rehabilitation Act and exploring some of the issues, including linkage, faced by the vocational rehabilitation system in Ohio. Statements were provided by a U.S. senator (Mike DeWine, Ohio) and representatives of the following agencies…

  19. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. PMID:27757007

  20. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities.

  1. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  2. Characterization and comparison of bacterial communities selected in conventional activated sludge and membrane bioreactor pilot plants: a focus on Nitrospira and Planctomycetes bacterial phyla.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, Carolina; Munz, Giulio; Petroni, Giulio; Lubello, Claudio; Mori, Gualtiero; Verni, Franco; Vannini, Claudia

    2013-07-01

    A pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a conventional activated sludge system (CAS) were in parallel operated to investigate the impact of the separation technology on the structure and functionality of the selected microbial community. Microbial communities as well as nitrogen removal efficiency of the biomass were characterized. Kinetics and microbial community structure turned out to be duly correlated. The impact of the separation technology on selective conditions and, in particular, the higher variability of solid separation efficiency in CAS with respect to MBR pilot plant possibly represented the main factor influencing the selection of bacterial communities. Concerning nitrifiers, bacteria of the genus Nitrospira were predominant in the MBR. This was in accordance with kinetics of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that suggested the presence of k-strategists, while r-strategists were selected in the CAS plant, possibly because of the presence of transient higher concentrations of nitrite (in the range of 0.05-0.18 and of 0.05-4.4 mg [Formula: see text]-N L(-1) in the MBR and CAS effluents, respectively). An unexpectedly high presence of bacteria belonging to two specific phylogenetic clades of Planctomycetes was found in both reactors.

  3. Design and validation of low-cost assistive glove for hand assessment and therapy during activity of daily living-focused robotic stroke therapy.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Dominic E; Johnson, Michelle J; McGuire, John R

    2009-01-01

    Hand and arm impairment is common after stroke. Robotic stroke therapy will be more effective if hand and upper-arm training is integrated to help users practice reaching and grasping tasks. This article presents the design, development, and validation of a low-cost, functional electrical stimulation grasp-assistive glove for use with task-oriented robotic stroke therapy. Our glove measures grasp aperture while a user completes simple-to-complex real-life activities, and when combined with an integrated functional electrical stimulator, it assists in hand opening and closing. A key function is a new grasp-aperture prediction model, which uses the position of the end-effectors of two planar robots to define the distance between the thumb and index finger. We validated the accuracy and repeatability of the glove and its capability to assist in grasping. Results from five nondisabled subjects indicated that the glove is accurate and repeatable for both static hand-open and -closed tasks when compared with goniometric measures and for dynamic reach-to-grasp tasks when compared with motion analysis measures. Results from five subjects with stroke showed that with the glove, they could open their hands but without it could not. We present a glove that is a low-cost solution for in vivo grasp measurement and assistance.

  4. Focusing corner cube

    DOEpatents

    Monjes, J.A.

    1985-09-12

    This invention retortreflects and focuses a beam of light. The invention comprises a modified corner cube reflector wherein one reflective surface is planar, a second reflective surface is spherical, and the third reflective surface may be planar or convex cylindrical.

  5. Inertial Focusing in Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Joseph M.; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future. PMID:24905880

  6. Inertial focusing in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Martel, Joseph M; Toner, Mehmet

    2014-07-11

    When Segré and Silberberg in 1961 witnessed particles in a laminar pipe flow congregating at an annulus in the pipe, scientists were perplexed and spent decades learning why such behavior occurred, finally understanding that it was caused by previously unknown forces on particles in an inertial flow. The advent of microfluidics opened a new realm of possibilities for inertial focusing in the processing of biological fluids and cellular suspensions and created a field that is now rapidly expanding. Over the past five years, inertial focusing has enabled high-throughput, simple, and precise manipulation of bodily fluids for a myriad of applications in point-of-care and clinical diagnostics. This review describes the theoretical developments that have made the field of inertial focusing what it is today and presents the key applications that will make inertial focusing a mainstream technology in the future.

  7. Final focus nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  8. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  9. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  10. High harmonics focusing undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  11. New NLC Final Focus

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.

    2004-10-11

    A novel design of the Final Focus has recently been proposed [1] and has been adopted now for the Next Linear Collider [2]. This new design has fewer optical elements and is much shorter, nonetheless achieving better chromatic properties. In this paper, the new final focus system is briefly discussed stressing one particular characteristic of the new design--its multi TeV energy reach.

  12. Chromosome-Directed PCR-Based Detection and Quantification of Bacillus cereus Group Members with Focus on B. thuringiensis Serovar israelensis Active against Nematoceran Larvae.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Salome; Hendriksen, Niels B; Melin, Petter; Lundström, Jan O; Sundh, Ingvar

    2015-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is a wide-spread soil bacterium affiliated with the B. cereus group (Bcg) and is widely used in biocontrol products applied against mosquito and black fly larvae. For monitoring and quantification of applied B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and its effect on indigenous B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg assemblages, efficient and reliable tools are essential. The abundance and properties of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis strains in the environment traditionally have been investigated with cultivation-dependent techniques, which are hampered by low sensitivity and the morphological similarity between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Currently available PCR-based detection and quantification tools target markers located on plasmids. In this study, a new cultivation-independent PCR-based method for efficient and specific quantification of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg is presented, utilizing two sets of PCR primers targeting the bacterial chromosome. Sequence database searches and empirical tests performed on target and nontarget species, as well as on bulk soil DNA samples, demonstrated that this diagnostic tool is specific for B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg. The method will be useful for comparisons of Bcg and B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis abundances in the same samples. Moreover, the effect of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis-based insecticide application on the total Bcg assemblages, including indigenous populations, can be investigated. This type of information is valuable in risk assessment and policy making for use of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the environment.

  13. Chromosome-Directed PCR-Based Detection and Quantification of Bacillus cereus Group Members with Focus on B. thuringiensis Serovar israelensis Active against Nematoceran Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Niels B.; Melin, Petter; Lundström, Jan O.; Sundh, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is a wide-spread soil bacterium affiliated with the B. cereus group (Bcg) and is widely used in biocontrol products applied against mosquito and black fly larvae. For monitoring and quantification of applied B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and its effect on indigenous B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg assemblages, efficient and reliable tools are essential. The abundance and properties of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis strains in the environment traditionally have been investigated with cultivation-dependent techniques, which are hampered by low sensitivity and the morphological similarity between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Currently available PCR-based detection and quantification tools target markers located on plasmids. In this study, a new cultivation-independent PCR-based method for efficient and specific quantification of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg is presented, utilizing two sets of PCR primers targeting the bacterial chromosome. Sequence database searches and empirical tests performed on target and nontarget species, as well as on bulk soil DNA samples, demonstrated that this diagnostic tool is specific for B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg. The method will be useful for comparisons of Bcg and B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis abundances in the same samples. Moreover, the effect of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis-based insecticide application on the total Bcg assemblages, including indigenous populations, can be investigated. This type of information is valuable in risk assessment and policy making for use of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the environment. PMID:25979887

  14. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide, A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Diabetic Retinopathy in Rats: Focus on the Vertical Information Processing Pathway.

    PubMed

    Szabadfi, K; Reglodi, D; Szabo, A; Szalontai, B; Valasek, A; Setalo, Gy; Kiss, P; Tamas, A; Wilhelm, M; Gabriel, R

    2016-04-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide that has been shown to exert protective effects in different neuronal injuries, such as retinal degenerations. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes, affects the microvasculature and neuronal architecture of the retina. We have proven earlier that PACAP is also protective in a rat model of DR. In this study, streptozotocin-induced DR was treated with intravitreal PACAP administration in order to further analyze the synaptic structure and proteins of PACAP-treated diabetic retinas, primarily in the vertical information processing pathway. Streptozotocin-treated Wistar rats received intravitreal PACAP injection three times into the right eye 2 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Morphological and molecular biological (qRT-PCR; Western blot) methods were used to analyze retinal synapses (ribbons, conventional) and related structures. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that retinal pigment epithelium, the ribbon synapses and other synaptic profiles suffered alterations in diabetes. However, in PACAP-treated diabetic retinas more bipolar ribbon synapses were found intact in the inner plexiform layer than in DR animals. The ribbon synapse was marked with C-terminal binding protein 2/Bassoon and formed horseshoe-shape ribbons, which were more retained in PACAP-treated diabetic retinas than in DR rats. These results are supported by molecular biological data. The selective degeneration of related structures such as bipolar and ganglion cells could be ameliorated by PACAP treatment. In summary, intravitreal administration of PACAP may have therapeutic potential in streptozotocin-induced DR through maintaining synapse integrity in the vertical pathway.

