Science.gov

Sample records for activities including high

  1. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  2. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  3. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  4. Challenges and solutions in the bioanalysis of BMS-986094 and its metabolites including a highly polar, active nucleoside triphosphate in plasma and tissues using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Lute, John; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Bonnie; Trouba, Kevin J; Arnold, Mark E; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    BMS-986094, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, was withdrawn from clinical trials because of a serious safety issue. To investigate a potential association between drug/metabolite exposure and toxicity in evaluations conducted after the termination of the BMS-986094 development program, it was essential to determine the levels of BMS-986094 and its major metabolites INX-08032, INX-08144 and INX-09054 in circulation and the active nucleoside triphosphate INX-09114 in target and non-target tissues. However, there were many challenges in the bioanalysis of these compounds. The chromatography challenge for the extremely polar nucleoside triphosphate was solved by applying mixed-mode chromatography which combined anion exchange and reversed-phase interactions. The LC conditions provided adequate retention and good peak shape of the analyte and showed good robustness. A strategy using simultaneous extraction but separate LC analysis of the prodrug BMS-986094 and its major circulating metabolites was used to overcome a carryover issue of the hydrophobic prodrug while still achieving good chromatography of the polar metabolites. In addition, the nucleotide analytes were not stable in the presence of endogenous enzymes. Low pH and low temperature were required for blood collection and plasma sample processing. However, the use of phosphatase inhibitor and immediate homogenization and extraction were critical for the quantitative analysis of the active triphosphate, INX-09114, in tissue samples. To alleviate the bioanalytical complexity caused by multiple analytes, different matrices, and various species, a fit-for-purpose approach to assay validation was implemented based on the needs of drug safety assessment in non-clinical (GLP or non-GLP) studies. The assay for INX-08032 was fully validated in plasma of toxicology species. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00ng/mL and the linear curve range was 1.00-500.00ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2

  5. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  6. Characteristics of Six Propellers Including the High-Speed Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Stickle, George W; Brevoort, M J

    1937-01-01

    This investigation is part of an extensive experimental study that has been carried out at full scale in the NACA 20-foot tunnel, the purpose of which has been to furnish information in regard to the functioning of the propeller-cowling-nacelle unit under all conditions of take-off, climbing, and normal flight. This report presents the results of tests of six propellers in the normal and high-speed flight range and also includes a study of the take-off characteristics.

  7. Transition in Hypersonic Flows Including High-temperature Gas Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stemmer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Hypersonic transition poses a special challenge for direct numerical simulations. Comparable data from Wind-tunnel tests or free-flight testing are not available or not accurate enough for comparison. The wind-tunnel testing does not allow for the exact match to the free-flight conditions at such high Mach-numbers. Flat-plate boundary-layer transition at high Mach-numbers is investigated in this work. A simulation case was chosen where chemical non-equilibrium plays an important role but ionization can be neglected. The chosen case at an altitude of H=50Km lies close to one point on the descent path of the Space Shuttle. The failure of the Space Shuttle has shown that an improved vehicle for space transportation is imperative in the close future. Transition research for an improved space-transportation vehicle is crucial in order to estimate the heat load during re-entry.

  8. Including high-frequency variability in coastal ocean acidification projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Y.; Frieder, C. A.; Martz, T. R.; Ballard, J. R.; Feely, R. A.; Kram, S.; Nam, S.; Navarro, M. O.; Price, N. N.; Smith, J. E.

    2015-10-01

    Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic ocean acidification requires knowledge of present-day and future environmental conditions. Here, we present a simple model for upwelling margins that projects anthropogenic acidification trajectories by combining high-temporal-resolution sensor data, hydrographic surveys for source water characterization, empirical relationships of the CO2 system, and the atmospheric CO2 record. This model characterizes CO2 variability on timescales ranging from hours (e.g., tidal) to months (e.g., seasonal), bridging a critical knowledge gap in ocean acidification research. The amount of anthropogenic carbon in a given water mass is dependent on the age; therefore a density-age relationship was derived for the study region and then combined with the 2013 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change CO2 emission scenarios to add density-dependent anthropogenic carbon to the sensor time series. The model was applied to time series from autonomous pH sensors deployed in the surf zone, kelp forest, submarine canyon edge, and shelf break in the upper 100 m of the Southern California Bight. All habitats were within 5 km of one another, and exhibited unique, habitat-specific CO2 variability signatures and acidification trajectories, demonstrating the importance of making projections in the context of habitat-specific CO2 signatures. In general, both the mean and range of pCO2 increase in the future, with the greatest increase in both magnitude and range occurring in the deeper habitats due to reduced buffering capacity. On the other hand, the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) decreased in both magnitude and range. This approach can be applied to the entire California Current System, and upwelling margins in general, where sensor and complementary hydrographic data are available.

  9. A highly acid-resistant novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 has antibacterial activity, including that against Helicobacter pylori, and inhibits gastrin-mediated acid production in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuji; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Koga, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was isolated from the gastric juice of a healthy Japanese male volunteer, and characterized for its effectiveness in the stomach environment. Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was found to have the strongest acid resistance among several lactobacilli examined (>10% of cells survived at pH 1.0 after 2 h), and such a high acid resistance property was a specific characteristic of this strain of L. johnsonii. When cultured with various virulent bacteria, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori,Escherichia coli O-157, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile, in which case its effectiveness was more potent than that of a type strain of L. johnsonii,JCM2012. In addition to its effect in vitro, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of H. pylori in human intestinal microbiota-associated mice in both its live and lyophilized forms. Moreover, L. johnsonii No. 1088 suppressed gastric acid secretion in mice via decreasing the number of gastrin-positive cells in the stomach. These results taken together suggest that L. johnsonii No. 1088 is a unique lactobacillus having properties beneficial for supporting H. pylori eradication by triple therapy including the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and also for prophylaxis of gastroesophageal reflux disease possibly caused after H. pylori eradication as a side effect of PPI. PMID:25771812

  10. Optimal design of active and semi-active suspensions including time delays and preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hac', A.; Youn, I.

    1993-10-01

    Several control laws for active and semi-active suspension based on a linear half car model are derived and investigated. The strategies proposed take full advantage of the fact that the road input to the rear wheels is a delayed version of that to the front wheels, which in turn can be obtained either from the measurements of the front wheels and body motions or by direct preview of road irregularities if preview sensors are available. The suspension systems are optimized with respect to ride comfort, road holding and suspension rattle space as expressed by the mean-square-values of body acceleration (including effects of heave and pitch), tire deflections and front and rear suspension travels. The optimal control laws that minimize the given performance index and include passivity constraints in the semi-active case are derived using calculus of variation. The optimal semi-active suspension becomes piecewise linear, varying between passive and fully active systems and combinations of them. The performances of active and semi-active systems with and without preview were evaluated by numerical simulation in the time and frequency domains. The results show that incorporation of time delay between the front and rear axles in controller design improves the dynamic behavior of the rear axle and control of body pitch motion, while additional preview improves front wheel dynamics and body heave.

  11. Are language-based activities in science effective for all students, including low achievers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivard, Léonard P.

    2004-05-01

    The study investigated achievement status as a factor determining the use of language-based activities for learning science. A total of 154 eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to four groups, all stratified for gender and achievement level. The treatments involved various combinations of talk and writing, and descriptive and explanatory tasks. The dependent measures included scores on multiple choice tests obtained at three times during the study. Records of student talk and writing were also analyzed to identify patterns of differences between groups of achievers. The findings suggested that low achievers complete more problems, and develop better understanding and comprehension of ecology concepts when they have engaged in peer discussions of explanatory tasks. In comparison, high achievers benefit more from writing than talking, and writing explanations enhances comprehension more than restricted writing activities.

  12. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  13. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  14. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  15. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  16. Antiviral activity of 1-docosanol, an inhibitor of lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, D H; Marcelletti, J F; Khalil, M H; Pope, L E; Katz, L R

    1991-01-01

    This article reports that 1-docosanol, a 22-carbon-long saturated alcohol, exerts a substantial inhibitory effect on replication of certain viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus) within primary target cells in vitro. To study the basis for its viral inhibitory activity, a suspension of 1-docosanol was formulated in an inert and nontoxic surfactant, Pluronic F-68; this suspension exerted potent inhibitory activity on the ability of susceptible viruses to infect cultured target cells. Susceptible viruses included wild-type herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 as well as acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 2 and also respiratory syncytial virus--all of which are lipid-enveloped. In contrast, nonenveloped poliovirus was not susceptible to the inhibitory action of 1-docosanol. Although the precise mechanism has yet to be defined, current evidence suggests that 1-docosanol inhibits viral replication by interfering with the early intracellular events surrounding viral entry into target cells. It is possible that interaction between the highly lipophilic compound and components of target cell membranes renders such target cells less susceptible to viral fusion and/or entry. If this mechanism proves to be correct, 1-docosanol may provide a broad spectrum activity against many different viruses, especially those with lipid-containing envelopes. Images PMID:1660151

  17. A high-content cellular senescence screen identifies candidate tumor suppressors, including EPHA3.

    PubMed

    Lahtela, Jenni; Corson, Laura B; Hemmes, Annabrita; Brauer, Matthew J; Koopal, Sonja; Lee, James; Hunsaker, Thomas L; Jackson, Peter K; Verschuren, Emmy W

    2013-02-15

    Activation of a cellular senescence program is a common response to prolonged oncogene activation or tumor suppressor loss, providing a physiological mechanism for tumor suppression in premalignant cells. The link between senescence and tumor suppression supports the hypothesis that a loss-of-function screen measuring bona fide senescence marker activation should identify candidate tumor suppressors. Using a high-content siRNA screening assay for cell morphology and proliferation measures, we identify 12 senescence-regulating kinases and determine their senescence marker signatures, including elevation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, DNA damage and p53 or p16 (INK4a) expression. Consistent with our hypothesis, SNP array CGH data supports loss of gene copy number of five senescence-suppressing genes across multiple tumor samples. One such candidate is the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase, a gene commonly mutated in human cancer. We demonstrate that selected intracellular EPHA3 tumor-associated point mutations decrease receptor expression level and/or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. Our study therefore describes a new strategy to mine for novel candidate tumor suppressors and provides compelling evidence that EPHA3 mutations may promote tumorigenesis only when key senescence-inducing pathways have been inactivated. PMID:23324396

  18. A high-content cellular senescence screen identifies candidate tumor suppressors, including EPHA3

    PubMed Central

    Lahtela, Jenni; Corson, Laura B.; Hemmes, Annabrita; Brauer, Matthew J.; Koopal, Sonja; Lee, James; Hunsaker, Thomas L.; Jackson, Peter K.; Verschuren, Emmy W.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of a cellular senescence program is a common response to prolonged oncogene activation or tumor suppressor loss, providing a physiological mechanism for tumor suppression in premalignant cells. The link between senescence and tumor suppression supports the hypothesis that a loss-of-function screen measuring bona fide senescence marker activation should identify candidate tumor suppressors. Using a high-content siRNA screening assay for cell morphology and proliferation measures, we identify 12 senescence-regulating kinases and determine their senescence marker signatures, including elevation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, DNA damage and p53 or p16INK4a expression. Consistent with our hypothesis, SNP array CGH data supports loss of gene copy number of five senescence-suppressing genes across multiple tumor samples. One such candidate is the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase, a gene commonly mutated in human cancer. We demonstrate that selected intracellular EPHA3 tumor-associated point mutations decrease receptor expression level and/or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. Our study therefore describes a new strategy to mine for novel candidate tumor suppressors and provides compelling evidence that EPHA3 mutations may promote tumorigenesis only when key senescence-inducing pathways have been inactivated. PMID:23324396

  19. Monitoring active volcanoes and mitigating volcanic hazards: the case for including simple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoiber, Richard E.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1990-07-01

    Simple approaches to problems brought about eruptions and their ensuing hazardous effects should be advocated and used by volcanologists while awaiting more sophisticated remedies. The expedients we advocate have all or many of the following attributes: only locally available materials are required; no extensive training of operators or installation is necessary; they are affordable and do not require foreign aid or exports; they are often labor intensive and are sustainable without outside assistance. Where appropriate, the involvement of local residents is advocated. Examples of simple expedients which can be used in forecasting or mitigating the effects of crises emphasize the relative ease and the less elaborate requirements with which simple approaches can be activated. Emphasis is on visual observations often by untrained observers, simple meteorogical measurements, observations of water level in lakes, temperature and chemistry of springs and fumaroles, new springs and collapse areas and observations of volcanic plumes. Simple methods are suggested which can be applied to mitigating damage from mudflows, nuées ardentes, tephra falls and gas discharge. A review in hindsight at Ruiz includes the use of both chemical indicators and simple mudflow alarms. Simple expedients are sufficiently effective that any expert volcanologist called to aid in a crisis must include them in the package of advice offered. Simple approaches are a critical and logical complement to highly technical solutions to hazardous situations.

  20. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  1. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  2. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  3. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  4. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  5. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  6. ΔPK oncolytic activity includes modulation of the tumour cell milieu.

    PubMed

    Bollino, Dominique; Colunga, Aric; Li, Baiquan; Aurelian, Laure

    2016-02-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a unique cancer therapeutic that encompasses tumour cell lysis through both virus replication and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. Nonetheless, clinical efficacy is relatively modest, likely related to the immunosuppressive tumour milieu. Our studies use the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-based oncolytic virus ΔPK that has documented anti-tumour activity associated with virus replication, PCD and cancer stem cell lysis. They are designed to examine whether ΔPK-mediated oncolysis includes the ability to reverse the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by altering the balance of cytokines directly secreted by the melanoma cells and to define its mechanism. Here, we show that melanoma cells secreted the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and that secretion was inhibited by ΔPK through virus replication and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun activation. ΔPK-induced IL-10 inhibition upregulated surface expression of MHC class I chain-related protein A, the ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor expressed on NK- and cytotoxic T-cells. Concomitantly, ΔPK also upregulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-1β through autophagy-mediated activation of Toll-like receptor 2 pathways and pyroptosis, and it inhibited the expression of the negative immune checkpoint regulator cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. Pharmacologic inhibition of these processes significantly reduces the oncolytic activity of ΔPK. PMID:26602205

  7. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  8. A novel peptide inhibitor of classical and lectin complement activation including ABO incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Clifford T.; Pallera, Haree K.; Sharp, Julia A.; Woltmann, Jon L.; Qian, Shizhi; Hair, Pamela S.; van der Pol, Pieter; van Kooten, Cees; Thielens, Nicole M.; Lattanzio, Frank A.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments from our laboratories have identified peptides derived from the human astrovirus coat protein (CP) that bind C1q and mannose binding lectin (MBL) inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of these coat protein peptides (CPPs) in an in vitro model of complement-mediated disease (ABO incompatibility), preliminarily assess their in vivo complement suppression profile and develop more highly potent derivatives of these molecules. E23A, a 30 amino acid CPP derivative previously demonstrated to inhibit classical pathway activation was able to dose-dependently inhibit lysis of AB erythrocytes treated with mismatched human O serum. Additionally, when injected into rats, E23A inhibited the animals’ serum from lysing antibody-sensitized erythrocytes, providing preliminary in vivo functional evidence that this CPP can cross the species barrier to inhibit serum complement activity in rodents. A rational drug design approach was implemented to identify more potent CPP derivatives, resulting in the identification and characterization of a 15 residue peptide (Polar Assortant (PA)), which demonstrated both superior inhibition of classical complement pathway activation and robust binding to C1q collagen-like tails. PA also inhibited ABO incompatibility in vitro and demonstrated in vivo complement suppression up to 24 hours post-injection. CPP’s ability to inhibit ABO incompatibility in vitro, proof of concept in vivo inhibitory activity in rats and the development of the highly potent PA derivative set the stage for preclinical testing of this molecule in small animal models of complement-mediated disease. PMID:22906481

  9. Motivating Every Student in Literacy (Including the Highly Unmotivated!), Grades 3-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athans, Sandra K.; Devine, Denise Ashe

    2010-01-01

    "Motivating Every Student in Literacy (Including the Highly Unmotivated!), Grades 3-6" provides an effective model for improving reading levels and increasing motivation. Under the guidance of Athans and Devine, classroom leaders develop their own Motivation Improvement Action Plans, where small-group instruction, end-of-unit assessments, and…

  10. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations. PMID:25985872

  11. Solar-wind-magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high-speed streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Lee, D.-Y.; Kim, H.-J.; Hwang, J. A.; Thorne, R. M.; Horne, R. B.; Smith, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    High geomagnetic activity occurs continuously during high-speed solar wind streams, and fluxes of relativistic electrons observed at geosynchronous orbit enhance significantly. High-speed streams are preceded by solar wind compression regions, during which time there are large losses of relativistic electrons from geosynchronous orbit. Weak to moderate geomagnetic storms often occur during the passage of these compression regions; however, we find that the phenomena that occur during the ensuing high-speed streams do not depend on whether or not a preceding storm develops. Large-amplitude Alfvén waves occur within the high-speed solar wind streams, which are expected to lead to intermittent intervals of significantly enhanced magnetospheric convection and to thus also lead to repetitive substorms due to repetitively occurring reductions in the strength of convection. We find that such repetitive substorms are clearly discernible in the LANL geosynchronous energetic particle data during high-speed stream intervals. Global auroral images are found to show unambiguously that these events are indeed classical substorms, leading us to conclude that substorms are an important contributor to the enhanced geomagnetic activity during high-speed streams. We used the onsets of these substorms as indicators of preceding periods of enhanced convection and of reductions in convection, and we have used ground-based chorus observations from the VELOX instrument at Halley station as an indicator of magnetospheric chorus intensities. These data show evidence that it is the periods of enhanced convection that precede substorm expansions, and not the expansions themselves, that lead to the enhanced dawn-side chorus wave intensity that has been postulated to cause the energization of relativistic electrons. If this inference is correct, and if it is chorus that energizes the relativistic electrons, then high-speed solar wind streams lead to relativistic electron flux enhancements

  12. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. PMID:25684073

  13. A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, H. T.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.

  14. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  15. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  16. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  17. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  18. Intensive combined modality therapy including low-dose TBI in high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Glaubiger, D.; Diesseroth, A.; Makuch, R.; Waller, B.; Pizzo, P.; Glatstein, E.

    1983-12-01

    Twenty-four high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients were treated on an intensive combined modality protocol including low-dose fractionated total body irradiaiton (TBI) and autologous bone marrow infusion (ABMI). Twenty patients (83%) achieved a complete clinical response to the primary and/or metastatic sites following induction therapy. The median disease-free interval was 18 months, and nine patients remain disease-free with a follow-up of 22 to 72 months. Local failure as a manifestation of initial relapse occurred in only three patients (15%), each having synchronous distant failure. Eight patients failed initially with only distant metastases, usually within 1-2 years following a complete clinical response. Two patterns of granulocyte recovery following consolidative therapy (including TBI and ABMI) were recognized. The time to platelet recovery was different for the groups with early and late granulocyte recovery. Patients with late recovery did not tolerate maintenance chemotherapy. However, there was no difference in disease-free and overall survival, when comparing the groups with early and late granulocyte recovery. It is concluded that these high-risk Ewing's sarcoma patients remain a poor-prognosis group in spite of intensive combined modality therapy including low-dose TBI. The control of microscopic systemic disease remains the major challenge to improving the cure rate. A new combined modality protocol with high-dose 'therapeutic' TBI (800 rad/2 fractions) is being used and the protocol design is outlined.

  19. Amplified spontaneous emission in an organic semiconductor multilayer waveguide structure including a highly conductive transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reufer, M.; Feldmann, J.; Rudati, P.; Ruhl, A.; Müller, D.; Meerholz, K.; Karnutsch, C.; Gerken, M.; Lemmer, U.

    2005-05-01

    We demonstrate that the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold in multilayer waveguide structures suitable for the use in future organic injection lasers can be drastically reduced by inserting a crosslinked hole transport layer (HTL) between a highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and the polymer emission layer. While no ASE is observed when the active layer material is directly spincoated onto the ITO electrode, it can be completely restored upon insertion of a 300-nm-thick HTL. This observation is attributed to reduced attenuation of the waveguided mode enabling the ASE process and is theoretically confirmed by calculations of the mode intensity fraction propagating in the absorptive ITO electrode.

  20. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  1. Dynamics of pulsed laser ablation in high-density carbon dioxide including supercritical fluid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Kato, Toru; Stauss, Sven; Himeno, Shohei; Kato, Satoshi; Muneoka, Hitoshi; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru; Terashima, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    To gain a better understanding of pulsed laser ablation (PLA) processes in high-density fluids, including gases, liquids, and supercritical fluids (SCFs), we have investigated the PLA dynamics in high-density carbon dioxide (CO2) using a time-resolved shadowgraph (SG) observation method. The SG images revealed that the PLA dynamics can be categorized into two domains that are separated by the gas-liquid coexistence curve and the Widom line, which forms a border between the gaslike and liquidlike domains of an SCF. Furthermore, a cavitation bubble observed in liquid CO2 near the critical point exhibited a particular characteristic: the formation of an inner bubble and an outer shell structure. The results indicate that the thermophysical properties of the reaction field generated by PLA can be dynamically tuned by controlling the solvent temperature and pressure, particularly near the critical point.

  2. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  3. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  4. High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction and Installation Effects Including Shielding Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Czech, Michael J.; Doty, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects of a separate flow jet nozzle with a Hybrid Wing Body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. Prior understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness was extended to a bypass ratio ten application as a function of nozzle configuration, chevron type, axial spacing, and installation effects from additional airframe components. Chevron types included fan chevrons that are uniform circumferentially around the fan nozzle and T-fan type chevrons that are asymmetrical circumferentially. In isolated testing without a pylon, uniform chevrons compared to T-fan chevrons showed slightly more low frequency reduction offset by more high frequency increase. Phased array localization shows that at this bypass ratio chevrons still move peak jet noise source locations upstream but not to nearly the extent, as a function of frequency, as for lower bypass ratio jets. For baseline nozzles without chevrons, the basic pylon effect has been greatly reduced compared to that seen for lower bypass ratio jets. Compared to Tfan chevrons without a pylon, the combination with a standard pylon results in more high frequency noise increase and an overall higher noise level. Shielded by an airframe surface 2.17 fan diameters from nozzle to airframe trailing edge, the T-fan chevron nozzle can produce reductions in jet noise of as much as 8 dB at high frequencies and upstream angles. Noise reduction from shielding decreases with decreasing frequency and with increasing angle from the jet inlet. Beyond an angle of 130 degrees there is almost no noise reduction from shielding. Increasing chevron immersion more than what is already an aggressive design is not advantageous for noise reduction. The addition of airframe control surfaces, including vertical stabilizers and elevon deflection, showed only a small overall impact. Based on the test results, the best

  5. Modified agar dilution susceptibility testing method for determining in vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, T; Jono, K; Okonogi, K

    1997-01-01

    In vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds, against yeasts were easily determined by using RPMI-1640 agar medium and by incubating the plates in the presence of 20% CO2. The end point of inhibition was clear by this method, even in the case of azole compounds, because of the almost complete inhibition of yeast growth at high concentrations which permitted weak growth of some Candida strains by traditional methods. MICs obtained by the agar dilution method were similar to those obtained by the broth dilution method proposed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:9174197

  6. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  7. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  8. Highly Siderophile Elements in Pallasites and Diogenites, Including the New Pallasite, CMS 04071

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Humayun, M.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    Pallasites are long thought to represent a metallic core-silicate mantle boundary, where the IIIAB irons are linked to the crystallization history of the metallic fraction, and the HED meteorites may be linked to the silicate fraction. However, measurement of trace elements in individual metallic and silicate phases is necessary in order to fully under-stand the petrogenetic history of pallasites, as well as any magmatic processes which may link pallasites to both IIIAB irons and HED meteorites. In order to achieve this objective, abundances of a suite of elements were measured, including the highly siderophile elements (HSEs), in kamacite, taenite, troilite, schreibersite, chromite and olivine for the pallasites Admire, Imilac, Springwater, CMS 04071. In the diogenites GRO 95555, LAP 91900, and MET 00436, metal, sulfide, spinel, pyroxene, and silica were individually measured.

  9. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains.

    PubMed

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models. PMID:22934109

  10. Producing High-Accuracy Lattice Models from Protein Atomic Coordinates Including Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models. PMID:22934109

  11. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  12. Interest Inventory. [Includes Academic Interest Measure, Pupil Activity Inventory, and Semantic Differential].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This Interest Inventory contains three inventories: Academic Interest Measure (AIM), Pupil Activity Inventory (PAI), and Semantic Differential test (SD). The AIM measures six subscales of academic interests; the PAI measures non-school activities in science; and the SD measures attitudes toward science and physics. The inventories are designed for…

  13. Verification of scattering parameter measurements in waveguides up to 325 GHz including highly-reflective devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, T.; Kuhlmann, K.; Dickhoff, R.; Dittmer, J.; Hiebel, M.

    2011-07-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) scattering parameters (S-parameters) play an important role to characterise RF signal transmission and reflection of active and passive devices such as transmission lines, components, and small-signal amplifiers. Vector network analysers (VNAs) are employed as instrumentation for such measurements. During the last years, the upper frequency limit of this instrumentation has been extended up to several hundreds of GHz for waveguide measurements. Calibration and verification procedures are obligatory prior to the VNA measurement to achieve accurate results and/or to obtain traceability to the International System of Units (SI). Usually, verification is performed by measuring well-matched devices with known S-parameters such as attenuators or short precision waveguide sections (shims). In waveguides, especially above 110 GHz, such devices may not exist and/or are not traceably calibrated. In some cases, e.g. filter networks, the devices under test (DUT) are partly highly reflective. This paper describes the dependency of the S-parameters a) on the calibration procedure, b) on the applied torque to the flange screws during the mating process of the single waveguide elements. It describes further c) how highly-reflective devices (HRD) can be used to verify a calibrated VNA, and d) how a measured attenuation at several hundreds of GHz can be substituted by a well-known coaxial attenuation at 279 MHz, the intermediate frequency (IF) of the VNA, to verify the linearity. This work is a contribution towards traceability and to obtain knowledge about the measurement uncertainty of VNA instrumentation in the millimetre-wave range.

  14. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  15. Activity of tigecycline tested against a global collection of Enterobacteriaceae, including tetracycline-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Strabala, Patty A; Sader, Helio S; Dowzicky, Michael J; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-07-01

    Steadily increasing resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has compromised the utility of these commonly used antimicrobial classes for many community- or hospital-acquired infections. The development of tigecycline, the sentinel representative of a novel class of broad-spectrum agents (the glycylcyclines), represents an important milestone in addressing this critical need. Resistance to tigecycline might be expected to occur via the same mechanisms that produce tetracycline resistance; however, tigecycline remains stable and largely unaffected by the commonly occurring efflux and ribosomal protection resistance mechanisms. In this study, an international collection of Enterobacteriaceae (11327 isolates; 32.8% tetracycline-resistant) from global surveillance studies (2000-2004) were evaluated against tigecycline and other comparator antimicrobials. Although the most active agents were the carbapenems and aminoglycosides (97.5-99.7% susceptible), tigecycline displayed high potency (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 and 1 microg/mL) with 95.7% of all strains being inhibited at < or =2 microg/mL. Despite higher MIC values observed with Serratia spp. and Proteae, between 90.5% and 97.5% of isolates were inhibited by < or =4 microg/mL of tigecycline. Tetracycline-resistant populations demonstrated only modest decreases in potency to tigecycline, which appeared to be species-dependent (up to 2-fold only for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Panteoa agglomerans; and up to 4-fold for Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp.). Among E. coli (263 isolates) and Klebsiella spp. (356) that meet recognized screening definitions for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production, 100.0% and 94.4% were inhibited by tigecycline at 2 microg/mL, respectively. These findings confirm that tigecycline exhibits potency, breadth of spectrum, and stability to the

  16. Cyclic siloxanes in air, including identification of high levels in Chicago and distinct diurnal variation

    PubMed Central

    Yucuis, Rachel A.; Stanier, Charles O.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2014-01-01

    The organosilicon compounds octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) are high production volume chemicals that are widely used in household goods and personal care products. Due to their prevalence and chemical characteristics, cyclic siloxanes are being assessed as possible persistent organic pollutants. D4, D5, and D6 were measured in indoor and outdoor air to quantify and compare siloxane concentrations and compound ratios depending on location type. Indoor air samples had a median concentration of 2200 ng m−3 for the sum of D4, D5, and D6. Outdoor sampling locations included downtown Chicago, Cedar Rapids, IA, and West Branch, IA, and had median sum siloxane levels of 280, 73, and 29 ng m−3 respectively. A diurnal trend is apparent in the samples taken in downtown Chicago. Nighttime samples had a median 2.7 times higher on average than daytime samples, which is due, in part, to the fluctuations of the planetary boundary layer. D5 was the dominant siloxane in both indoor and outdoor air. Ratios of D5 to D4 averaged 91 and 3.2 for indoor and outdoor air respectively. PMID:23541357

  17. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus. PMID:12127709

  18. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  19. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  20. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  1. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  2. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test. PMID:12637206

  3. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  4. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  5. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  6. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  7. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health. PMID:25430599

  8. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes. PMID:16818330

  9. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  10. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  11. A global wind resource atlas including high-resolution terrain effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Andrea; Badger, Jake; Olsen, Bjarke; Davis, Neil; Larsen, Xiaoli; Badger, Merete

    2015-04-01

    Currently no accurate global wind resource dataset is available to fill the needs of policy makers and strategic energy planners. Evaluating wind resources directly from coarse resolution reanalysis datasets underestimate the true wind energy resource, as the small-scale spatial variability of winds is missing. This missing variability can account for a large part of the local wind resource. Crucially, it is the windiest sites that suffer the largest wind resource errors: in simple terrain the windiest sites may be underestimated by 25%, in complex terrain the underestimate can be as large as 100%. The small-scale spatial variability of winds can be modelled using novel statistical methods and by application of established microscale models within WAsP developed at DTU Wind Energy. We present the framework for a single global methodology, which is relative fast and economical to complete. The method employs reanalysis datasets, which are downscaled to high-resolution wind resource datasets via a so-called generalization step, and microscale modelling using WAsP. This method will create the first global wind atlas (GWA) that covers all land areas (except Antarctica) and 30 km coastal zone over water. Verification of the GWA estimates will be done at carefully selected test regions, against verified estimates from mesoscale modelling and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This verification exercise will also help in the estimation of the uncertainty of the new wind climate dataset. Uncertainty will be assessed as a function of spatial aggregation. It is expected that the uncertainty at verification sites will be larger than that of dedicated assessments, but the uncertainty will be reduced at levels of aggregation appropriate for energy planning, and importantly much improved relative to what is used today. In this presentation we discuss the methodology used, which includes the generalization of wind climatologies, and the differences in local and spatially

  12. Space Resources for Teachers: Chemistry; Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Richard M.

    This publication is composed of 10 units, each based on an area of space science and technology in which chemistry plays an important role. Each resource unit can be used independently of the others and materials can be selected from within a unit. The materials range in difficulty from the junior high level of understanding to those that will…

  13. Geology Is. Preliminary Edition. Volumes I and II, Including Activity Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Fallon Township High School District #203, IL.

    Presented in this document is a full-year, two-semester course in geology for high school students. Composed of 5 units and 20 chapters, the course emphasizes the practical aspects of geology with special attention to the relationship between geoscience processes and the environment and to the application of scientific and technical expertise to…

  14. Phytophthora infestans Has a Plethora of Phospholipase D Enzymes Including a Subclass That Has Extracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  15. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) whistles from the western South Atlantic Ocean include high frequency signals.

    PubMed

    Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S; Amorim, Thiago O S; Sucunza, Federico; de Castro, Franciele R; Maia, Ygor Geyer; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Bortolotto, Guilherme A; Dalla Rosa, Luciano

    2015-09-01

    Acoustic parameters of killer whale (Orcinus orca) whistles were described for the western South Atlantic Ocean and highlight the occurrence of high frequency whistles. Killer whale signals were recorded on December of 2012, when a pod of four individuals was observed harassing a group of sperm whales. The high frequency whistles were highly stereotyped and were modulated mostly at ultrasonic frequencies. Compared to other contour types, the high frequency whistles are characterized by higher bandwidths, shorter durations, fewer harmonics, and higher sweep rates. The results add to the knowledge of vocal behavior of this species. PMID:26428807

  16. Evaluation of school-based dental health activities including fluoride mouth-rinsing in Hiraizumi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohara, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Shinada, K; Sasaki, Y

    2000-06-01

    School-based dental health activities conducted in Hiraizumi over the past 20 years have remarkably improved the dental health status of schoolchildren. For example, DMFT index of 12-year-old children decreased to 1.5 in 1998, one-half that of the national average. School dental health activities, which were focused on dental health education, resulted in an increase of filled teeth rates, a decrease in the number of missing teeth, and a decline in incisor caries (1979-1986). In addition, the introduction of a school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing program (1986 - ) showed a positive effect on the prevention of dental caries; a significant decrease was observed in the overall prevalence of dental caries, particularly in the molars. In Japan it seems advantageous to promote the dental health of schoolchildren by school-based programs that combine dental health examination, dental health education and fluoride mouth-rinsing program. Especially, to prevent dental caries in the mandibular first molars more effectively, it is recommended to start fluoride mouth-rinsing at age 5. PMID:12160185

  17. High-energy scattering in the saturation regime including running coupling and rare fluctuation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Wenchang

    2009-01-01

    The analytic form of the asymptotic behavior of the S matrix in the saturation regime including the running coupling is obtained. To get this result, we solve the Balitsky and Kovchegov-Weigert evolution equations in the saturation regime, which include running coupling corrections. We study also the effect of rare fluctuations on top of the running coupling. We find that the rare fluctuations are less important in the running coupling case as compared to the fixed coupling case.

  18. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. PMID:26476681

  19. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  20. Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments including activation energies and mathematical modeling of methyl halide dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstein, O.; Prager, M.; Grimm, H.; Buchsteiner, A.; Wischnewski, A.

    2007-09-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments were carried out using the multichopper time-of-flight spectrometer V3 at the Hahn-Meitner Institut, Germany and the backscattering spectrometer at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Activation energies for CH3X, X =F, Cl, Br, and I, were obtained. In combination with results from previous inelastic neutron scattering experiments the data were taken to describe the dynamics of the halides in terms of two different models, the single particle model and the coupling model. Coupled motions of methyl groups seem to explain the dynamics of the methyl fluoride and chloride; however, the coupling vanishes with the increase of the mass of the halide atom in CH3Br and CH3I.

  1. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  2. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  3. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  4. Differences in Lifestyles Including Physical Activity According to Sexual Orientation among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Jin-Ho; SO, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in lifestyle factors such as physical activity among homosexual (gay or lesbian), bisexual, and heterosexual Korean adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 74,186 adolescents from grades 7—12 (ages 12—18) who participated in the 8th annual Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in 2012. Of this sample, only 11,829 provided enough information regarding their romantic and sexual experiences to define them as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual. From this information, males were divided into gay (n = 323), bisexual (n = 243), and heterosexual (n = 6,501) groups, and females were divided into lesbian (n = 208), bisexual (n = 113), and heterosexual (n = 4,441) groups. Differences in lifestyle factors according to sexual orientation were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results Males showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P = 0.029), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), muscular strength exercises (P = 0.020), and walking for at least 10 minutes per week (P < 0.001). Females showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), vigorous physical exercise (P < 0.001), moderate physical exercise (P < 0.001), and muscular strength exercises (P < 0.001), as well as for self-reported mental stress (P < 0.001). Conclusion We concluded those gay and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females had significant lifestyle differences as compared with heterosexual adolescents. This effect was stronger for females than for males. PMID:26060636

  5. RADIO PROPERTIES OF LOW-REDSHIFT BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI INCLUDING EXTENDED RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Rafter, Stephen E.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Wiita, Paul J.

    2011-03-15

    We present a study of the extended radio emission in a sample of 8434 low-redshift (z < 0.35) broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To calculate the jet and lobe contributions to the total radio luminosity, we have taken the 846 radio core sources detected in our previous study of this sample and performed a systematic search in the FIRST database for extended radio emission that is likely associated with the optical counterparts. We found that 51 out of 846 radio core sources have extended emission (>4'' from the optical AGN) that is positively associated with the AGN, and we have identified an additional 12 AGNs with extended radio emission but no detectable radio core emission. Among these 63 AGNs, we found 6 giant radio galaxies, with projected emission exceeding 750 kpc in length, and several other AGNs with unusual radio morphologies also seen in higher redshift surveys. The optical spectra of many of the extended sources are similar to those of typical broad-line radio galaxy spectra, having broad H{alpha} emission lines with boxy profiles and large M{sub BH}. With extended emission taken into account, we find strong evidence for a bimodal distribution in the radio-loudness parameter R ({identical_to}{nu}{sub radio} L{sub radio}/{nu}{sub opt} L{sub opt}), where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the extended sources, with a dividing line at log(R) {approx}1.75. This dividing line ensures that these are indeed the most radio-loud AGNs, which may have different or extreme physical conditions in their central engines when compared to the more numerous radio-quiet AGNs.

  6. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, C. B.; Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2010-04-15

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane.

  7. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. B.; Abu-Samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2010-04-01

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH4 and CD4 and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker , Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane.

  8. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  9. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  10. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  11. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  12. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  13. Universal cell frame for high-pressure water electrolyzer and electrolyzer including the same

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edwin W.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-08

    Universal cell frame generic for use as an anode frame and as a cathode frame in a water electrolyzer. According to one embodiment, the universal cell frame includes a unitary annular member having a central opening. Four trios of transverse openings are provided in the annular member, each trio being spaced apart by about 90 degrees. A plurality of internal radial passageways fluidly interconnect the central opening and each of the transverse openings of two diametrically-opposed trios of openings, the other two trios of openings lacking corresponding radial passageways. Sealing ribs are provided on the top and bottom surfaces of the annular member. The present invention is also directed at a water electrolyzer that includes two such cell frames, one being used as the anode frame and the other being used as the cathode frame, the cathode frame being rotated 90 degrees relative to the anode frame.

  14. Global assessments of high pathogenicity avian influenza control, including vaccination programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been 32 epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2013. The largest has been the H5N1 HPAI which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has affected over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. For most countries, stamping-out progra...

  15. Students Are Stakeholders, Too! Including Every Voice in Authentic High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Edie L.

    2006-01-01

    Based on real events that have yielded positive results for both school culture and student achievement, this inspiring story introduces the students and staff of Knownwell High School and involves you in their journey of school improvement. "Students Are Stakeholders Too!" captures students' uncanny insights in their own words and illustrates how…

  16. Phenomenon of Energy Focusing in Explosive Systems which include High Modulus Elastic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagansky, I.; Hokamoto, K.; Manikandan, P.; Matrosov, A.; Stadnichenko, I.; Miyoshi, H.

    2009-06-01

    The phenomenon was observed in a passive HE charge of cast Comp. B without cumulative shape under shock wave loading by explosion of an active HE charge through water after preliminary compression by a leading wave in silicon carbide insert. The phenomenon manifested itself as a hole in identification steel specimen with depth of about 10 mm and diameter of about 5 mm. Results of experiments on studying of conditions of implementation of this phenomenon for SEP and Comp. B are presented. For each HE a number of experiments has been executed at various length of silicon carbide insert. Presence or absence of a hole in the steel specimen was determined. Also a number of optical registrations of process in framing mode with record step of 1 μs have been executed. Digital video camera SHIMADZU HPV-1 was used for optical registration. Results of experiments testify that the phenomenon is reproduced both for SEP, and for Comp. B. Focusing process is observed in conditions close to critical conditions of transfer of a detonation from active to a passive HE charge.

  17. An integrated optimum design approach for high speed prop-rotors including acoustic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Wells, Valana; Mccarthy, Thomas; Han, Arris

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop optimization procedures to provide design trends in high speed prop-rotors. The necessary disciplinary couplings are all considered within a closed loop multilevel decomposition optimization process. The procedures involve the consideration of blade-aeroelastic aerodynamic performance, structural-dynamic design requirements, and acoustics. Further, since the design involves consideration of several different objective functions, multiobjective function formulation techniques are developed.

  18. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  19. Superplastic Constitutive Equation Including Percentage of High-Angle Grain Boundaries as a Microstructural Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Liu, F. C.; Xue, P.; Wang, D.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen Al-Mg-Sc samples with subgrain/grain sizes in the range of 1.8 to 4.9 μm were prepared through the processing methods of friction stir processing (FSP), equal-channel-angular pressing (ECAP), rolling, annealing, and combinations of the above. The percentages of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) of these fine-grained alloys were distributed from 39 to 97 pct. The samples processed through FSP had a higher percentage of HAGBs compared to other samples. Superplasticity was achieved in all fifteen samples, but the FSP samples exhibited better superplasticity than other samples because their fine equiaxed grains, which were mostly surrounded by HAGBs, were conducive to the occurrence of grain boundary sliding (GBS) during superplastic deformation. The dominant deformation mechanism was the same for all fifteen samples, i.e., GBS controlled by grain boundary diffusion. However, the subgrains were the GBS units for the rolled or ECAP samples, which contained high percentages of unrecrystallized grains, whereas the fine grains were the GBS units for the FSP samples. Superplastic data analysis revealed that the dimensionless A in the classical constitutive equation for superplasticity of fine-grained Al alloys was not a constant, but increased with an increase in the percentage of HAGBs, demonstrating that the enhanced superplastic deformation kinetics can be ascribed to the high percentage of HAGBs. A modified superplastic constitutive equation with the percentage of HAGBs as a new microstructural parameter was established.

  20. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  1. Pairing in high-density neutron matter including short- and long-range correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dong; Rios, Arnau; Dussan, Helber; Dickhoff, Willem; Witte, Sam; Polls, Artur

    2016-03-01

    To address open questions in neutron star phenomenology, pairing gaps of 1S0 and 3P2 -3F2 channels in a wide range of densities has been calculated using three different interactions (AV18 CDbonn N3LO). Traditionally, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS) approach has been used to compute gaps from bare nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here, we incorporate the influence of short- and long-range correlations in the pairing gaps. Short-range correlations (SRC) are treated including the appropriate fragmentation of single-particle states, and they suppress the gaps substantially. Long-range correlations(LRC) dress the pairing interaction via density and spin modes, and provide a relatively small correction. Results are relevant and parametrized in a user friendly way for neutron-star cooling scenarios, in particular in view of the recent observational data on Cassiopeia A.

  2. Pairing in high-density neutron matter including short- and long-range correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, D.; Rios, A.; Dussan, H.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Witte, S. J.; Carbone, A.; Polls, A.

    2016-08-01

    Pairing gaps in neutron matter need to be computed in a wide range of densities to address open questions in neutron-star phenomenology. Traditionally, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer approach has been used to compute gaps from bare nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here we incorporate the influence of short- and long-range correlations in the pairing gaps. Short-range correlations are treated, including the appropriate fragmentation of single-particle states, and substantially suppress the gaps. Long-range correlations dress the pairing interaction via density and spin modes and provide a relatively small correction. We use different interactions, some with three-body forces, as a starting point to control for any systematic effects. Results are relevant for neutron-star cooling scenarios, in particular in view of the recent observational data on Cassiopeia A.

  3. Relay telescope including baffle, and high power laser amplifier utilizing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2006-09-19

    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  4. Importance of Diversity in the Oral Microbiota including Candida Species Revealed by High-Throughput Technologies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tamaki; Nagao, Jun-Ichi; Imayoshi, Rieko; Tanaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of high-throughput technologies, deep sequencing of the human microbiome has revealed commensal bacteria independent of the ability to culture them. The composition of the commensal microbiome is dependent on bacterial diversity and the state of the host regulated by the immune system. Candida species are well known as components of the commensal oral microbiota. Candida species frequently colonize and develop biofilms on medical devices like dentures and catheters. Therefore, Candida biofilm on dentures leads to a decrease in the bacterial diversity and then to a change in the composition of the oral microbiota. A disturbance in the balance between commensal bacteria and the host immune system results in a switch from a healthy state to a diseased state even in the limited oral niche. PMID:24864144

  5. Importance of Diversity in the Oral Microbiota including Candida Species Revealed by High-Throughput Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Tamaki; Nagao, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of high-throughput technologies, deep sequencing of the human microbiome has revealed commensal bacteria independent of the ability to culture them. The composition of the commensal microbiome is dependent on bacterial diversity and the state of the host regulated by the immune system. Candida species are well known as components of the commensal oral microbiota. Candida species frequently colonize and develop biofilms on medical devices like dentures and catheters. Therefore, Candida biofilm on dentures leads to a decrease in the bacterial diversity and then to a change in the composition of the oral microbiota. A disturbance in the balance between commensal bacteria and the host immune system results in a switch from a healthy state to a diseased state even in the limited oral niche. PMID:24864144

  6. New standard measures for clinical voice analysis include high speed films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Mette; Munch, Kasper

    2012-02-01

    In the clinical work with patients in a medical voice clinic it is important to have a normal updated reference for the data used. Several new parameters have to be correlated to older traditional measures. The older ones are stroboscopy, eventually coordinated with electroglottography (EGG), the Multi- Dimensional-Voice Program and airflow rates. Long Time Averaged Spectrograms (LTAS) and phonetograms (voice profiles) are calculating the range and dynamics of tones of the patients. High-speed films, updated airflow measures as well as area calculations of phonotograms add information to the understanding of the glottis closure in single movements of the vocal cords. A multivariate analysis was made to study the connection between the measures. This information can be used in many connections, also in the otolaryngological clinic.

  7. Biosynthesis and Biotechnology of High-Value p-Menthane Monoterpenes, Including Menthol, Carvone, and Limonene.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpenes of the p-menthane group are volatile secondary (or specialized) metabolites found across the plant kingdom. They are dominant constituents of commercially important essential oils obtained from members of the genera Mentha (Lamiaceae), Carum (Apiaceae), Citrus (Rutaceae), and Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). p-Menthane monoterpenes have also attracted interest as chiral specialty chemicals, and the harvest from natural sources is therefore supplemented by chemical synthesis. More recently, microbial and plant-based platforms for the high-level accumulation of specific target monoterpenes have been developed. In this review chapter, I discuss the properties of the genes and enzymes involved in p-menthane biosynthesis and provide a critical assessment of biotechnological production approaches. PMID:25618831

  8. Activities Selected from the High School Geography Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Salvatore J., Ed.; And Others

    Out of approximately 50 activities which were, for a variety of reasons, not included in the final version of the High School Geography Project course, Geography in an Urban Age, the HSGP staff selected eight which would be useful in many secondary school classrooms. The activities included here are: 1) Operation Bigger Beef (on themes of cultural…

  9. Clustered DNA damages induced by high and low LET radiation, including heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, B. M.; Bennett, P. V.; Schenk, H.; Sidorkina, O.; Laval, J.; Trunk, J.; Monteleone, D.; Sutherland, J.; Lowenstein, D. I. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Clustered DNA damages--here defined as two or more lesions (strand breaks, oxidized purines, oxidized pyrimidines or abasic sites) within a few helical turns--have been postulated as difficult to repair accurately, and thus highly significant biological lesions. Further, attempted repair of clusters may produce double strand breaks (DSBs). However, until recently, there was no way to measure ionizing radiation-induced clustered damages, except DSB. We recently described an approach for measuring classes of clustered damages (oxidized purine clusters, oxidized pyrimidine clusters, abasic clusters, along with DSB). We showed that ionizing radiation (gamma rays and Fe ions, 1 GeV/amu) does induce such clusters in genomic DNA in solution and in human cells. These studies also showed that each damage cluster results from one radiation hit (and its track), thus indicating that they can be induced by very low doses of radiation, i.e. two independent hits are not required for cluster induction. Further, among all complex damages, double strand breaks comprise--at most-- 20%, with the other clustered damages being at least 80%.

  10. Review of Skin Friction Measurements Including Recent High-Reynolds Number Results from NASA Langley NTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Ralph D.; Hall, Robert M.; Anders, John B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews flat plate skin friction data from early correlations of drag on plates in water to measurements in the cryogenic environment of The NASA Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) in late 1996. The flat plate (zero pressure gradient with negligible surface curvature) incompressible skin friction at high Reynolds numbers is emphasized in this paper, due to its importance in assessing the accuracy of measurements, and as being important to the aerodynamics of large scale vehicles. A correlation of zero pressure gradient skin friction data minimizing extraneous effects between tests is often used as the first step in the calculation of skin friction in complex flows. Early data compiled by Schoenherr for a range of momentum thickness Reynolds numbers, R(sub Theta) from 860 to 370,000 contained large scatter, but has proved surprisingly accurate in its correlated form. Subsequent measurements in wind tunnels under more carefully controlled conditions have provided inputs to this database, usually to a maximum R(sub Theta) of about 40,000. Data on a large axisymmetric model in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility extends the upper limit in incompressible R(sub Theta) to 619,800 using the van Driest transformation. Previous data, test techniques, and error sources ar discussed, and the NTF data will be discussed in detail. The NTF Preston tube and Clauser inferred data accuracy is estimated to be within -2 percent of a power-law curve fit, and falls above the Spalding theory by 1 percent at R(sub Theta) of about 600,000.

  11. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  12. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1994-09-13

    A process for the preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  13. Environmental Activities, Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William C.; Larson, Robert J.

    This guide, for use at the junior high level, is aimed at helping our youth become more knowledgeable concerning the environment and associated problems, thus making them aware of how to solve these problems and motivating them to work toward their solution. Among the subjects discussed are art in nature, erosion, body pollution, water pollution,…

  14. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  15. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  16. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  17. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170.137 Section 170.137 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails...

  18. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  19. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  20. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  1. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  2. High speed hybrid active system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Ignacio F.; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Qing, Peter X.; Kumar, Amrita; Zhang, David

    2005-05-01

    A novel piezoelectric/fiber-optic system is developed for long-term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The hybrid diagnostic system uses the piezoelectric actuators to input a controlled excitation to the structure and the fiber optic sensors to capture the corresponding structural response. The aim of the system is to detect changes in structures such as those found in aerospace applications (damage, cracks, aging, etc.). This system involves the use of fiber Bragg gratings, which may be either bonded to the surface of the material or embedded within it in order to detect the linear strain component produced by the excitation waves generate by an arbitrary waveform generator. Interrogation of the Bragg gratings is carried out using a high speed fiber grating demodulation unit and a high speed data acquisition card to provide actuation input. With data collection and information processing; is able to determine the condition of the structure. The demands on a system suitable for detecting ultrasonic acoustic waves are different than for the more common strain and temperature systems. On the one hand, the frequency is much higher, with typical values for ultrasonic frequencies used in non-destructive testing ranging from 100 kHz up to several MHz. On the other hand, the related strain levels are much lower, normally in the μstrain range. Fiber-optic solutions for this problem do exist and are particularly attractive for ultrasonic sensing as the sensors offer broadband detection capability.

  3. Ceftaroline versus isolates from animal bite wounds: comparative in vitro activities against 243 isolates, including 156 Pasteurella species isolates.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2012-12-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC(90)s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  4. Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

    2012-01-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  5. Energy Activities for Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, David; And Others

    This document is a collection of six energy education activities for junior high school science. Its purpose is to help promote knowledge about energy, provide laboratory experiences, provoke inquiry, and relate energy to society through the science curriculum. The six activities are designed to take one to three class periods. Two of the…

  6. Purpose and Meaning in Highly Active Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penick, Jeffrey M.; Fallshore, Marte

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the sources of meaning for active seniors. Results indicated that seniors who were most active were relatively high in a wide range of sources of meaning as well as in life satisfaction in general. The importance of meaning and purpose in relation to counseling with older adults is discussed.

  7. Activity of Eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, Including Multidrug-Resistant Isolates, from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David

    2014-01-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  8. Activity Cycles in Stars with Highly Active Chromospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.

    The extended lifetime of the IUE satellite has provided an unique and unanticipated opportunity to examine the long-term evolution of magnetic activity on active chromospheric stars. We propose to obtain further IUE observations of the highly active RS CVn stars V711 Tauri, lambda Andromedae, II Pegasi, and UX Arietis in conjunction with groundbased optical and radio observations, and possibly ROSAT X-ray observations. In addition we would continue IUE observations of the unusual rapidly rotating early G giant, FK Comae, which, although not in the RS CVn category, shares a similarly high level of magnetic activity. These five stars have the most extensive IUE archival coverage for stars of their type and have almost continuous ground-based photometric coverage from about 1975 onward. We aim to trace the long-term development of magnetic activity on these stars: a detailed study of the UV emission-like fluxes will enable us to follow the variations in chromospheric and transition-region activity over an interval of 12-16 years. Optical observations reveal variations in photospheric (starspot) activity: the starspot regions are large (up to 30% of the stellar surface) and vary significantly with time. The main aim of the proposed research is to examine the relationship between chromospheric, transition-region, and photospheric active regions. Elucidation of the role of white-light faculae vis-a-vis spots in effecting stellar irradiance changes is also desirable.

  9. Educational Activity Sites for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutner, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    Finding quality Internet resources for high school students is a continuing challenge. Several high-quality web sites are presented for educators and students. These sites offer activities to learn how an art conservator looks at paintings, create a newspaper, research and develop an end product, build geometry and physics skills, explore science…

  10. High Speed Data Bus Active Coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, James J.

    The author discusses the HSDB (high speed data bus) active coupler which provides a typical 13-dB power margin for HSDB systems installed in military aircraft. This high-power margin ensures reliable HSDB operation through fiber-optic component degradation. The active coupler performs optical amplification and signal reshaping functions such that an incoming signal is modified only in amplitude. Signal distortion and jitter are removed by a retiming ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit). The active coupler is modular in design, and plug-in growth for a 38 x 38 user interface is available. The active coupler achieves better than -27 dBm sensitivity at 5 x 10 exp -11 bit error rate and outputs -8 to -12 dBm optical power. The active coupler unit weighs only 6.25 lbs and has a predicted mean time between failure of over 21,000 h.

  11. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  12. Age-related changes in trunk neuromuscular activation patterns during a controlled functional transfer task include amplitude and temporal synergies.

    PubMed

    Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (p<.0125) group interactions were found for all PC scores. Post hoc analysis revealed that relative to younger adults, older adults recruited higher agonist and antagonistic activity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. PMID:25457424

  13. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness. PMID:25714122

  14. Antimicrobial characterisation of CEM-101 activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including multidrug-resistant pneumococcal serogroup 19A isolates.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Castanheira, Mariana; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-06-01

    CEM-101 is a novel fluorinated macrolide-ketolide with potent activity against bacterial pathogens that are susceptible or resistant to other macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B))-ketolide agents. CEM-101 is being developed for oral and parenteral use in moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of CEM-101 and comparators against contemporary respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates. A worldwide sample of organisms was used, including Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=168; 59.3% erythromycin-resistant and 18 multidrug-resistant (MDR) serogroup 19A strains], Moraxella catarrhalis (n=21; 11 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus influenzae (n=100; 48 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus (n=12), and Legionella pneumophila (n=30). Testing and interpretation were performed using reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. CEM-101 was very potent against S. pneumoniae [minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the organisms (MIC90)=0.25 mg/L; highest MIC at 0.5 mg/L] and was 2- and > or =32-fold more active than telithromycin and clindamycin, respectively. CEM-101 also demonstrated potent activity against S. pneumoniae MDR-19A strains (MIC90=0.5 mg/L). CEM-101 was the most potent antimicrobial agent tested against L. pneumophila, with all MIC values at < or = 0.015 mg/L (telithromycin MIC90=0.03 mg/L). CEM-101 was as potent as azithromycin against Haemophilus spp. RTI pathogens (MIC90=2 mg/L), with no variations for beta-lactamase production. CEM-101 MIC values against M. catarrhalis were all at < or =0.5mg/L. Interestingly, CEM-101 potency was ca. 6 log(2) dilutions greater than telithromycin MIC results among 44 beta-haemolytic streptococci having telithromycin MICs > or = 2 mg/L. CEM-101 exhibited the greatest potency and widest spectrum of activity against RTI pathogens among the tested MLS(B)-ketolide agents

  15. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  16. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  17. Highly Active Multidentate Ligand-Based Alkyne Metathesis Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Du, Ya; Yang, Haishen; Zhu, Chengpu; Ortiz, Michael; Okochi, Kenji D; Shoemaker, Richard; Jin, Yinghua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Alkyne metathesis catalysts composed of molybdenum(VI) propylidyne and multidentate tris(2-hydroxylbenzyl)methane ligands have been developed, which exhibit excellent stability (remains active in solution for months at room temperature), high activity, and broad functional-group tolerance. The homodimerization and cyclooligomerization of monopropynyl or dipropynyl substrates, including challenging heterocycle substrates (e.g., pyridine), proceed efficiently at 40-55 °C in a closed system. The ligand structure and catalytic activity relationship has been investigated, which shows that the ortho groups of the multidentate phenol ligands are critical to the stability and activity of such a catalyst system. PMID:27113640

  18. Cooperative Activities between High Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the ways in which colleges can work with high schools to enrich secondary school experiences and increase access to and success in higher education, are described, and an essay on successful cooperative activities is presented. In "Pieces and Parts," James Herbert notes efforts to improve the preparation of students for college by…

  19. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  20. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  1. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  2. Chromatographic Purification of Highly Active Yeast Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Leshin, Jonathan A.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are much more labile as compared to their eubacterial and archael counterparts, thus posing a significant challenge to researchers. Particularly troublesome is the fact that lysis of cells releases a large number of proteases and nucleases which can degrade ribosomes. Thus, it is important to separate ribosomes from these enzymes as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods leaves ribosomes exposed to these enzymes for unacceptably long periods of time, impacting their structural integrity and functionality. To address this problem, we utilize a chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin. This simple and rapid application significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing high yields of intact, highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes. We suggest that this method should also be applicable to mammalian ribosomes. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes. PMID:22042245

  3. High specific activity platinum-195m

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-10-12

    A new composition of matter includes .sup.195m Pt characterized by a specific activity of at least 30 mCi/mg Pt, generally made by method that includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  4. High School Extracurricular Activities & College Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rombokas, Mary; And Others

    Many factors influence the development and socialization of American adolescents including peers, schools, family, and the community. This paper examines how the relationship of extracurricular participation influences academic growth. To determine if selected personal and academic variables during high school currently affect college academic…

  5. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Active interrogation techniques provide reliable detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) even when passive detection is difficult. We use 50-Hz pulsed beams of bremsstrahlung photons from a 10-MeV linac or 14-MeV neutrons from a neutron generator for interrogation, thus activating the HEU. Detection of neutrons between pulses is a positive indicator of the presence of fissionable material. We detect the neutrons with three neutron detector designs based on {sup 3}He tubes. This report shows examples of the responses in these three detectors, for unshielded and shielded kilogram quantities of HEU, in containers as large as cargo containers.

  6. Development and flight evaluation of active controls in the L-1011. [including wing load alleviation and stability augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.; Urie, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Active controls in the Lockheed L-1011 for increased energy efficiency are discussed. Active wing load alleviation for extended span, increased aspect ratio, and active stability augmentation with a smaller tail for reduced drag and weight are among the topics considered. Flight tests of active wing load alleviation on the baseline aircraft and moving-base piloted simulation developing criteria for stability augmentation are described.

  7. The Physical Activity Climate in Minnesota Middle and High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Anne; Lytle, Leslie; Pasch, Keryn; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Sirard, John Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Background This article describes policies, practices, and facilities that form the physical activity climate in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metro area middle and high schools and examines how the physical activity climate varies by school characteristics, including public/private, school location and grade level. Methods Surveys examining school physical activity practices, policies and environment were administered to principals and physical education department heads from 115 middle and high schools participating in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA) study. Results While some supportive practices were highly prevalent in the schools studied (such as prohibiting substitution of other classes for physical education); other practices were less common (such as providing opportunity for intramural (noncompetitive) sports). Public schools vs. private schools and schools with a larger school enrollment were more likely to have a school climate supportive of physical activity. Conclusions Although schools reported elements of positive physical activity climates, discrepancies exist by school characteristics. Of note, public schools were more than twice as likely as private schools to have supportive physical activity environments. Establishing more consistent physical activity expectations and funding at the state and national level is necessary to increase regular school physical activity. PMID:21088313

  8. Selective Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of Human DNA Methyltransferases Active in Cancer Including in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are important enzymes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression and represent valuable targets in cancer chemotherapy. A number of nucleoside DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi) have been studied in cancer, including in cancer stem cells, and two of them (azacytidine and decitabine) have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, only a few non-nucleoside DNMTi have been identified so far, and even fewer have been validated in cancer. Through a process of hit-to-lead optimization, we report here the discovery of compound 5 as a potent non-nucleoside DNMTi that is also selective toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Compound 5 was potent at single-digit micromolar concentrations against a panel of cancer cells and was less toxic in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than two other compounds tested. In mouse medulloblastoma stem cells, 5 inhibited cell growth, whereas related compound 2 showed high cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, 2 and 5 are the first non-nucleoside DNMTi tested in a cancer stem cell line. PMID:24387159

  9. EGFR activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pfäffle, Heike N.; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-01-01

    In lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared to wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of crosslinker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi Anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in-vitro and in-vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer. PMID:23966292

  10. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  11. A High-resolution, Multi-epoch Spectral Atlas of Peculiar Stars Including RAVE, GAIA , and HERMES Wavelength Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, Lina; Munari, Ulisse; Zwitter, Tomaž

    2010-12-01

    We present an Echelle+CCD, high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution (R = 20,000) spectroscopic atlas of 108 well-known objects representative of the most common types of peculiar and variable stars. The wavelength interval extends from 4600 to 9400 Å and includes the RAVE, Gaia, and HERMES wavelength ranges. Multi-epoch spectra are provided for the majority of the observed stars. A total of 425 spectra of peculiar stars, which were collected during 56 observing nights between 1998 November and 2002 August, are presented. The spectra are given in FITS format and heliocentric wavelengths, with accurate subtraction of both the sky background and the scattered light. Auxiliary material useful for custom applications (telluric dividers, spectrophotometric stars, flat-field tracings) is also provided. The atlas aims to provide a homogeneous database of the spectral appearance of stellar peculiarities, a tool useful both for classification purposes and inter-comparison studies. It could also serve in the planning and development of automated classification algorithms designed for RAVE, Gaia, HERMES, and other large-scale spectral surveys. The spectrum of XX Oph is discussed in some detail as an example of the content of the present atlas.

  12. A HIGH-RESOLUTION, MULTI-EPOCH SPECTRAL ATLAS OF PECULIAR STARS INCLUDING RAVE, GAIA , AND HERMES WAVELENGTH RANGES

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasella, Lina; Munari, Ulisse; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2010-12-15

    We present an Echelle+CCD, high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution (R = 20,000) spectroscopic atlas of 108 well-known objects representative of the most common types of peculiar and variable stars. The wavelength interval extends from 4600 to 9400 A and includes the RAVE, Gaia, and HERMES wavelength ranges. Multi-epoch spectra are provided for the majority of the observed stars. A total of 425 spectra of peculiar stars, which were collected during 56 observing nights between 1998 November and 2002 August, are presented. The spectra are given in FITS format and heliocentric wavelengths, with accurate subtraction of both the sky background and the scattered light. Auxiliary material useful for custom applications (telluric dividers, spectrophotometric stars, flat-field tracings) is also provided. The atlas aims to provide a homogeneous database of the spectral appearance of stellar peculiarities, a tool useful both for classification purposes and inter-comparison studies. It could also serve in the planning and development of automated classification algorithms designed for RAVE, Gaia, HERMES, and other large-scale spectral surveys. The spectrum of XX Oph is discussed in some detail as an example of the content of the present atlas.

  13. Activity of Debio1452, a FabI Inhibitor with Potent Activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus spp., Including Multidrug-Resistant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, Paul R.; Kaplan, Nachum; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are responsible for a wide variety of human infections. The investigational antibacterial Debio1450 (previously AFN-1720), a prodrug of Debio1452 (previously AFN-1252), specifically targets staphylococci without significant activity against other Gram-positive or Gram-negative species. Debio1452 inhibits FabI, an enzyme critical to fatty acid biosynthesis in staphylococci. The activity of Debio1452 against CoNS, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), including significant clones, was determined. A globally diverse collection of 574 patient isolates from 35 countries was tested that included CoNS (6 species, 103 strains), MSSA (154 strains), MRSA (163 strains), and molecularly characterized strains (including spa-typed MRSA clones; 154 strains). The isolates were tested for susceptibility by CLSI broth microdilution methods against Debio1452 and 10 comparators. The susceptibility rates for the comparators were determined using CLSI and EUCAST breakpoint criteria. All S. aureus and CoNS strains were inhibited by Debio1452 concentrations of ≤0.12 and ≤0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC50s for MSSA, MRSA, and molecularly characterized MRSA strains were 0.004 μg/ml, and the MIC90s ranged from 0.008 to 0.03 μg/ml. The MICs were higher for the CoNS isolates (MIC50/90, 0.015/0.12 μg/ml). Among S. aureus strains, resistance was common for erythromycin (61.6%), levofloxacin (49.0%), clindamycin (27.6%), tetracycline (15.7%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.0%). Debio1452 demonstrated potent activity against MSSA, MRSA, and CoNS. Debio1452 showed significantly greater activity overall (MIC50, 0.004 μg/ml) than the other agents tested against these staphylococcal species, which included dominant MRSA clones and strains resistant to currently utilized antimicrobial agents. PMID:25691627

  14. Bioaugmentation of soil contaminated with high-level crude oil through inoculation with mixed cultures including Acremonium sp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ding, Ning; Peterson, Eric Charles

    2015-06-01

    Heavy contamination of soil with crude oil has caused significant negative environmental impacts and presents substantial hazards to human health. To explore a highly efficient bioaugmentation strategy for these contaminations, experiments were conducted over 180 days in soil heavily contaminated with crude oil (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with four treatments comprised of Bacillus subtilis inoculation with no further inoculation (I), or reinoculation after 100 days with either B. subtilis (II), Acremonium sp.(III), or a mixture of both organisms (IV). The removal values of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 60.1 ± 2.0, 60.05 ± 3.0, 71.3 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 2.7 % for treatment (I-IV), respectively. Treatments (III-IV) significantly enhanced the soil bioremediation compared with treatments (I-II) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, significantly (p < 0.05) greater rates of degradation for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions were observed in treatments (III-IV) compared to treatments (I-II), and this was especially the case with the degradative rates for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil heavy fractions. Dehydrogenase activity in treatment (III-IV) containing Acremonium sp. showed a constant increase until the end of experiments. Therefore reinoculation with pure fungus or fungal-bacterial consortium should be considered as an effective strategy in bioaugmentation for soil heavily contaminated with crude oil. PMID:25929330

  15. Prediction of thermodynamic properties, including solubility equilibria and vapor pressures, for mixed aqueous electrolytes to high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of different models have been proposed in the literature that treat the thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions. The most frequently used at present is the ion-interaction or virial coefficient approach, which was initially developed by Pitzer (1973) and Pitzer and Kim (1974) for aqueous solutions near room temperature. Since the model is based on a general equation for the excess Gibbs energy of the aqueous fluid, any thermodynamic property can be obtained from the appropriate derivatives. Thus the model has been used to describe osmotic and activity coefficients, as well as volumetric and thermal properties (e.g., heat capacity and enthalpy) of aqueous electrolytes. Success of this model when applied to complex and concentrated electrolyte mixtures was initially demonstrated for calculations of equilibria at room temperature between a brine phase and one or more solids by Harvie and Weare (1980). In this study we show that the same success holds over a wider range of temperature conditions. The model is applied to calculations of solubility equilibria, as well as to calculations of vapor pressures of electrolyte mixtures to high temperatures. 32 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug-delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S.; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (<2 mA) is applied across the scalp to modulate brain function. High-Definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) is a technique used to increase the spatial focality of tDCS by passing current across the scalp using <12 mm diameter electrodes. The purpose of this study was to design and optimize “high-definition” electrode-gel parameters for electrode durability, skin safety, and subjective pain. Anode and cathode electrode potential, temperature, pH, and subjective sensation over time were assessed during application of 2 mA direct current, for up to 22 minutes on agar gel or subject forearms. A selection of 5 types of solid-conductors (Ag pellet, Ag/AgCl pellet, Rubber pellet, Ag/AgCl ring, and Ag/AgCl disc) and 7 conductive gels (Signa, Spectra, Tensive, Redux, BioGel, Lectron, and CCNY-4) were investigated. The Ag/AgCl ring in combination with CCNY-4 gel resulted in the most favorable outcomes. Under anode stimulations, electrode potential and temperature rises were generally observed in all electrode-gel combinations except for Ag/AgCl ring and disc electrodes. pH remained constant for all solid-conductors except for both Ag and Rubber pellet electrodes with Signa and CCNY-4 gels. Sensation ratings were independent of stimulation polarity. Ag/AgCl ring electrodes were found to be the most comfortable followed by Ag, Rubber, and Ag/AgCl pellet electrodes across all gels. PMID:20488204

  17. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan G; Korovin, Yury A; Natalenko, Anatoly A; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu; Stankovskiy, A Yu

    2010-01-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1 H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

  18. High energy activation data library (HEAD-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Natalenko, A. A.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.; Mashnik, S. G.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.