  15. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  16. Possibilities for focusing ultrasonic fields - A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlengermann, U.

    1986-05-01

    Focusing techniques for ultrasound devices used in NDE are examined in a review of recent experimental investigations and application reports. The advantages of focused sound fields are outlined (including increased sensitivity, lateral resolution, and S/N and improved reflector scanning); the characteristics of the focused field are reviewed; the fundamental principles of curved-crystal, lens, curved-reflector, zone-plate, and phase-plate focusing are explained; and their practical adaptation in NDE problems (by changing delay path, changing lenses, or switching annular arrays) is described. Consideration is given to geometric and technical limitations on focusing applicability and to the optimization of focusing. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

  17. On the neural basis of focused and divided attention.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Katharina; Wiese, Holger; Stude, Philipp; de Greiff, Armin; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Keidel, Matthias

    2005-12-01

    Concepts of higher attention functions distinguish focused and divided attention. The present study investigated whether these mental abilities are mediated by common or distinct neural substrates. In a first experiment, 19 healthy subjects were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI) while they attended to either one or both of two simultaneously presented visual information streams and responded to repetitive stimuli. This experiment resembled a typical examination of these mental functions with the single task demanding focused and the dual task conditions requiring divided attention. Both conditions activated a widespread, mainly right-sided network including dorso- and ventrolateral prefrontal structures, superior and inferior parietal cortex, and anterior cingulate gyrus. Under higher cognitive demands of divided attention, activity in these structures was enhanced and left-sided homologues were recruited. In a second experiment investigating another 17 subjects with almost the same paradigm, it was accounted for that in most dual task investigations of focused and divided attention the single tasks are easier to process than their combined presentation. Therefore, the task difficulty of focused attention tasks was increased. Almost the same activity pattern observed during division of attention was now found during focusing attention. Comparing both attentional states matched for task difficulty, differences were found in visual but not in prefrontal or parietal cortex areas. Our results suggest that focused and divided attention depend on largely overlapping neuronal substrates. Differences in activation patterns, especially in prefrontal and parietal areas, may result from unequal demands on executive control due to disparate processing requirements in typical tasks of focused and divided attention: Easier conditions begin with mainly right-sided activity within the attention network. As conditions become more difficult, left-lateralized homologue

  18. A focused strategic plan for outcomes evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stonestreet, J S; Prevost, S S

    1997-09-01

    This article describes how organizations devise strategic directions. The process of focused strategic or hoshin planning is introduced and reviewed. This model illustrates how a nursing department planned a focused strategic direction for outcomes evaluation. This discussion includes the dedication of resources, the focusing of research priorities and a summary of the outcomes evaluation program, and the method used for implementation of the priorities. Finally, benefits of both the focused planning process and the outcomes evaluation program are discussed.

  19. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  20. Reconsidering remineralization strategies to include nanoparticle hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kutsch, V Kim; Chaiyabutr, Yada; Milicich, Graeme

    2013-03-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible biofilm-mediated disease of the teeth that is defined by prolonged periods of low pH resulting in net mineral loss from the teeth. Hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, and the carbonated forms of calcium phosphate form the main mineral content of dental hard tissues: enamel, dentin, and cementum. Active dental caries results when the biofilm pH on the tooth surface drops below the dissolution threshold for hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite. The clinical evidence of this net mineral loss is porosity, whitespot lesions, caries lesions, and/or cavitation. The potential to reverse this mineral loss through remineralization has been well documented, although previous remineralization strategies for dental hard tissues have focused on the use of fluorides and forms of calcium phosphate. This in-vitro study documented the deposition of nanoparticle hydroxyapatite on demineralized enamel surfaces after treatment with an experimental remineralization gel. This finding supports consideration of an additional approach to remineralization that includes pH neutralization strategies and nanoparticle hydroxyapatite crystals.

  1. NICMOS focus monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is used to determine and monitor the optimal focus and tilt settings for all three NICMOS cameras. It is derived from SM2/NIC 7041, but is structurally quite a bit different. This proposal is built to run NIC1/2 focus sweeps on a weekly basis, and NIC3 focus sweeps twice a week during SMOV {following the "interim" runs of the 7150}. 7043 will run for as long as it is deemed necessary to keep track of the camera focii and to monitor the dewar anomaly. After the discussion on 20/3/96, this proposal is written to run 4 complete 1-week iterations starting 3 days after the last run of the 7150 {NICMOS COARSE OPTICAL ALIGNMENT, PART 2}.

  2. [Focused musculoskeletal sonography].

    PubMed

    Horn, Rudolf

    2015-09-16

    Even in emergent situations, focused musculoskeletal sonography must not be overlooked. It has a place in traumatology no less valuable than its place in internal medicine. It can be used to identify traumatic joint effusions, occult fractures and fissures, joint inflammation, muscle and tendon rupture; it can differentiate soft tissue swelling, locate a foreign body, or identify the location of fractures. Focused ultrasound should be performed by the attending physician directly at the patient’s bedside, in order to answer these specific questions.

  3. Electrolysis and isoelectric focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Lui, Roger; Yu, Xun

    1994-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors prove the existence of steady-state solutions for a three-species electrolyte. The species are subject to both dissociation-association reactions inside the electrolyte and electrochemical reactions at the boundary electrodes. This is a common occurrence in electrolysis. In the second part, the authors investigate how to use this model to describe isoelectric focusing, which is a common technique used to separate large protein molecules. In particular, the isoelectric focusing point for a particular type of protein molecule is calculated using formal perturbation analysis.

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  5. Focus on Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Donald S., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on issues in bilingual education. First, Elizabeth Flynn examines different kinds of bilingual programs; efforts made towards cultural pluralism in a number of countries; national benefits to be derived from bilingualism; the needs of American ethnic groups, new immigrants, and foreign students; and the pros and…

  6. Focus on First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Shari S.

    The result of a collaboration between the El Paso, Texas, school district and community agencies, the Focus on First Graders program provides early intervention and prevention using a comprehensive approach to providing a variety of services at the school to at-risk first graders from low income families. Teachers and parents were surveyed to…

  7. ENC Focus Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    The mission of the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse (ENC) is to identify effective curriculum resources, create high-quality professional development materials, and disseminate useful information and products to improve K-12 mathematics and science teaching and learning. This issue of "ENC Focus" contains articles related to mathematics teaching…

  8. Homework. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  9. Focus on Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenzky, Janet; Maitland, Christine

    2001-01-01

    As a followup to a survey of distance education faculty, the National Education Association conducted two 3-hour focus groups with 12 higher education faculty members in June 2000. The purpose of the groups was to gain more understanding of the complexity of feelings and opinions expressed in a telephone survey conducted in March 2000. The…

  10. Focusing on the Invisible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to answer the question of whether or not the design and development of an educational laboratory really changes when the focus is on nanotechnology. It explores current laboratory building trends and the added considerations for building a nanotechnology laboratory. The author leaves the reader with additional points to consider…

  11. A FOCUS On Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Susan

    1998-01-01

    William McKinley Middle School in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, has a parent volunteer program called FOCUS that targets average students who are not doing well academically. Program goals are to improve students' organizational skills, help them complete homework assignments, and reteach and preview lessons to increase understanding, so that students will…

  12. Focusing laser scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Economical laser scanner assembled from commercially available components, modulates and scans focused laser beam over area up to 5.1 by 5.1 cm. Scanner gives resolution comparable to that of conventional television. Device is highly applicable to area of analog and digital storage and retrieval.