    2010-12-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1H to 210Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed. A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the final HEAD-2009 library.

  19. Neutral β-Lactams Inactivate High Molecular Mass Penicillin-Binding Proteins of Class B1, Including PBP2a of MRSA.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kinjal; Palzkill, Timothy; Pratt, R F

    2014-02-13

    The targets of β-lactam antibiotics are bacterial DD-peptidases (penicillin-binding proteins). β-Lactam SAR studies over many years have demonstrated the importance of a specifically placed negative charge, usually carboxylate, on these molecules. We show here that neutral analogues of classical β-lactam antibiotics are of comparable activity to the originals against β-lactam-resistant high molecular mass DD-peptidases of the B1 class, a group that includes PBP2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. These neutral β-lactams may direct new development of antibiotics against certain penicillin-resistant bacteria. These molecules do have antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24900789

  20. Antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV includes both cytolytic and non-cytolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Chiara; Castilletti, Concetta; Cimini, Eleonora; Romanelli, Antonella; Lapa, Daniele; Quartu, Serena; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe central nervous system infection in humans, primarily in the elderly and immunocompromised subjects. Human γδ T-cells play a critical role in the immune response against viruses, and studies of WNV meningoencephalitis in laboratory mice described a role of γδ T-cells in the protective immune response. Aim of this study was to analyze the cytolytic and non-cytolytic antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV replication. The anti-WNV activity of soluble factor released by zoledronic acid (ZA)-activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and the cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 T-cell lines against WNV-infected cells were tested in vitro. The activation of Vδ2 T-cell lines was able to inhibit WNV replication through the release of soluble factors. IFN-γ is massively released by activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and is involved in the anti-WNV activity. Moreover, the Vδ2 T-cell lines can efficiently kill WNV-infected cells possibly through perforin-mediated mechanism. Altogether, our results provide insight into the effector functions of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV. The possibility to target these cells by ZA, a commercially available drug used in humans, could potentially offer a new immunotherapeutic strategy for WNV infection. PMID:27196553

  1. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  2. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  3. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  4. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. Methods The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2–3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Results Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P < 0.0001), fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Conclusion Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects. PMID:26844086

  5. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  6. A Multimodal Approach Including Craniospinal Irradiation Improves the Treatment Outcome of High-risk Intracranial Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Woo Chul; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu-Won; Lyu, Chul Joo; Won, Sung Chul; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a multimodal approach including craniospinal irradiation (CSI) improves treatment outcome in nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 32 patients with NGGCTs. Fourteen patients belonged to the intermediate prognosis group (immature teratoma, teratoma with malignant transformation, and mixed tumors mainly composed of germinoma or teratoma), and 18 patients belonged to the poor prognosis group (other highly malignant tumors). Patients with pure germinoma or mature teratoma were excluded from this study. Nineteen patients were treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (RT); 9 patients received chemotherapy plus RT; 3 patients received surgery plus RT; and 1 patient received RT alone. Twenty-seven patients received CSI with a median of 36 Gy (range, 20-41 Gy) plus focal boost of 18-30.6 Gy, and 5 patients received whole-brain RT (WBRT) (20-36 Gy) or focal RT (50.4-54 Gy). The rate of total and subtotal resection was 71.9%. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 121 months. Results: Treatment failed in 7 patients. Three of the 5 patients who received focal RT or WBRT had local failure. Four cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) failures occurred after CSI. No failure occurred in the intermediate prognosis group. Ten-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 77.6% and 74.6%, respectively. Ten-year RFS for the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 100% and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.012). OS for the two groups were 85.1% and 66.7%, respectively (p = 0.215). Tumor histology and CSI were significant prognostic factors for RFS, and CSI was significantly associated with OS. Conclusions: A multimodal approach was effective for treating NGGCTs. CSI should be considered for patients with poor prognostic histology.

  7. Upstream stimulatory factor activates the vasopressin promoter via multiple motifs, including a non-canonical E-box.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Judy M; Edgson, Jodie L; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V; Mulgrew, Robert; Quinn, John P; Woll, Penella J

    2003-01-01

    We have described previously a complex E-box enhancer (-147) of the vasopressin promoter in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) extracts [Coulson, Fiskerstrand, Woll and Quinn, (1999) Biochem. J. 344, 961-970]. Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) heterodimers were one of the complexes binding to this site in vitro. We now report that USF overexpression in non-SCLC (NSCLC) cells can functionally activate vasopressin promoter-driven reporters that are otherwise inactive in this type of lung cancer cell. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis demonstrate that although the -147 E-box contributes, none of the previously predicted E-boxes (-147, -135, -34) wholly account for this USF-mediated activation in NSCLC. 5' Deletion showed the key promoter region as -52 to +42; however, USF-2 binding was not reliant on the -34 E-box, but on a novel adjacent CACGGG non-canonical E-box at -42 (motif E). This mediated USF binding in both SCLC and USF-2-transfected NSCLC cells. Mutation of motif E or the non-canonical TATA box abolished activity, implying both are required for transcriptional initiation on overexpression of USF-2. Co-transfected dominant negative USF confirmed that binding was required through motif E for function, but that the classical activation domain of USF was not essential. USF-2 bound motif E with 10-fold lower affinity than the -147 E-box. In NSCLC, endogenous USF-2 expression is low, and this basal level appears to be insufficient to activate transcription of arginine vasopressin (AVP). In summary, we have demonstrated a novel mechanism for USF activation, which contributes to differential vasopressin expression in lung cancer. PMID:12403649

  8. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    PubMed

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop. PMID:24506492

  9. Active tectonics in the Moroccan High Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sébrier, Michel; Siame, Lionel; Zouine, El Mostafa; Winter, Thierry; Missenard, Yves; Leturmy, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    Review of seismological and structural data coupled with new data on topographical, geomorphology, and Quaternary geology allows delineating the major active faults of the High Atlas. These are the North and South border faults of which fault segmentations correspond to Mw ranging between 6.1 and 6.4. Detail active tectonics analyses were performed on the South Atlas Fault Zone in the Souss and Ouarzazate basins, where deformed Quaternary levels permit to estimate slip rates on individual faults in the order of 0.1 mm yr -1. Such low slip rates imply that large observational time-window is needed to analyze active deformation in low-seismicity regions. However, the complex 3D geometry of reverse or thrust faults may cause difficulty to relate surface observations with the deeper faults that have the potential to nucleate big earthquakes. Further studies are necessary to interpret the Anti Atlas seismicity. To cite this article: M. Sebrier et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  10. Donor-acceptor organo-imido polyoxometalates: high transparency, high activity redox-active NLO chromophores.

    PubMed

    Al-Yasari, Ahmed; Van Steerteghem, Nick; El Moll, Hani; Clays, Koen; Fielden, John

    2016-02-21

    We show that polyoxometalates (POMs) are an excellent redox-active acceptor on which to base high performance 2(nd) order non-linear optical (NLO) chromophores. This is demonstrated through three new organoimido-Lindqvist derivatives with HRS β0-values exceeding those of any dipolar organic system with comparable donor, π-system and absorption profile. Thus, organoimido POMs may provide a new generation of high performance, high transparency, and potentially redox-switchable NLO materials. PMID:26815652

  11. Chitosan-Based Film of Tyrothricin for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Common Skin Pathogens Including Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Duk; Sung, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-05-28

    Chitosan-based film-forming gel is regarded as a promising vehicle for topical delivery of antimicrobial agents to skin wounds, since it protects from microbial infection and the cationic polymer itself possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, possible synergistic interaction against common skin pathogens between the cationic polymer and tyrothricin (TRC), a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic, was investigated, by determining the concentration to inhibit 90% of bacterial isolates (MIC). The addition of the polysaccharide to TRC dramatically reduced the MIC values of TRC by 1/33 and 1/4 against both methicillin-resistant and methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The synergism of TRC and chitosan combination against both strains was demonstrated by the checkerboard method, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index below 0.5. Moreover, co-treatment of TRC and chitosan exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the antibacterial activity of chitosan, whereas TRC itself did not inhibit the gram-negative bacterial growth. These findings suggested that the use of chitosan-based film for topical delivery of TRC could be an alternative to improve TRC antimicrobial activity against strains that are abundant in skin wounds. PMID:26907760

  12. The Azorhizobium caulinodans nifA gene: identification of upstream-activating sequences including a new element, the 'anaerobox'.

    PubMed Central

    Nees, D W; Stein, P A; Ludwig, R A

    1988-01-01

    From nucleotide sequencing analyses, the A. caulinodans nifA gene seems to be under dual control by the Ntr (in response to available N) and Fnr (in response to available O2) transcriptional activation/repression systems. Because it fixes N2 in two contexts, the Ntr system might regulate A. caulinodans nif gene expression ex planta, while the Fnr system might similarly regulate in planta. As nifA upstream-activating elements, we have identified: (i) a gpNifA binding site allowing autogenous nifA regulation, (ii) an Ntr-dependent transcription start, presumably the target of gpNifA activation, and (iii) an "anaerobox" tetradecameric nucleotide sequence that is precisely conserved among O2 regulated enteric bacterial genes controlled by the gpFnr transcriptional activator. Because it is precisely positioned upstream of enteric bacterial transcriptional starts, the "anaerobox" sequence may constitute the gpFnr DNA binding site. If so, then a second, Ntr-independent nifA transcription start may exist. We have also deduced the A. caulinodans nifA open reading frame and have compared the gene product (gpNifA) with those of other N2-fixing organisms. These proteins exhibit strongly conserved motifs: (i) sites conserved among ATP-binding proteins, (ii) an interdomain linker region, and (iii) a C-terminal alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix DNA binding site. PMID:3186446

  13. 77 FR 2717 - High Liner Foods Incorporated; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission High Liner Foods Incorporated; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding High Liner Foods Incorporated's application for...

  14. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA-Dependent Tel1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Daichi; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Shima, Hiroki; Higashide, Mika; Terasawa, Masahiro; Gasser, Susan M; Shinohara, Miki

    2016-03-01

    Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity. PMID:26990569

  15. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  16. Method of preparing high specific activity platinum-195m

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-06-15

    A method of preparing high-specific-activity .sup.195m Pt includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  17. Method for preparing high specific activity 177Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-04-06

    A method of separating lutetium from a solution containing Lu and Yb, particularly reactor-produced .sup.177 Lu and .sup.177 Yb, includes the steps of: providing a chromatographic separation apparatus containing LN resin; loading the apparatus with a solution containing Lu and Yb; and eluting the apparatus to chromatographically separate the Lu and the Yb in order to produce high-specific-activity .sup.177 Yb.

  18. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    This work presents the development and application of an active control approach for reduction of both vibration and noise induced by helicopter rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI). Control is implemented through single or dual actively controlled flaps (ACFs) on each blade. Low-speed helicopter flight is prone to severe BVI, resulting in elevated vibration and noise levels. Existing research has suggested that when some form of active control is used to reduce vibration, noise will increase and vice versa. The present research achieves simultaneous reduction of noise and vibration, and also investigates the physical sources of the observed reduction. The initial portion of this work focused on developing a tool for simulating helicopter noise and vibrations in the BVI flight regime. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades was developed and combined with an enhanced free-wake model and an acoustic prediction tool with provisions for blade flexibility. These elements were incorporated within an aeroelastic analysis featuring fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. Subsequently, control algorithms were developed that were effective for reducing noise and vibration even in the nonlinear BVI flight regime; saturation limits were incorporated constraining flap deflections to specified limits. The resulting simulation was also validated with a wide range of experimental data, achieving excellent correlation. Finally, a number of active control studies were performed. Multi-component vibration reductions of 40--80% could be achieved, while incurring a small noise penalty. Noise was reduced using an onboard feedback microphone; reductions of 4--10 dB on the advancing side were observed on a plane beneath the rotor when using dual flaps. Finally, simultaneous noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of about 5 dB in noise on the advancing side combined with a 60% reduction in vibration was

  19. High-Altitude High-Latitude Electron-Density and Magnetic-Field Enhancements Observed during Magnetic Storms - Including the Storm of 17 April 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Bilitza, Dieter; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the spectacular remote measurements from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite [Burch, Space Sci. Rev., 2003], the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on IMAGE had the capability of making accurate magnetospheric local electron-density and magnetic-field determinations in addition to obtaining remote electron-density profiles [Reinisch et al., GRL, 2001; Benson et al., JGR, 2003]. These determinations were made using interleaved passive and active modes of operation of the RPI; the former were used to produce dynamic spectra and the latter to produce plasmagrams during active sounding. The plasmagrams of particular interest in this investigation were produced during the apogee (8 RE) portion of the IMAGE orbit when the RPI often operated in a high-resolution mode (300 Hz frequency steps) designed for accurate frequency measurements of sounder-stimulated plasma resonances. Here we present examples from 2001 and 2002, when the IMAGE apogee was at high latitudes, of large increase the electron density and magnetic-field intensity (relative to quiet control conditions) during magnetic storms. During the 17 April 2002 storm, the electron density increased by about a factor of 4 and the magnetic-field intensity increased by nearly a factor of 2. During the much larger storm of 31 March 2001, the RPI data presented in Osherovich et al. [2007] indicates that the electron density increased by about a factor of 10.

  20. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L.; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C.; Tyner, Stuart D.

    2014-01-01

    Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance

  1. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  2. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  3. 77 FR 53884 - High Mesa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission High Mesa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of High Mesa Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. An Analysis of Specialized Reading Instruction in High School English Classes for Students with Disabilities Included in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Kathy Rosvold

    2010-01-01

    This study is a qualitative case study that examined and analyzed the instructional strategies implemented by high school English teachers when teaching reading to students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Ten teachers who teach high school English on collaborative teams made up of a general and a special educator participated in the…

  5. Acceleration of degradation by highly accelerated stress test and air-included highly accelerated stress test in crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soh; Tanahashi, Tadanori; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of hyper-hygrothermal stresses with or without air on the degradation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules, to shorten the required duration of a conventional hygrothermal-stress test [i.e., the “damp heat (DH) stress test”, which is conducted at 85 °C/85% relative humidity for 1,000 h]. Interestingly, the encapsulant within a PV module becomes discolored under the air-included hygrothermal conditions achieved using DH stress test equipment and an air-included highly accelerated stress test (air-HAST) apparatus, but not under the air-excluded hygrothermal conditions realized using a highly accelerated stress test (HAST) machine. In contrast, the reduction in the output power of the PV module is accelerated irrespective of air inclusion in hyper-hygrothermal test atmosphere. From these findings, we conclude that the required duration of the DH stress test will at least be significantly shortened using air-HAST, but not HAST.

  6. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  7. Active coloration with flexible high contrast metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Kapraun, Jonas; Ferrara, James; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-02-01

    The ability to actively control the perceived color of objects is highly desirable for a variety of applications, such as camouflage, sensing, and displays. Such a phenomenon can be readily found in nature - the chameleon is an excellent example. However, the capability to change color at-will has yet to be reproduced by humans. Ultra-thin dielectric high contrast metastructures (HCMs) have been shown to exhibit unique versatility to manipulate light. In this work, we report a completely new flexible HCM structure whose color can be varied by stretching the membrane. This is accomplished with a novel HCM design that annihilates the 0th order diffraction in a grating while enhancing the -1st order. The color perception of the HCM, determined by the -1st diffraction order, is thus easily changed with the variation of its period. The ultra-thin HCM is patterned on a silicon-on-insulator wafer and transferred onto a flexible membrane. We measure more than 15 times stronger intensity in the -1st order diffraction than the 0th order, in excellent agreement with theoretical results. We experimentally demonstrate brilliant colors and change the color of a 1 cm×1 cm sample from green to orange (39 nm wavelength change) with a stretch of 4.9% (25 nm period change). The same effect can be used for steering a laser beam. We demonstrate more than 40 resolvable beam spots.

  8. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  9. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  10. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  11. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  12. Polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering at intermediate and high energies including the present status of dibaryons

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1985-01-01

    We review experimental results concerning polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering in which both the elastic scattering and hadron-production reaction are included. We also present summary of S = 0 dibaryon resonances and candidates by reviewing experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system, ..gamma..d channel, ..pi..d elastic scattering, pp ..-->.. ..pi..d channel, deuteron break-up reactions, and narrow structures in missing-mass spectra. 93 refs., 26 figs.

  13. Derivation of equations of motion for multi-blade rotors employing coupled modes and including high twist capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sopher, R.

    1975-01-01

    The equations of motion are derived for a multiblade rotor. A high twist capability and coupled flatwise-edgewise assumed normal modes are employed instead of uncoupled flatwise - edgewise assumed normal models. The torsion mode is uncoupled. Support system models, consisting of complete helicopters in free flight, or grounded flexible supports, arbitrary rotor-induced inflow, and arbitrary vertical gust models are also used.

  14. Combined treatment of steel, including electrospark doping and subsequent irradiation with a high-intensity electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopotov, V. D.; Denisova, Yu A.; Teresov, A. D.; Petrikova, E. A.; Shugurov, V. V.; Seksenalina, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Klopotov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of phase transformations taking place during doping of steel with tungsten and titanium has been performed. The studies on the surface layer of steel modified using the combined method (electrospark doping and the subsequent electron-beam treatment) have been carried out. Formation in the surface layer of a multi-phase submicrocrystalline structure with high strength properties has been revealed.

  15. The Danish People's High School Including a General Account of the Educational System of Denmark. Bulletin, 1915, No. 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Martin

    1915-01-01

    The folk high schools of Denmark and other Scandinavian countries are so unique and contain so much of interest to all who are concerned in the preparation of young men and women for higher and better living and for more efficient citizenship that, although two or three former bulletins of this bureau have been devoted to a description of these…

  16. The Co-Authored Curriculum: High-School Teachers' Reasons for Including Students' Extra-Curricular Interests in Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagay, Galit; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Peleg, Ran

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a gap between curricular requirements and what students actually want to know. One of the factors influencing what is taught in the classroom is teachers' attitudes towards integrating their students' interests. This study investigated what prompts high-school teachers who prepare students for national matriculation…

  17. Recordings for Teaching Literature and Language in the High School, Including a Bibliography of 500 Titles. Bulletin, 1952, No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Arno

    1952-01-01

    Recordings are not a new educational "gadget" to high-school language arts teachers. For more than a score of years some teachers have been using a few recordings of literature with varying degrees of success. Today, the extensive range of recordings available, the professional quality of the performances, and the fidelity of the reproduction…

  18. Morphology and biology of Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 in high mountain lakes of East Siberia (including Lake Amut)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheveleva, Natalya G.; Itigilova, Mydygma Ts.; Chananbaator, Ayushcuren

    2016-04-01

    Data on zooplankton from 13 high-mountain lakes of East Siberia have shown that the Holarctic copepod Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 dominates among crustaceans. In July, its abundance comprised 64%-98% of the total plankton fauna in the pelagial of these lakes, approximately 30% in the littoral zone and 10% in small northern thermokarst lakes. Biometric measurements and morphological descriptions based on scanning microscope images are supplemented by the data on its geographic distribution and phenology.

  19. A genetic map of melon highly enriched with fruit quality QTLs and EST markers, including sugar and carotenoid metabolism genes.

    PubMed

    Harel-Beja, R; Tzuri, G; Portnoy, V; Lotan-Pompan, M; Lev, S; Cohen, S; Dai, N; Yeselson, L; Meir, A; Libhaber, S E; Avisar, E; Melame, T; van Koert, P; Verbakel, H; Hofstede, R; Volpin, H; Oliver, M; Fougedoire, A; Stalh, C; Fauve, J; Copes, B; Fei, Z; Giovannoni, J; Ori, N; Lewinsohn, E; Sherman, A; Burger, J; Tadmor, Y; Schaffer, A A; Katzir, N

    2010-08-01

    A genetic map of melon enriched for fruit traits was constructed, using a recombinant inbred (RI) population developed from a cross between representatives of the two subspecies of Cucumis melo L.: PI 414723 (subspecies agrestis) and 'Dulce' (subspecies melo). Phenotyping of 99 RI lines was conducted over three seasons in two locations in Israel and the US. The map includes 668 DNA markers (386 SSRs, 76 SNPs, six INDELs and 200 AFLPs), of which 160 were newly developed from fruit ESTs. These ESTs include candidate genes encoding for enzymes of sugar and carotenoid metabolic pathways that were cloned from melon cDNA or identified through mining of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative database (http://www.icugi.org/). The map covers 1,222 cM with an average of 2.672 cM between markers. In addition, a skeleton physical map was initiated and 29 melon BACs harboring fruit ESTs were localized to the 12 linkage groups of the map. Altogether, 44 fruit QTLs were identified: 25 confirming QTLs described using other populations and 19 newly described QTLs. The map includes QTLs for fruit sugar content, particularly sucrose, the major sugar affecting sweetness in melon fruit. Six QTLs interacting in an additive manner account for nearly all the difference in sugar content between the two genotypes. Three QTLs for fruit flesh color and carotenoid content were identified. Interestingly, no clear colocalization of QTLs for either sugar or carotenoid content was observed with over 40 genes encoding for enzymes involved in their metabolism. The RI population described here provides a useful resource for further genomics and metabolomics studies in melon, as well as useful markers for breeding for fruit quality. PMID:20401460

  20. Photosynthetically active sunlight at high southern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Frederick, John E; Liao, Yixiang

    2005-01-01

    A network of scanning spectroradiometers has acquired a multiyear database of visible solar irradiance, covering wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm, at four sites in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere, from 55 degrees S to 90 degrees S. Monthly irradiations computed from the hourly measurements reveal the character of the seasonal cycle and illustrate the role of cloudiness as functions of latitude. Near summer solstice, the combined influences of solar elevation and the duration of daylight would produce a monthly irradiation with little latitude dependence under clear skies. However, the attenuation associated with local cloudiness varies geographically, with the greatest effect at the most northern locations, Ushuaia, Argentina and Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula. Near summer solstice, the South Pole experiences the largest monthly irradiation of the sites studied, where relatively clear skies contribute to this result. Scaling factors derived from radiative-transfer calculations combined with the measured 400-600 nm irradiances allow estimating irradiances integrated over the wavelength band 400-700 nm. This produces a climatology of photosynthetically active radiation for each month of the year at each site. PMID:15689179

  1. High performance composites with active stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Tridech, Charnwit; Maples, Henry A; Robinson, Paul; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    High performance carbon fiber reinforced composites with controllable stiffness could revolutionize the use of composite materials in structural applications. Here we describe a structural material, which has a stiffness that can be actively controlled on demand. Such a material could have applications in morphing wings or deployable structures. A carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy composite is described that can undergo an 88% reduction in flexural stiffness at elevated temperatures and fully recover when cooled, with no discernible damage or loss in properties. Once the stiffness has been reduced, the required deformations can be achieved at much lower actuation forces. For this proof-of-concept study a thin polyacrylamide (PAAm) layer was electrocoated onto carbon fibers that were then embedded into an epoxy matrix via resin infusion. Heating the PAAm coating above its glass transition temperature caused it to soften and allowed the fibers to slide within the matrix. To produce the stiffness change the carbon fibers were used as resistance heating elements by passing a current through them. When the PAAm coating had softened, the ability of the interphase to transfer load to the fibers was significantly reduced, greatly lowering the flexural stiffness of the composite. By changing the moisture content in PAAm fiber coating, the temperature at which the PAAm softens and the composites undergo a reduction in stiffness can be tuned. PMID:23978266

  2. Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and TECK.

    PubMed

    Gosling, J; Dairaghi, D J; Wang, Y; Hanley, M; Talbot, D; Miao, Z; Schall, T J

    2000-03-15

    Searching for new receptors of dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines, we used a combination of techniques to interrogate orphan chemokine receptors. We report here on human CCX CKR, previously represented only by noncontiguous expressed sequence tags homologous to bovine PPR1, a putative gustatory receptor. We employed a two-tiered process of ligand assignment, where immobilized chemokines constructed on stalks (stalkokines) were used as bait for adhesion of cells expressing CCX CKR. These cells adhered to stalkokines representing ELC, a chemokine previously thought to bind only CCR7. Adhesion was abolished in the presence of soluble ELC, SLC (CCR7 ligands), and TECK (a CCR9 ligand). Complete ligand profiles were further determined by radiolabeled ligand binding and competition with >80 chemokines. ELC, SLC, and TECK comprised high affinity ligands (IC50 <15 nM); lower affinity ligands include BLC and vMIP-II (IC50 <150 nM). With its high affinity for CC chemokines and homology to CC receptors, we provisionally designate this new receptor CCR10. PMID:10706668

  3. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Guoxin Lu

    2007-12-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  4. Metabolic Activity of Bacteria at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Oger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing evidence for the presence of a large number of microbes in the oceanic subsurface. Such a habitat has a very low energy input because it is deprived of light. A few meters below the sediment surface, conditions are already anoxic in most cases, sulfate reduction and/or methanogenesis becoming thus the primary respiratory reactions of organic matter. Neither the fate of methanogenesis, nor the fate of Dissimilatory Metal-Reduction (DMR) has been investigated so far as a function of pressure. For this reason, we measured experimentally the pressure limits of microbial anaerobic energetic metabolism. In practice, we measured in situ the kinetics of selenite respiration by the bacterial model Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) between 0 and 150 MPa at 30°C. MR-1 stationary-phase cells were used in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium amended with lactate as an additional electron donor and sodium selenite as an electron acceptor. In situ measurements were performed by X- ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy in both a diamond-anvil cell and an autoclave. A red precipitate of amorphous Se(0) was virtually observed at any pressure to 150 MPa. A progressive reduction of selenite Se(IV) into selenium Se(0) was also observed in the evolution of XANES spectra with time. All kinetics between 0.1 and 150 MPa can be adjusted to a first order kinetic law. MR-1 respires all available selenite up to 60 MPa. Above 60 MPa, the respiration yield decreases linearly as a function of pressure and reaches 0 at 155 ±5 MPa. This indicates that selenite respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 stops at about 155 MPa, whereas its growth is arrested at 50 MPa. Hence, the present results show that the respiration of selenium by the strain MR-1 occurs efficiently up to 60 MPa and 30°C, i.e. from the surface of a continental sediment to an equivalent depth of about 2 km, or beneath a 5-km water column and

  5. Multiple phosphorylated forms of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein include an isoform induced in response to high salt concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, M H; Nadeau, E T; Grayhack, E J

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein is an essential multifunctional transcription factor which is highly homologous to human serum response factor. Mcm1 protein acts on a large number of distinctly regulated genes: haploid cell-type-specific genes, G2-cell-cycle-regulated genes, pheromone-induced genes, arginine metabolic genes, and genes important for cell wall and cell membrane function. We show here that Mcm1 protein is phosphorylated in vivo. Several (more than eight) isoforms of Mcm1 protein, resolved by isoelectric focusing, are present in vivo; two major phosphorylation sites lie in the N-terminal 17 amino acids immediately adjacent to the conserved MADS box DNA-binding domain. The implications of multiple species of Mcm1, particularly the notion that a unique Mcm1 isoform could be required for regulation of a specific set of Mcm1's target genes, are discussed. We also show here that Mcm1 plays an important role in the response to stress caused by NaCl. G. Yu, R. J. Deschenes, and J. S. Fassler (J. Biol. Chem. 270:8739-8743, 1995) showed that Mcm1 function is affected by mutations in the SLN1 gene, a signal transduction component implicated in the response to osmotic stress. We find that mcm1 mutations can confer either reduced or enhanced survival on high-salt medium; deletion of the N terminus or mutation in the primary phosphorylation site results in impaired growth on high-salt medium. Furthermore, Mcm1 protein is a target of a signal transduction system responsive to osmotic stress: a new isoform of Mcm1 is induced by NaCl or KCl; this result establishes that Mcm1 itself is regulated. PMID:9001236

  6. Return to Activity at Altitude After High-Altitude Illness

    PubMed Central

    DeWeber, Kevin; Scorza, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sports and other activities at high altitude are popular, yet they pose the unique risk for high-altitude illness (HAI). Once those who have suffered from a HAI recover, they commonly desire or need to perform the same activity at altitude in the immediate or distant future. Evidence Acquisition: As based on key text references and peer-reviewed journal articles from a Medline search, this article reviews the pathophysiology and general treatment principles of HAI. Results: In addition to the type of HAI experienced and the current level of recovery, factors needing consideration in the return-to-play plan include physical activity requirements, flexibility of the activity schedule, and available medical equipment and facilities. Most important, adherence to prudent acclimatization protocols and gradual ascent recommendations (when above 3000 m, no more than 600-m net elevation gain per day, and 1 rest day every 1 to 2 ascent days) is powerful in its preventive value and thus strongly recommended. When these are not practical, prophylactic medications (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, salmeterol, nifedipine, or phosphodiesterase inhibitors, depending on the type of prior HAI) may be prescribed and can reduce the risk of illness. Athletes with HAI should be counseled that physical and mental performance may be adversely affected if activity at altitude continues before recovery is complete and that there is a risk of progression to a more serious HAI. Conclusion: With a thoughtful plan, most recurrent HAI in athletes can be prevented. PMID:23015950

  7. Acceleration of small, light projectiles (including hydrogen isotopes) to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Small, light projectiles have been accelerated to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With 35-mg plastic projectiles (4 mm in diameter), speeds of up to 4.5 km/s have been recorded. The pipe gun'' technique for freezing hydrogen isotopes in situ in the gun barrel has been used to accelerate deuterium pellets (nominal diameter of 4 mm) to velocities of up to 2.85 km/s. The primary application of this technology is for plasma fueling of fusion devices via pellet injection of hydrogen isotopes. Conventional pellet injectors are limited to pellet speeds in the range 1-2 km/s. Higher velocities are desirable for plasma fueling applications, and the two-stage pneumatic technique offers performance in a higher velocity regime. However, experimental results indicate that the use of sabots to encase the cryogenic pellets and protect them for the high peak pressures will be required to reliably attain intact pellets at speeds of {approx}3 km/s or greater. In some limited tests, lithium hydride pellets were accelerated to speeds of up to 4.2 km/s. Also, repetitive operation of the two-stage gun (four plastic pellets fired at {approx}0.5 Hz) was demonstrated for the first time in preliminary tests. The equipment and operation are described, and experimental results and some comparisons with a theoretical model are presented. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Analysis of microdialysate monoamines, including noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, using capillary ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Barbara; Gifu, Elena-Patricia; Sandu, Ioana; Denoroy, Luc; Parrot, Sandrine

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical methods are very often used to detect catecholamine and indolamine neurotransmitters separated by conventional reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The present paper presents the development of a chromatographic method to detect monoamines present in low-volume brain dialysis samples using a capillary column filled with sub-2μm particles. Several parameters (repeatability, linearity, accuracy, limit of detection) for this new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with electrochemical detection were examined after optimization of the analytical conditions. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine were separated in 1μL of injected sample volume; they were detected above concentrations of 0.5-1nmol/L, with 2.1-9.5% accuracy and intra-assay repeatability equal to or less than 6%. The final method was applied to very low volume dialysates from rat brain containing monoamine traces. The study demonstrates that capillary UHPLC with electrochemical detection is suitable for monitoring dialysate monoamines collected at high sampling rate. PMID:24508677

  9. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  10. Calibration of ultra high speed laser engraving processes by correlating influencing variables including correlative evaluation with SEM and CLSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    Laser engraving is used for decades as a well-established process e. g. for the production of print and embossing forms for many goods in daily life, e. g. decorated cans and printed bank notes. Up to now it is more or less a so-called fire-and-forget process. From the original artist's plan to the digitization, then from the laser source itself (with electronic signals, RF and plasma discharge regarding CO2 lasers) to the behavior of the optical beam delivery — especially if an AOM is used — to the interaction of the laser beam with the material itself is a long process chain. The most recent results using CO2 lasers with AOMs and the research done with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) — as a set for correlative microscopy to evaluate the high speed engraving characteristics — are presented in this paper.

  11. Comparison of extraction techniques, including supercritical fluid, high-pressure solvent, and soxhlet, for organophosphorus hydraulic fluids from soil.