  13. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically…

  14. Policy Update. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the drastic revision of the Texas education code undertaken during the 1995 state legislative session. "Education Policy Reform: Key Points for Districts" (Albert Cortez, Mikki Symonds) outlines critical issues in the legislation that have an impact on educational quality: charter schools exempt from state…

  15. Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on equity in children's literature, public funding for private schools, women in educational fields, female dropouts, and the relationship between school violence and family and community violence. "Violence in Our Schools" (Bradley Scott) explores reasons for school violence (media violence, isolation from…

  16. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  17. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and…

  18. Bilingual Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on instructional practices, evaluation, and the state of bilingual education. "Effective Implementation of Bilingual Programs: Reflections from the Field" (Abelardo Villarreal, Adela Solis) describes the key characteristics of successful bilingual programs: vision and goals; program leadership; linkage to central…

  19. Lifelong Learning. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on the need for adult literacy programs, as well as recent innovations in literacy education. "Adult Literacy and Leadership: Current Innovations" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes an adult literacy outreach program in Texas, and discusses the importance of family literacy for parents' involvement in their…

  20. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  1. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, the incoming president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO), Thomas L. Lewis, discusses his goals for the association, the challenges facing optometric education in the next decade, cooperation between ASCO and other professional organizations in optometry, his mentors in the profession, his focus as a…

  2. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An interview with the new president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, John Schoessler, considers issues the president wishes to focus on during his presidency, changes in optometry students over the years, people who influenced his educational ideas, and research currently being conducted at Ohio State University College of…

  3. Including the Excluded: One School for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…

  4. Clinically relevant HIF-1α-dependent metabolic reprogramming in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas includes coordinated activation of CAIX and the miR-210/ISCU signaling axis, but not MCT1 and MCT4 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Inés; Bernardo-Castiñeira, Cristóbal; Secades, Pablo; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Sandra; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Chiara, María-Dolores

    2017-01-13

    Metabolic reprogramming is a very heterogeneous phenomenon in cancer. It mostly consists on increased glycolysis, lactic acid formation and extracellular acidification. These events have been associated to increased activity of the hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1α. This study aimed at defining the metabolic program activated by HIF-1α in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and assessing its clinical impact. Global gene/miRNA expression was analyzed in SCC-derived cells exposed to hypoxia. Expression of HIF-1α, the carbonic anhydrase CAIX, and the lactate/H+ transporters MCT1 and MCT4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 246 SCCs. Cell-based analysis revealed that HIF-1α-driven metabolic program includes over-expression of glycolytic enzymes and the microRNA miR-210 coupled to down-regulation of its target, the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein, ISCU. pH-regulator program entailed over-expression of CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4. Accordingly, significant overlapping exists between over-expression of HIF-1α and CAIX, but not HIF-1α and MCT1 or MCT4, in tumor cells. Increased miR-210 and concomitant decreased ISCU RNA levels were found in ~40% of tumors and this was significantly associated with HIF-1α and CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4, over-expression. HIF-1α and/or CAIX over-expression was associated with high recurrence rate and low overall survival of surgically treated patients. By contrast, clinically significant correlations were not found in tumors with MCT1 or MCT4 over-expression. This is the first study that provides in vivo evidences of coordinated activation of HIF-1α, CAIX, miR-210 and ISCU in carcinoma and association with poor prognosis, a finding with important implications for the development of metabolic-targeting therapies against hypoxia.

  5. Intracranial Applications of MR Imaging-Guided Focused Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Khanna, N; Gandhi, D; Steven, A; Frenkel, V; Melhem, E R

    2017-03-01

    Initially used in the treatment of prostate cancer and uterine fibroids, the role of focused ultrasound has expanded as transcranial acoustic wave distortion and other limitations have been overcome. Its utility relies on focal energy deposition via acoustic wave propagation. The duty cycle and intensity of focused ultrasound influence the rate of energy deposition and result in unique physiologic and biomechanical effects. Thermal ablation via high-intensity continuous exposure generates coagulative necrosis of tissues. High-intensity, pulsed application reduces temporally averaged energy deposition, resulting in mechanical effects, including reversible, localized BBB disruption, which enhances neurotherapeutic agent delivery. While the precise mechanisms remain unclear, low-intensity, pulsed exposures can influence neuronal activity with preservation of cytoarchitecture. Its noninvasive nature, high-resolution, radiation-free features allow focused ultrasound to compare favorably with other modalities. We discuss the physical characteristics of focused ultrasound devices, the biophysical mechanisms at the tissue level, and current and emerging applications.

  6. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  7. Quantum focusing conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Leichenauer, Stefan; Wall, Aron C.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a universal inequality that unifies the Bousso bound with the classical focusing theorem. Given a surface σ that need not lie on a horizon, we define a finite generalized entropy Sgen as the area of σ in Planck units, plus the von Neumann entropy of its exterior. Given a null congruence N orthogonal to σ , the rate of change of Sgen per unit area defines a quantum expansion. We conjecture that the quantum expansion cannot increase along N . This extends the notion of universal focusing to cases where quantum matter may violate the null energy condition. Integrating the conjecture yields a precise version of the Strominger-Thompson quantum Bousso bound. Applied to locally parallel light-rays, the conjecture implies a novel inequality, the quantum null energy condition, a lower bound on the stress tensor in terms of the second derivative of the von Neumann entropy. We sketch a proof of the latter relation in quantum field theory.

  8. Focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  9. Focused Bessel beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P V

    2000-04-30

    The diffraction broadening of a focused beam with a Bessel amplitude distribution is examined. Calculations are reported not only of the traditional differential characteristics (radial distributions of the electric-energy densities and of the axial total electromagnetic energy flux in the beam), but also of integral quantities characterising the degree of transverse localisation of the radiation in a tube of specified radius within the beam. It is shown that in a large-aperture Bessel beam only a very small fraction of the total beam power is concentrated in its central core and that a focal point is also observed on intense focusing of the Bessel beam. This spot is not in the geometric-optical focal plane but is displaced from the latter by a certain distance. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  11. Focused on Robert E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, shows a geological feature dubbed 'Robert E.' Light from the top is illuminating the feature, which is located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Several images, each showing a different part of 'Robert E' in good focus, were merged to produce this view. The area in this image, taken on Sol 15 of the Opportunity mission, is 2.2 centimeters (0.8 inches) across.

  12. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Jungman, Gerard; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  13. Asking questions with focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.

  14. Focus on Fractals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Tim K.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a three-lesson unit that uses fractal geometry to measure the coastline of Massachusetts. Two lessons provide hands-on activities utilizing compass and grid methods to perform the measurements and the third lesson analyzes and explains the results of the activities. (MDH)

  15. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text.

  16. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F

    2016-07-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism.

  17. Clinical Safety of a High Dose of Phycocyanin-Enriched Aqueous Extract from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study with a Focus on Anticoagulant Activity and Platelet Activation

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Cassandra; Lenninger, Miki; Benson, Kathleen F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal for this study was to evaluate safety regarding anticoagulant activity and platelet activation during daily consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE), containing a high dose of phycocyanin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design, 24 men and women were enrolled after informed consent, and consumed either ACE (2.3 g/day) or placebo daily for 2 weeks. The ACE dose was equivalent to ∼1 g phycocyanin per day, chosen based on the highest dose Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Consuming ACE did not alter markers for platelet activation (P-selectin expression) or serum P-selectin levels. No changes were seen for activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time, or fibrinogen activity. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a significant reduction after 2 weeks of ACE consumption (P < .001), in contrast to placebo where no changes were seen; the difference in AST levels between the two groups was significant at 2 weeks (P < .02). Reduced levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) were also seen in the group consuming ACE (P < .08). Previous studies showed reduction of chronic pain when consuming 1 g ACE per day. The higher dose of 2.3 g/day in this study was associated with significant reduction of chronic pain at rest and when physically active (P < .05). Consumption of ACE showed safety regarding markers pertaining to anticoagulant activity and platelet activation status, in conjunction with rapid and robust relief of chronic pain. Reduction in AST and ALT suggested improvement in liver function and metabolism. PMID:27362442

  18. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Günther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  19. Clear Goals, Clear Results: Content-Focused Routines Support Learning for Everyone--Including Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Donna DiPrima; Bernstein-Danis, Tabetha; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare

    2014-01-01

    Learning how to give effective feedback can be a difficult task for teacher leaders. This is especially true for what is called "hard feedback"--that is, feedback that challenges the teacher's practice and therefore may cause some level of professional discomfort. Educators at the University of Pittsburgh's Institute for Learning have…

  20. Truly Included? A Literature Study Focusing on the Social Dimension of Inclusion in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Social participation of students with special educational needs (SEN) is a key issue in the inclusion debate. However, the meaning of concepts like social integration, social inclusion and social participation used in current literature is often unclear. Recently, these concepts were clarified based on preschool and primary school literature. The…

  1. Conducting the Computer-Mediated Focus Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban, Kenneth A.

    The growing popularity of focus group measurements can be traced to any one of four factors: (1) the economics associated with focus groups; (2) the speed at which data can now be collected; (3) the need to understand customer motivations; and (4) the desire to improve subsequent qualitative research activities and programs. Market researchers are…

  2. Facility Focus: Science Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of five custom designs used in university science buildings. Descriptions include renovation to a mechanical engineering lab, construction of a new building for molecular biology, the reconstruction of chemistry labs, the renovation of a vision lab, and a new research and education facility. Includes photos. (RJM)

  3. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  4. Focus on 'Rue Legendre'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated image of PIA04196 Focus on 'Rue Legendre'

    Spirit used its microscopic imager to take this mosaic of the rock 'Haussmann' on martian day, or sol, 563 (August 3, 2005). The specific target is nicknamed 'Rue Legendre.' The rounded nature of the pebbles indicates that they were eroded on the surface before being embedded into the Haussmann rock. The size of the larger of the two pebbles is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches). The rock probably formed from impact ejecta, consistent with other rocks Spirit discovered during its climb to the summit of 'Husband Hill.'