    PubMed

    David, M D; Seiber, J N

    1996-09-01

    The efficiencies of three extraction techniques for removal of nonpesticidal organophosphates from soil were determined. Traditional Soxhlet extraction was compared to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and a low solvent volume flow through technique referred to here as high-pressure solvent extraction (HPSE). SFE, optimized by varying parameters of temperature, pressure, and methanol polarity modifier, showed at least 90% efficiency in the extraction of OPs from both spiked and native soils. HPSE experiments showed efficient and consistent recoveries over a range of temperatures up to 200 °C and pressures up to 170 atm. Recovery of TCP from spiked soils with HPSE depends on the system variables of temperature and pressure, which dictate density and flow rate. HPSE provided extraction efficiencies comparable to those obtained with Soxhlet extraction and SFE but with substantial savings of time and cost. PMID:21619371

  12. Redirecting photosynthetic electron flow into light-driven synthesis of alternative products including high-value bioactive natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Ziersen, Bibi; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-17

    Photosynthesis in plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria converts solar energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, both of which are used in primary metabolism. However, often more reducing power is generated by the photosystems than what is needed for primary metabolism. In this review, we discuss the development in the research field, focusing on how the photosystems can be used as synthetic biology building blocks to channel excess reducing power into light-driven production of alternative products. Plants synthesize a large number of high-value bioactive natural compounds. Some of the key enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochrome P450s situated in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, bioactive compounds are often synthesized in low quantities in the plants and are difficult to produce by chemical synthesis due to their often complex structures. Through a synthetic biology approach, enzymes with a requirement for reducing equivalents as cofactors, such as the cytochrome P450s, can be coupled directly to the photosynthetic energy output to obtain environmentally friendly production of complex chemical compounds. By relocating cytochrome P450s to the chloroplasts, reducing power can be diverted toward the reactions catalyzed by the cytochrome P450s. This provides a sustainable production method for high-value compounds that potentially can solve the problem of NADPH regeneration, which currently limits the biotechnological uses of cytochrome P450s. We describe the approaches that have been taken to couple enzymes to photosynthesis in vivo and to photosystem I in vitro and the challenges associated with this approach to develop new green production platforms. PMID:24328185

  13. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  14. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  15. Optimal reusable-tug and expendable-kickstage trajectories for high-energy planetary missions including correction for nodal precession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsody, J.

    1976-01-01

    Equations are derived by using branched trajectory optimization techniques and the maximum principle to maximize the payload capability of a reusable tug/expendable kickstage vehicle configuration for planetary missions. The two stages and the payload are launched into a low earth orbit by a single space shuttle. The analysis includes correction for precession of the orbit. This correction is done by the tug. The tug propels the payload and the kickstage to an energy beyond earth escape and returns within a specified time to the precessed orbit. After separating from the tug, the kickstage accelerates the payload to the required injection conditions. Planetary injection conditions are specified by the mission energy and a fixed declination and right ascension of the outgoing asymptote. The multipoint boundary value problem resulting from the analysis is solved by a Newton-Raphson iteration technique. Partial derivatives of the boundary conditions are obtained by perturbing the initial conditions one at a time, integrating the trajectory and adjoint equations, and observing the changes in boundary conditions. Maximum payload capability is derived for two typical mission energies. In addition, the variations of several mission and stage parameters are also examined.

  16. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  17. Optimization of transistor design including large signal device/circuit interactions at extremely high frequencies (20-100+GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Ralph; Grubin, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Transistor design for extremely high frequency applications requires consideration of the interaction between the device and the circuit to which it is connected. Traditional analytical transistor models are to approximate at some of these frequencies and may not account for variations of dopants and semiconductor materials (especially some of the newer materials) within the device. Physically based models of device performance are required. These are based on coupled systems of partial differential equations and typically require 20 minutes of Cray computer time for a single AC operating point. A technique is presented to extract parameters from a few partial differential equation solutions for the device to create a nonlinear equivalent circuit model which runs in approximately 1 second of personal computer time. This nonlinear equivalent circuit model accurately replicates the contact current properties of the device as computed by the partial differential solver on which it is based. Using the nonlinear equivalent circuit model of the device, optimization of systems design can be performed based on device/circuit interactions.

  18. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients. PMID:26920105

  19. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  20. High-Tc SQUID magnetometer system with active cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, S.; Oyama, H.; Hayashi, A.; Washio, T.; Fujita, M.; Hirata, Y.

    2002-05-01

    Recent developments of high-Tc SQUIDs have enabled high sensitivity magnetometers to be used in wide range of places, such as laboratory and outdoor fields. At the early stage of developing multichannel system for measurement of magnetocardiogram (MCG) in clinical application, we have fabricated a single channel high-Tc SQUID magnetometer system. The system includes a direct-coupled SQUID with slot structure, a simple magnetically shielded room (MSR), and some active compensation electronics for the purpose of reducing various environmental field noises. A novel active noise cancellation was made by using a combination of a normal conducting detection coil that was horizontally wound in the middle height of the MSR, and two compensation coils that were wound at the top and bottom of the MSR. In addition, adaptive noise cancellation was supplemented by means of adaptive digital filter that was implemented in a digital signal processor. A total noise field attenuation of 50-60 dB was attained at 0.5-100 Hz. Low noise signals from the human heart were measured with a high-Tc SQUID in the noise reduced space in the MSR.

  1. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  2. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  3. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity.

    PubMed

    Nagaharu, Keiki; Ikemura, Kenji; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Oda, Hiroyasu; Ishihara, Mikiya; Sugawara, Yumiko; Tamaru, Satoshi; Mizuno, Toshiro; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment. PMID:27195162

  4. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nagaharu, Keiki; Ikemura, Kenji; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Oda, Hiroyasu; Ishihara, Mikiya; Sugawara, Yumiko; Tamaru, Satoshi; Mizuno, Toshiro; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment. PMID:27195162

  5. A radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Dorow, R G; Seidler, J; Schneider, H H

    1982-01-01

    1 A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. 2 The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1 mg lormetazepam (Noctamid, 2 mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol, and 10 mg diazepam (Valium, and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154 h after treatment. 3 Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines on vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r = 0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. 4 Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8 +/- 1 ng/ml at 2 h after lormetazepam, 7.2 +/- 1.8 ng/ml at 8 h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9 +/- 2.7 ng/ml at 15 h after diazepam. Plasma elimination half-lives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63 h, respectively. 5 Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites. PMID:6121579

  6. Laser Holography. High Tech with High Potential for Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlegel, Ronald D.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses the procedure, historical development, and applications of holography, and discusses the feasibility and value of implementing a unit or course of study of laser holography into an existing photography laboratory and curriculum. An equipment and supplies list, giving supplies and cost, is included. (CT)

  7. Do Evidence-Based Group Parenting Programs for High-Risk or Maltreating Parents Include Content about Psychological Maltreatment?: A Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy; Schniederman, Mel; Brassard, Marla R.; Donnelly, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological maltreatment (PM) is a widespread form of child maltreatment, both in high-risk and maltreating parents, yet there are no intervention programs that target it directly. In this study, the content of parenting programs for high-risk and maltreating parents was assessed to determine whether the program manuals include content on PM.…

  8. An Environmental Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O145 Clonal Population Exhibits High-Level Phenotypic Variation That Includes Virulence Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quinones, Beatriz; He, Xiaohua; Zhong, Wayne; Louie, Jacqueline W.; Lee, Bertram G.; Yambao, Jaszemyn C.; Mandrell, Robert E.; Cooley, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O145 is one of the major non-O157 serotypes associated with severe human disease. Here we examined the genetic diversity, population structure, virulence potential, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of environmental O145 strains recovered from a major produce production region in California. Multilocus sequence typing analyses revealed that sequence type 78 (ST-78), a common ST in clinical strains, was the predominant genotype among the environmental strains. Similarly, all California environmental strains belonged to H28, a common H serotype in clinical strains. Although most environmental strains carried an intact fliC gene, only one strain retained swimming motility. Diverse stx subtypes were identified, including stx1a, stx2a, stx2c, and stx2e. Although no correlation was detected between the stx genotype and Stx1 production, high Stx2 production was detected mainly in strains carrying stx2a only and was correlated positively with the cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin. All environmental strains were capable of producing enterohemolysin, whereas only 10 strains were positive for anaerobic hemolytic activity. Multidrug resistance appeared to be common, as nearly half of the tested O145 strains displayed resistance to at least two different classes of antibiotics. The core virulence determinants of enterohemorrhagic E. coli were conserved in the environmental STEC O145 strains; however, there was large variation in the expression of virulence traits among the strains that were highly related genotypically, implying a trend of clonal divergence. Several cattle isolates exhibited key virulence traits comparable to those of the STEC O145 outbreak strains, emphasizing the emergence of hypervirulent strains in agricultural environments. PMID:26637597

  9. Topside electron temperature models for low and high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, V.; Sethi, N.; Mahajan, K.

    It is now well known that in the topside ionosphere, thermal conduction from the protonosphere becomes the dominant factor over the "heating" and "loss" terms in shaping the ionospheric electron temperature (Te) profile. By analyzing a limited data base of incoherent scatter (i.s.) Te measurements , Mahajan and Pandey (1980) reported a correlation between the topside electron heat flux and electron density, Ne at 400 km. In the recent years, since attention has been steadily mounting for the empirical modelling of Te, in this paper we exploit the large data base of i.s. measurements of Te and Ne at Arecibo, during 1989 -90 (high solar activity), as well as during 1975-76 ( low solar activity). We again find a functional relationship between heat flux and electron density in the topside ionosphere during both the solar activities. These functional relationships are used to generate topside Te profiles. As the current IRI Te model does not include variations with solar activity, the present work can contribute in improving the topside Te model.

  10. High temperature solid oxide fuel development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, E.R.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC development activities and current program status. Goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 h. Test results are presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 40,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Two 25-kW SOFC customer tests units were delivered in 1992; a 20-kW SOFC system is bein manufactured and will be operated by Southern California Edison in 1995. Megawatt class generators are being developed.

  11. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  13. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. PMID:22394016

  14. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  15. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, Don E.

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  16. Investigation of x ray variability in highly active cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Ginga x ray observations of highly active cool star coronae were obtained and analyzed in an effort to better understand the nature of their time variability. The possible types of variability studied included x ray occultations via eclipses in a binary system, rotational modulation of x ray emission, flares, and a search for microflaring. Observation of both sigma(sup 2) CrB and Algol were performed successfully by Ginga. The sigma(sup 2) CrB observations occurred on 27 to 30 June 1988, and the Algol observations on 12 to 14 January 1989. In the sigma(sup 2) CrB observation, simultaneous IUE and Very Large Array (VLA) observations were obtained during part of the Ginga observation. Flaring activity was detected on sigma(sup 2) CrB in the Ginga 1.7 to 11 KeV band and in the IUE microwave region. A large flare on Algol which lasted well over 12 hours was detected, began with a maximum temperature of 65 MK which gradually decayed to 36 MK, and evidence was shown of highly ionized Fe line emission.

  17. Cationic zinc enolates as highly active catalysts for acrylate polymerization.

    PubMed

    Garner, Logan E; Zhu, Hongping; Hlavinka, Mark L; Hagadorn, John R; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2006-11-22

    Unprecedented cationic zinc enolates have been generated by a novel activation route involving the amido to imino ligand transformation with B(C6F5)3, structurally characterized, and utilized as highly active catalysts for the production of high molecular weight polyacrylates at ambient temperature. PMID:17105289

  18. Energy and Energy Conservation Activities for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottinelli, Charles A., Ed.; Dow, John O., Ed.

    This manual contains fifteen energy activities suitable for high school physical and environmental science and mathematics classrooms. The activities are independent, each having its own objectives, introduction, and background information. A special section of each activity is written for the instructor and contains limits, sample data, and…

  19. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  20. Production of carboxylates from high rate activated sludge through fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cagnetta, C; Coma, M; Vlaeminck, S E; Rabaey, K

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the key parameters affecting fermentation of high rate activated A-sludge to carboxylates, including pH, temperature, inoculum, sludge composition and iron content. The maximum volatile fatty acids production was 141mgCg(-1) VSSfed, at pH 7. Subsequently the potential for carboxylate and methane production for A-sludge from four different plants at pH 7 and 35°C were compared. Initial BOD of the sludge appeared to be key determining carboxylate yield from A-sludge. Whereas methanogenesis could be correlated linearly to the quantity of ferric used for coagulation, fermentation did not show a dependency on iron presence. This difference may enable a strategy whereby A-stage sludge is separated to achieve fermentation, and iron dosing for phosphate removal is only implemented at the B-stage. PMID:27020399

  1. Expectations and Anticipations of Middle and High School Special Education Teachers in Preparing Their Students with Intellectual Disability for Future Adult Roles Including Those as Partner and Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of individual ethnographic interviews and focus groups, I explored the expectations and anticipations of middle and high school special education teachers as they carry out their professional charge of educating their students with intellectual disability for lives in the least restrictive environment, including possible adult…

  2. Guidance, Counseling, and Support Services for High School Students with Physical Disabilities: Visual, Hearing, Orthopedic, Neuromuscular, Epilepsy, Chronic Health Conditions. Includes State Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, June C.; And Others

    Intended for use by high school guidance personnel, the two volumes provide general information and a resource guide on physical disabilities including visual impairment, hearing impairment, orthopedic handicap, neuromuscular handicap, epilepsy, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions. The first section provides an overview of each of the…

  3. The Impact of Including Children with Intellectual Disability in General Education Classrooms on the Academic Achievement of Their Low-, Average-, and High-Achieving Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from…

  4. Initial Perceptions of English as a Second Language Educators on Including Students with Limited English Proficiency in Minnesota's High Standards. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie; Liu, Kristin; Thurlow, Martha

    This report presents findings from an investigation of the perceptions, beliefs, and expectations of English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) educators as they work toward including students with limited English proficiency (LEP) in Minnesota's High Standards. More and more states are implementing standards-based educational systems in which all…

  5. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  6. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  7. Correlative microscopy including CLSM and SEM to improve high-speed, high-resolution laser-engraved print and embossing forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Markus; Schweitzer, Michael; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    The industrial market for processing large-scale films has seen dramatic changes since the 1980s and has almost completely been replaced by lasers and digital processes. A commonly used technology for engraving screens, print and embossing forms in the printing industry, well known since then, is the use of RF-excited CO2 lasers with a beam power up to about 1 kW, modulated in accordance to the pattern to be engraved. Future needs for high-security printing (banknotes, security papers, passports, etc.) will require laser engraving of at least half a million or even more structured elements with a depth from some μm up to 500 μm. Industry now wants photorealistic pictures in packaging design, which requires a similar performance. To ensure 'trusted pulses' from the digital process to the print result the use of correlative microscopy (CLSM and SEM) is demonstrated as a complete chain for a correlative print process in this paper.

  8. Use of an Activated Beta-Catenin to Identify Wnt Pathway Target Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Including a Subset of Collagen Genes Expressed in Late Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Belinda M.; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W.; Eisenmann, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin−dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle. PMID:24569038

  9. From Little Acorns...Self Awareness Activity for Junior High and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Rosemary

    The document contains nine self awareness activities designed to precede or accompany typical career awareness activities in the junior high school and high school curricula. Four objectives for the career education goal of self awareness are stated. The activities require little or no materials, media, or advance preparation. Purposes and…

  10. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  11. Three case studies of three high school teachers' definitions, beliefs, and implementation practices of inquiry-based science method including barriers to and facilitators of successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn-Morrison, Kimberly D.

    This study involved three teachers in various stages of implementation of inquiry-based science method. The cases were chosen because one participant was a novice in using inquiry-based science method, one participant was in her second year of implementation, and the third participant was experienced with inquiry-based science method. The cases were set in a rural high school in three different science classrooms. One of the classrooms was a regular biology class. One of the classrooms was an honors oceanography class and another was an advanced placement environmental science classroom. Data sources included interviews, observations, and document collection. Interviews, observations, and document collection were used to triangulate data. Each classroom was observed five times. Interviews were conducted at the beginning of the semester with each participant and at the end of the semester. Follow-up interviews were conducted after each observation. Documents were collected such as each teacher's lesson plans, student work, and assignments. Data was initially organized according to the research areas of teacher's definition, teacher's beliefs, teacher's barriers to implementation, and teacher's enablers to implementation. Then, patterns emerging from each of these cases were organized. Lastly, patterns emerging across cases were compared in a cross-case analysis. Patterns shared between cases were: Participants related inquiry-based science method with hands-on learning activities. Participants saw students as the center of the learning process. Participants had positive beliefs about constructivist learning practices that were strengthened after implementation of inquiry-based teaching. Facilitators of successful implementation of inquiry-based science method were positive student motivation, students' retention of knowledge, and a positive experience for lower level students. Barriers to successful implementation were teachers not having complete control of the

  12. Influence of Activity Mode on Feeling States of High School Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Pellet, Tracey L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in positive well-being, psychological distress, fatigue, and enjoyment vary as a function of physical activity mode. Fifty-five senior high school students participated in one of four fitness activities including two defined as traditional (running and step-aerobics) and two defined as…

  13. High-speed civil transport impact: Role of sulfate, nitric acid trihydrate, and ice aerosols studied with a two-dimensional model including aerosol physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pitari, G.; Ricciardulli, L.; Visconti, G.; Rizi, V.

    1993-12-20

    The authors discuss a two-dimensional model used to study the atmospheric interactions of ozone with exhaust gases from high speed civil transport (HSCT) fleets. Their model encompases the stratosphere and troposphere, includes photochemical reactions as part of the sulfur cycle, and models sulfuric acid aerosols. The inclusion of heterogeneous chemistry effects tempers the impact of nitrogen oxide emissions from HSCT on ozone depletion, in support of previous work from other studies.

  14. Prediction of high-temperature thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolyte solutions including solubility equilibria, vapor pressure depression and boiling point elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which is theoretically derived but uses empirical parameters evaluated from experimental data on binary and ternary aqueous mixtures, is shown to accurately predict thermodynamic properties of aqueous eletrolytes to high temperatures and concentrations and for more complex compositions. Applications of the model include calculations of solubility equilibria, vapor pressures and boiling points of electrolyte mixtures. Examples of these calculations are given below. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Improving upon Nature: Active site remodeling produces highly efficient aldolase activity towards hydrophobic electrophilic substrates

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Manoj; Toone, Eric J.; Fierke, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Substrate specificity of enzymes is frequently narrow and constrained by multiple interactions, limiting the use of natural enzymes in biocatalytic applications. Aldolases have important synthetic applications, but the usefulness of these enzymes is hampered by their narrow reactivity profile with unnatural substrates. To explore the determinants of substrate selectivity and alter the specificity of E. coli 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase, we employed structure-based mutagenesis coupled with library screening of mutant enzymes localized to the bacterial periplasm. We identified two active site mutations (T161S/S184L) that work additively to enhance the substrate specificity of this aldolase to include catalysis of retro-aldol cleavage of (4S)-2-keto-4-hydroxy-4-(2′-pyridyl)butyrate (S-KHPB). These mutations improve the value of kcat/KMS-KHPB by >450-fold, resulting in a catalytic efficiency that is comparable to that of the wild-type enzyme with the natural substrate while retaining high stereoselectivity. Moreover, the value of kcatS-KHPB for this mutant enzyme, a parameter critical for biocatalytic applications, is 3-fold higher than the maximum value achieved by the natural aldolase with any substrate. This mutant also possesses high catalytic efficiency for the retro-aldol cleavage of the natural substrate, KDPG, and a >50-fold improved activity for cleavage of 2-keto-4-hydroxy-octonoate (KHO), a non-functionalized hydrophobic analog. These data suggest a substrate binding mode that illuminates the origin of facial selectivity in aldol addition reactions catalyzed by KDPG and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate (KDPGal) aldolases. Furthermore, targeting mutations to the active site provides marked improvement in substrate selectivity, demonstrating that structure-guided active site mutagenesis combined with selection techniques can efficiently identify proteins with characteristics that compare favorably to naturally occurring enzymes. PMID

  16. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  17. Chimeric Beta-Defensin Analogs, Including the Novel 3NI Analog, Display Salt-Resistant Antimicrobial Activity and Lack Toxicity in Human Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Scudiero, Olga; Galdiero, Stefania; Nigro, Ersilia; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Di Noto, Rosa; Cantisani, Marco; Colavita, Irene; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Daniele, Aurora; Pedone, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are crucial peptides for the innate immune response and are thus prime candidates as therapeutic agents directed against infective diseases. Based on the properties of wild-type hBD1 and hBD3 and of previously synthesized analogs (1C, 3I, and 3N), we have designed a new analog, 3NI, and investigated its potential as an antimicrobial drug. Specifically, we evaluated the antimicrobial activities of 3NI versus those of hBD1, hBD3, 1C, 3I, and 3N. Our results show that 3NI exerted greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis than did hBD1 and hBD3, even with elevated salt concentrations. Moreover, its antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 was greater than that of hBD1 and similar to that of hBD3. Subsequently, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of all peptides in three human epithelial carcinoma cell lines: A549 from lung, CaCo-2 from colon, and Capan-1 from pancreas. None of the analogs significantly reduced cell viability versus wild-type hBD1 and hBD3. They did not induce genotoxicity or cause an increase in the number of apoptotic cells. Using confocal microscopy, we also investigated the localization of the peptides during their incubation with epithelial cells and found that they were distributed on the cell surface, from which they were internalized. Finally, we show that hBD1 and hBD3 are characterized by high resistance to serum degradation. In conclusion, the new analog 3NI seems to be a promising anti-infective agent, particularly given its high salt resistance—a feature that is relevant in diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23357761

  18. High School Girls' Perceptions of Selected Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Bretzing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    High school students, and particularly girls, are not very active (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006). To help girls develop the abilities to enjoy lifetime, healthy physical activity, physical educators need to provide curricula that will achieve this goal. In the process, they need to make sure they are aligned with the current…

  19. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  20. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  1. High-energy laser activities at MBDA Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Bernd; Dietrich, Stephan; Tassini, Leonardo; Protz, Rudolf; Geidek, Franz; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    At MBDA Germany a concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on existing industrial laser sources. Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers, commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available delivering a nearly-diffraction limited beam quality with power levels of up to 10 kW. By using a geometric beam coupling scheme, a number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together using one common beam director telescope. A total laser beam power of more than 100 kW can be achieved, which is sufficient for an operational laser weapon system. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at one common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first-order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated by using different experimental set-ups. A number of experiments were performed successfully to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking, also at large distances and at moving targets. Content and results of these investigations are reported, which demonstrate the complete engagement sequence for a C-RAM scenario. This includes subsequent steps of target acquisition by radar and IR optics, followed by large angle coarse tracking, active fine tracking and destruction of the target by the laser system. This successful implementation of geometric beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  2. The convergence of complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation energies to the complete basis set limit.

    PubMed

    Petersson, George A; Malick, David K; Frisch, Michael J; Braunstein, Matthew

    2006-07-28

    Examination of the convergence of full valence complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation (CASSCF-CISD) energies with expansion of the one-electron basis set reveals a pattern very similar to the convergence of single determinant energies. Calculations on the lowest four singlet states and the lowest four triplet states of N(2) with the sequence of n-tuple-zeta augmented polarized (nZaP) basis sets (n=2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) are used to establish the complete basis set limits. Full configuration-interaction (CI) and core electron contributions must be included for very accurate potential energy surfaces. However, a simple extrapolation scheme that has no adjustable parameters and requires nothing more demanding than CAS(10e(-),8orb)-CISD/3ZaP calculations gives the R(e), omega(e), omega(e)X(e), T(e), and D(e) for these eight states with rms errors of 0.0006 Angstrom, 4.43 cm(-1), 0.35 cm(-1), 0.063 eV, and 0.018 eV, respectively. PMID:16942134

  3. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  4. High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, E; Ludvigsson, J; Huus, K; Faresjö, M

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65 , insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity. PMID:25892449

  5. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

  6. High-resolution ionospheric observations and modeling over Belgium during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 including first results of ionospheric tilt and plasma drift measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2016-06-01

    The ionospheric behavior over Belgium during the partial solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 is analyzed based on high-resolution solar radio flux, vertical incidence sounding, and GPS TEC measurements. First results of ionosonde-based ionospheric plasma drift and tilt observations are presented and analyzed, including some traveling ionospheric disturbances caused by the eclipse. Also, collocated ionosonde and GPS measurements are used to reconstruct the time evolution of the vertical electron density distribution using the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) ionospheric specification system, called Local Ionospheric Electron Density profile Reconstruction (LIEDR).

  7. [High molecular weight protein detected in higher plant cells by antibodies against dynein is associated with vesicular organelles including Golgi apparatus].

    PubMed

    Shanina, N A; Lazareva, E M; Chentsov, Iu S; Smirnova, E A

    2008-01-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein is a multisubunit complex driving organelles along microtubules to their minus-end. We used antibodies against two functional domains (motor and microtubule-binding) of one of principal components of the complex--dynein heavy chain of slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum--to test root meristem cells of wheat Triticum aestivum. The antibodies reacted with a high molecular weight protein (> 500 kDa) in the total cell extract and the band recognized by the antibodies in plant extracts had a lower electrophoretic mobility than the high molecular weight band of mammalian dynein. Antibodies coupled to protein A-Sepharose precipitated the high molecular weight protein from the purified cell extracts. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the antigen recognized by antibodies against dynein heavy chains is associated with the vesicles whose localization depends on the cell cycle stage. The antigen-positive vesicles were localized to the perinuclear region in interphase and early prophase, to the spindle periphery and to spindle pole region during mitosis, and to the interzonal region in the period of fragmoplast and cell plate formation. Some antigen-positive vesicles also reacted with antibodies against Golgi protein markers. The obtained data indicate that higher plant cells contain a high molecular weight protein interacting with antibodies against the motor and microtubules-binding domains of Dictyostelium dynein heavy chain. The revealed antigen was associated with the vesicular structures in the cytoplasm including the Golgi apparatus. PMID:18409378

  8. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  9. Active vibration control for high speed train bogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiffer, Alexander; Storm, Stefan; Röder, Arno; Maier, Rudolf; Frank, Paul-Gerhard

    2005-02-01

    This report deals with the design of an active vibration control (AVC) system integrated into the primary suspension of the bogie of a German high-speed train (ICE). As a design case a prototype bogie (WU92) for the ICE2 was taken. This paper comprises all parts and stages of the development of an AVC system. First, a transfer path analysis was performed in order to identify the main paths of propagation and to determine the boundary conditions at the actuator contact points. A detailed FE-analysis performed on the basis of an already existing FE-model serves as a support to investigate the actuator performance and evaluate several actuator concepts. However, the evaluation of a multifold of varying configurations of actuator, error sensor and monitor sensor positions is obviously not possible in the experiment, but is in the simulation. Based on the simulations and the experiments the control system is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP) system. The structure borne noise level was determined during running tests at the ICE3 and measurements at the WU92 installed in the test rig. The design of the actuator system includes the layout of the specific system as well as the selection of the piezoelectric elements. A specifically developed amplifier drives the actuators. Finally the system is integrated into one axle of the WU92 and tested during roller-rig measurements.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  11. C-5-Modified Tetrahydropyrano-Tetrahydofuran-Derived Protease Inhibitors (PIs) Exert Potent Inhibition of the Replication of HIV-1 Variants Highly Resistant to Various PIs, including Darunavir

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Manabu; Hayashi, Hironori; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Martyr, Cuthbert D.; Takamatsu, Yuki; Aoki-Ogata, Hiromi; Nakamura, Teruya; Nakata, Hirotomo; Das, Debananda; Yamagata, Yuriko; Ghosh, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We identified three nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-015, -085, and -097, containing tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF) with a C-5 hydroxyl. The three compounds were potent against a wild-type laboratory HIV-1 strain (HIV-1WT), with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 3.0 to 49 nM, and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity, with 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) for GRL-015, -085, and -097 of 80, >100, and >100 μM, respectively. All the three compounds potently inhibited the replication of highly PI-resistant HIV-1 variants selected with each of the currently available PIs and recombinant clinical HIV-1 isolates obtained from patients harboring multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants (HIVMDR). Importantly, darunavir (DRV) was >1,000 times less active against a highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant (HIV-1DRVRP51); the three compounds remained active against HIV-1DRVRP51 with only a 6.8- to 68-fold reduction. Moreover, the emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to the three compounds was considerably delayed compared to the case of DRV. In particular, HIV-1 variants resistant to GRL-085 and -097 did not emerge even when two different highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variants were used as a starting population. In the structural analyses, Tp-THF of GRL-015, -085, and -097 showed strong hydrogen bond interactions with the backbone atoms of active-site amino acid residues (Asp29 and Asp30) of HIV-1 protease. A strong hydrogen bonding formation between the hydroxyl moiety of Tp-THF and a carbonyl oxygen atom of Gly48 was newly identified. The present findings indicate that the three compounds warrant further study as possible therapeutic agents for treating individuals harboring wild-type HIV and/or HIVMDR. IMPORTANCE Darunavir (DRV) inhibits the replication of most existing multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains and has a high genetic barrier. However, the emergence of highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 strains (HIVDRVR) has recently been observed in vivo and in

  12. Highly Selective Synthesis of Catalytically Active Monodisperse Rhodium Nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Grass, M.E.; Kuhn, J.N.; Tao, F.; Habas, S.E.; Huang, W.; Yang, P.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-02-21

    Synthesis of monodisperse and shape-controlled colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) is of increasing scientific interest and technological significance. Recently, shape control of Pt, Pd, Ag, Au, and Rh NCs has been obtained by tuning growth kinetics in various solution-phase approaches, including modified polyol methods, seeded growth by polyol reduction, thermolysis of organometallics, and micelle techniques. Control of reduction kinetics of the noble metal precursors and regulation of the relative growth rates of low-index planes (i.e. {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace}) via selective adsorption of selected chemical species are two keys for achieving shape modification of noble metal NCs. One application for noble metal NCs of well-defined shape is in understanding how NC faceting (determines which crystallographic planes are exposed) affects catalytic performance. Rh NCs are used in many catalytic reactions, including hydrogenation, hydroformylation, hydrocarbonylation, and combustion reactions. Shape manipulation of Rh NCs may be important in understanding how faceting on the nanoscale affects catalytic properties, but such control is challenging and there are fewer reports on the shape control of Rh NCs compared to other noble metals. Xia and coworkers obtained Rh multipods exhibiting interesting surface plasmonic properties by a polyol approach. The Somorjai and Tilley groups synthesized crystalline Rh multipods, cubes, horns and cuboctahedra, via polyol seeded growth. Son and colleagues prepared catalytically active monodisperse oleylamine-capped tetrahedral Rh NCs for the hydrogenation of arenes via an organometallic route. More recently, the Somorjai group synthesized sizetunable monodisperse Rh NCs using a one-step polyol technique. In this Communication, we report the highly selective synthesis of catalytically active, monodisperse Rh nanocubes of < 10 nm by a seedless polyol method. In this approach, Br{sup -} ions from trimethyl

  13. Issues and design concepts for high-activity liquid packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, N.M.; Riley, D.; Wells, A.H.

    1994-02-01

    The tank waste pretreatment process involves the separation of low-level and high-level constituents. The liquid high-level defense production waste will be vitrified into thousands of glass logs at the US DOE sites and then transported to a high-level repository for final disposal. Pretreatment and vitrification technology will need to be developed and tested to assess cost-effectiveness. The appropriate pretreatment strategy for complex high-activity liquid will depend on proving a competent process. As technology development matures, actual liquid will be substituted for simulants, and pilot scale plants will replace laboratory scale process demonstrations. Development of this strategy depends on tank waste sample analyses and a high-activity liquid supply for process testing. However, high-activity liquid transportation beyond DOE site boundaries is limited to Type B quantities in volumes less than 50 mL; no licensed packaging exists for greater than 50 mL quantities. The following paper summarizes the need for a high-activity liquid packaging, and identifies the agencies effecting packaging design and transportation. The high-activity liquid packaging concept retrofits licensed spent fuel casks by replacing the spent fuel basket with a sturdy containment vessel appropriate for the chemical nature of the liquid. A Nuclear Packaging (Pacific Nuclear`s NuPat{trademark} 125-B) spent fuel cask was hypothetically retrofitted with a containment vessel filled with liquid source term, the radionuclide inventory contained in the liquid. The structural, thermal, dose rate, and criticality consequences of retrofitting the cask body were evaluated based on data in the 125-B Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. In addition, future packaging development work is discussed.