  5. Transverse field focused system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1986-01-01

    A transverse field focused (TFF) system for transport or acceleration of an intense sheet beam of negative ions in which a serial arrangement of a plurality of pairs of concentric cylindrical-arc electrodes is provided. Acceleration of the sheet beam can be achieved by progressively increasing the mean electrode voltage of successive electrode pairs. Because the beam is curved by the electrodes, the system can be designed to transport the beam through a maze passage which is baffled to prevent line of sight therethrough. Edge containment of the beam can be achieved by shaping the side edges of the electrodes to produce an electric force vector directed inwardly from the electrode edges.

  6. Focused crossed Andreev reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, H.; Brataas, A.; Waintal, X.; Bauer, G. E. W.

    2011-03-01

    We consider non-local transport mediated by Andreev reflection in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) connected to one superconducting and two normal metal terminals. A robust scheme is presented for observing crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) between the normal metal terminals based on electron focusing by weak perpendicular magnetic fields. At slightly elevated temperatures the CAR signature can be easily distinguished from a background of quantum interference fluctuations. The CAR-induced entanglement between electrons can be switched on and off over large distances by the magnetic field.

  7. Include Passive Solar in Your Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Gerald F.; Probasco, Jack F.

    1981-01-01

    A checklist covers potential energy saving modifications in a building scheduled for renovation, and includes suggestions for room utilization, landscaping, and building envelope, solar control, and active system modifications. (Author)

  8. Focusing on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lagassa, G.

    1993-01-01

    With increased relicensing activity and a federal emphasis on safety, dam repair and refurbishment is a growing business. Providers of goods and services are gearing up to meet the dam repair and rehabilitation needs that result.

  9. Focus on the Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    Describes historical accounts of the manipulation and importance of the Earth and its mineral resources. A foldout, "Out of the Rock," provides a collection of activities and information that helps make integration of the aforementioned concepts easy. (ZWH)

  10. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Liakus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  11. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  12. Unstable resonators with a distributed focusing gain.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T R

    1994-08-20

    The geometrical optics approximation is used to form a model of axisymmetric unstable resonators having distributed focus, gain, and loss. A tapered reflectivity feedback mirror is included. The rate equations for propagation through the focusing gain medium are derived. A unique grid is found for propagation without interpolation along eigenrays in each direction. Numerical examples show the effects of distributed gain and focus on the axial and transverse intensity distributions.

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-10-01

    Control of quantum phenomena has grown from a dream to a burgeoning field encompassing wide-ranging experimental and theoretical activities. Theoretical research in this area primarily concerns identification of the principles for controlling quantum phenomena, the exploration of new experimental applications and the development of associated operational algorithms to guide such experiments. Recent experiments with adaptive feedback control span many applications including selective excitation, wave packet engineering and control in the presence of complex environments. Practical procedures are also being developed to execute real-time feedback control considering the resultant back action on the quantum system. This focus issue includes papers covering many of the latest advances in the field. Focus on Quantum Control Contents Control of quantum phenomena: past, present and future Constantin Brif, Raj Chakrabarti and Herschel Rabitz Biologically inspired molecular machines driven by light. Optimal control of a unidirectional rotor Guillermo Pérez-Hernández, Adam Pelzer, Leticia González and Tamar Seideman Simulating quantum search algorithm using vibronic states of I2 manipulated by optimally designed gate pulses Yukiyoshi Ohtsuki Efficient coherent control by sequences of pulses of finite duration Götz S Uhrig and Stefano Pasini Control by decoherence: weak field control of an excited state objective Gil Katz, Mark A Ratner and Ronnie Kosloff Multi-qubit compensation sequences Y Tomita, J T Merrill and K R Brown Environment-invariant measure of distance between evolutions of an open quantum system Matthew D Grace, Jason Dominy, Robert L Kosut, Constantin Brif and Herschel Rabitz Simplified quantum process tomography M P A Branderhorst, J Nunn, I A Walmsley and R L Kosut Achieving 'perfect' molecular discrimination via coherent control and stimulated emission Stephen D Clow, Uvo C Holscher and Thomas C Weinacht A convenient method to simulate and visually

  14. Seneca Falls. Classroom Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balantic, Jeannette; Libresco, Andrea S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a secondary school lesson based on the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments. Provides lesson objectives and step-by-step instructional procedures. Includes quoted sections of the Declaration of Sentiments. (CFR)

  15. Facility Focus: Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes the designs of the Ferris State University Library for Information, Technology and Education (FLITE), and the Meyer Library and Information Technology Center at Southwest Missouri State University. Includes photographs. (EV)

  16. ERLN Biological Focus Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network supports the goal to increase national capacity for biological analysis of environmental samples. This includes methods development and verification, technology transfer, and collaboration with USDA, FERN, CDC.

  17. Facility Focus: Athletic Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the designs of the Jesse Owens Memorial Stadium at Ohio State University and the fitness center of Scottsdale Community College in Arizona. Discusses design goals and unique features and includes photographs. (EV)

  18. Facility Focus: Science Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the buildings of the International Center for Public Health of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, and the Louise C. Buhl Hall of Sciences at Chatham College in Pennsylvania, particularly their atriums. Includes photographs. (EV)

  19. SH2B1beta (SH2-Bbeta) enhances expression of a subset of nerve growth factor-regulated genes important for neuronal differentiation including genes encoding urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloproteinase 3/10.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linyi; Maures, Travis J; Jin, Hui; Huo, Jeffrey S; Rabbani, Shafaat A; Schwartz, Jessica; Carter-Su, Christin

    2008-02-01

    Previous work showed that the adapter protein SH2B adapter protein 1beta (SH2B1) (SH2-B) binds to the activated form of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor TrkA and is critical for both NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth and maintenance. To identify SH2B1beta-regulated genes critical for neurite outgrowth, we performed microarray analysis of control PC12 cells and PC12 cells stably overexpressing SH2B1beta (PC12-SH2B1beta) or the dominant-negative SH2B1beta(R555E) [PC12-SH2B1beta(R555E)]. NGF-induced microarray expression of Plaur and Mmp10 genes was greatly enhanced in PC12-SH2B1beta cells, whereas NGF-induced Plaur and Mmp3 expression was substantially depressed in PC12-SH2B1beta(R555E) cells. Plaur, Mmp3, and Mmp10 are among the 12 genes most highly up-regulated after 6 h of NGF. Their protein products [urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), and MMP10] lie in the same pathway of extracellular matrix degradation; uPAR has been shown previously to be critical for NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed SH2B1beta enhancement of NGF induction of all three genes and the suppression of NGF induction of all three when endogenous SH2B1 was reduced using short hairpin RNA against SH2B1 and in PC12-SH2B1beta(R555E) cells. NGF-induced levels of uPAR and MMP3/10 and neurite outgrowth through Matrigel (MMP3-dependent) were also increased in PC12-SH2B1beta cells. These results suggest that SH2B1beta stimulates NGF-induced neuronal differentiation at least in part by enhancing expression of a specific subset of NGF-sensitive genes, including Plaur, Mmp3, and/or Mmp10, required for neurite outgrowth.

  20. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance.

  1. Focus Groups with Linguistically Marginalized Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardi, Marco M.

    The focus group method has rapidly gained credibility among researchers in many fields, including public health researchers. The increased use of focus groups by public health researchers has underscored the demonstrable need for the capacity to apply this method of research among populations with limited abilities in or cultural resistance to…

  2. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  3. Physiology of BDNF: focus on hypothalamic function.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Arancibia, Lucia; Rage, Florence; Givalois, Laurent; Arancibia, Sandor

    2004-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family which interacts with high-affinity protein kinase receptors (Trk) and the unselective p75(NGFR) receptor. The BDNF gene has a complex structure with multiple regulatory elements and four promoters that are differentially expressed in central or peripheral tissue. BDNF expression is regulated by neuronal activity or peripheral hormones. Neurotrophins regulate the survival and differentiation of neurons during development but growing evidence indicates that they are also involved in several functions in adulthood, including plasticity processes. BDNF expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is modified by various kinds of brain insult (stress, ischemia, seizure activity, hypoglycemia, etc.) and alterations in its expression may contribute to some pathologies such as depression, epilepsy, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disease. Apart from very traumatic situations, the brain functioning is resilient to stress and capable of adaptive plasticity. Neurotrophins might act as plasticity mediators enhancing this trait which seems to be crucial in adaptive processes. In addition to documenting all of the topics mentioned above in the CNS, we review the state of the art concerning neurotrophins and their receptors, including our personal contribution which is essentially focused on the stress response.

  4. A flexible business focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-11-01

    The challenge of sourcing equipment to meet customer needs around the world remains a prerequisite for boiler and CFB manufacturers as they strive to maintain a strong business presence in key markets. Boiler vendors are learning to meet their targets based upon what the market is, not what they hope it will become. An elastic equipment supply strategy is bolstering new business activity for internationally active boiler and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) vendors. Techniques such as flexible sourcing and expanded scope capability are helping suppliers gain market advantage in new global growth areas.

  5. Alliance-focused training.

    PubMed

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach.

  6. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuszewski, Michał J.; Bujak, Renata; Daghir, Emilia

    Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is a widespread technique for the analysis of peptides and proteins in biological samples. CIEF is used to separate mixtures of compounds on the basis of differences in their isoelectric point. Aspects of sample preparation, capillary selection, zone mobilization procedures as well as various detection modes used have been described and discussed. Moreover CIEF, coupled to various types of detection techniques (MALDI or LIF), has increasingly been applied to the analysis of variety different high-molecular compounds. CIEF is considered as a highly specific analytical method which may be routinely used in the separation of rare hemoglobin variants. In addition, the application of CIEF in proteomic field have been discussed on the examples of analyses of glycoproteins and immunoglobins due to the meaning in clinical diagnostic.

  7. Focus on granular segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen E.; Schröter, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Ordinary fluids mix themselves through thermal motions, or can be even more efficiently mixed by stirring. In contrast, granular materials such as sand often unmix when they are stirred, shaken or sheared. This granular segregation is both a practical means to separate materials in industry, and a persistent challenge to uniformly mixing them. While segregation phenomena are ubiquitous, a large number of different mechanisms have been identified and the underlying physics remains the subject of much inquiry. Particle size, shape, density and even surface roughness can play significant roles. The aim of this focus issue is to provide a snapshot of the current state of the science, covering a wide range of packing densities and driving mechanisms, from thermal-like dilute systems to dense flows.

  8. Focus awards 2002.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi

    2003-03-22

    The dental team at Zetland House Clinic are a particularly innovative group. As a result of their parent hospital being the first to complete a whole organization clinical governance programme run by the NHS Modernization Agency, they were consequently the first dental team to do so. Now the clinic is a better place to work where the staff are proud of their clinic and the work that they do. The changes that resulted through their experiences of the program have benefited the patients and staff alike, and was such a success story that they have been taken as an example for the Modernisation Agency website to illustrate good practice in clinical governance. These changes and the way they approached their involvement in the program also earned the Zetland House team a place on the finalist list of the 2002 Focus Awards.

  9. Parental Involvement. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains seven articles about meaningful participation by parents, particularly Hispanic and other minority parents, in the education of their children. "Parents Reclaiming Their Schools: New Initiative Brings Parents Together for Better Schools" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes objectives and activities of a Texas-based…

  10. NAS Forums Focus on National Science Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A series of public meetings designed to focus on complex and persistent problems of national importance involving science has been launched. Topics such as drugs, energy, and natural disasters are included. (DF)

  11. Sea Surface Temperature from EUMETSAT Including Sentinel-3 SLSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, Anne; Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Tomazic, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of sea surface temperature (SST) activities at EUMETSAT including information on SST planned from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). Operational oceanography activities within the Marine Applications group at EUMETSAT continue with a focus on SST, sea surface winds, sea-ice products, radiative fluxes, significant wave height and sea surface topography. These are achieved through the mandatory, optional and third-party programmes, and for some products with the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea-Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF). Progress towards products from sea-ice surface temperature, ocean colour products, turbidity and aerosol optical depth over water continue. Information on oceanography products from EUMETSAT can be found through the product navigator (http://navigator.eumetsat.int). EUMETSAT have been collaborating with ESA for a number of years on the development of SST for SLSTR.

  12. High School Economics. Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie; Smith, Robert F.; Highsmith, Robert J.

    This book opens with an exploration of the fundamental trilogy of economics - scarcity, choice, and cost. Students then examine the broad social goals of an economy in preparation for lessons treating many topics new to the precollege level such as the stock market, public choice, and aggregate supply and demand. The set of 20 lessons include: (1)…

  13. Law as Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Joan Heiges

    1989-01-01

    Shows how teachers can increase students' general appreciation of literature and improve students' writing skills by studying literature with legal issues and images of the law. Cites several examples of such literature, including Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales," William Shakespeare's "Measure for Measure," and Jonathan…

  14. Focus on Basics, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus on Basics, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the four 1998 quarterly issues of this newsletter that present best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and information on how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policy makers. The following are among the major articles included: "Power,…

  15. Focus on Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Karen; Tripp, Connie

    This module was developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School. Designed for a broad spectrum of employees at a health care facility for the elderly, this three-session workplace literacy workshop is designed around a basic three-part communication model that includes listening, problem solving, and follow-up, along with a…

  16. Focus on Shakespearean Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Charles W., Ed.

    This is an anthology of reviews and critical pieces of the significant and available Shakespearean films made between 1935 and 1966. Included are three general essays on Shakespearean film by Ian Johnson, Henri Lemaitre, and Geoffrey Reeves. The specific films and their reviewers are: A Midsummer's Night Dream (1935) Allardyce Nicoll and Richard…

  17. Leadership Development. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes three articles on the theme of leadership development, particularly in relation to high-risk students or Mexican American communities. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: 'Because All Children Are Valuable'" (Linda Cantu) shares some success stories from the program, which recruits high-risk students to be tutors of…

  18. Geography. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, George C., Jr.; Domingo, Vernon; Landman, Margaret; Miller, Glenn; Watson, Carlyjane D.; Hopkins, Martha C.

    This book allows students to use two specific geographic perspectives - spatial and ecological - to help them understand spatial patterns and processes and the interaction of living and nonliving elements in complex webs of relationships within nature and between nature and society. The set of 12 lessons include: (1) "Where in the World?…

  19. Gender Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on gender equity and related issues in education, with particular reference to the education of Hispanic girls. "IDRA's MIJA Program Expands" (Aurora Yanez-Perez) describes a program for sixth-grade Hispanic girls that promotes awareness of science- and math-related careers, provides training in…

  20. Racism. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue includes four articles on racism in colleges and public schools and on strategies to build ethnic and racial tolerance. "Affirmative Action: Not a Thing of the Past" (Linda Cantu) reviews the history of affirmative action and its positive effects on Hispanic and Black enrollment in higher education, discusses current efforts to…

  1. Policy. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles about educational and school policies, primarily related to equality of educational opportunity. "Texas Legislature Considers Much for Education, Accomplishes Little" (Albert Cortez, Anna Alicia Romero) summarizes educational legislation considered by the Texas legislature in the session ending in…

  2. Facility Focus: Historic Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the renovation of historic buildings at Rice University (conversion of the Chemistry Building into space for the biophysics and bioengineering departments) and at Princeton University (renovation of the Dial Lodge eating club into a building for the Bendheim Center for Finance). Includes photographs. (EV)

  3. Focus on the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Deborah

    1980-01-01

    Described is the observation of the moon with binoculars. Descriptions of the thin crescent moon, three-day-old moon, five-day-old moon, first quarter moon, 10-day-old moon and the full moon are presented and characteristics of each phase are included. (DS)

  4. White Light Focusing Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Hulbert, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The NSLS X28C white-light beamline is being outfitted with a focusing mirror in order to increase, as well as control, the x-ray intensity at the sample position. The new mirror is a 50 mm × 100 mm × 1100 mm single crystal silicon cylindrical 43.1mm radius substrate bendable to a toroid from infinite to 1200 m radius. The unique feature of this mirror system is the dual use of Indalloy 51 as both a mechanism for heat transfer and a buoyant support to negate the effects of gravity. The benefit of the liquid metal support is the ability to correct for minor slope errors that take the form of a parabola. A bobber mechanism is employed to displace the fluid under the mirror +/- 1.5 mm. This allows RMS slope error correction on the order of 2 urad. The unique mounting of the mirror ensures the contributions to slope error from errant mechanical stresses due to machining tolerances are virtually non-existent. After correction, the surface figure error (measured minus ideal) is <= 0.5 urad rms.