  14. High energy expenditure masks low physical activity in obesity

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate energy expenditure in lean and obese individuals, focusing particularly on physical activity and severely obese individuals. Design Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was assessed using doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry, activity EE (AEE) by difference and time spent in physical activity by multisensor activity monitors. Subjects 177 lean, Class I and severely obese individuals (age 31–56, BMI 20–64 kg/m2). Results All components of EE were elevated in obese individuals. For example, TDEE was 2404±95 kcal/d in lean and 3244 ± 48 kcal/d in Class III obese. After appropriate adjustment, RMR was similar in all groups. Analysis of AEE by body weight and obesity class indicated a lower AEE in the obese. Confirming lower physical activity, obese individuals spent less time engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (2.7±1.3, 1.8±0.6, 2.0±1.4 and 1.2±1.0 hr/d in lean, Class I, Class II and Class III), and more time in sedentary behaviors. Conclusions There was no indication of metabolic efficiency in even the severely obese, as adjusted RMR was similar across all groups. The higher AEE observed in the obese is consistent with a higher cost of activities due to higher body weight. However, the magnitude of the higher AEE (20 to 25% higher in obese) is lower than expected (weight approximately 100% higher in Class III). Confirming a lower volume of physical activity in the obese, the total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and average daily MET level were lower with increasing obesity. These findings demonstrate that high body weight in obesity leads to a high TDEE and AEE which masks the fact that they are less physically active, which can be influenced by duration or intensity of activity, than lean individuals. PMID:23090575

  15. Evaluation of preventive programs in high caries active preschool children.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Anna Lena; Ullbro, Christer; Koch, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Although caries prevalence in preschool children has dramatically decreased during the last decades it is still a large problem for a minor group of these children. Great efforts have been invested in finding effective preventive programs for the high caries active preschool children. However, few studies have evaluated and discussed which approach will give the best effect. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a "standard" preventive program with a series of programs with more extensive measures during a two-year period. At start one hundred and sixty high caries active preschool children (mean age 4 years) were included in the study. The children were randomly distributed to four groups. All groups were exposed to the basic program composed of dietary counselling, oral hygiene instructions and fluoride varnish application. Three groups were exposed to one additional preventive measure e.g. 1% chlorhexidine gel in trays, 0.2% NaF gel in trays or daily tooth brushing with 1% chlorhexidine gel. The programs were repeated seven times during the two-year study period and were executed by trained dental hygienists. Caries examination and saliva sampling for Streptococcus mutans measurements were performed at start of the study and after two years. The mean defs at start was between 10.8 and 12.6 for the four groups (NS). After two years the caries increment was 1.9 ds in the basic preventive group and between 1.9 and 2.6 (NS) in the other groups. Numerically there were more children in the chlorhexidine groups that showed reduction of Streptococcus mutans counts compared to the other groups, but the differences were small. The mean caries increment of about 1.9 ds per year in all groups indicate that all programs were effective taken into account that the children had about 11 defs at start. There were no differences in caries increment between the basic preventive group and the other groups. The conclusion was that addition of preventive measures

  16. High viscosity to highly dispersed PtPd bimetallic nanocrystals for enhanced catalytic activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jie; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Wei, Hao; Xiao, Yu-Xuan; Janiak, Christoph; Mu, Shi-Chun; Tian, Ge; Pan, Mu; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-07-01

    A facile high-viscosity-solvent method is presented to synthesize PtPd bimetallic nanocrystals highly dispersed in different mesostructures (2D and 3D structures), porosities (large and small pore sizes), and compositions (silica and carbon). Further, highly catalytic activity, stability and durability of the nanometals have been proven in different catalytic reactions. PMID:27222099

  17. Differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases following high and low LET radiation in murine macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Narang, Himanshi; Bhat, Nagesh; Gupta, S K; Santra, S; Choudhary, R K; Kailash, S; Krishna, Malini

    2009-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases have been shown to respond to various stimuli including cytokines, mitogens and gamma irradiation, leading to cell proliferation, differentiation, or death. The duration of their activation determines the specificity of response to each stimulus in various cells. In this study, the crucial intracellular kinases, ERK, JNK, and p38 kinase involved in cell survival, death, or damage and repair were examined for their activity in RAW 264.7 cells at various time points after irradiation with 2 Gy doses of proton ions or X-rays. This is the first report that shows that the MAPK signaling induced after heavy ion or X-ray exposure is not the same. Unlike gamma irradiation, there was prolonged but marginal activation of prosurvival ERK pathway and significant activation of proapoptotic p38 pathway in response to high LET radiation. PMID:19112558

  18. High flare activity and redistribution of solar global magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumba, V.; Hejna, L.; Gesztelyi, L.

    It is demonstrated that, both on the global scale and on the scale of large and complex active regions, high flare activity is closely related to changes in the whole background magnetic-field distribution. It is found that the disturbances of the normal course of magnetic active longitudes (MAL) during the years 1965-1980 correlated with the maxima of flare activity, while the mode of the MAL distribution correlated with the mean level of solar flare numbers. The development of activity during the last two submaxima of the 21st cycle, especially the formation of the white-light flare region of April 1984, were parts of global processes in the solar atmosphere. They were accompanied by a complete reorganization of the MAL patterns, background field sector structure, and coronal holes.

  19. Multiple therapeutic and preventive effects of 3,3′-diindolylmethane on cancers including prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William Weiben; Feng, Zhenqing; Narod, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN. PMID:25332705

  20. Relative loudness of low- and high-frequency bands of speech-shaped babble, including the influence of bandwidth and input level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidser, Gitte; Katsch, Richard; Dillon, Harvey; Grant, Frances

    2002-02-01

    In a balancing test, ten normal-hearing listeners adjusted filtered speech-shaped babble-noise to equally loud levels. On average, they selected about 10 dB less gain for bands below 1 kHz than for bands above and including 1 kHz. The findings applied to two bandwidths (octave and equivalent rectangular bandwidth) and two levels (65 and 85 dB SPL). The outcome suggests that hearing aid fitting procedures aiming to equalize loudness of speech bands should prescribe less low-frequency gain than procedures aiming to normalize loudness of speech bands. A significant interaction was found between bandwidth and input level for the high-frequency bands.

  1. High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    ScienceCinema

    Goyal, Amit (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2012-06-28

    Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R&D resulted in 7 R&D 100 Awards including the 2010 R&D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

  2. High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-05-22

    Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R&D resulted in 7 R&D 100 Awards including the 2010 R&D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

  3. Deep RNA sequencing of L. monocytogenes reveals overlapping and extensive stationary phase and sigma B-dependent transcriptomes, including multiple highly transcribed noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Identification of specific genes and gene expression patterns important for bacterial survival, transmission and pathogenesis is critically needed to enable development of more effective pathogen control strategies. The stationary phase stress response transcriptome, including many σB-dependent genes, was defined for the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) with the Illumina Genome Analyzer. Specifically, bacterial transcriptomes were compared between stationary phase cells of L. monocytogenes 10403S and an otherwise isogenic ΔsigB mutant, which does not express the alternative σ factor σB, a major regulator of genes contributing to stress response, including stresses encountered upon entry into stationary phase. Results Overall, 83% of all L. monocytogenes genes were transcribed in stationary phase cells; 42% of currently annotated L. monocytogenes genes showed medium to high transcript levels under these conditions. A total of 96 genes had significantly higher transcript levels in 10403S than in ΔsigB, indicating σB-dependent transcription of these genes. RNA-Seq analyses indicate that a total of 67 noncoding RNA molecules (ncRNAs) are transcribed in stationary phase L. monocytogenes, including 7 previously unrecognized putative ncRNAs. Application of a dynamically trained Hidden Markov Model, in combination with RNA-Seq data, identified 65 putative σB promoters upstream of 82 of the 96 σB-dependent genes and upstream of the one σB-dependent ncRNA. The RNA-Seq data also enabled annotation of putative operons as well as visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions. Conclusions The results from these studies provide powerful evidence that RNA-Seq data combined with appropriate bioinformatics tools allow quantitative characterization of prokaryotic transcriptomes, thus providing exciting new strategies for exploring transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. See minireivew http://jbiol.com/content/8

  4. Alternative Medications for Medications Included in the Use of High-Risk Medications in the Elderly and Potentially Harmful Drug–Disease Interactions in the Elderly Quality Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Joseph T.; Semla, Todd P.; Schmader, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and the Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) use the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria to designate the quality measure Use of High-Risk Medications in the Elderly (HRM). The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) use the HRM measure to monitor and evaluate the quality of care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. NCQA additionally uses the AGS Beers Criteria to designate the quality measure Potentially Harmful Drug–Disease Interactions in the Elderly. Medications included in these measures may be harmful to elderly adults, negatively affect a health care plan’s quality ratings, and be denied as a health care plan drug benefit. Prescribers, pharmacists, patients, and health care plans may benefit from evidence-based alternative medication treatments to avoid these problems. Therefore the goal of this work was to develop a list of alternative medications to those included in the two measures. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review for 2000 to 2014 and a search of their personal files. From the evidence, they prepared a list of drug-therapy alternatives with supporting references. A reference list of non-pharmacological approaches was also provided when appropriate. NCQA, PQA, the 2015 AGS Beers Criteria panel, and the Executive Committee of the AGS reviewed the drug therapy alternatives and nonpharmacological approaches. Recommendations by these groups were incorporated into the final list of alternatives. The final product of drug-therapy alternatives to medications included in the two quality measures and some nonpharmacological resources will be useful to health professionals, consumers, payers, and health systems that care for older adults. PMID:26447889

  5. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  6. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  7. Selection of quiescent Escherichia coli with high metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Marco; Schümperli, Michael; Sauer, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Sustained metabolic activity in non-growing, quiescent cells can increase the operational life-span of bio-processes and improve process economics by decoupling production from cell growth. Because of the ill-defined molecular nature of this phenotype, we developed selection protocols for the evolution of quiescent Escherichia coli mutants that exhibit high metabolic activity in ammonium starvation-induced stationary phase. The best enrichment procedures were continuously or discontinuously fed ammonium-limited chemostat cultures with a very low dilution rate of 0.03 h(-1). After 40 generations of selection, improved mutants with up to doubled catabolic rates in stationary phase were isolated. The metabolically most active clones were identified by screening for high specific glucose uptake rates during ammonium starvation-induced stationary phase in deep-well microtiter plates. PMID:15721805

  8. Low-Dimensional Chaos of High-Latitude Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi-Xiu; Li, Ke-Jun

    2007-10-01

    The chaos of high-latitude solar activity has been investigated by determining the behavior of the monthly averaged polar facula counts obtained from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on the basis of nonlinear dynamics theories and methods. It is found that the high-latitude solar activity is also governed by a low-dimensional chaotic attractor in both the northern and southern solar hemispheres, which is the same as that of the low-latitude solar activity. However, their maximal Lyapunov exponents are different, showing different strength of chaos. The maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) of polar faculae in the southern solar hemisphere is about 0.0211 ± 0.0003 (month-1), which is nearly consistent with the low-latitude Wolf sunspot numbers, while the MLE in the northern one is approximately 0.0944 ± 0.0066 (month-1), which is obviously greater than the above two.

  9. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOEpatents

    Norbert, Massie A.; Yale, Oster

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  10. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOEpatents

    Norbert, M.A.; Yale, O.

    1992-04-28

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 15 figs.

  11. High prevalence of medication use in professional football tournaments including the World Cups between 2002 and 2014: a narrative review with a focus on NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    Tscholl, Philippe M; Vaso, Martin; Weber, Alexis; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The use of medication in international football has been monitored since the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Team physicians were asked to provide information on prescribed medication 72 h prior to each match for every player. 69% of adult male players reported using medication, with more than half the players using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Up to one-third of all players used NSAIDs prior to every match, regardless of whether they took the field or not. The mean intake of medication was significantly higher during the FIFA Women's World Cup (0.85 vs 0.77 substances per player and per match in men, p<0.001), whereas the use of NSAIDs was similar to that for men. In the Under-20 and Under-17 male competitions, the use of medication was lower as 60% of players used some kind of medication and 43% of the players used NSAIDs during the tournaments. Despite the potential side effects of medication, especially of NSAIDs in the recovery process after a sports activity, there is no evidence of decreasing intake. The reported incidence is alarming, and moreover is most probably underestimated, since self-medication by the players or treatment already prescribed by club physicians is not included in the published reports. Future studies should focus on the daily dosage, time of treatment and especially the medical indication for painkilling agents to better understand the underlying factors. PMID:25878074

  12. High prevalence of medication use in professional football tournaments including the World Cups between 2002 and 2014: a narrative review with a focus on NSAIDs

    PubMed Central

    Tscholl, Philippe M; Vaso, Martin; Weber, Alexis; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    The use of medication in international football has been monitored since the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Team physicians were asked to provide information on prescribed medication 72 h prior to each match for every player. 69% of adult male players reported using medication, with more than half the players using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Up to one-third of all players used NSAIDs prior to every match, regardless of whether they took the field or not. The mean intake of medication was significantly higher during the FIFA Women's World Cup (0.85 vs 0.77 substances per player and per match in men, p<0.001), whereas the use of NSAIDs was similar to that for men. In the Under-20 and Under-17 male competitions, the use of medication was lower as 60% of players used some kind of medication and 43% of the players used NSAIDs during the tournaments. Despite the potential side effects of medication, especially of NSAIDs in the recovery process after a sports activity, there is no evidence of decreasing intake. The reported incidence is alarming, and moreover is most probably underestimated, since self-medication by the players or treatment already prescribed by club physicians is not included in the published reports. Future studies should focus on the daily dosage, time of treatment and especially the medical indication for painkilling agents to better understand the underlying factors. PMID:25878074

  13. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  14. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  15. Improvement of III-nitride visible and ultraviolet light-emitting diode performance, including extraction efficiency, electrical efficiency, thermal management and efficiency maintenance at high current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vampola, Kenneth

    In this work, highly efficient broad-area LEDs on bulk GaN substrates were developed and the fabrication process and device layout were optimized. This optimization relied in part on electrical, optical, thermal and recombination models. The peak external quantum efficiency of the 450 nm LEDs was over 68% when biased at 20 mA. The efficiency characteristic showed a typical droop curve, decreasing at high current densities. The cause of this droop is unknown. An exploratory experiment was conducted to characterize electron overflow and its role in efficiency droop. Novel device structures were developed, allowing direct measurement of overflow electrons in LED-like structures under electrical injection. In these test structures, electrons were observed in the p-type region of the LED only at current densities where efficiency droop was active. The onset of efficiency droop was preceded by the onset of electron overflow. However, the magnitude of the overflow current could not be measured and it is undetermined whether the dominant cause of efficiency droop is electron overflow or some other process such as Auger recombination. Calibration structures allowing measurement of the magnitude of the overflow are proposed. Work on deep-ultraviolet, 275 nm, LEDs is also presented. Demonstration of direct-wafer bonded LEDs to beta-Ga2O3 is presented. A SiC substrate removal process is discussed. LEDs fabricated by this flip-chip process exhibited up to 1.8 times greater power compared to LEDs fabricated by a standard process but suffered from increased forward voltage and premature failure. Further process development leading to electrically efficient operation is proposed.

  16. Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Korfel, Agnieszka; Elter, Thomas; Thiel, Eckhard; Hänel, Matthias; Möhle, Robert; Schroers, Roland; Reiser, Marcel; Dreyling, Martin; Eucker, Jan; Scholz, Christian; Metzner, Bernd; Röth, Alexander; Birkmann, Josef; Schlegel, Uwe; Martus, Peter; Illerhaus, Gerard; Fischer, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with central nervous system relapse of aggressive lymphoma is very poor with no therapy established so far. In a prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated a potentially curative chemotherapy-only regimen in these patients. Adult immunocompetent patients 65 years of age or under received induction chemotherapy with MTX/IFO/DEP (methotrexate 4 g/m2 intravenously (i.v.) Day 1, ifosfamide 2 g/m2 i.v. Days 3– 5 and liposomal cytarabine 50 mg intrathecally (i.th) Day 6) and AraC/TT/DEP (cytarabine 3g/m2 i.v. Days 1–2, thiotepa 40 mg/m2 i.v. Day 2 and i.th. liposomal cytarabine 50 mg i.th. Day 3) followed by high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine 400 mg/m2 i.v. Day −5, thiotepa 2×5 mg/kg i.v. Days −4 to −3 and etoposide 150 mg/m2 i.v. Days −5 to −3, and autologous stem cell transplantation Day 0 (HD-ASCT). Thirty eligible patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled. After HD-ASCT (n=24), there was a complete remission in 15 (63%), partial remission in 2 (8%) and progressive disease in 7 (29%) patients. Myelotoxicity was the most adverse event with CTC grade 3/4 infections in 12% of MTX/IFO/DEP courses, 21% of AraC/TT/DEP courses and 46% of HD-ASCT courses. The 2-year time to treatment failure was 49%±19 for all patients and 58%±22 for patients completing HD-ASCT. The protocol assessed proved feasible and highly active with long-lasting remissions in a large proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier NCT01148173) PMID:23242601

  17. Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Korfel, Agnieszka; Elter, Thomas; Thiel, Eckhard; Hänel, Matthias; Möhle, Robert; Schroers, Roland; Reiser, Marcel; Dreyling, Martin; Eucker, Jan; Scholz, Christian; Metzner, Bernd; Röth, Alexander; Birkmann, Josef; Schlegel, Uwe; Martus, Peter; Illerhaus, Gerard; Fischer, Lars

    2013-03-01

    The prognosis of patients with central nervous system relapse of aggressive lymphoma is very poor with no therapy established so far. In a prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated a potentially curative chemotherapy-only regimen in these patients. Adult immunocompetent patients 65 years of age or under received induction chemotherapy with MTX/IFO/DEP (methotrexate 4 g/m(2) intravenously (i.v.) Day 1, ifosfamide 2 g/m(2) i.v. Days 3- 5 and liposomal cytarabine 50 mg intrathecally (i.th) Day 6) and AraC/TT/DEP (cytarabine 3g/m(2) i.v. Days 1-2, thiotepa 40 mg/m(2) i.v. Day 2 and i.th. liposomal cytarabine 50 mg i.th. Day 3) followed by high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine 400 mg/m(2) i.v. Day -5, thiotepa 2×5 mg/kg i.v. Days -4 to -3 and etoposide 150 mg/m(2) i.v. Days -5 to -3, and autologous stem cell transplantation Day 0 (HD-ASCT). Thirty eligible patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled. After HD-ASCT (n=24), there was a complete remission in 15 (63%), partial remission in 2 (8%) and progressive disease in 7 (29%) patients. Myelotoxicity was the most adverse event with CTC grade 3/4 infections in 12% of MTX/IFO/DEP courses, 21% of AraC/TT/DEP courses and 46% of HD-ASCT courses. The 2-year time to treatment failure was 49%±19 for all patients and 58%±22 for patients completing HD-ASCT. The protocol assessed proved feasible and highly active with long-lasting remissions in a large proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier NCT01148173). PMID:23242601

  18. Electrochemical synthesis of tetrahexahedral rhodium nanocrystals with extraordinarily high surface energy and high electrocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Neng-Fei; Tian, Na; Zhou, Zhi-You; Huang, Long; Xiao, Jing; Wen, Yu-Hua; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-05-12

    Noble metal nanocrystals (NCs) enclosed with high-index facets hold a high catalytic activity thanks to the high density of low-coordinated step atoms that they exposed on their surface. Shape-control synthesis of the metal NCs with high-index facets presents a big challenge owing to the high surface energy of the NCs, and the shape control for metal Rh is even more difficult because of its extraordinarily high surface energy in comparison with Pt, Pd, and Au. The successful synthesis is presented of tetrahexahedral Rh NCs (THH Rh NCs) enclosed by {830} high-index facets through the dynamic oxygen adsorption/desorption mediated by square-wave potential. The results demonstrate that the THH Rh NCs exhibit greatly enhanced catalytic activity over commercial Rh black catalyst for the electrooxidation of ethanol and CO. PMID:24692362

  19. Development of High Activity, Coal-Derived, Promoted Catalytic Systems for NOx Reduction at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Calo

    1998-05-01

    This project is directed at an investigation of catalytic NO{sub x} reduction mechanisms on coal-derived, activated carbon supports at low temperatures. Promoted carbon systems offer some potentially significant advantages for heterogeneous NO{sub x} reduction. These include: low cost; high activity at low temperatures, which minimizes carbon loss; oxygen resistance; and a support material which can be engineered with respect to porosity, transport and catalyst dispersion characteristics.

  20. Highly Regioselective Iodination of Arenes via Iron(III)-Catalyzed Activation of N-Iodosuccinimide.

    PubMed

    Racys, Daugirdas T; Warrilow, Catherine E; Pimlott, Sally L; Sutherland, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    An iron(III)-catalyzed method for the rapid and highly regioselective iodination of arenes has been developed. Use of the powerful Lewis acid, iron(III) triflimide, generated in situ from iron(III) chloride and a readily available triflimide-based ionic liquid allowed activation of N-iodosuccinimide (NIS) and efficient iodination under mild conditions of a wide range of substrates including biologically active compounds and molecular imaging agents. PMID:26394175

  1. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  2. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  3. High accuracy laboratory spectroscopy to support active greenhouse gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. A.; Bielska, K.; Cygan, A.; Havey, D. K.; Okumura, M.; Miller, C. E.; Lisak, D.; Hodges, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Recent carbon dioxide (CO2) remote sensing missions have set precision targets as demanding as 0.25% (1 ppm) in order to elucidate carbon sources and sinks [1]. These ambitious measurement targets will require the most precise body of spectroscopic reference data ever assembled. Active sensing missions will be especially susceptible to subtle line shape effects as the narrow bandwidth of these measurements will greatly limit the number of spectral transitions which are employed in retrievals. In order to assist these remote sensing missions we have employed frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FS-CRDS) [2], a high-resolution, ultrasensitive laboratory technique, to measure precise line shape parameters for transitions of O2, CO2, and other atmospherically-relevant species within the near-infrared. These measurements have led to new HITRAN-style line lists for both 16O2 [3] and rare isotopologue [4] transitions in the A-band. In addition, we have performed detailed line shape studies of CO2 transitions near 1.6 μm under a variety of broadening conditions [5]. We will address recent measurements in these bands as well as highlight recent instrumental improvements to the FS-CRDS spectrometer. These improvements include the use of the Pound-Drever-Hall locking scheme, a high bandwidth servo which enables measurements to be made at rates greater than 10 kHz [6]. In addition, an optical frequency comb will be utilized as a frequency reference, which should allow for transition frequencies to be measured with uncertainties below 10 kHz (3×10-7 cm-1). [1] C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 112, D10314 (2007). [2] J. T. Hodges, H. P. Layer, W. W. Miller, G. E. Scace, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 849-863 (2004). [3] D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2021-2036 (2010). [4] D. A. Long, D. K. Havey, S. S. Yu, M. Okumura, et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc

  4. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system. PMID:25726458

  5. Measuring Students' Physical Activity Levels: Validating SOFIT for Use with High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Mars, Hans; Rowe, Paul J.; Schuldheisz, Joel M.; Fox, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) for measuring physical activity levels of high-school students. Thirty-five students (21 girls and 14 boys from grades 9-12) completed a standardized protocol including lying, sitting, standing, walking, running, curl-ups, and push-ups. Heart rates and…

  6. Geography of the Olympic Games: A Geographic Learning Activity for Upper Elementary and Junior High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgman, Leonard; Lennert, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a learning activity for students in upper elementary and junior high schools that capitalizes on the appeal of the Olympic Games. Using statistical information on the Games, students are asked to generate world maps indicating medal-winning countries. Includes sample Olympic data and maps. (DSK)

  7. Spectroscopic Identification and Metallicity Determination of RR Lyrae Variables in Sloan, with a New Metallicity Calibration Including High-Temperature Phase Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Eckhart; Wilhelm, R. J.; De Lee, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    RR Lyrae stars provide important distance markers for tracing out the metallicity and physical extent of tidal streams and the galactic halo. Here we present a method for potentially identifying a few thousand RRL stars by comparing low-resolution, single-epoch spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR9. This method is tested against the heavily-sampled ‘Stripe 82’ of SDSS. We have also begun developing a new metallicity calibration that fills in the high-temperature regions in RR Lyrae phases for phase regions other than (and including) minimum light. Our calibration extends metallicity determinations provided by previous methods which were calibrated at minimum light only, and also has the potential for detecting shorter-period RRc stars. Phase information was taken from the MacAdam Student Observatory at the University of Kentucky, and the Moore Observatory at the University of Louisville. Spectroscopy was recorded at the University of Texas’ McDonald Observatory. This spectroscopic data set builds on a metallicity standard that we discuss. Ultimately, this new calibration will allow the gleaning of more accurate metallicity information from spectroscopic data taken by surveys such as SDSS.

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water. Diversity in Ralstonia pickettii

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin. PMID:21878094

  9. Development of a high-throughput LC/APCI-MS method for the determination of thirteen phytoestrogens including gut microbial metabolites in human urine and serum.

    PubMed

    Wyns, Ciska; Bolca, Selin; De Keukeleire, Denis; Heyerick, Arne

    2010-04-15

    The investigation into the potential usefulness of phytoestrogens in the treatment of menopausal symptoms requires large-scale clinical trials that involve rapid, validated assays for the characterization and quantification of the phytoestrogenic precursors and their metabolites in biological matrices, as large interindividual differences in metabolism and bioavailability have been reported. Consequently, a new sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS) for the quantitative determination of thirteen phytoestrogens including their most important gut microbial metabolites (genistein, daidzein, equol, dihydrodaidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, coumestrol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, enterodiol, enterolactone, isoxanthohumol, xanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin) in human urine and serum within one single analytical run was developed. The method uses a simple sample preparation procedure consisting of enzymatic deconjugation followed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid-phase extraction (SPE) for urine or serum, respectively. The phytoestrogens and their metabolites are detected with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), operating both in the positive and the negative mode. This bioanalytical method has been fully validated and proved to allow an accurate and precise quantification of the targeted phytoestrogens and their metabolites covering the lower parts-per-billion range for the measurement of relevant urine and serum levels following ingestion of phytoestrogen-rich dietary supplements. PMID:20299290

  10. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. PMID:26833148

  11. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  12. Enzyme-polymer composites with high biocatalytic activity and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Kosto, Timothy J.; Manimala, Joseph C.; Nauman, E B.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2004-08-22

    We have applied vacuum-spraying and electrospinning to incorporate an enzyme into a polymer matrix, creating a novel and highly active biocatalytic composite. As a unique technical approach, enzymes were co-dissolved in toluene with polymers, and the solvent was then rapidly removed by injecting the mixture into a vacuum chamber or by electrospinning. Subsequent crosslinking of the enzyme with glutaraldehyde resulted in stable entrapped enzyme within the polymeric matrices. For example, an amorphous composite of alpha-chymotrypsin and polyethylene showed no significant loss of enzymatic activity in aqueous buffer for one month. Nanofibers of alpha-chymotrypsin and polystyrene also showed no decrease in activity for more than two weeks. The normalized activity of amorphous composite in organic solvents was 3-13 times higher than that of native alpha-chymotrypsin. The activity of nanofibers was 5-7 times higher than that of amorphous composite in aqueous buffer solution. The composites of alpha-chymotrypsin and polymers demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining a wide variety of active and stable biocatalytic materials with many combinations of enzymes and polymers.

  13. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  14. Extreme high-latitude activity from high-speed stream embedded Alfvén waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanskanen, Eija; Mursula, Kalevi; Hynönen, Reko; Snekvik, Kristian; Slavin, James; Goldstein, Melvyn

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic activity is known to be driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME), interaction regions and high-speed streams (HSS). Storm activity in low-latitudes is mainly driven by ICMEs while substorm activity in high-latitudes is strongly modulated by high-speed streams. In this work we explore what makes high-speed streams more powerful in modulating high-latitudes than ICMEs. We identified Alfvén waves from 1995 to 2011. Alfvén waves are found throughout the solar cycle, but they are fastest, most frequent and most geo-effective in the declining phase of the solar cycle 23, when the number of high-speed streams at the Eart&hacute;s vicinity increases rapidly. HSS embedded Alfvén waves were found to carry twice as much Alfvénicity than ICME embedded Alfvén waves. Furthermore, we found a rapid transition from predominance of slow Alfvén waves in 2002 to fast Alfvén waves in 2003, which coincide with the 40% increase in substorm number and 30% increase in substorm strength. We conclude that Alfvénic fluctuations embedded to high-speed streams make them more powerful in modulating high-latitudes than ICMEs, and thus cause largest threat to high-latitude infrastructure during declining solar cycle phases.

  15. High-energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum and high-energy neutrino background flux from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is calculated using the recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing high-energy particles. Collectively, AGN produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10,000 and 10 to the 10th GeV, detectable with current instruments. AGN neutrinos should produce a sphere of stellar disruption which may explain the 'broad-line region' seen in AGN.

  16. Highly concentrated active nonlinear media based on oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Bakin, D.V.; Dorozhkin, L.M.; Krasilov, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, N.T.; Potemkin, A.V.; Tadzhi-Aglaev, K.S.; Shestakov, A.V.

    1987-07-01

    Important characteristics of highly concentrated active nonlinear media were studied which were based on oxide compounds of phosphates, niobates, tantalates, and titanates of neodymium with alkaline earth metals. Compounds of the indicated classes were synthesized and their spectral luminescent and nonlinear optical properties were studied. Single crystals were grown from the selected compounds (5-8mm) and preliminary measurements of the laser and nonlinear optical parameters were taken. Formulas are given for materials that demonstrated high nonlinear and luminescent properties simultaneously. Spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties of some oxygen compounds of rare earth elements are shown.

  17. Substrate independent ATPase activity may complicate high throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Tuntland, Micheal L; Fung, L W-M

    2016-10-01

    Inorganic phosphate release, [Pi], is often measured in an enzymatic reaction in a high throughput setting. Based on the published mechanism, we designed a protocol for our screening for inhibitors of SAICAR synthetase (PurC), and we found a gradual increase in [Pi] in positive control samples over the course of the day. Further investigation indicated that hydrolysis of ATP catalyzed by PurC, rather than substrate-related phosphate release, was responsible for a partial contribution to the signals in the control samples. Thus substrate-independent ATPase activity may complicate high throughput screening. PMID:27430931

  18. Persistence of high intestinal lactase activity in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, H; Ahmad, M

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (PLA) in a Pakistani human population, 53 probands belonging to the Punjabi ethnic group were examined using a lactose tolerance test. The incidence of PLA in the sample was found to be 55%, which has been compared with the incidence in other ethnic groups racially or geographically related to the Pakistani population. Various possible explanations for the fairly high incidence of PLA in the Punjabi ethnic group have been discussed. PMID:6885071

  19. Persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (lactose tolerance) in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, A G; Delbrück, H; Haeckel, R; Goedde, H W; Flatz, G

    1976-09-10

    Two hundred and seventy apparently healthy adult subjects from Afghanistan, mainly from the central and eastern parts of the country, were subjected to a lactose tolerance test. The change of blood glucose from the fasting concentration at 20 min after the administration of lactose showed a bimodal distribution. Forty-seven subjects had a rise of blood glucose concentration of more than 1.1 mmol/l and were classified as persistence of high intestinal lactase activity (PHILA), a term which lays emphasis on the fact that high lactase activity in the adult is an unusual state whose prevalence in some populations requires explanation. In the Afghan sample there were no significant differences of the frequency of PHILA in different ethnic groups. PMID:965005

  20. Topside electron temperature models for low and high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, V. K.; Sethi, N. K.; Mahajan, K. K.

    It is now well known that in the topside ionosphere thermal conduction from the protonosphere becomes the dominant factor over the heating and loss terms in shaping the ionospheric electron temperature (Te) profile. By analyzing a limited database of incoherent scatter (IS) Te measurements, Mahajan and Pandey [J. Geophys. Res. 85 (1980) 213] reported a correlation between the electron heat flux and electron density in the topside ionosphere. Since attention has been steadily mounting for the empirical modeling of Te, we now exploit the large database of IS measurements of Te and Ne at Arecibo during 1989-1990 (high solar activity), as well as during 1975-1976 (low solar activity) for this purpose. We again find a functional relationship between heat flux and electron density in the topside ionosphere during both the solar activities. These functional relationships are used to generate topside Te profiles.

  1. Simultaneous determination in hair of multiclass drugs of abuse (including THC) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Di Corcia, D; D'Urso, F; Gerace, E; Salomone, A; Vincenti, M

    2012-06-15

    A simple procedure for the quantitative determination in hair samples of 13 common drugs of abuse or metabolites (morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, buprenorphine, methadone and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) has been developed and fully validated. The analytes were extracted from the matrix by a simple overnight incubation with methanol at 55 °C. An aliquot of the extract was directly injected into an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system equipped with Waters Acquity UHPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1mm, 1.7 μm). The mobile phase eluted with a linear gradient (water/formic acid 5 mM:acetonitrile; v:v) from 98:2 to 0:100 in 4.5 min, followed by isocratic elution at 100% B for 1.0 min. The flow rate was 0.6 mL/min and the total run time was 8.0 min including re-equilibration at the initial conditions. The compounds were revealed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The absence of matrix interferents, together with excellent repeatability of both retention times and relative abundances of diagnostic transitions, allowed the correct identification of all analytes tested. The method proved linear in the interval from the limit of quantification to 5.0 ng/mg (1.0 ng/mg for Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol) with correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.9970 to 0.9997. Quantitation limits were below the cut-off values recommended by the Society of Hair Testing and ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 ng/mg. Application of the present UHPLC-MS/MS procedure and instrumentation to hair analysis allows high sample-throughput, together with excellent sensitivity and selectivity, in workplace drug-screening controls and forensic investigations. These qualities, combined with minimal sample workup, make the cost of this screening affordable for most private and

  2. Stellar activity effects on high energy exoplanet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2016-01-01

    High energy (X-ray / UV) observations of transiting exoplanets have revealed the presence of extended atmospheres around a number of systems. At such high energies, stellar radiation is absorbed high up in the planetary atmosphere, making X-ray and UV observations a potential tool for investigating the upper atmospheres of exoplanets. At these high energies, stellar activity can dramatically impact the observations. At short wavelengths the stellar disk appears limb-brightened, and active regions appear as extended bright features that evolve on a much shorter timescale than in the optical making it difficult . These features impact both the transit depth and shape, affecting our ability to measure the true planet-to-star radius ratio.I will show results of simulated exoplanet transit light curves using Solar data obtained in the soft X-ray and UV by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory to investigate the impact of stellar activity at these wavelengths. By using a limb-brightened transit model coupled with disk resolved Solar images in the X-ray, extreme- and far-UV I will show how both occulted and unocculted active regions can mimic an inflated planetary atmosphere by changing the depth and shape of the transit profile. I will also show how the disk integrated Lyman-alpha Solar irradiance varies on both short and long timescales and how this variability can impact our ability to recover the true radius ratio of a transiting exoplanet.Finally, I will present techniques on how to overcome these effects to determine the true planet-to-star radius in X-ray and UV observations.

  3. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    PubMed Central

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare. PMID:26658480

  4. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  5. Symmetric Active/Active Metadata Service for High Availability Parallel File Systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ou, Li; Engelmann, Christian; Chen, Xin; Scott, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    High availability data storage systems are critical for many applications as research and business become more data-driven. Since metadata management is essential to system availability, multiple metadata services are used to improve the availability of distributed storage systems. Past research focused on the active/standby model, where each active service has at least one redundant idle backup. However, interruption of service and even some loss of service state may occur during a fail-over depending on the used replication technique. In addition, the replication overhead for multiple metadata services can be very high. The research in this paper targets the symmetric active/active replication model, which uses multiple redundant service nodes running in virtual synchrony. In this model, service node failures do not cause a fail-over to a backup and there is no disruption of service or loss of service state. We further discuss a fast delivery protocol to reduce the latency of the needed total order broadcast. Our prototype implementation shows that metadata service high availability can be achieved with an acceptable performance trade-off using our symmetric active/active metadata service solution.