  5. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  6. Larvicidal activity of Blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including Zika virus vectors: the promising potential of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene, carvotanacetone and dodecyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Senthilmurugan, Sengamalai; Vijayan, Periasamy; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M

    2017-04-01

    The effective and environmentally sustainable control of mosquitoes is a challenge of essential importance. This is due to the fact that some invasive mosquitoes, with special reference to the Aedes genus, are particularly difficult to control, due to their high ecological plasticity. Moreover, the indiscriminate overuse of synthetic insecticides resulted in undesirable effects on human health and non-target organisms, as well as resistance development in targeted vectors. Here, the leaf essential oil (EO) extracted from a scarcely studied plant of ethno-medicinal interest, Blumea eriantha (Asteraceae), was tested on the larvae of six mosquitoes, including Zika virus vectors. The B. eriantha EO was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The B. eriantha EO showed high toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of six important mosquito species: Anopheles stephensi (LC50=41.61 μg/ml), Aedes aegypti (LC50=44.82 μg/ml), Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50 =48.92 μg/ml), Anopheles subpictus (LC50=51.21 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50=56.33 μg/ml) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=61.33 μg/ml). The major components found in B. eriantha EO were (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene (12.8%), carvotanacetone (10.6%), and dodecyl acetate (8.9%). Interestingly, two of the main EO components, (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone, achieved LC50 lower than 10 μg/ml on all tested mosquito species. The acute toxicity of B. eriantha EO and its major constituents on four aquatic predators of mosquito larval instars was limited, with LC50 ranging from 519 to 11.431 μg/ml. Overall, the larvicidal activity of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone far exceed most of the LC50 calculated in current literature on mosquito botanical larvicides, allowing us to propose both of them as potentially alternatives for developing eco-friendly mosquito control tools.

  7. Assistance Focus: Africa (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  8. Stress wave focusing transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  9. A combination of gefitinib and FOLFOX-4 as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer patients. A GISCAD multicentre phase II study including a biological analysis of EGFR overexpression, amplification and NF-kB activation

    PubMed Central

    Cascinu, S; Berardi, R; Salvagni, S; Beretta, G D; Catalano, V; Pucci, F; Sobrero, A; Tagliaferri, P; Labianca, R; Scartozzi, M; Crocicchio, F; Mari, E; Ardizzoni, A

    2007-01-01

    Interesting activity has been reported by combining chemotherapy with cetuximab. An alternative approach for blocking EGFR function has been the development of small-molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinase domain such as gefitinib. We designed a multicentre phase II study in advanced colorectal cancer combining gefitinib+FOLFOX in order to determine the activity and to relate EGFR expression and gene amplification and NF-kB activation to therapeutic results. Patients received FOLFOX-4 regimen plus gefitinib as first-line treatment. Tumour samples were analysed for EGFR protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis and for EGFR gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) and NF-kB activation. Forty-three patients were enrolled into this study; 15 patients experienced a partial response (response rate=34.9%), whereas other 12 (27.9%) had a stable disease. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.8 months and median overall survival (OS) was 13.9 months. We did not find any relationship with EGFR overexpression, gene amplification, while NF-kB activation was associated with a resistance to therapy. Gefitinib does not seem to increase the activity of FOLFOX in advanced colorectal cancer even in patients overexpressing EGFR or with EGFR amplification. Furthermore, while NF-kB activation seems to predict resistance to chemotherapy as demonstrated ‘in vitro' models, gefitinib does not overcome this mechanism of resistance, as reported for cetuximab. PMID:18059397

  10. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  11. Focus: DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Progress in the development of DNA probes for the identification and quantitation of specific genetic sequences in biological samples is reviewed. Current research efforts in the development of DNA probes for the diagnosis of a wide variety of bacterial, viral, and other infectious diseases, such as herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus, and inherited genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are discussed. Progress in development of DNA probe assays for cancer diagnosis, detection of Salmonella food poisoning, tissue typing (detection of histocompatibility antigens), mutagen screening, and animal diseases, among other applications is included.

  12. Recent developments: Washington focus

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    The 101st Congress finally adjourned on October 28th after passing a deficit reduction package and a budget for FY 1991, as well as a Clean Air bill. The utility industry was an easy target for Congressional fundraising, and as a result of these new laws, utilities will be required to pay increased user fees and taxes, and incur additional expenses to meet new emission control requirements. The uranium enrichment restructuring bill was attached to the Senate version of the deficit reduction legislation, but was not included in the final bill.

  13. SIAM Workshop: Focus on Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-12

    The Fourth SlAM Graduate Student Focus on Diversity workshop was held on July 12, 2000 at the Westin Rio Mar Hotel in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. The Department of Energy provided partial support for this event. The day-long workshop consisted of several different activities. The meeting opened with a discussion of some data collected by the American Mathematical Society on Ph.D.'s awarded in the U.S. to citizens and non-citizens, further classified as blacks, latinos, asians and native americans. The activity continued with nine technical talks by underrepresented minority graduate students, informal luncheon and pizza breaks to foster social interaction, and an evening forum chaired by Dr. Richard Tapia (Rice University) in which issues related to the participation of minorities in national meetings and proposal writing where discussed. These sessions were open to the entire SIAM community and served to highlight the progress, achievements, and aspirations of the workshop participants. The students attended as well the three SlAM plenary talks during the day and the community lecture in the evening. The activity had a lively participation of students and representatives from various academic institutions and sponsoring agencies. In particular, we had the participation of 24 undergraduate students from the Mathematics REU program of the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.

  14. Clustering instability of focused swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric; Nadal, Francois

    2016-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of active matter is its rich nonlinear dynamics and instabilities. Recent numerical simulations of phototactic algae showed that a thin jet of swimmers, obtained from hydrodynamic focusing inside a Poiseuille flow, was unstable to longitudinal perturbations with swimmers dynamically clustering (Jibuti L. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 90, (2014) 063019). As a simple starting point to understand these instabilities, we consider in this paper an initially homogeneous one-dimensional line of aligned swimmers moving along the same direction, and characterise its instability using both a continuum framework and a discrete approach. In both cases, we show that hydrodynamic interactions between the swimmers lead to instabilities in density for which we compute the growth rate analytically. Lines of pusher-type swimmers are predicted to remain stable while lines of pullers (such as flagellated algae) are predicted to always be unstable.

  15. Future focus for professional development.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole K; Coplit, Lisa D

    2013-01-01

    Professional development has evolved from individually focused sabbaticals and professional leaves to institutionally focused programs with an interest in developing faculty members' ability to teach in various environments as well as to succeed in the many endeavors they undertake. We address various issues related to professional development in the medical school arena. Professional development in medical school takes place in a context where faculty are stretched to engage in research and service not only for their own sake but also to financially support their institutions. This obligates professional developers to acknowledge and address the environments in which teaching faculty work, and to use approaches to professional development that honor the time and efforts of teaching faculty. These approaches may be brief interventions that make use of principles of education, and may include online offerings. Professional development will be most effective when professional developers acknowledge that most faculty members aspire to excellence in teaching, but they do so in an environment that pushes them to address competing concerns. Offering professional development opportunities that fit within the workplace environment, take little time, and build upon faculty's existing knowledge will assist in enhancing faculty success.

  16. Hormone Purification by Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1985-01-01

    Various ground-based research approaches are being applied to a more definitive evaluation of the natures and degrees of electroosmosis effects on the separation capabilities of the Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) process. A primary instrumental system for this work involves rotationally stabilized, horizontal electrophoretic columns specially adapted for the IEF process. Representative adaptations include segmentation, baffles/screens, and surface coatings. Comparative performance and development testing are pursued against the type of column or cell established as an engineering model. Previously developed computer simulation capabilities are used to predict low-gravity behavior patterns and performance for IEF apparatus geometries of direct project interest. Three existing mathematical models plus potential new routines for particular aspects of simulating instrument fluid patterns with varied wall electroosmosis influences are being exercised.