  6. High-throughput LC-MS/MS based simultaneous determination of polyamines including N-acetylated forms in human saliva and the diagnostic approach to breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Haruhito; Mochizuki, Toshiki; Inoue, Koichi; Toyama, Tatsuya; Yoshimoto, Nobuyasu; Endo, Yumi; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2013-12-17

    The determination of polyamines and their N-acetylated forms was performed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The polyamines efficiently reacted with 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-F) in 0.1 M borax (pH 9.3) at 60 °C for 30 min. The resulting derivatives were analyzed by electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS and sensitively detected by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Furthermore, a rapid separation of the polyamine derivatives within 10 min was performed by UPLC using an antipressurized column packed with 1.7-μm octadecylsilyl (ODS) silica gel. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) on the SRM chromatograms were at the attomole level (9-43 amol). This procedure was used to successfully determine 11 polyamines, including their N-acetylated forms, in the saliva of patients with primary and relapsed breast cancer and healthy volunteers. The level of several polyamines (Ac-PUT, Ac-SPD, Ac-SPM, DAc-SPD, and DAc-SPM) increases in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, the levels of three polyamines (Ac-SPM, DAc-SPD, and DAc-SPM) were significantly higher only in the relapsed patients. The present method proved highly sensitive and is characterized by specificity and feasibility for sample analysis. Consequently, the proposed method is useful for the noninvasive salivary diagnosis of cancer patients and could be applied to determine polyamines in several specimens of biological nature. PMID:24274257

  7. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  8. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  9. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS

  10. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  11. Physical activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Eric P; Grandjean, Peter W

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed countries around the world despite the documented success of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. This illustrates the multifactorial nature of atherosclerosis and the use of novel inflammatory markers as an adjunct to risk factor reduction strategies. As evidence continues to accumulate that inflammation is involved in all stages of the development and progression of atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) may provide additional information regarding the biological status of the atherosclerotic lesion. Recent investigations suggest that physical activity reduces CRP levels. Higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are consistently associated with 6-35% lower CRP levels. Longitudinal training studies that have demonstrated reductions in CRP concentrations range from 16% to 41%, an effect that may be independent of baseline levels of CRP, body composition or weight loss. The average change in CRP associated with physical activity appears to be at least as good, if not better, than currently prescribed pharmacological interventions in similar populations. The primary purpose of this review will be to present evidence from both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations that physical activity lowers CRP levels in a dose-response manner. Finally, this review will examine factors such as body composition, sex, blood sample timing, diet and smoking, which may influence the CRP response to physical activity. PMID:16646631

  12. [Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy and opportunistic protozoan infections].

    PubMed

    Pozio, E

    2004-06-01

    Opportunistic parasite infections (OPIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in persons infected with HIV. In industrialised countries, the use of Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HAART) results to be effective in suppressing the HIV viral load, with a quantitative and qualitative improvement in the CD4+ T-cell count followed by a strong reduction of opportunistic infections including those caused by parasites. These successes have been mainly attributed to the reconstitution of the cell immunity, which play the most important role in controlling OPIs. However, there are many clinical reports and several laboratory results, which suggest that the control of OPIs in HIV-positive persons under HAART is also induced by the anti-HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), which inhibit the aspartyl proteases of the parasites. The non-conventional use of HIV-PIs seems to be an alternative way for the treatment of parasitic infections, which should be deeply investigated. Of five longitudinal studies carried out before and after the introduction of HAART, four studies showed a strong reduction of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in HIV-positive persons under HAART, whereas in another study, no difference was observed in the incidence rate of TE before and after the introduction of HAART. The influence of HAART in reducing TE has been also confirmed in a randomised, controlled clinical trial, which showed that there is no increase in the risk of developing TE after beginning HAART, even though HIV-infected persons with TE had a discontinuing prophylaxis for Toxoplasma gondii. Four HIV protease inhibitors were tested against the T. gondii virulent RH strain in vitro, alone or in association with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine. Ritonavir and nelfinavir were highly inhibitory for the parasite growth. Furthermore, none of the antiviral drugs negatively affected the anti-Toxoplasma activity of pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine. In HIV-Leishmania co-infections, a changing pattern

  13. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the M(w)5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013.

    PubMed

    Sarlis, Nicholas V

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  14. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013

    PubMed Central

    SARLIS, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  15. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  16. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  17. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4–16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  18. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin.

    PubMed

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4-16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  19. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L.; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Glöckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R.; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C.; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H.; Herrmann, Carl; O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K.; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system1. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive2–4. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type1,2,5. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours. PMID:26466568

  20. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours. PMID:26466568

  1. Determinants of Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults: The Basis for High School and College Physical Education To Promote Active Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahas, Markus V.; Goldfine, Bernie; Collins, Mitchell A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews factors that influence high school and college students' physical activity adoption and/or maintenance based on recent behavioral research. Relevant determinants of physical activity include self-efficacy, intentions, perceived barriers, enjoyment, stages of change, and social support. Suggestions for behavior modifications to increase…

  2. A gene-derived SNP-based high resolution linkage map of carrot including the location of QTL conditioning root and leaf anthocyanin pigmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Purple carrots accumulate large quantities of anthocyanins in their roots and leaves. These flavonoid pigments possess antioxidant activity and are implicated in providing health benefits. The lack of informative and saturated linkage maps associated with well characterized populations s...

  3. Orbit determination modelling analysis using GPS including perturbations due to geopotential coefficients of high degree and order, solar radiation pressure and luni-solar attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Cristiane Pardal, Paula; Koiti Kuga, Helio

    The problem of orbit determination consists essentially of estimating parameter values that completely specify the body trajectory in the space, processing a set of information (measure-ments) from this body. Such observations can be collected through a conventional tracking network on Earth or through sensors like GPS. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful and low cost way to allow the computation of orbits for artificial Earth satellites. The Topex/Poseidon satellite is normally used as a reference for analyzing this system for space positioning. The orbit determination of artificial satellites is a nonlinear problem in which the disturbing forces are not easily modeled, like geopotential and direct solar radiation pressure. Through an onboard GPS receiver it is possible to obtain measurements (pseudo-range and phase) that can be used to estimate the state of the orbit. One intends to analyze the modeling of the orbit of an artificial satellite, using signals of the GPS constellation and least squares algorithms as a method of estimation, with the aim of analyzing the performance of the orbit estimation process. Accuracy is not the main goal; one pursues to verify how differences of modeling can affect the final accuracy of the orbit determination. To accomplish that, the following effects were considered: perturbations up to high degree and order for the geopoten-tial coefficients; direct solar radiation pressure, Sun attraction, and Moon attraction. It was also considered the position of the GPS antenna on the satellite body that, lately, consists of the influence of the satellite attitude motion in the orbit determination process. Although not presenting the ultimate accuracy, pseudo-range measurements corrected from ionospheric effects were considered enough to such analysis. The measurements were used to feed the batch least squares orbit determination process, in order to yield conclusive results about the orbit modeling issue. An application

  4. Physiological Activities of Thiacremonone Produced in High Temperature and High Pressure Treated Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-01-01

    To examine the possibility of using thiacremonone isolated from high-temperature-high-pressure treated garlic, this study investigated the physiological activities properties. The IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities of thiacremonone were 92.50, 65.05, 12.60, and 81.53 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the activities of vitamin C were 104.93, 99.43, 42.42, and 122.64 μg/mL, and the activities of butylated hydroxyanisole were 37.22, 68.45, 22.47, and 40.54 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ACE inhibition activities of thiacremonone and captoprill were 0.265 and 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and allopurinol were 39.430 and 9.346 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and kojic acid were 101.931 and 65.648 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:27069909

  5. Physiological Activities of Thiacremonone Produced in High Temperature and High Pressure Treated Garlic.

    PubMed

    Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-03-01

    To examine the possibility of using thiacremonone isolated from high-temperature-high-pressure treated garlic, this study investigated the physiological activities properties. The IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities of thiacremonone were 92.50, 65.05, 12.60, and 81.53 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the activities of vitamin C were 104.93, 99.43, 42.42, and 122.64 μg/mL, and the activities of butylated hydroxyanisole were 37.22, 68.45, 22.47, and 40.54 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of ACE inhibition activities of thiacremonone and captoprill were 0.265 and 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of xanthine oxidase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and allopurinol were 39.430 and 9.346 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of tyrosinase inhibition activities of thiacremonone and kojic acid were 101.931 and 65.648 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:27069909

  6. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  7. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  8. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  9. High-activity barley alpha-amylase by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dominic W S; Batt, Sarah B; Lee, Charles C; Robertson, George H

    2004-10-01

    Barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 was cloned into and constitutively secreted by Saccharomyces cervisiae. The gene coding for the wild-type enzyme was subjected to directed evolution. Libraries of mutants were screened by halo formation on starch agar plates, followed by high-throughput liquid assay using dye-labeled starch as the substrate. The concentration of recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant was determined by immunodetection, and used for the calculation of specific activity. After three rounds of directed evolution, one mutant (Mu322) showed 1000 times the total activity and 20 times the specific activity of the wild-type enzyme produced by the same yeast expression system. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of this mutant with the wild type revealed five substitutions: Q44H, R303K and F325Y in domain A, and T94A and R128Q in domain B. Two of these mutations. Q44H and R303K, result in amino acids highly conserved in cereal alpha-amylases. R303K and F325Y are located in the raw starch-binding fragment of the enzyme molecule. PMID:15635937

  10. Tobacco Stem-Based Activated Carbons for High Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Hongbo; Shi, Lei; He, Yuede

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco stem-based activated carbons (TS-ACs) were prepared by simple KOH activation and their application as electrodes in the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) performed successfully. The BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the TS-ACs were evaluated based on N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The surface area of the obtained activated carbons varies over a wide range (1472.8-3326.7 m2/g) and the mesoporosity was enhanced significantly as the ratio of KOH to tobacco stem (TS) increased. The electrochemical behaviors of series TS-ACs were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. The correlation between electrochemical properties and pore structure was investigated. A high specific capacitance value as 190 F/g at 1 mA/cm2 was obtained in 1 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/DEC electrolyte solution. Furthermore, good performance is also achieved even at high current densities. A development of new use for TS into a valuable energy storage material is explored.

  11. Tunable plasmonic nanoparticles with catalytically active high-index facets.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hao; Zhang, Qingfeng; Large, Nicolas; Yu, Chunmei; Blom, Douglas A; Nordlander, Peter; Wang, Hui

    2014-06-11

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been of tremendous interest due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent plasmonic and catalytic properties. Combining tunable plasmon resonances with superior catalytic activities on the same metallic nanoparticle, however, has long been challenging because nanoplasmonics and nanocatalysis typically require nanoparticles in two drastically different size regimes. Here, we demonstrate that creation of high-index facets on subwavelength metallic nanoparticles provides a unique approach to the integration of desired plasmonic and catalytic properties on the same nanoparticle. Through site-selective surface etching of metallic nanocuboids whose surfaces are dominated by low-index facets, we have controllably fabricated nanorice and nanodumbbell particles, which exhibit drastically enhanced catalytic activities arising from the catalytically active high-index facets abundant on the particle surfaces. The nanorice and nanodumbbell particles also possess appealing tunable plasmonic properties that allow us to gain quantitative insights into nanoparticle-catalyzed reactions with unprecedented sensitivity and detail through time-resolved plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic measurements. PMID:24842375

  12. Tunable Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Catalytically Active High-Index Facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hao; Large, Nicolas; Zhang, Qinfeng; Nordlander, Peter; Wang, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been of tremendous interest due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent plasmonic and catalytic properties. Combining tunable plasmon resonances with superior catalytic activities on the same metallic nanoparticle, however, has long been challenging because nanoplasmonics and nanocatalysis typically require nanoparticles in two drastically different size regimes. Here, we demonstrate that creation of high-index facets on subwavelength metallic nanoparticles provides a unique approach to the integration of desired plasmonic and catalytic properties on the same nanoparticle. Through site-selective surface etching of metallic nanocuboids whose surfaces are dominated by low-index facets, we have controllably fabricated nanorice and nanodumbbell shaped particles, which exhibit drastically enhanced catalytic activities arising from the catalytically active high-index facets abundant on the particle surfaces. The nanorice and nanodumbbell particles also possess appealing tunable plasmonic properties that allow us to gain quantitative insights into nanoparticle-catalyzed reactions with unprecedented sensitivity and detail through time-resolved plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic measurements. Past affiliation: Rice University.

  13. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  14. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1994-02-15

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

  15. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Serapio-Palacios, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS), but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i) a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii) translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii) cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv) loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v) caspase-9 activation, (vi) cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii) an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii) PARP proteolysis, and (ix) nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC. PMID:27329750

  16. High-throughput screening of phosphodiesterase activity in living cells.

    PubMed

    Rich, Thomas C; Karpen, Jeffrey W

    2005-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and play a crucial role in the termination and spatial segregation of cyclic nucleotide signals. Despite a wealth of molecular information, very little is known about how PDEs regulate cAMP and cGMP signals in living cells because conventional methods lack the necessary spatial and temporal resolution. We present here a sensitive optical method for monitoring cAMP levels and PDE activity near the membrane, using cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels as sensors. These channels are directly opened by the binding of cyclic nucleotides and allow cations to cross the membrane. The olfactory channel A subunit (CNGA2) has been genetically modified to improve its cAMP sensitivity and specificity. Channel activity is assessed by measuring Ca2+ influx using standard fluorometric techniques. In addition to studying PDEs in their native setting, the approach should be particularly useful in high-throughput screening assays to test for compounds that affect PDE activity, as well as the activities of the many G protein-coupled receptors that cause changes in intracellular cAMP. PMID:15988054

  17. Novel highly active recombinant glutaredoxin from Chlorella sorokiniana T-89.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsu-Han; Cheng, Chu-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ting; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2014-01-29

    Glutaredoxin (Grx) is a thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase that maintains the cellular thiol/disulfide ratio. A 321 bp cDNA fragment encoding a putative Grx (named CsT-89Grx) was cloned from heat-tolerant Chlorella sorokiniana T-89 and expressed in an Escherichia coli system. The sequence analysis of CsT-89Grx and site-directed mutations showed that the putative active site within the CPYC motif belonged to the dithiol superfamily. The biochemical property analyses showed that the optimal pH and temperature of CsT-89Grx are pH 8.5 and 50 °C, respectively. The activity of CsT-89Grx showed high thermal stability (retained 70% activity at 80 °C for 30 min) and broad pH stability (retained over 70% activity for 1 h) ranging from pH 3 to 11. The kinetic parameter kcat/Km was 20,982 min(-1) mM(-1), which suggested that CsT-89Grx exhibited the highest catalytic efficiency in reducing the disulfide bond among all the Grx reported in the related literature and is therefore potentially useful for industrial applications. PMID:24377422

  18. High power VCSEL device with periodic gain active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Y. Q., II; Qin, L.; Sun, Y. F.; Li, T.; Cui, J. J.; Peng, B.; Liu, G. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, L. J.; Cui, D. F.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2007-11-01

    High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structure, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the cavity to enhance the coupling between the optical field and the gain region. Large aperture and bottom-emitting configuration was used to improve the beam quality and the heat dissipation. A maximum output power of 1.4W was demonstrated at CW operation for a 400μm-diameter device. The lasing wavelength shifted to 995.5nm with a FWHM of 2nm at a current of 4.8A due to the internal heating and the absence of active water cooling. A ring-shape farfield pattern was induced by the non-homogeneous lateral current distribution in large diameter device. The light intensity at the center of the ring increased with increasing current. A symmetric round light spot at the center and single transverse mode operation with a divergence angle of 16° were observed with current beyond 4.8A.

  19. High tibial osteotomies in the young active patient

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Shaun; Efird, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Unicompartmental changes in the knee of a young athlete remains a difficult and controversial problem in orthopaedics. Excessive premature loading of articular cartilage, most often the result of a knee injury, has been shown to result in increased degenerative changes and pain in the younger patient. Instability may also contribute to the degeneration of cartilage and must therefore be considered in the treatment of osteoarthritis in the young adult. High tibial osteotomy has been described as a treatment option for malalignment in the older, less active adult and has shown promising results in a younger, more active population. Osteotomies for instability are more controversial and should be considered in more complex injury patterns. PMID:20076957

  20. Biologically Active Cannabinoids from High-Potency Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Mohamed M.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Slade, Desmond; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Nine new cannabinoids (1–9) were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. Their structures were identified as (±)-4-acetoxycannabichromene (1), (±)-3″-hydroxy-Δ(4″,5″)-cannabichromene (2), (−)-7-hydroxycannabichromane (3), (−)-7R-cannabicoumarononic acid A (4), 5-acetyl-4-hydroxycannabigerol (5), 4-acetoxy-2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentylphenol (6), 8-hydroxycannabinol (7), 8-hydroxycannabinolic acid A (8), and 2-geranyl-5-hydroxy-3-n-pentyl-1,4-benzoquinone (9) through 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known sterol β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-6′-acetate was isolated for the first time from cannabis. Compounds 6 and 7 displayed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively, while 5 displayed strong antileishmanial activity. PMID:19344127

  1. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO. PMID:21770814

  2. Evaluation of a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analyser in highly active, moderately active and less active young men.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Ann M; Swartz, Ann M; Jeremy Evans, M; King, George A; Thompson, Dixie L

    2002-08-01

    The Tanita TBF-305 (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) is a commercially available foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system. The manufacturer-supplied equations incorporate gender, mass, height, activity category and a measured impedance value to determine % body fat (BF). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the manufacturer-supplied 'adult' and 'athlete' equations provided an accurate estimate of % BF for a group of young men with varying activity levels. Fifty-seven men (18-35 years old) were categorized into the following groups: (1) highly active (HA) (> or = 10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (2) moderately active (MA) (2.5-10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (3) less active (LA) (<2.5 h aerobic activity/week). The % BF was measured using the BIA 'athlete' and 'adult' modes. After BIA measurements, residual volume was measured and hydrostatic weighing (HW) was performed. The amount of activity performed by each group was significantly different (P<0.001). No significant differences were found between the % BF determined by the 'athlete' mode and HW for HA (P=0.309) and MA (P=0.091). However, a significant difference was found for LA (P=0.001). The % BF determined by the 'adult' mode and HW was not different for LA (P=0.395), but was significantly different for MA (P<0.001) and HA (P<0.001). The choice of activity mode on the foot-to-foot BIA significantly alters prediction of % BF. With careful selection of activity mode, there was no statistical difference between % BF determined by HW and the BIA, but the range of individual error scores was large. PMID:12144724

  3. Spatial Patterns of High Aedes aegypti Oviposition Activity in Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Estallo, Elizabet Lilia; Más, Guillermo; Vergara-Cid, Carolina; Lanfri, Mario Alberto; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Scavuzzo, Carlos Marcelo; Introini, María Virginia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. Methodology Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province) using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005–2007). Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran’s Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR) sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. Principal Findings Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC = 0.77), obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. Conclusions Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist National Health

  4. Human Simulated Studies of Aztreonam and Aztreonam-Avibactam To Evaluate Activity against Challenging Gram-Negative Organisms, Including Metallo-β-Lactamase Producers

    PubMed Central

    Crandon, Jared L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary to the stability of aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamases, coupled with avibatam's neutralizing activity against often coproduced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC enzymes, the combination of aztreonam and avibactam has been proposed as a principal candidate for the treatment of infections with metallo-β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative organisms. Using the neutropenic-mouse thigh infection model, we evaluated the efficacy of human simulated doses of aztreonam-avibactam and aztreonam against 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 13 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which 25 produced metallo-β-lactamases. Additionally, six P. aeruginosa isolates were also evaluated in immunocompetent animals. A humanized aztreonam dose of 2 g every 6 h (1-h infusion) was evaluated alone and in combination with avibactam at 375 or 600 mg every 6 h (1-h infusion), targeting the percentage of the dosing interval in which free-drug concentrations remained above the MIC (fT>MIC). Efficacy was evaluated as the change in bacterial density after 24 h compared with the bacterial density at the initiation of dosing. Aztreonam monotherapy resulted in reductions of two of the Enterobacteriaceae bacterial isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≤32 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥38%) and minimal activity against the remaining isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≥128 μg/ml; fT>MIC, 0%). Alternatively, aztreonam-avibactam therapy resulted in the reduction of all 14 Enterobacteriaceae isolates (aztreonam-avibactam MICs, ≤16 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥65%) and no difference between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was noted. Similar pharmacodynamically predictable activity against P. aeruginosa was noted in studies with neutropenic and immunocompetent mice, with activity occurring when the MICs were ≤16 μg/ml and variable efficacy noted when the MICs were ≥32 μg/ml. Again, no difference in efficacy between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was observed. Aztreonam-avibactam represents an attractive

  5. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  6. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-08-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  7. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  8. Estrogenic Activity Including Bone Enhancement and Effect on Lipid Profile of Luteolin-7-O-glucoside Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum L. in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Ammar, N M; El-Hawary, S S; Mohamed, D A; El-Halawany, A M; El-Anssary, A A; El-Kassem, L T Abou; Hussein, R A; Jaleel, G A Abdel; El-Dosoky, A H

    2016-05-01

    Luteolin-7-O-glycoside (LG), an abundant component in many edible plants, was found to be one of the major constituents of the aqueous methanol extract of Trifolium alexandrinum L. family Fabaceae, a fodder plant widely cultivated in Egypt. The estrogenic activity of LG concerning the effect on uterotrophy, lipid profile, weight gain and bone enhancement activity was determined in ovariectomized rat model at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Luteolin-7-O-glycoside showed significant estrogenic effect through the preservation of normal uterine weight and plasma estradiol level. It also significantly inhibited the bone turnover markers plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, plasma osteocalsin, type I procollagen N-terminal, and C-telopeptide of type II collagen levels. It induced a significant improvement in plasma lipid profile. The effect of LG was comparable with estradiol with lower effect on uterine weight. Liver and kidney functions revealed a wide safety of LG at this dose level. The present study revealed that LG may be a promising hormone replacement therapy after being examined thoroughly on human. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145225

  9. Unique Gold Nanoparticle Aggregates as a Highly Active SERS Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartzberg, A M; Grant, C D; Wolcott, A; Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Bogomolni, R; Zhang, J Z

    2004-04-06

    A unique gold nanoparticle aggregate (GNA) system has been shown to be an excellent substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Rhodamine 6G (R6G), a common molecule used for testing SERS activity on silver, but generally difficult to detect on gold substrates, has been found to readily bind to the GNA and exhibit strong SERS activity due to the unique surface chemistry afforded by sulfur species on the surface. This GNA system has yielded a large SERS enhancement of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} in bulk solution for R6G, on par with or greater than any previously reported gold SERS substrate. SERS activity has also been successfully demonstrated for several biological molecules including adenine, L-cysteine, L-lysine, and L-histidine for the first time on a gold SERS substrate, showing the potential of this GNA as a convenient and powerful SERS substrate for biomolecular detection. In addition, SERS spectrum of R6G on single aggregates has been measured. We have shown that the special surface properties of the GNA, in conjunction with strong near IR absorption, make it useful for SERS analysis of a wide variety of molecules.

  10. Highly active ozonides selected against drug resistant malaria.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Lis; Sousa, Bruno de; Cabral, Lília; Cristiano, Maria Ls; Nogueira, Fátima

    2016-06-01

    Ever increasing multi-drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum is creating new challenges in malaria chemotherapy. In the absence of licensed vaccines, treatment and prevention of malaria is heavily dependent on drugs. Potency, range of activity, safety, low cost and ease of administration are crucial issues in the design and formulation of antimalarials. We have tested three synthetic ozonides NAC89, LC50 and LCD67 in vitro and in vivo against multidrug resistant Plasmodium. In vitro, LC50 was at least 10 times more efficient inhibiting P. falciparum multidrug resistant Dd2 strain than chloroquine and mefloquine and as efficient as artemisinin (ART), artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. All three ozonides showed high efficacy in clearing parasitaemia in mice, caused by multi-drug resistant Plasmodium chabaudi strains, by subcutaneous administration, demonstrating high efficacy in vivo against ART and artesunate resistant parasites. PMID:27276364

  11. Active Control of High-Frequency Combustor Instability Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities-high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the combustor and turbine safe operating life. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-emissions combustors. Under the Propulsion and Power Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center in partnership with Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies Research Center, and Georgia Institute of Technology is developing technologies for the active control of combustion instabilities.

  12. Highly efficient blue electroluminescence based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shuzo; Sakai, Yumi; Masui, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Lee, Sae Youn; Nomura, Hiroko; Nakamura, Nozomi; Yasumatsu, Mao; Nakanotani, Hajime; Zhang, Qisheng; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-03-01

    Organic compounds that exhibit highly efficient, stable blue emission are required to realize inexpensive organic light-emitting diodes for future displays and lighting applications. Here, we define the design rules for increasing the electroluminescence efficiency of blue-emitting organic molecules that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence. We show that a large delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in these charge-transfer compounds enhances the rate of radiative decay considerably by inducing a large oscillator strength even when there is a small overlap between the two wavefunctions. A compound based on our design principles exhibited a high rate of fluorescence decay and efficient up-conversion of triplet excitons into singlet excited states, leading to both photoluminescence and internal electroluminescence quantum yields of nearly 100%. PMID:25485987

  13. Highly efficient blue electroluminescence based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Shuzo; Sakai, Yumi; Masui, Kensuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Lee, Sae Youn; Nomura, Hiroko; Nakamura, Nozomi; Yasumatsu, Mao; Nakanotani, Hajime; Zhang, Qisheng; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-03-01

    Organic compounds that exhibit highly efficient, stable blue emission are required to realize inexpensive organic light-emitting diodes for future displays and lighting applications. Here, we define the design rules for increasing the electroluminescence efficiency of blue-emitting organic molecules that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence. We show that a large delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in these charge-transfer compounds enhances the rate of radiative decay considerably by inducing a large oscillator strength even when there is a small overlap between the two wavefunctions. A compound based on our design principles exhibited a high rate of fluorescence decay and efficient up-conversion of triplet excitons into singlet excited states, leading to both photoluminescence and internal electroluminescence quantum yields of nearly 100%.

  14. Highly active ozonides selected against drug resistant malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Lis; de Sousa, Bruno; Cabral, Lília; Cristiano, Maria LS; Nogueira, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Ever increasing multi-drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum is creating new challenges in malaria chemotherapy. In the absence of licensed vaccines, treatment and prevention of malaria is heavily dependent on drugs. Potency, range of activity, safety, low cost and ease of administration are crucial issues in the design and formulation of antimalarials. We have tested three synthetic ozonides NAC89, LC50 and LCD67 in vitro and in vivo against multidrug resistant Plasmodium. In vitro, LC50 was at least 10 times more efficient inhibiting P. falciparum multidrug resistant Dd2 strain than chloroquine and mefloquine and as efficient as artemisinin (ART), artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. All three ozonides showed high efficacy in clearing parasitaemia in mice, caused by multi-drug resistant Plasmodium chabaudi strains, by subcutaneous administration, demonstrating high efficacy in vivo against ART and artesunate resistant parasites. PMID:27276364

  15. High Temperature Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanically actuated blade tip clearance control concept was evaluated in a nonrotating test rig to quantify secondary seal leakage at elevated temperatures. These tests were conducted to further investigate the feasibility of actively controlling the clearance between the rotor blade tips and the surrounding shroud seal in the high pressure turbine (HPT) section of a turbine engine. The test environment simulates the state of the back side of the HPT shroud seal with pressure differentials as high as 120 psig and temperatures up to 1000 F. As expected, static secondary seal leakage decreased with increasing temperature. At 1000 F, the test rig's calculated effective clearance (at 120 psig test pressure) was 0.0003 in., well within the industry specified effective clearance goal.

  16. High-pressure stainless steel active membrane microvalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G.; Svensson, S.; Ogden, S.; Klintberg, L.; Hjort, K.

    2011-07-01

    In this work, high-pressure membrane microvalves have been designed, manufactured and evaluated. The valves were able to withstand back-pressures of 200 bar with a response time of less than 0.6 s. These stainless steel valves, manufactured with back-end batch production, utilize the large volume expansion coupled to the solid-liquid phase transition in paraffin wax. When membrane materials were evaluated, parylene coated stainless steel was found to be the best choice as compared to polydimethylsiloxane and polyimide. Also, the influence of the orifice placement and diameter is included in this work. If the orifice is placed too close to the rim of the membrane, the valve can stay sealed even after turning the power off, and the valve will not open until the pressure in the system is released. The developed steel valves, evaluated for both water and air, provide excellent properties in terms of mechanical stability, ease of fabrication, and low cost. Possible applications include sampling at high pressures, chemical microreactors, high performance liquid chromatography, pneumatics, and hydraulics.

  17. An activity-based probe for high-throughput measurements of triacylglycerol lipases.

    PubMed

    Tam, John; Henault, Martin; Li, Lianhai; Wang, Zhaoyin; Partridge, Anthony W; Melnyk, Roman A

    2011-07-15

    Modulating the activity of lipases involved in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins is an attractive approach for developing lipid raising/lowering therapies to treat cardiovascular disease. Identifying small molecule inhibitors for these membrane-active enzymes, however, is complicated by difficulties associated with measuring lipase activity and inhibition at the water-membrane interface; substrate and compound dynamics at the particle interface have the potential to confound data interpretation. Here, we describe a novel ELISA-based lipase activity assay that employs as "bait" a biotinylated active-site probe that irreversibly binds to the catalytic active-site serine of members of the triacylglycerol lipase family (hepatic lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and endothelial lipase) in solution with high affinity. Detection of "captured" (probe-enzyme) complexes on streptavidin-coated plates using labeled secondary antibodies to specific primary antibodies offers several advantages over conventional assays, including the ability to eliminate enzyme-particle and compound-particle effects; specifically measure lipase activity in complex mixtures in vitro; preferentially identify active-site-directed inhibitors; and distinguish between reversible and irreversible inhibitors through a simple assay modification. Using EL as an exemplar, we demonstrate the versatility of this assay both for high-throughput screening and for compound mechanism-of-action studies. PMID:21397586

  18. Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Duhnam-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Cruz, Adriana R.; Moore, Meagan W.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Velez-Climent, Leonor; Shupe, Jonathan; Krueger, Winfried; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-β and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1β, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-β and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. PMID:19461888

  19. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  20. Highly active composite catalysts for reforming of methane into syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, T.; Saigo, K.; Ichino, K.

    1997-12-31

    Development in highly active catalysts for the reforming of methane with H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2}, and partial oxidation of methane was conducted to produce hydrogen with high reaction rates. A Ni-based four component catalyst, Ni-Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Pt-Rh supported on an alumina wash-coated ceramic fiber in a plate shape was suitable for the objective reaction. By combining the catalytic combustion reaction, methane conversion was markedly enhanced. Furthermore, by combining the combustion of ethane or ethylene, significantly high space-time yields of hydrogen such as 6,731 mol/1-h or 6,907 mol/l{center_dot}h, respectively at 700{degrees}C. In a reaction of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-O{sub 2} on the four component catalyst, an extraordinary high space-time yield of hydrogen, 12,190 mol/l{center_dot}h was realized even under the very rapid operation conditions as 3 m-sec short contact time.

  1. High Stakes Testing in Texas: An Analysis of the Impact of Including Special Education Students in the Texas Academic Excellence Indicator System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Thomas H.

    The accountability subset of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) was studied over 4 years to identify trends that might explain why the 1999 TAAS passing rate did not decrease as was predicted. Expanding the accountability index in those years to include special education students was expected to cause a decline in the TAAS…

  2. Curriculum Guide for Parent Education Programs (Including Special Sections for Rural Parents, Single Parents, Working Parents, and High Risk Parents). Columbia Basin College Parent Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Jo Ann; And Others

    This curriculum for parent education through cooperative preschools has a sequential approach, with topics developed for parents with different age children enrolled in the various laboratory settings. Introductory materials include the goals and objectives for community college parent cooperative programs, methods of presentation, and a…

  3. Control of high frequency microactuators using active structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreth, P. A.; Alvi, F. S.; Reese, B. M.; Oates, W. S.

    2015-02-01

    A fluidically driven microactuator that generates supersonic, pulsed microjets has been implemented with smart materials to actively and precisely control the frequency of the microjets in a closed-loop manner. Since this actuator relies on a number of microscale flow and acoustic phenomena to produce the pulsed microjets, its resonant frequency is determined by its geometry and other flow parameters. The design discussed in this paper integrates piezoelectric stacks by connecting them to movable sidewalls within the actuator such that the microactuator's internal geometry can be controlled by varying the voltage across the piezo-stacks. An open-loop control scheme demonstrates the frequency modulation capabilities that are enabled with this design: very large frequency deviations (up to +/- 500 Hz) around the actuator design frequency are attained at very high rates (up to 1 kHz). Closed-loop control of the microactuator's frequency was also demonstrated, and the results indicate that (combined with appropriate sensors) this actuator could be used effectively for active, feedback control in high-speed, resonance-dominated flowfields. This proof of concept study clearly illustrates the ability of this robust and compact actuator to produce perturbations that can be modulated and controlled based on the desired control objective.