  17. Low voltage operation of plasma focus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rohit; Sharma, S K; Banerjee, P; Das, R; Deb, P; Prabahar, T; Das, B K; Adhikary, B; Shyam, A

    2010-08-01

    Plasma foci of compact sizes and operating with low energies (from tens of joules to few hundred joules) have found application in recent years and have attracted plasma-physics scientists and engineers for research in this direction. We are presenting a low energy and miniature plasma focus which operates from a capacitor bank of 8.4 muF capacity, charged at 4.2-4.3 kV and delivering approximately 52 kA peak current at approximately 60 nH calculated circuit inductance. The total circuit inductance includes the plasma focus inductance. The reported plasma focus operates at the lowest voltage among all reported plasma foci so far. Moreover the cost of capacitor bank used for plasma focus is nearly 20 U.S. dollars making it very cheap. At low voltage operation of plasma focus, the initial breakdown mechanism becomes important for operation of plasma focus. The quartz glass tube is used as insulator and breakdown initiation is done on its surface. The total energy of the plasma focus is approximately 75 J. The plasma focus system is made compact and the switching of capacitor bank energy is done by manual operating switch. The focus is operated with hydrogen and deuterium filled at 1-2 mbar.

  18. Systems safety including DOD standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, Donald M.

    The stated purpose of MIL STD 882B (1984), which is currently the basis of all U.S. DOD criteria in the field of systems safety design and analysis, is 'To provide uniform requirements for developing and implementing a system safety program of sufficient comprehensiveness to identify the hazards of a system, and to impose design requirements and management controls to prevent mishaps by eliminating hazards or reducing the associated risk to a level acceptable to the managing activity.' Attention is presently given to safety-related issues in material acquisition activities, as well as over the course of a system's life cycle, together with accounts of current hazard-analysis techniques, risk management and system-safety control methods, human factors, and the role of interfaces.

  19. Country focus: Lesotho.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Since Lesotho was reached relatively late by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the reported number of AIDS cases remains relatively low. Levels of awareness about the disease also remain low. With its high level of migrant labor, however, and very unequal gender relations, Lesotho has conditions which are highly conducive to the development of a major epidemic. The increasing incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases affirm the existence of high risk of HIV transmission in the country. By the end of 1995, 936 AIDS cases had been reported in Lesotho, including 68 pediatric cases. The head of the government's disease control division instead estimates that more than 4400 AIDS-related deaths had already occurred by the end of 1995 in a total population of a little more than 2 million. Women are dying at a 54.5:45.5 ratio to men, with female incidence being particularly high in the 20-39 year old age group. Having sex with multiple sex partners is the main risk factor for HIV transmission among adults in Lesotho. The most common presenting symptoms are described and the early stage impact of the epidemic discussed.

  20. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  1. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  2. The Hanford Site focus, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes what the Hanford Site will look like in the next two years. We offer thumbnail sketches of Hanford Site programs and the needs we are meeting through our efforts. We describe our goals, some recent accomplishments, the work we will do in fiscal year (FY) 1994, the major activities the FY 1995 budget request covers, and the economic picture in the next few years. The Hanford Site budget shows the type of work being planned. US Department of Energy (DOE) sites like the Hanford Site use documents called Activity Data Sheets to meet this need. These are building blocks that are included in the budget. Each Activity Data Sheet is a concise (usually 4 or 5 pages) summary of a piece of work funded by the DOE`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management budget. Each sheet describes a waste management or environmental restoration need over a 5-year period; related regulatory requirements and agreements; and the cost, milestones, and steps proposed to meet the need. The Hanford Site is complex and has a huge budget, and its Activity Data Sheets run to literally thousands of pages. This report summarizes the Activity Data Sheets in a less detailed and much more reader-friendly fashion.

  3. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Cassette, P.; Moune, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted seven samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. The values of the activity submitted were between about 1 MBq and 18 MBq. The primary standardization result for the LNE-LNHB, France, replaces their earlier result of 2002 and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated. In the frame of the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F18 comparison, the NPL updated their result in the KCDB. Consequently there are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  5. Dual focus diffractive optical element with extended depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Katsuhiro; Shimizu, Isao

    2014-09-01

    A dual focus property and an extended depth of focus were verified by a new type of diffractive lens displaying on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices. This type of lens is useful to read information on multilayer optical discs and tilted discs. The radial undulation of the phase groove on the diffractive lens gave the dual focus nature. The focal extension was performed by combining the dual focus lens with the axilens that was invented for expanding the depth of focus. The number of undulations did not affect the intensity along the optical axis but the central spot of the diffraction pattern.

  6. TRICARE: changes included in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010; enhancement of transitional dental care for members of the Reserve Component on active duty for more than 30 days in support of a contingency operation. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-12-28

    The Department is publishing this final rule to implement section 703 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (NDAA for FY10). Specifically, that legislation amends the transitional health care dental benefits for Reserve Component members on active duty for more than 30 days in support of a contingency operation. The legislation entitles these Reserve Component members to dental care in the same manner as a member of the uniformed services on active duty for more than 30 days, thus providing care to the Reserve member in both military dental treatment facilities and authorized private sector dental care. This final rule does not eliminate any medical or dental care that is currently covered as transitional health care for the member.

  7. Further investigation of the spontaneous and evoked activity of the primary neurons of statoreceptors (and other receptors) of the labyrinth of the bullfrog before, during and after an extended period of weightlessness, including alternative intervals of artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Vestibular neuron activity was examined by studying nerve stimulation and evoked response. A cooling element, applied to the nerve consisted of a silver hook through which a coolant fluid flowed. Temperature changes were recorded via microtermistors on an eight channel brush recorder, together with response. Diffusion of the cooling effect was measured, recovery time was assessed, and the nerve was then studied hystologically and ultrastructurally. Problems in frog preparation were discussed along with problems in maintaining healthy specimens and bacteria controlled aquaria.

  8. Focusators for laser-branding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  9. Dynamic Analyses Including Joints Of Truss Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1991-01-01

    Method for mathematically modeling joints to assess influences of joints on dynamic response of truss structures developed in study. Only structures with low-frequency oscillations considered; only Coulomb friction and viscous damping included in analysis. Focus of effort to obtain finite-element mathematical models of joints exhibiting load-vs.-deflection behavior similar to measured load-vs.-deflection behavior of real joints. Experiments performed to determine stiffness and damping nonlinearities typical of joint hardware. Algorithm for computing coefficients of analytical joint models based on test data developed to enable study of linear and nonlinear effects of joints on global structural response. Besides intended application to large space structures, applications in nonaerospace community include ground-based antennas and earthquake-resistant steel-framed buildings.

  10. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of small cationic amphipathic aminobenzamide marine natural product mimics and evaluation of relevance against clinical isolates including ESBL-CARBA producing multi-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Igumnova, Elizaveta M; Mishchenko, Ekaterina; Haug, Tor; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Sollid, Johanna U Ericson; Fredheim, Elizabeth G Aarag; Lauksund, Silje; Stensvåg, Klara; Strøm, Morten B

    2016-11-15

    A library of small aminobenzamide derivatives was synthesised to explore a cationic amphipathic motif found in marine natural antimicrobials. The most potent compound E23 displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5-2μg/ml against several Gram-positive bacterial strains, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).E23 was also potent against 275 clinical isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and ESBL-CARBA producing multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The study demonstrates how structural motifs found in marine natural antimicrobials can be a valuable source for making novel antimicrobial lead-compounds.

  11. Correlation between serum 25(OH)D values and lupus disease activity: an original article and a systematic review with meta-analysis focusing on serum VitD confounders.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, M; Nabavi, N; Salehi, M

    2014-10-01

    Notwithstanding that several original studies and some systematic reviews have been undertaken on the subject "correlation between serum values of vitamin D (VitD) and lupus disease activity," there is still no consensus on the importance of sectional measurement of serum VitD in the prediction of disease activity and important confounders in estimation of serum VitD. Medline, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases were searched from 1995 to 2013. The following medical subject heading (MeSH) terms and/or text words were used: "Vitamin D" OR "25OHD" OR "25(OH)D" combined with "systemic lupus erythematosus" OR "lupus" OR "SLE." References cited in the identified articles were also manually searched. Human studies in any language were included. Original research on this topic was also carried out on 82 lupus patients, considering important VitD confounders according to our systematic review and we included them in the meta-analysis. A total of 35 studies were registered for this study. Only 11 of these pointed to this correlation by Pearson test. The pooled Pearson correlation (r) of associations between disease activity and VitD was -0.365 (95% CI: -0.536, -0.165) with significant heterogeneity (p = 0.001 I (2 )= 93%). Sensitivity analysis resulted in no significant differences. The most important adjustable confounders considered by researchers were drugs, especially hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone and supplementary VitD, body mass index (BMI) and proteinuria or renal function. Only proteinuria was reported to influence VitD concentration strongly. BMI was another probable influencing factor. Our original research presented no correlation between VitD and SLEDAI (p = 0.68, r s = 0.003). This meta-analysis demonstrated that most of the studies on the relationship between VitD and lupus disease activity that found no correlation did not present the details of the statistics. However, analyzing 11 studies, most of which found a reverse correlation and

  12. Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.