  4. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  5. Ultra-high electrochemical catalytic activity of MXenes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cheap and abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) have been widely pursued for their practical application in hydrogen-energy technologies. In this work, I present systematical study of the hydrogen evolution reactions on MXenes (Mo2X and W2X, X = C and N) based on density-functional-theory calculations. I find that their HER performances strongly depend on the composition, hydrogen adsorption configurations, and surface functionalization. I show that W2C monolayer has the best HER activity with near-zero overpotential at high hydrogen density among all of considered pure MXenes, and hydrogenation can efficiently enhance its catalytic performance in a wide range of hydrogen density further, while oxidization makes its activity reduced significantly. I further show that near-zero overpotential for HER on Mo2X monolayers can be achieved by oxygen functionalization. My calculations predict that surface treatment, such as hydrogenation and oxidization, is critical to enhance the catalytic performance of MXenes. I expect that MXenes with HER activity comparable to Pt in a wide range of hydrogen density can be realized by tuning composition and functionalizing, and promotes their applications into hydrogen-energy technologies. PMID:27604848

  6. Ultra-high electrochemical catalytic activity of MXenes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cheap and abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) have been widely pursued for their practical application in hydrogen-energy technologies. In this work, I present systematical study of the hydrogen evolution reactions on MXenes (Mo2X and W2X, X = C and N) based on density-functional-theory calculations. I find that their HER performances strongly depend on the composition, hydrogen adsorption configurations, and surface functionalization. I show that W2C monolayer has the best HER activity with near-zero overpotential at high hydrogen density among all of considered pure MXenes, and hydrogenation can efficiently enhance its catalytic performance in a wide range of hydrogen density further, while oxidization makes its activity reduced significantly. I further show that near-zero overpotential for HER on Mo2X monolayers can be achieved by oxygen functionalization. My calculations predict that surface treatment, such as hydrogenation and oxidization, is critical to enhance the catalytic performance of MXenes. I expect that MXenes with HER activity comparable to Pt in a wide range of hydrogen density can be realized by tuning composition and functionalizing, and promotes their applications into hydrogen-energy technologies. PMID:27604848

  7. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  8. Highly Active Carbon Supported Pd-Ag Nanofacets Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from HCOOH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhui; He, Ting; Liu, Xuehua; He, Weina; Cong, Hengjiang; Shen, Yangbin; Yan, Liuming; Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2016-08-17

    Hydrogen is regarded as a future sustainable and clean energy carrier. Formic acid is a safe and sustainable hydrogen storage medium with many advantages, including high hydrogen content, nontoxicity, and low cost. In this work, a series of highly active catalysts for hydrogen production from formic acid are successfully synthesized by controllably depositing Pd onto Ag nanoplates with different Ag nanofacets, such as Ag{111}, Ag{100}, and the nanofacet on hexagonal close packing Ag crystal (Ag{hcp}). Then, the Pd-Ag nanoplate catalysts are supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black to prevent the aggregation of the catalysts. The research reveals that the high activity is attributed to the formation of Pd-Ag alloy nanofacets, such as Pd-Ag{111}, Pd-Ag{100}, and Pd-Ag{hcp}. The activity order of these Pd-decorated Ag nanofacets is Pd-Ag{hcp} > Pd-Ag{111} > Pd-Ag{100}. Particularly, the activity of Pd-Ag{hcp} is up to an extremely high value, i.e., TOF{hcp} = 19 000 ± 1630 h(-1) at 90 °C (lower limit value), which is more than 800 times higher than our previous quasi-spherical Pd-Ag alloy nanocatalyst. The initial activity of Pd-Ag{hcp} even reaches (3.13 ± 0.19) × 10(6) h(-1) at 90 °C. This research not only presents highly active catalysts for hydrogen generation but also shows that the facet on the hcp Ag crystal can act as a potentially highly active catalyst. PMID:27454194

  9. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research. PMID:25385071

  10. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation. PMID:26901703

  11. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  12. High-frequency TRNS reduces BOLD activity during visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Saiote, Catarina; Polanía, Rafael; Rosenberger, Konstantin; Paulus, Walter; Antal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) consist in the application of electrical current of small intensity through the scalp, able to modulate perceptual and motor learning, probably by changing brain excitability. We investigated the effects of these transcranial electrical stimulation techniques in the early and later stages of visuomotor learning, as well as associated brain activity changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We applied anodal and cathodal tDCS, low-frequency and high-frequency tRNS (lf-tRNS, 0.1-100 Hz; hf-tRNS 101-640 Hz, respectively) and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1) during the first 10 minutes of a visuomotor learning paradigm and measured performance changes for 20 minutes after stimulation ceased. Functional imaging scans were acquired throughout the whole experiment. Cathodal tDCS and hf-tRNS showed a tendency to improve and lf-tRNS to hinder early learning during stimulation, an effect that remained for 20 minutes after cessation of stimulation in the late learning phase. Motor learning-related activity decreased in several regions as reported previously, however, there was no significant modulation of brain activity by tDCS. In opposition to this, hf-tRNS was associated with reduced motor task-related-activity bilaterally in the frontal cortex and precuneous, probably due to interaction with ongoing neuronal oscillations. This result highlights the potential of lf-tRNS and hf-tRNS to differentially modulate visuomotor learning and advances our knowledge on neuroplasticity induction approaches combined with functional imaging methods. PMID:23527247

  13. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (∼0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ∼ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ∼24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ∼15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  14. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  15. CD161++CD8+ T cells, including the MAIT cell subset, are specifically activated by IL-12+IL-18 in a TCR-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ussher, James E; Bilton, Matthew; Attwod, Emma; Shadwell, Jonathan; Richardson, Rachel; de Lara, Catherine; Mettke, Elisabeth; Kurioka, Ayako; Hansen, Ted H; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2014-01-01

    CD161++CD8+ T cells represent a novel subset that is dominated in adult peripheral blood by mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, as defined by the expression of a variable-α chain 7.2 (Vα7.2)-Jα33 TCR, and IL-18Rα. Stimulation with IL-18+IL-12 is known to induce IFN-γ by both NK cells and, to a more limited extent, T cells. Here, we show the CD161++ CD8+ T-cell population is the primary T-cell population triggered by this mechanism. Both CD161++Vα7.2+ and CD161++Vα7.2− T-cell subsets responded to IL-12+IL-18 stimulation, demonstrating this response was not restricted to the MAIT cells, but to the CD161++ phenotype. Bacteria and TLR agonists also indirectly triggered IFN-γ expression via IL-12 and IL-18. These data show that CD161++ T cells are the predominant T-cell population that responds directly to IL-12+IL-18 stimulation. Furthermore, our findings broaden the potential role of MAIT cells beyond bacterial responsiveness to potentially include viral infections and other inflammatory stimuli. PMID:24019201

  16. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  17. Hierarchical nanostructured conducting polymer hydrogel with high electrochemical activity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lijia; Yu, Guihua; Zhai, Dongyuan; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Zhao, Wenting; Liu, Nian; Wang, Huiliang; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Shi, Yi; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-01-01

    Conducting polymer hydrogels represent a unique class of materials that synergizes the advantageous features of hydrogels and organic conductors and have been used in many applications such as bioelectronics and energy storage devices. They are often synthesized by polymerizing conductive polymer monomer within a nonconducting hydrogel matrix, resulting in deterioration of their electrical properties. Here, we report a scalable and versatile synthesis of multifunctional polyaniline (PAni) hydrogel with excellent electronic conductivity and electrochemical properties. With high surface area and three-dimensional porous nanostructures, the PAni hydrogels demonstrated potential as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes with high specific capacitance (∼480 F·g-1), unprecedented rate capability, and cycling stability (∼83% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). The PAni hydrogels can also function as the active component of glucose oxidase sensors with fast response time (∼0.3 s) and superior sensitivity (∼16.7 μA·mM-1). The scalable synthesis and excellent electrode performance of the PAni hydrogel make it an attractive candidate for bioelectronics and future-generation energy storage electrodes. PMID:22645374

  18. [Standardization of pathoanatomic activities in performing specialized and high-tech morphological studies].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, S L; Chibisov, V N; Krivolapov, Iu A

    2006-01-01

    The study reports the standard for the activity of an immunohistochemical laboratory. The standard includes a staff list, objective calculation, and planning the salary in accordance with a real amount of work. On performing the high-tech and labor-intensive morphological studies, the actual spent time essentially differs from the current standards, which requires implementation of organizational, financial, economic, and methodological measures at the federal level. PMID:17290899

  19. Characterization of Novel Paternal ncRNAs at the Plagl1 Locus, Including Hymai, Predicted to Interact with Regulators of Active Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, Davide; Court, Franck; Guillaumet-Adkins, Amy; Camprubi, Cristina; Bourc’his, Deborah; Hata, Kenichiro; Feil, Robert; Tartaglia, Gian; Arnaud, Philippe; Monk, David

    2012-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a complex epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control that utilizes DNA methylation and histone modifications to bring about parent-of-origin specific monoallelic expression in mammals. Genes subject to imprinting are often organised in clusters associated with large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), some of which have cis-regulatory functions. Here we have undertaken a detailed allelic expression analysis of an imprinted domain on mouse proximal chromosome 10 comprising the paternally expressed Plagl1 gene. We identified three novel Plagl1 transcripts, only one of which contains protein-coding exons. In addition, we characterised two unspliced ncRNAs, Hymai, the mouse orthologue of HYMAI, and Plagl1it (Plagl1 intronic transcript), a transcript located in intron 5 of Plagl1. Imprinted expression of these novel ncRNAs requires DNMT3L-mediated maternal DNA methylation, which is also indispensable for establishing the correct chromatin profile at the Plagl1 DMR. Significantly, the two ncRNAs are retained in the nucleus, consistent with a potential regulatory function at the imprinted domain. Analysis with catRAPID, a protein-ncRNA association prediction algorithm, suggests that Hymai and Plagl1it RNAs both have potentially high affinity for Trithorax chromatin regulators. The two ncRNAs could therefore help to protect the paternal allele from DNA methylation by attracting Trithorax proteins that mediate H3 lysine-4 methylation. Submitted GenBank nucleotides sequences: Plagl1it: JN595789 Hymai: JN595790 PMID:22723905

  20. High Speed Video Data Acquisition System (VDAS) for H. E. P. , including Reference Frame Subtractor, Data Compactor and 16 megabyte FIFO

    SciTech Connect

    Knickerbocker, K.L.; Baumbaugh, A.E.; Ruchti, R.; Baumbaugh, B.W.

    1987-02-01

    A Video-Data-Acquisition-System (VDAS) has been developed to record image data from a scintillating glass fiber-optic target developed for High Energy Physics. VDAS consists of a combination flash ADC, reference frame subtractor, high speed data compactor, an N megabyte First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory (where N is a multiple of 4), and a single board computer as a control processor. System data rates are in excess of 30 megabytes/second. The reference frame subtractor, in conjunction with the data compactor, records only the differences from a standard frame. This greatly reduces the amount of data needed to record an image. Typical image sizes are reduced by as much as a factor of 20. With the exception of the ECL ADC board, the system uses standard TTL components to minimize power consumption and cost. VDAS operation as well as enhancements to the original system are discussed.

  1. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

    2000-06-01

    Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered. In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide evidence that sounds containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above the audible range significantly affect the brain activity of listeners. We used the gamelan music of Bali, which is extremely rich in HFCs with a nonstationary structure, as a natural sound source, dividing it into two components: an audible low-frequency component (LFC) below 22 kHz and an HFC above 22 kHz. Brain electrical activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured as markers of neuronal activity while subjects were exposed to sounds with various combinations of LFCs and HFCs. None of the subjects recognized the HFC as sound when it was presented alone. Nevertheless, the power spectra of the alpha frequency range of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (alpha-EEG) recorded from the occipital region increased with statistical significance when the subjects were exposed to sound containing both an HFC and an LFC, compared with an otherwise identical sound from which the HFC was removed (i.e., LFC alone). In contrast, compared with the baseline, no enhancement of alpha-EEG was evident when either an HFC or an LFC was presented separately. Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased significantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical. Simultaneous EEG measurements showed that the power of occipital alpha-EEGs correlated significantly with the rCBF in the left thalamus. Psychological evaluation indicated that the subjects felt the sound containing an HFC to be more

  2. Behavior of an inversion-based precipitation retrieval algorithm with high-resolution AMPR measurements including a low-frequency 10.7-GHz channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Xiang, X.; Mugnai, A.; Hood, R. E.; Spencer, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave-based, profile-type precipitation retrieval algorithm has been used to analyze high-resolution passsive microwave measurements over an ocean background, obtained by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on a NASA ER-2 aircraft. The analysis is designed to first determine the improvements that can be gained by adding brightness temperature information from the AMPR low-frequency channel (10.7 GHz) to a multispectral retrieval algorithm nominally run with satellite information at 19, 37, and 85 GHz. The impact of spatial resolution degradation of the high-resolution brightness temperature information on the retrieved rain/cloud liquid water contents and ice water contents is then quantified in order to assess the possible biases inherent to satellite-based retrieval. Careful inspection of the high-resolution aircraft dataset reveals five distinctive brightness temperature features associated with cloud structure and scattering effects that are not generally detectable in current passive microwave satellite measurements. Results suggest that the inclusion of 10.7-GHz information overcomes two basic problems associated with three-channel retrieval. Intercomparisons of retrievals carried out at high-resolution and then averaged to a characteristic satellite scale to the corresponding retrievals in which the brightness temperatures are first convolved down to the satellite scale suggest that with the addition of the 10.7-GHz channel, the rain liquid water contents will not be negatively impacted by special resolution degradation. That is not the case with the ice water contents as they appear ti be quite sensitive to the imposed scale, the implication being that as spatial resolution is reduced, ice water contents will become increasingly underestimated.

  3. Current in vitro high throughput screening approaches to assess nuclear receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Raucy, Judy L; Lasker, Jerome M

    2010-11-01

    The screening of new drug candidates for nuclear receptor activation can identify agents with the potential to produce drug-drug interactions or elicit adverse drug effects. The nuclear receptors of interest are those that control the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, and include the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), the pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This review will focus on the methods currently used to assess activation of these receptors. Assessment of nuclear receptor activation can be accomplished using direct or indirect approaches. Indirect methods quantify specific gene products that result from nuclear receptor activation while direct approaches measure either the binding of ligands to the receptors or the transcriptional events produced by ligand binding. Assays that directly quantify nuclear receptor activation are growing in popularity and, importantly, are amenable to high throughput screening (HTS). Several ligand binding assays are currently being utilized, including radioligand competition binding, where compounds compete with radiolabelled ligand for binding to PXR or CAR, such as the scintillation proximity binding assay that measures the reaction of ligands with receptor-coated beads. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay has also been developed, where the fluorescent signal is generated via the ligand-dependent interaction between the fluorescently-labeled ligand binding domain of a nuclear receptor and co-activator proteins. Other in vitro activation assays include transient- and stably-transfected cell lines incorporating an expression vector for PXR, CAR or AhR plus a reporter gene vector containing response elements. The methods focused on in this review will be limited to the more direct in vitro approaches that are amenable to high throughput screening. PMID:21189134

  4. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.; Moonier, P.; May, E.; Norem, J.

    1991-02-01

    A report is presented of research and development activities conducted in the High Energy Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory during the six month period July 1 through December 31, 1990. Analyses of data from experiments performed by members of the Division are summarized, and the status of experiments taking data and of those being prepared is reviewed. Descriptions are included of research on theoretical and phenomenological topics in particle physics. Progress reports are provided on accelerator research and development, detector research and development, and experimental facilities research. Lists are presented of publications, of colloquia and conference talks, and of significant external community activities of members of the Division.

  5. Related investigations on the physics of high energy emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on a number of related investigations on the physics of high energy emission from active galactic nuclei, such as Seyfert galaxies and quasi-stellar objects is presented. The chief conclusions of the work are briefly described, and citations to the papers supported by this grant and published in the refereed scientific literature are provided. Areas of research included: 'warm' galaxies observed in x rays; x ray/infrared correlations in galaxies; the contribution of active galaxies to the cosmic x ray background radiation; and an unusual x ray emitting starburst galaxy.

  6. Lung function score including a parameter of small airway disease as a highly predictive indicator of survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakamae, Mika; Yamashita, Mariko; Koh, Hideo; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Nakane, Takahiko; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Asao; Hino, Masayuki; Nakamae, Hirohisa

    2016-06-01

    Some studies on the predictive value of determining pulmonary function prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have shown a significant association between pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters and pulmonary complications, and mortality. However, the percentage of patients showing abnormalities in pretransplant PFT parameters is low. We comprehensively evaluated the effect of pretransplant PFT parameters, including a marker of small airway disease (ratio of the airflow rate of 50% vital capacity to the airflow rate of 25% vital capacity (V˙50/V˙25), on outcomes in 206 evaluable patients who underwent allo-HCT at our institute. Notable among the significant parameters in a univariable analysis, V˙50/V˙25 was the most powerful indicator of survival following allo-HCT (delta-Akaike information criterion [∆AIC] = 12.47, ∆χ(2)  = 14.47; P = 0.0001). Additionally, a pretransplant lung function score (pLFS) established by applying three parameters with superior predictive values including V˙50/V˙25 represented a better discriminating variable for the prediction of survival. Our data demonstrate that a pLFS incorporating a parameter of small airway disease, rather than the parameters of central airway obstruction, may be useful for predicting patient survival following allo-HCT. PMID:27018997

  7. Lifestyle and Risk of Premature Sexual Activity in a High School Population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbender, Miriam L. M.; Rossignol, Annette MacKay

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. Data analysis demonstrated a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk…

  8. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Selected Environmental Topics for Use With Elementary and Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Alan D., Ed.

    This guide contains learning activities in environmental education developed by teachers and intended for use at the elementary or junior high school levels. Topics covered include: water, esthetics, air, soil and sediment, solid waste, energy, noise, population, and transportation. Generally, each activity contains an introduction, a listing of…

  9. Synthesis and Exploratory Catalysis of 3d Metals: Group-Transfer Reactions, and the Activation and Functionalization of Small Molecules Including Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2014-05-07

    Our work over the past three years has resulted in the development of electron rich and low-coordinate vanadium fragments, molecular nitrides of vanadium and parent imide systems of titanium, and the synthesis of phosphorus containing molecules of the 3d transition metal series. Likewise, with financial support from BES Division in DOE (DE-FG02-07ER15893), we now completed the full characterization of the first single molecular magnet (SMM) of Fe(III). We demonstrated that this monomeric form of Fe(III) has an unusual slow relaxation of the magnetization under zero applied field. To make matters more interesting, this system also undergoes a rare example of an intermediate to high-spin transition (an S = 3/2 to S = 5/2 transition). In 2010 we reported the synthesis of the first neutral and low-coordinate vanadium complexes having the terminal nitride functionality. We have now completed a full study to understand formation of the nitride ligand from the metastable azide precursor, and have also explored the reactivity of the nitride ligand in the context of incomplete and complete N-atom transfer. During the 2010-2013 period we also discovered a facile approach to assemble low-coordinate and low-valent vanadium(II) complexes and exploit their multielectron chemistry ranging from 1-3 electrons. Consequently, we can now access 3d ligand frameworks such as cyclo-P3 (and its corresponding radical anion), nitride radical anions and cations, low-coordinate vanadium oxo’s, and the first example of a vanadium thionitrosyl complex. A cis-divacant iron(IV) imido having some ligand centered radical has been also discovered, and we are in the process of elucidating its electronic structure (in particular the sign of zero field splitting and the origin of its magnitude), bonding and reactivity. We have also revisited some paramagnetic and classic metallocene compounds with S >1/2 ground states in order to understand their reactivity patterns and electronic structure. Lastly

  10. On the Evolution of High-redshift Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jirong; Kim, Minsun

    2016-09-01

    We build a simple physical model to study the high-redshift active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution within the co-evolution framework of central black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. The correlation between the circular velocity of a dark halo V c and the velocity dispersion of a galaxy σ is used to link the dark matter halo mass and BH mass. The dark matter halo mass function is converted to the BH mass function for any given redshift. The high-redshift optical AGN luminosity functions (LFs) are constructed. At z∼ 4, the flattening feature is not shown at the faint end of the optical AGN LF. This is consistent with observational results. If the optical AGN LF at z∼ 6 can be reproduced in the case in which central BHs have the Eddington-limited accretion, it is possible for the AGN lifetime to have a small value of 2× {10}5 {{years}}. The X-ray AGN LFs and X-ray AGN number counts are also calculated at 2.0\\lt z\\lt 5.0 and z\\gt 3, respectively, using the same parameters adopted in the calculation for the optical AGN LF at z∼ 4. It is estimated that about 30 AGNs per {{{\\deg }}}2 at z\\gt 6 can be detected with a flux limit of 3× {10}-17 {erg} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.5–2 keV band. Additionally, the cosmic reionization is also investigated. The ultraviolet photons emitted from the high-redshift AGNs mainly contribute to the cosmic reionization, and the central BHs of the high-redshift AGNs have a mass range of {10}6{--}{10}8{M}ȯ . We also discuss some uncertainties in both the AGN LFs and AGN number counts originating from the {M}{{BH}}{--}σ relation, Eddington ratio, AGN lifetime, and X-ray attenuation in our model.

  11. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  12. Ascaroside activity in Caenorhabditis elegans is highly dependent on chemical structure

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Kyle A.; Conner, Elizabeth S.; Zhang, Xinxing; Spell, Mark; Bernard, Gary M.; Patel, Pratik; de Carvalho, Ana Carolina G.V.; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Ragains, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans secretes ascarosides, structurally diverse derivatives of the 3,6-dideoxysugar ascarylose, and uses them in chemical communication. At high population densities, specific ascarosides, which are together known as the dauer pheromone, trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. In order to study the structure-activity relationships for the ascarosides, we synthesized a panel of ascarosides and tested them for dauer-inducing activity. This panel includes a number of natural ascarosides that were detected in crude pheromone extract, but as yet have no assigned function, as well as many unnatural ascaroside derivatives. Most of these ascarosides, some of which have significant structural similarity to the natural dauer pheromone components, have very little dauer-inducing activity. Our results provide a primer to ascaroside structure-activity relationships and suggest that slight modifications to ascaroside structure dramatically influence binding to the relevant G protein-coupled receptors that control dauer formation. PMID:23920482

  13. Non-reciprocal and highly nonlinear active acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2014-02-01

    Unidirectional devices that pass acoustic energy in only one direction have numerous applications and, consequently, have recently received significant attention. However, for most practical applications that require unidirectionality at audio and low frequencies, subwavelength implementations capable of the necessary time-reversal symmetry breaking remain elusive. Here we describe a design approach based on metamaterial techniques that provides highly subwavelength and strongly non-reciprocal devices. We demonstrate this approach by designing and experimentally characterizing a non-reciprocal active acoustic metamaterial unit cell composed of a single piezoelectric membrane augmented by a nonlinear electronic circuit, and sandwiched between Helmholtz cavities tuned to different frequencies. The design is thinner than a tenth of a wavelength, yet it has an isolation factor of >10 dB. The design method generates relatively broadband unidirectional devices and is a good candidate for numerous acoustic applications.

  14. Non-reciprocal and highly nonlinear active acoustic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Unidirectional devices that pass acoustic energy in only one direction have numerous applications and, consequently, have recently received significant attention. However, for most practical applications that require unidirectionality at audio and low frequencies, subwavelength implementations capable of the necessary time-reversal symmetry breaking remain elusive. Here we describe a design approach based on metamaterial techniques that provides highly subwavelength and strongly non-reciprocal devices. We demonstrate this approach by designing and experimentally characterizing a non-reciprocal active acoustic metamaterial unit cell composed of a single piezoelectric membrane augmented by a nonlinear electronic circuit, and sandwiched between Helmholtz cavities tuned to different frequencies. The design is thinner than a tenth of a wavelength, yet it has an isolation factor of >10 dB. The design method generates relatively broadband unidirectional devices and is a good candidate for numerous acoustic applications. PMID:24572771

  15. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides with High Anticancer Activity and Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Hao; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Chih, Ya-Han; Cheng, Hsi-Tsung; Chou, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Jya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics. PMID:25970292

  16. Using Highly Interactive Virtual Environments for Safeguards Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, Bradley S; Alcala, Benjamin S; Alcala, Scott; Eipeldauer, Mary D; Weil, Logan B

    2010-01-01

    Highly interactive virtual environment (HIVE) is a term that refers to interactive educational simulations, serious games and virtual worlds. Studies indicate that learning with the aid of interactive environments produces better retention and depth of knowledge by promoting improved trainee engagement and understanding. Virtual reality or three dimensional (3D) visualization is often used to promote the understanding of something when personal observation, photographs, drawings, and/or sketches are not possible or available. Subjects and situations, either real or hypothetical, can be developed using a 3D model. Models can be tailored to the audience allowing safeguards and security features to be demonstrated for educational purposes in addition to engineering evaluation and performance analysis. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has begun evaluating the feasibility of HIVEs for improving safeguards activities such as training, mission planning, and evaluating worker task performance. This paper will discuss the development workflow of HIVEs and present some recent examples.

  17. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Teleportation of Entangled States through Divorce of Entangled Pair Mediated by a Weak Coherent Field in a High-Q Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.

    2008-07-01

    We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.

  18. Dynamics of Active Separation Control at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi

    2000-01-01

    A series of active flow control experiments were recently conducted at high Reynolds numbers on a generic separated configuration. The model simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick Glauert-Goldschmied type airfoil at zero angle of attack. The flow is fully turbulent since the tunnel sidewall boundary layer flows over the model. The main motivation for the experiments is to generate a comprehensive data base for validation of unsteady numerical simulation as a first step in the development of a CFD design tool, without which it would not be possible to effectively utilize the great potential of unsteady flow control. This paper focuses on the dynamics of several key features of the baseline as well as the controlled flow. It was found that the thickness of the upstream boundary layer has a negligible effect on the flow dynamics. It is speculated that separation is caused mainly by the highly convex surface while viscous effects are less important. The two-dimensional separated flow contains unsteady waves centered on a reduced frequency of 0.8, while in the three dimensional separated flow, frequencies around a reduced frequency of 0.3 and 1 are active. Several scenarios of resonant wave interaction take place at the separated shear-layer and in the pressure recovery region. The unstable reduced frequency bands for periodic excitation are centered on 1.5 and 5, but these reduced frequencies are based on the length of the baseline bubble that shortens due to the excitation. The conventional swept wing-scaling works well for the coherent wave features. Reproduction of these dynamic effects by a numerical simulation would provide benchmark validation.

  19. High Frequency Monitoring of the Aigion Fault Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Francois; Bourouis, Seid

    2013-04-01

    In 2007, a high frequency monitoring system was deployed in the 1000 m deep AIG10 well that intersects the Aigion fault at a depth of 760 m. This active 15 km long fault is located on the south shore of the Corinth rift, some 40 km east from Patras, in western central Greece. The borehole intersects quaternary sediments down to 495 m, then cretaceous and tertiary heavily tectonized deposits from the Pindos nappe. Below the fault encountered at 760 m, the borehole remains within karstic limestone of the Gavrovo Tripolitza nappe. The monitoring system involved two geophones located some 15 m above the fault, and two hydrophones located respectively at depths equal to 500 m and 250 m. The frequency domain for the data acquisition system ranged from a few Hz to 2500 Hz. The seismic velocity structure close to the borehole was determined through both sonic logs and vertical seismic profiles. This monitoring system has been active during slightly over six months and has recorded signals from microseismic events that occurred in the rift, the location of which was determined thanks to the local 11 stations, three components, short period (2 Hz), monitoring system. In addition, the borehole monitoring system has recorded more than 1000 events not identified with the regional network. Events were precisely correlated with pressure variations associated with two human interventions. These extremely low magnitude events occurred at distances that reached at least up to 1500 m from the well. They were associated, some ten days later, with some local rift activity. A tentative model is proposed that associates local short slip instabilities in the upper part of the fault close to the well, with a longer duration pore pressure diffusion process. Results demonstrate that the Aigion fault is continuously creeping down to a depth at least equal to 5 km but probably deeper.

  20. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound induced Gene Activation in Solid Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunbo; Kon, Takashi; Li, Chuanyuan; Zhong, Pei

    2006-05-01

    In this work, the feasibility of using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to activate trans-gene expression in a mouse tumor model was investigated. 4T1 cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously in the hind limbs of Balb/C mice and adenovirus luciferase gene vectors under the control of heat shock protein 70B promoter (Adeno-hsp70B-Luc) were injected intratumoraly for gene transfection. One day following the virus injection, the transfected tumors were heated to a peak temperature of 55, 65, 75, and 85°C, respectively, in 10s at multiple sites around the center of the tumor using a HIFU transducer operated at either 1.1-MHz (fundamental) or 3.3-MHz (3rd harmonic) frequency. Inducible luciferase gene expression was found to vary from 15-fold to 120-fold of the control group following 1.1-MHz HIFU exposure. The maximum gene activation was produced at a peak temperature of 65˜75°C one day following HIFU exposure and decayed gradually to baseline level within 7 days. The inducible gene activation produced by 3.3-MHz HIFU exposure (75°C-10s) was found to be comparable to that produced by hyperthermia (42°C-30min). Altogether, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using HIFU as a simple and versatile physical means to regulate trans-gene expression in vivo. This unique feature may be explored in the future for a synergistic combination of HIFU-induced thermal ablation with heat-induced gene therapy for improved cancer therapy.

  1. Obscured Starburst Activity in High Redshift Clusters and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale; Lemaux, B.; Lubin, L.; Gal, R.

    2011-01-01

    Using Spitzer MIPS 24um imaging and extensive Keck spectroscopy we have found evidence for environmentally triggered starburst activity within six clusters and groups at z 0.9. I will show that the density of 24um-detected galaxies in the cluster environment is nearly twice that of the surrounding field at this redshift and that this overdensity scales with the cluster's dynamical state. The 24um-bright members often appear optically unremarkable and exhibit only moderate [OII] line emission due to severe obscuration. Although their spatial distribution suggests they are an infalling population, a close examination of their spectral properties, morphologies and optical colors indicate they are not simply analogs of the field population that have yet to be quenched. Using stacked DEIMOS spectra, we find the 24um-detected cluster and group galaxies exhibit elevated levels of Balmer absorption compared to galaxies undergoing normal, continuous star formation. A similar excess is not observed in field galaxies with equivalent infrared luminosities, indicating a greater fraction of the detected cluster and group members have experienced a burst of star formation in the recent past compared to their counterparts in the field. Our results suggest that gas-rich galaxies at high redshift experience a temporary increase in their star formation activity as they assemble into denser environments. Using HST ACS imaging we find that disturbed morphologies are common among the obscured starburst population and become more prevalent in regions of higher galaxy density. We conclude that mergers are the dominant triggering mechanism responsible for the enhanced star formation found in the group galaxies, while a mix of harassment and mergers are likely driving the activity of the cluster galaxies.