    2012-04-01

    As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.

  13. Genome-wide identification of Drosophila Hb9 targets reveals a pivotal role in directing the transcriptome within eight neuronal lineages, including activation of Nitric Oxide Synthase and Fd59a/Fox-D

    PubMed Central

    Lacin, Haluk; Rusch, Jannette; Yeh, Raymond T.; Fujioka, Miki; Wilson, Beth A.; Zhu, Yi; Robie, Alice A.; Mistry, Hemlata; Wang, Ting; Jaynes, James B.; Skeath, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Hb9 is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that acts in combination with Nkx6, Lim3, and Tail-up (Islet) to guide the stereotyped differentiation, connectivity, and function of a subset of neurons in Drosophila. The role of Hb9 in directing neuronal differentiation is well documented, but the lineage of Hb9+ neurons is only partly characterized, its regulation is poorly understood, and most of the downstream genes through which it acts remain at large. Here, we complete the lineage tracing of all embryonic Hb9+ neurons (to eight neuronal lineages) and provide evidence that hb9, lim3, and tail-up are coordinately regulated by a common set of upstream factors. Through the parallel use of micro-array gene expression profiling and the Dam-ID method, we searched for Hb9-regulated genes, uncovering transcription factors as the most over-represented class of genes regulated by Hb9 (and Nkx6) in the CNS. By a nearly ten-to-one ratio, Hb9 represses rather than activates transcription factors, highlighting transcriptional repression of other transcription factors as a core mechanism by which Hb9 governs neuronal determination. From the small set of genes activated by Hb9, we characterized the expression and function of two – fd59a/foxd, which encodes a transcription factor, and Nitric oxide synthase. Under standard lab conditions, both genes are dispensable for Drosophila development, but Nos appears to inhibit hyper-active behavior and fd59a appears to act in octopaminergic neurons to control egg-laying behavior. Together our data clarify the mechanisms through which Hb9 governs neuronal specification and differentiation and provide an initial characterization of the expression and function of Nos and fd59a in the Drosophila CNS. PMID:24512689

  14. Include heuristics in protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kobyakov, A.I. )

    1993-02-01

    Automatic systems based on interlock principles are the most popular method of protecting plants from hazards. Nevertheless, such systems have specific shortcomings. The major one comes from the fact that protection controls are activated at the stage of break down mode development, and not at the moments of pre-fault status origin. It is possible to design protection controls that account for information relating to pre-fault status, causes, locations, and potential danger severity. A method of recreating automatic protection systems (APS) with functioning and structural organization is based on the accepted strategy of potentially hazardous plant protection. APS features these basic functions: pre-fault status classification and diagnostic providing protection controls that depend on pre-fault status type and cause, and suppression process analysis and protection controls correction. The system functions as a parallel/series process. Pre-fault status location data with related classification and diagnostics are based on current startup information. A protection control vector is formed that guarantees pre-fault status suppression. This paper describes these features.

  15. Molecular genetic responses to lysergic acid diethylamide include transcriptional activation of MAP kinase phosphatase-1, C/EBP-beta and ILAD-1, a novel gene with homology to arrestins.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2004-08-01

    We recently demonstrated that the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) dynamically influences the expression of a small collection of genes within the mammalian prefrontal cortex. Towards generating a greater understanding of the molecular genetic effects of hallucinogens and how they may relate to alterations in behavior, we have identified and characterized expression patterns of a new collection of three genes increased in expression by acute LSD administration. These genes were identified through additional screens of Affymetrix DNA microarrays and examined in experiments to assess dose-response, time course and the receptor mediating the expression changes. The first induced gene, C/EBP-beta, is a transcription factor. The second gene, MKP-1, suggests that LSD activates the MAP (mitogen activated protein) kinase pathway. The third gene, ILAD-1, demonstrates sequence similarity to the arrestins. The increase in expression of each gene was partially mediated through LSD interactions at 5-HT2A (serotonin) receptors. There is evidence of alternative splicing at the ILAD-1 locus. Furthermore, data suggests that various splice isoforms of ILAD-1 respond differently at the transcriptional level to LSD. The genes thus far found to be responsive to LSD are beginning to give a more complete picture of the complex intracellular events initiated by hallucinogens.

  16. Brassica napus responses to short-term excessive copper treatment with decrease of photosynthetic pigments, differential expression of heavy metal homeostasis genes including activation of gene NRAMP4 involved in photosystem II stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zlobin, I E; Kholodova, V P; Rakhmankulova, Z F; Kuznetsov, Vl V

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of 50 and 100 µM CuSO4 was investigated starting from 3 h till 72 h treatment of 4-weeks Brassica napus plants. High CuSO4 concentrations in nutrient medium resulted in the rapid copper accumulation in plants, especially in roots, much slower and to lower degree in leaves. Copper excess induced early decrease in the leaf water content and temporary leaf wilting. The decrease in content of photosynthetic pigments became significant to 24 h of excessive copper treatments and reached 35 % decrease to 72 h, but there were no significant changes in maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry. The copper excess affected the expression of ten genes involved in heavy metal homeostasis and copper detoxification. The results showed the differential and organ-specific expression of most genes. The potential roles of copper-activated genes encoding heavy metal transporters (ZIP5, NRAMP4, YSL2, and MRP1), metallothioneins (MT1a and MT2b), low-molecular chelator synthesis enzymes (PCS1 and NAS2), and metallochaperones (CCS and HIPP06) in heavy metal homeostasis and copper ion detoxification were discussed. The highest increase in gene expression was shown for NRAMP4 in leaves in spite of relatively moderate Cu accumulation there. The opinion was advanced that the NRAMP4 activation can be considered among the early reactions in the defense of the photosystem II against copper excess.

  17. Focus vernier for optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William H.; Barouch, Eytan; Hollerbach, Uwe; Orszag, Steven A.

    1993-08-01

    As the depth of focus of optical steppers grows smaller, it becomes more important to determine the position of best focus accurately and quickly. This paper describes the use of phase-shifted mask technology to form a focus vernier: a phase pattern on the stepper reticle which, when imaged in resist, can give both the magnitude and the direction of the focus error. In this, the focus vernier structure is analogous to 3overlay verniers. Thus the determination of focus error can be treated as an alignment problem in the z-axis. This technique is an improvement on previous schemes for the determination of best focus from resist images as it can indicate both the magnitude of the error and its direction in a single exposure.

  18. Examination of center of pressure displacement and muscle activity of the hip girdle muscles on lateral movement in the sitting position, focusing on kinematic features before and after the start of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Kouji; Suehiro, Kenji; Kizu, Akito; Kunieda, Hideki; Takasaki, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the kinematic characteristics at the start of lateral movement in the sitting position, for application in physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy male subjects (mean age, 24.8 ± 3.7 years) were included in the study after they provided informed consent. The electromyographic activities of the tensor fascia lata, gluteus medius, and rectus femoris, and the center of pressure (COP) displacement during lateral reach in the sitting position were measured. The task was recorded on video for analysis. [Results] In almost all subjects, before the beginning of the task, the electromyographic activity in the opposite side of each studied muscle was recorded, and the opposite and anterior displacement of the COP was observed. The video analysis revealed that all subjects showed lateral displacement of the thoracic part of the trunk after the start of the task. However, the lumbar region and pelvis maintained their starting positions. [Conclusion] COP displacement occurred in the reverse reaction before the task, and this involved the hip girdle muscles of the opposite side. A reverse reaction displaced the pelvis to the opposite side to ensure instability of posture through side tilting of the trunk at the beginning of the task. PMID:28356627

  19. A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mink, S; Härtig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

    1992-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. Images PMID:1328867

  20. 21 CFR 886.1840 - Simulatan (including crossed cylinder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... given object is clearly in focus, as the examiner uses different lenses). (b) Classification. Class I... cylinder). (a) Identification. A simulatan (including crossed cylinder) is a device that is a set of...