  2. Metabolism of a highly selective gelatinase inhibitor generates active metabolite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mijoon; Villegas-Estrada, Adriel; Celenza, Giuseppe; Boggess, Bill; Toth, Marta; Kreitinger, Gloria; Forbes, Christopher; Fridman, Rafael; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland

    2007-11-01

    (4-Phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)methylthiirane (inhibitor 1) is a highly selective inhibitor of gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9), which is showing considerable promise in animal models for cancer and stroke. Despite demonstrated potent, selective, and effective inhibition of gelatinases both in vitro and in vivo, the compound is rapidly metabolized, implying that the likely activity in vivo is due to a metabolite rather than the compound itself. To this end, metabolism of inhibitor 1 was investigated in in vitro systems. Four metabolites were identified by LC/MS-MS and the structures of three of them were further validated by comparison with authentic synthetic samples. One metabolite, 4-(4-thiiranylmethanesulfonylphenoxy)phenol (compound 21), was generated by hydroxylation of the terminal phenyl group of 1. This compound was investigated in kinetics of inhibition of several matrix metalloproteinases. This metabolite was a more potent slow-binding inhibitor of gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9) than the parent compound 1, but it also served as a slow-binding inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-14, the upstream activator of matrix metalloproteinase-2. PMID:17927722

  3. High and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid differentially influence macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Rayahin, Jamie E.; Buhrman, Jason S.; Zhang, Yu; Koh, Timothy J.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic diversity permitting wide-ranging roles in maintaining physiologic homeostasis. Hyaluronic acid, a major glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to have differential signaling based on its molecular weight. With this in mind, the main objective of this study was to elucidate the role of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on macrophage activation and reprogramming. Changes in macrophage activation were assessed by activation state selective marker measurement, specifically quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, and cytokine enzyme-linked immunoassays, after macrophage treatment with differing molecular weights of hyaluronic acid under four conditions: the resting state, concurrent with classical activation, and following inflammation involving either classically or alternatively activated macrophages. Regardless of initial polarization state, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid induced a classically activated-like state, confirmed by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, including nos2, tnf, il12b, and cd80, and enhanced secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid promoted an alternatively activated-like state, confirmed by up regulation of pro-resolving gene transcription, including arg1, il10, and mrc1, and enhanced arginase activity. Overall, our observations suggest that macrophages undergo phenotypic changes dependent on molecular weight of hyaluronan that correspond to either (1) pro-inflammatory response for low molecular weight HA or (2) pro-resolving response for high molecular weight HA. These observations bring significant further understanding of the influence of extracellular matrix polymers, hyaluronic acid in particular, on regulating the inflammatory response of macrophages. This knowledge can be used to guide the design of HA-containing biomaterials to better utilize the natural response to HAs. PMID:26280020

  4. Using hysteresis analysis of high-resolution water quality monitoring data, including uncertainty, to infer controls on nutrient and sediment transfer in catchments.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C E M; Freer, J E; Johnes, P J; Collins, A L

    2016-02-01

    A large proportion of nutrients and sediment is mobilised in catchments during storm events. Therefore understanding a catchment's hydrological behaviour during storms and how this acts to mobilise and transport nutrients and sediment to nearby watercourses is extremely important for effective catchment management. The expansion of available in-situ sensors is allowing a wider range of water quality parameters to be monitored and at higher temporal resolution, meaning that the investigation of hydrochemical behaviours during storms is increasingly feasible. Studying the relationship between discharge and water quality parameters in storm events can provide a valuable research tool to infer the likely source areas and flow pathways contributing to nutrient and sediment transport. Therefore, this paper uses 2 years of high temporal resolution (15/30 min) discharge and water quality (nitrate-N, total phosphorus (TP) and turbidity) data to examine hysteretic behaviour during storm events in two contrasting catchments, in the Hampshire Avon catchment, UK. This paper provides one of the first examples of a study which comprehensively examines storm behaviours for up to 76 storm events and three water quality parameters. It also examines the observational uncertainties using a non-parametric approach. A range of metrics was used, such as loop direction, loop area and a hysteresis index (HI) to characterise and quantify the storm behaviour. With two years of high resolution information it was possible to see how transport mechanisms varied between parameters and through time. This study has also clearly shown the different transport regimes operating between a groundwater dominated chalk catchment versus a surface-water dominated clay catchment. This information, set within an uncertainty framework, means that confidence can be derived that the patterns and relationships thus identified are statistically robust. These insights can thus be used to provide information

  5. Prevalence, Incidence, and Clearance of Anogenital Warts in Kenyan Men Reporting High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Including Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Neme, Santiago; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander N.; Stekler, Joanne D.; Wald, Anna; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes a spectrum of disease, ranging from warts to cancer. Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with anogenital warts in East African men are unknown. Methods. Kenyan men reporting high-risk sexual behavior were inspected for anogenital warts at enrollment and follow-up visits. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations with anogenital warts at baseline. Cox regression was performed to analyze predictors of incident anogenital warts, and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to estimate clearance. Results. Baseline anogenital wart prevalence in 1137 men was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%–4.0%) overall, 2.0% in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected men, and 9.4% in HIV-1-infected men (adjusted odds ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.03–11.29). Over a median of 1.4 years, anogenital wart incidence among 1104 men was 5.3 (95% CI, 4.3–6.5) per 100 person-years. Having HIV-1 infection at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01–2.72) or a genital syndrome during follow-up (aHR, 4.78; 95% CI, 3.03–7.56) was associated with increased wart incidence. Wart clearance was lower in HIV-1-infected men (log-rank P<.001). Conclusions. Anogenital wart prevalence and incidence were increased in HIV-1-infected men, and anogenital warts co-occurred with other genital syndromes. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination should be recommended for young men in settings with high HIV-1 prevalence. PMID:26110169

  6. Diffusion and Perfusion MRI to Differentiate Treatment-Related Changes Including Pseudoprogression from Recurrent Tumors in High-Grade Gliomas with Histopathologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Prager, A.J.; Martinez, N.; Beal, K.; Omuro, A.; Zhang, Z.; Young, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Treatment-related changes and recurrent tumors often have overlapping features on conventional MR imaging. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of DWI and DSC perfusion imaging alone and in combination to differentiate treatment-related effects and recurrent high-grade gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively identified 68 consecutive patients with high-grade gliomas treated by surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and temozolomide, who then developed increasing enhancing mass lesions indeterminate for treatment-related changes versus recurrent tumor. All lesions were diagnosed by histopathology at repeat surgical resection. ROI analysis was performed of the enhancing lesion on the ADC and DSC maps. Measurements made by a 2D ROI of the enhancing lesion on a single slice were recorded as ADCLesion and rCBVLesion, and measurements made by the most abnormal small fixed diameter ROI as ADCROI and rCBVROI. Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon rank sum tests with P = .05. RESULTS Ten of the 68 patients (14.7%) had treatment-related changes, while 58 patients (85.3%) had recurrent tumor only (n = 19) or recurrent tumor mixed with treatment effect (n = 39). DWI analysis showed higher ADCLesion in treatment-related changes than in recurrent tumor (P = .003). DSC analysis revealed lower relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV)Lesion and rCBVROI in treatment-related changes (P=.003 andP=.011, respectively). Subanalysis of patients with suspected pseudoprogression also revealed higher ADCLesion (P = .001) and lower rCBVLesion (P = .028) and rCBVROI (P = .032) in treatment-related changes. Applying a combined ADCLesion and rCBVLesion model did not outperform either the ADC or rCBV metric alone. CONCLUSIONS Treatment-related changes showed higher diffusion and lower perfusion than recurrent tumor. Similar correlations were found for patients with suspected pseudoprogression. PMID:25593202

  7. Doped titanium dioxide nanocrystalline powders with high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.L.; Jumas, J.-C.; Costa, F.M.

    2009-07-15

    Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO{sub 2}; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route preceded by a precipitation doping step. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed by powder XRD and TEM. Thermodynamic stability studies allowed to conclude that the anatase structure is highly stable for all doped TiO{sub 2} prepared compounds. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized nanopowders was tested and the results showed an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO{sub 2} and Nb:TiO{sub 2}, whereas no photocatalytic activity was detected for the Fe:TiO{sub 2} and Co:TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. These results were correlated to the doping ions oxidation states, determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization data. - Graphical abstract: Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO{sub 2}; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with highly stable anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route. The photocatalytic efficiencies of the synthesized nanopowders were tested and the results show an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO{sub 2} and Nb:TiO{sub 2}.

  8. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    PubMed Central

    Lau, M C Y; Stackhouse, B T; Layton, A C; Chauhan, A; Vishnivetskaya, T A; Chourey, K; Ronholm, J; Mykytczuk, N C S; Bennett, P C; Lamarche-Gagnon, G; Burton, N; Pollard, W H; Omelon, C R; Medvigy, D M; Hettich, R L; Pfiffner, S M; Whyte, L G; Onstott, T C

    2015-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emission by carbon-rich cryosols at the high latitudes in Northern Hemisphere has been studied extensively. In contrast, data on the CH4 emission potential of carbon-poor cryosols is limited, despite their spatial predominance. This work employs CH4 flux measurements in the field and under laboratory conditions to show that the mineral cryosols at Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian high Arctic consistently consume atmospheric CH4. Omics analyses present the first molecular evidence of active atmospheric CH4-oxidizing bacteria (atmMOB) in permafrost-affected cryosols, with the prevalent atmMOB genotype in our acidic mineral cryosols being closely related to Upland Soil Cluster α. The atmospheric (atm) CH4 uptake at the study site increases with ground temperature between 0 °C and 18 °C. Consequently, the atm CH4 sink strength is predicted to increase by a factor of 5–30 as the Arctic warms by 5–15 °C over a century. We demonstrate that acidic mineral cryosols are a previously unrecognized potential of CH4 sink that requires further investigation to determine its potential impact on larger scales. This study also calls attention to the poleward distribution of atmMOB, as well as to the potential influence of microbial atm CH4 oxidation, in the context of regional CH4 flux models and global warming. PMID:25871932

  9. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols.

    PubMed

    Lau, M C Y; Stackhouse, B T; Layton, A C; Chauhan, A; Vishnivetskaya, T A; Chourey, K; Ronholm, J; Mykytczuk, N C S; Bennett, P C; Lamarche-Gagnon, G; Burton, N; Pollard, W H; Omelon, C R; Medvigy, D M; Hettich, R L; Pfiffner, S M; Whyte, L G; Onstott, T C

    2015-08-01

    Methane (CH4) emission by carbon-rich cryosols at the high latitudes in Northern Hemisphere has been studied extensively. In contrast, data on the CH4 emission potential of carbon-poor cryosols is limited, despite their spatial predominance. This work employs CH4 flux measurements in the field and under laboratory conditions to show that the mineral cryosols at Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian high Arctic consistently consume atmospheric CH4. Omics analyses present the first molecular evidence of active atmospheric CH4-oxidizing bacteria (atmMOB) in permafrost-affected cryosols, with the prevalent atmMOB genotype in our acidic mineral cryosols being closely related to Upland Soil Cluster α. The atmospheric (atm) CH4 uptake at the study site increases with ground temperature between 0 °C and 18 °C. Consequently, the atm CH4 sink strength is predicted to increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrate that acidic mineral cryosols are a previously unrecognized potential of CH4 sink that requires further investigation to determine its potential impact on larger scales. This study also calls attention to the poleward distribution of atmMOB, as well as to the potential influence of microbial atm CH4 oxidation, in the context of regional CH4 flux models and global warming. PMID:25871932

  10. Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity and Key Parameters in High-Latitude Ionosphere-Basic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, W.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere is an important task of the Space Weather program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two main elements are a suitable geomagnetic activity index and coupling function -- the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity. The appropriate choice of these two elements is imperative for any reliable prediction model. The purpose of this work was to elaborate on these two elements -- the appropriate geomagnetic activity index and the coupling function -- and investigate the opportunity to improve the reliability of the prediction of geomagnetic activity and other events in the Earth's magnetosphere. The new polar magnetic index of geomagnetic activity and the new version of the coupling function lead to a significant increase in the reliability of predicting the geomagnetic activity and some key parameters, such as cross-polar cap voltage and total Joule heating in high-latitude ionosphere, which play a very important role in the development of geomagnetic and other activity in the Earth s magnetosphere, and are widely used as key input parameters in modeling magnetospheric, ionospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  11. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  12. Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Brian; McGuire, K Ashlee; Lewanczuk, Richard; McGavock, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinical scientists with an overview of the current state of the literature describing the negative influence of obesity on blood pressure and it’s determinants in children. In short, we discuss the array of vascular abnormalities seen in overweight children and adolescents, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and insulin resistance. We also discuss the potential role of an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the development of high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. As there is little consensus regarding the methods to prevent or treat high blood pressure in children, we also provide a summary of the evidence supporting relationship between physical activity and blood pressure in children and adolescents. After reviewing a number of physical activity intervention studies performed in children, it appears as though 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic-based physical activity 3–5 days/week is required to improve vascular function and reduce blood pressure in obese children. Future studies should focus on describing the influence of physical activity on blood pressure control in overweight children. PMID:17583184

  13. The Educational Value of High Risk Activities in the Physical Education Program: A Social Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Robert E. C.

    A growing number of schools and institutions in North America have begun offering training in high risk activities such as high element rope courses, rock climbing, white water kayaking and canoeing, and scuba diving in conjunction with their regular physical education activity programs. High risk activities are those activities which occur in or…

  14. Reduced genetic variation occurs among genes of the highly clonal plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, including the effector gene avrBs2.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Gale; Ritchie, David; Kousik, C S; Bergelson, Joy

    2005-05-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, also known as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria group A, is the causal agent of bacterial spot in pepper and tomato. In order to test different models that may explain the coevolution of avrBs2 with its host plants, we sequenced avrBs2 and six chromosomal loci (total of 5.5 kb per strain) from a global sample of 55 X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria strains collected from diseased peppers. We found an extreme lack of genetic variation among all X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria genomic loci (average nucleotide diversity, pi = 9.1 x 10(-5)), including avrBs2. This lack of diversity is consistent with X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria having undergone a recent population bottleneck and/or selective sweep followed by population expansion. Coalescent analysis determined that approximately 1.4 x 10(4) to 7.16 x 10(4) bacterial generations have passed since the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the current X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria population. Assuming a range of 50 to 500 bacterial generations per year, only 28 to 1,432 years have passed since the MRCA. This time frame coincides with human intervention with the pathogen's host plants, from domestication to modern agricultural practices. Examination of 19 mutated (loss-of-function) avrBs2 alleles detected nine classes of mutations. All mutations affected protein coding, while no synonymous changes were found. The nature of at least one of the avrBs2 mutations suggests that it may be possible to observe one stage of an evolutionary arms race as X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria responds to selection pressure to alter avrBs2 to escape host plant resistance. PMID:15870329

  15. Reduced Genetic Variation Occurs among Genes of the Highly Clonal Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, Including the Effector Gene avrBs2

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Gale; Ritchie, David; Kousik, C. S.; Bergelson, Joy

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, also known as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria group A, is the causal agent of bacterial spot in pepper and tomato. In order to test different models that may explain the coevolution of avrBs2 with its host plants, we sequenced avrBs2 and six chromosomal loci (total of 5.5 kb per strain) from a global sample of 55 X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria strains collected from diseased peppers. We found an extreme lack of genetic variation among all X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria genomic loci (average nucleotide diversity, π = 9.1 × 10−5), including avrBs2. This lack of diversity is consistent with X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria having undergone a recent population bottleneck and/or selective sweep followed by population expansion. Coalescent analysis determined that approximately 1.4 × 104 to 7.16 × 104 bacterial generations have passed since the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the current X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria population. Assuming a range of 50 to 500 bacterial generations per year, only 28 to 1,432 years have passed since the MRCA. This time frame coincides with human intervention with the pathogen's host plants, from domestication to modern agricultural practices. Examination of 19 mutated (loss-of-function) avrBs2 alleles detected nine classes of mutations. All mutations affected protein coding, while no synonymous changes were found. The nature of at least one of the avrBs2 mutations suggests that it may be possible to observe one stage of an evolutionary arms race as X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria responds to selection pressure to alter avrBs2 to escape host plant resistance. PMID:15870329

  16. Multiresidue Determination of β2-Agonists Including Phenylethanolamine A in Animal-Derived Food by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian; Pu, Rong-chun; Wang, Xi-xi; Luo, Chun-ying; Zhang, Li-chun; Zhang, Xin-shen

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) procedure for detection of nine β-agonists in animal-derived food is described. The method was based on enzymatic hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia, followed by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure with perchloric acid and a solid-phase extraction scheme using two kinds of cartridges, HLB and MCX. The influence of sample solution pH in the extraction recovery was studied, and pH 4.0 was found to give the best recovery. The analytes were eluted with methanol containing 4% ammonia. A validation procedure for quantitative analysis of β-agonists in animal-derived food was performed. The three kinds of internal standards, d3-salbutamol, d6-ractopamine and d9-clenpenterol, were applied in the sample preparation and detection of UHPLC/MS/MS. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged between 74.9 and 106.9%. The relative standard deviations of detection were at 0.7-9.6%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01-0.05 and 0.03-0.20 µg/kg, respectively. The effect of sample matrix in the detection was discussed in detail. PMID:25480455

  17. The infrared spectrum of isothiazole in the range 600-1500 cm-1, including a high-resolution study of the ν studies of the full spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegelund, F.; Wugt Larsen, R.; Aitken, R. A.; Kraus, H.; Nicolaisen, F. M.; Palmer, M. H.

    The gas-phase high-resolution infrared spectrum of isothiazole in the range 600-1500 cm-1 has been recorded, and revised band centres obtained for a number of vibrations. An analysis of the ν11(A') band at 818 cm-1 and the ν16(A'') band at 727 cm-1 has been performed, using the Watson Hamiltonian, A-reduction, IIIr representation. These were combined with previous microwave spectral data to provide combined analyses for rotational constants and quartic centrifugal distortion constants ΔJ, ΔJK, ΔK, δJ and δK. These extend the knowledge derived from previous microwave and IR spectral studies. The equilibrium structures and the derived harmonic frequencies were calculated by ab initio methods, using a variety of basis sets with MP2, MP4 and CCSD(T) methods, and a comparison of these with experimental data is discussed. At a pragmatic level, the closest correlation of the rotational constants with experiment is not obtained with the most sophisticated methodology. Similarly, the vibration frequencies and intensities also vary strongly with the procedure. In particular, we found that the cc-pVTZ+MP2 results probably provide the best numerical comparison with experimental IR data for this molecule.

  18. Integrating Laboratory Activity into a Junior High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyr, Wen-Jye

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a wind power system laboratory activity and an outline for evaluating student performance in this activity. The work described here was to design and implement the laboratory to assist teachers in achieving the teaching objective of this activity. The laboratory teaching activities introduce energy sources, wind energy…

  19. Zebrafish homologs of genes within 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes

    PubMed Central

    Blaker-Lee, Alicia; Gupta, Sunny; McCammon, Jasmine M.; De Rienzo, Gianluca; Sive, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, indicating the importance of gene dosage in this copy number variant region (CNV). The core of this CNV includes 25 genes; however, the number of genes that contribute to these phenotypes is not known. Furthermore, genes whose functional levels change with deletion or duplication (termed ‘dosage sensors’), which can associate the CNV with pathologies, have not been identified in this region. Using the zebrafish as a tool, a set of 16p11.2 homologs was identified, primarily on chromosomes 3 and 12. Use of 11 phenotypic assays, spanning the first 5 days of development, demonstrated that this set of genes is highly active, such that 21 out of the 22 homologs tested showed loss-of-function phenotypes. Most genes in this region were required for nervous system development – impacting brain morphology, eye development, axonal density or organization, and motor response. In general, human genes were able to substitute for the fish homolog, demonstrating orthology and suggesting conserved molecular pathways. In a screen for 16p11.2 genes whose function is sensitive to hemizygosity, the aldolase a (aldoaa) and kinesin family member 22 (kif22) genes were identified as giving clear phenotypes when RNA levels were reduced by ∼50%, suggesting that these genes are deletion dosage sensors. This study leads to two major findings. The first is that the 16p11.2 region comprises a highly active set of genes, which could present a large genetic target and might explain why multiple brain function, and other, phenotypes are associated with this interval. The second major finding is that there are (at least) two genes with deletion dosage sensor properties among the 16p11.2 set, and these could link this CNV to brain disorders such as ASD and IDD. PMID

  20. {sup 13}C-METHYL FORMATE: OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS INCLUDING ORION-KL AND SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Favre, Cécile; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Neill, Justin L.; Carvajal, Miguel; Field, David; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Brouillet, Nathalie; Despois, Didier; Baudry, Alain; Kleiner, Isabelle; Margulès, Laurent; Huet, Thérèse R.; Demaison, Jean E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es

    2015-01-01

    We have surveyed a sample of massive star-forming regions located over a range of distances from the Galactic center for methyl formate, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and its isotopologues H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}. The observations were carried out with the APEX telescope in the frequency range 283.4-287.4 GHz. Based on the APEX observations, we report tentative detections of the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologue HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} toward the following four massive star-forming regions: Sgr B2(N-LMH), NGC 6334 IRS 1, W51 e2, and G19.61-0.23. In addition, we have used the 1 mm ALMA science verification observations of Orion-KL and confirm the detection of the {sup 13}C-methyl formate species in Orion-KL and image its spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope ratio in methyl formate toward the Orion-KL Compact Ridge and Hot Core-SW components (68.4 ± 10.1 and 71.4 ± 7.8, respectively) are, for both the {sup 13}C-methyl formate isotopologues, commensurate with the average {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio of CO derived toward Orion-KL. Likewise, regarding the other sources, our results are consistent with the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C in CO. We also report the spectroscopic characterization, which includes a complete partition function, of the complex H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3} species. New spectroscopic data for both isotopomers H{sup 13}COOCH{sub 3} and HCOO{sup 13}CH{sub 3}, presented in this study, have made it possible to measure this fundamentally important isotope ratio in a large organic molecule for the first time.

  1. Early High Tc Activity in Japan: The Franco Rasetti Lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2007-03-01

    From 1960 to 1980, R&D of superconductivity in Japan was carried out mainly to improve A15 superconducting wires and magnets. Improvement of wires were made mainly in the National Institute for Metals, and improvements of superconducting magnets were made in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for future nuclear fusion reactors, the National Railway Laboratory for future maglev trains and also in the Electo-Technical Laboratory for MHD generators. I began the research of BPBO in 1975 and at that time the research of oxide superconductors was limited only to my laboratory in the University of Tokyo. During the study of this new superconductor, we learned quite a lot on how to make ceramic samples, how to measure electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures. In 1982, Prof. S. Nakajima organized a rather small group for investigating ``New Superconducting Phenomena,'' and I became a member of the group. In 1985, Nakajima expanded the research group to include more than 5 experimentalists and 5 theoreticians. The title of the research was ``New Superconducting Materials'' and the funds came from the Ministry of Education of Japan. In late October, 1986, we followed the first paper of Bednorz and Muller, and immediately found the material includes high temperature superconductor and reported it to the group meeting held in early November. In early December, we confirmed La2-xBaxCuO4 is the real high temperature superconductor, the critical temperature is 28K. I sent a copy of our paper to Prof. Beasley of California and asked to inform this fact to his colleagues. Asahi Shimbun, the biggest newspaper in Japan announced this in its science section, and then many people knew the high temperature superconductor had been discovered. Then many physicists and chemists rushed to this field very quickly and many kinds of materials were synthesized. In the Government, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry

  2. DISCOVERY OF FOUR HIGH PROPER MOTION L DWARFS, INCLUDING A 10 pc L DWARF AT THE L/T TRANSITION {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Philip J.; Gizis, John E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Skrutskie, Michael F. E-mail: gizis@udel.edu

    2013-10-20

    We discover four high proper motion L dwarfs by comparing the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to the Two Micron All Sky Survey. WISE J140533.32+835030.5 is an L dwarf at the L/T transition with a proper motion of 0.85 ± 0.''02 yr{sup –1}, previously overlooked due to its proximity to a bright star (V ≈ 12 mag). From optical spectroscopy we find a spectral type of L8, and from moderate-resolution J band spectroscopy we find a near-infrared spectral type of L9. We find WISE J140533.32+835030.5 to have a distance of 9.7 ± 1.7 pc, bringing the number of L dwarfs at the L/T transition within 10 pc from six to seven. WISE J040137.21+284951.7, WISE J040418.01+412735.6, and WISE J062442.37+662625.6 are all early L dwarfs within 25 pc, and were classified using optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectra. WISE J040418.01+412735.6 is an L2 pec (red) dwarf, a member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We use follow-up optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to classify a previously discovered fifth object WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 as an (L8 Opt/L9 NIR), confirming it as an L dwarf at the L/T transition within 10 pc. WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 shows tentative CH{sub 4} in the H band, possibly the result of unresolved binarity with an early T dwarf, a scenario not supported by binary spectral template fitting. If WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 is a single object, it represents the earliest onset of CH{sub 4} in the H band of an L/T transition dwarf in the SpeX Library. As very late L dwarfs within 10 pc, WISE J140533.32+835030.5 and WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 will play a vital role in resolving outstanding issues at the L/T transition.

  3. Mechanisms underlying obesity resistance associated with high spontaneous physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity resistance due to elevated orexin signaling is accompanied by high levels of spontaneous physical activity (SPA). The behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying this observation have not been fully worked out. We determined the contribution of hypothalamic orexin receptors (OXR) to SPA stimulated by orexin A (OXA), whether OXA-stimulated SPA was secondary to arousal and whether voluntary wheel running led to compensations in 24-h SPA. We further tested whether orexin action on dopamine one receptors (DA1R) in the substantia nigra (SN) plays an important role in generation of SPA. To test this, SPA response was determined in lean and obese rats with cannulae targeted towards the rostral lateral hypothalamus (rLH) or SN. Sleep/wake states were also measured in rats with rLH cannula and EEG/EMG radiotelemetry transmitters. SPA in lean rats was more sensitive to antagonism of the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and in the early response to the orexin 2 agonist. OXA increased arousal equally in lean and obese rodents, which is discordant from the greater SPA response in lean rats. Obesity resistant rats ran more and wheel running was directly related to 24-h SPA levels. The OX1R antagonist, SB-334867-A, and the DA1R antagonist, SCH3390, in SN more effectively reduced SPA stimulated by OXA in OR rats. These data suggest OXA-stimulated SPA is not secondary to enhanced arousal, propensity for SPA parallels inclination to run and that orexin action on dopaminergic neurons in SN may participate in mediation of SPA and running wheel activity. PMID:24161277

  4. Using Geochemical Indicators to Distinguish High Biogeochemical Activity in Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenwell, A. M.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Prugue, R.; Spear, J. R.; Williams, K. H.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    A better understanding of how microbial communities interact with their surroundings in physically and chemically heterogeneous subsurface environments will lead to improved quantification of biogeochemical reactions and associated nutrient cycling. This study develops a methodology to predict elevated rates of biogeochemical activity (microbial "hotspots") in subsurface environments by correlating microbial community structure with the spatial distribution of geochemical indicators in subsurface sediments. Statistical hierarchical cluster analyses (HCA) of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), simulated precipitation leachate, bioavailable Fe and Mn, total organic carbon (TOC), microbial community structure, grain size, bulk density and moisture content data were used to identify regions of the subsurface characterized by biogeochemical hotspots and sample characteristics indicative of these hotspots within fluvially-derived aquifer sediments. The methodology has been applied to (a) alluvial materials collected at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado and (b) relatively undisturbed floodplain deposits (soils and sediments) collected along the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado. At Rifle, 33 sediment samples were taken from 8 sediment cores and at the East River 33 soil/sediment samples were collected across and perpendicular to 3 active meanders. The East River watershed exhibits characteristic fluvial progression and serves as a representative example of many headwater catchments with the upper Colorado River basin. Initial clustering revealed that operationally defined hotspots were characterized by high organic carbon, bioavailable iron and dark colors but not necessarily low hydraulic conductivity. Applying the method to identify hotspots in both contaminated and natural floodplain deposits and their associated alluvial aquifers demonstrates the broad applicability of a geochemical indicator based approach.

  5. Obscured Starburst Activity in High-redshift Clusters and Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale D.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Lubin, Lori M.; Gal, Roy; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Squires, Gordon K.; Surace, Jason A.; Lacy, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Using Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 μm imaging and extensive Keck spectroscopy, we examine the nature of the obscured star-forming population in three clusters and three groups at z ~ 0.9. These six systems are the primary components of the Cl1604 supercluster, the largest structure imaged by Spitzer at redshifts approaching unity. We find that the average density of 24 μm detected galaxies within the Cl1604 clusters is nearly twice that of the surrounding field and that this overdensity scales with the cluster's dynamical state. The 24 μm bright members often appear optically unremarkable and exhibit only moderate [O II] line emission due to severe obscuration. Their spatial distribution suggests that they are an infalling population, but an examination of their spectral properties, morphologies, and optical colors indicates that they are not simply analogs of the field population that have yet to be quenched. Using stacked composite spectra, we find that the 24 μm detected cluster and group galaxies exhibit elevated levels of Balmer absorption compared with galaxies undergoing normal, continuous star formation. A similar excess is not observed in field galaxies with equivalent infrared luminosities, indicating a greater fraction of the detected cluster and group members have experienced a burst of star formation in the recent past compared to their counterparts in the field. Our results suggest that gas-rich galaxies at high redshift experience a temporary increase in their star formation activity as they assemble into denser environments. Using Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging, we find that disturbed morphologies are common among the 24 μm detected cluster and group members and become more prevalent in regions of higher galaxy density. We conclude that mergers are the dominant triggering mechanism responsible for the enhanced star formation found in the Cl1604 groups, while a mix of harassment and mergers are likely

  6. What Is a Good Activity for Teaching World Literature to High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzano, Elaine; Baldwin, Anna E.; Cobbs, Lewis; Whitaker, Sandra; Parker, Jessica; Krajcovic, Frank J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents six educators' ideas for good activities for teaching world literature to high school students. Describes ideas, activities, and experiences with innovative ways to teach World Literature. (SG)

  7. Toward high-dynamic active mirrors for LGS refocusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Cuby, Jean Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    In the frame of the E-ELT-EAGLE instrument phase A studies, we designed a convex VCM able to compensate for the focus variation on the Laser Guide Star (LGS) wavefront sensor, due to the elevation of the telescope and the fixed sodium layer altitude. We present an original optical design including this active convex mirror, providing a large sag variation on a spherical surface with a 120mm clear aperture, with an optical quality better than lambda/5 RMS up to 820μm of sag and better than lambda/4 RMS up to 1000μm of sag. Finite element analysis (FEA) allowed an optimisation of the mirror's variable thickness distribution to compensate for geometrical and material non linearity. Preliminary study of the pre-stressing has also been performed by FEA, showing that a permanent deformation remains after removal of the loads. Results and comparison with the FEA are presented in the article of F.Madec et al (AS10-7736-119, this conference), with an emphasis on the system approach.

  8. A high-content screening assay in transgenic zebrafish identifies two novel activators of fgf signaling.

    PubMed

    Saydmohammed, Manush; Vollmer, Laura L; Onuoha, Ezenwa Obi; Vogt, Andreas; Tsang, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Zebrafish have become an invaluable vertebrate animal model to interrogate small molecule libraries for modulators of complex biological pathways and phenotypes. We have recently described the implementation of a quantitative, high-content imaging assay in multi-well plates to analyze the effects of small molecules on Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling in vivo. Here we have evaluated the capability of the assay to identify compounds that hyperactivate FGF signaling from a test cassette of agents with known biological activities. Using a transgenic zebrafish reporter line for FGF activity, we screened 1040 compounds from an annotated library of known bioactive agents, including FDA-approved drugs. The assay identified two molecules, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate and pyrithione zinc, that enhanced FGF signaling in specific areas of the brain. Subsequent studies revealed that both compounds specifically expanded FGF target gene expression. Furthermore, treatment of early stage embryos with either compound resulted in dorsalized phenotypes characteristic of hyperactivation of FGF signaling in early development. Documented activities for both agents included activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), consistent with FGF hyperactivation. To conclude, we demonstrate the power of automated quantitative high-content imaging to identify small molecule modulators of FGF. PMID:21932436

  9. Porcine pancreatic lipase related protein 2 has high triglyceride lipase activity in the absence of colipase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E; Sevilla, Wednesday A; Wang, Yan; Lowe, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Efficient dietary fat digestion is essential for newborns who consume more dietary fat per body weight than at any other time of life. In many mammalian newborns, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) is the predominant duodenal lipase. Pigs may be an exception since PLRP2 expression has been documented in the intestine but not in the pancreas. Because of the differences in tissue-specific expression, we hypothesized that the kinetic properties of porcine PLRP2 would differ from those of other mammals. To characterize its properties, recombinant porcine PLRP2 was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified to homogeneity. Porcine PLRP2 had activity against tributyrin, trioctanoin and triolein. The activity was not inhibited by bile salts and colipase, which is required for the activity of pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), minimally stimulated PLRP2 activity. Similar to PLRP2 from other species, PLRP2 from pigs had activity against galactolipids and phospholipids. Importantly, porcine PLRP2 hydrolyzed a variety of dietary substrates including pasteurized human mother's milk and infant formula and its activity was comparable to that of PTL. In conclusion, porcine PLRP2 has broad substrate specificity and has high triglyceride lipase activity even in the absence of colipase. The data suggest that porcine PLRP2 would be a suitable lipase for inclusion in recombinant preparations for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:23770034

  10. Pharmacogenetics of paraoxonase activity: elucidating the role of high-density lipoprotein in disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E; Jarvik, Gail P

    2014-01-01

    PON1 is a key component of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and is at least partially responsible for HDL's antioxidant/atheroprotective properties. PON1 is also associated with numerous human diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. In addition, PON1 metabolizes a broad variety of substrates, including toxic organophosphorous compounds, statin adducts, glucocorticoids, the likely atherogenic l-homocysteine thiolactone and the quorum-sensing factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Numerous cardiovascular and antidiabetic pharmacologic agents, dietary macronutrients, lifestyle factors and antioxidant supplements affect PON1 expression and enzyme activity levels. Owing to the importance of PON1 to HDL function and its individual association with diverse human diseases, pharmacogenomic interactions between PON1 and the various factors that alter its expression and activity may represent an important therapeutic target for future investigation. PMID:24024900

  11. High impact activity is related to lean but not fat mass: findings from a population-based study in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Davey Smith, George; Rittweger, Jörn; Tobias, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    Background Objective measures of physical activity calibrated against energy expenditure may have limited utility in studying relationships with musculoskeletal phenotypes. We wished to assess an alternative approach using an accelerometer calibrated according to impact loading. Methods Of the 17-year olds from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), 732 wore Newtest accelerometers while performing day-to-day activities for a mean of 5.8 days. Outputs were categorized as light, moderate, high and very high impact, based on the thresholds identified in 22 adolescents during graded activities. In subsequent regression analyses, activity data and fat mass were normalized by log transformation. Results The number of counts relating to high impact activity was ∼2% that of light impact activity, and 33% greater in boys when compared with girls. High impact activity was more strongly related to lean mass [light: 0.033 (95% CI −0.023 to 0.089), moderate: 0.035 (95% CI −0.010 to 0.080) and high: 0.044 (95% CI 0.010 to 0.078)] (β = SD change in outcome per doubling in activity, height adjusted, boys and girls combined). In contrast, lower impact activity was more strongly related to fat mass [light: −0.069 (95% CI −0.127 to −0.011), moderate: −0.060 (95% CI −0.107 to −0.014) and high: −0.033 (95% CI −0.069 to 0.003)]. In a more fully adjusted model including other activity types and fat/lean mass, lean mass was related to only high activity (boys and girls combined), whereas fat mass was related to only moderate activity (girls only). Conclusions Using an accelerometer calibrated according to impact loading revealed that high impact activity is related to lean but not fat mass. PMID:22576953

  12. High-sensitivity active pixel sensor with variable threshold photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sung-Hyun; Bae, Myunghan; Choi, Byoung-Soo; Lyu, Hong-Kun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2015-05-01

    A novel high-sensitivity active pixel sensor (APS) with a variable threshold photodetector has been presented and for the first time, a simple SPICE model for the variable threshold photodetector is presented. Its SPICE model is in good agreement with measurements and is more simpler than the conventional model. The proposed APS has a gate/body-tied PMOSFET-type photodetector with an overlapping control gate that makes it possible to control the sensitivity of the proposed APS. It is a hybrid device composed of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), a lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and a vertical BJT. Using sufficient overlapping control gate bias to operate the MOSFET in inversion mode, the variable threshold photodetector allows for increasing the photocurrent gain by 105 at low light intensities when the control gate bias is -3 V. Thus, the proposed APS with a variable threshold photodetector has better low-light-level sensitivity than the conventional APS operating mode, and it has a variable sensitivity which is determined by the control gate bias. The proposed sensor has been fabricated by using 0.35 μm 2-poly 4-metal standard complementary MOS (CMOS) process and its characteristics have been evaluated.

  13. High-energy spectra of active nuclei. 1: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaguti, G.; Bassani, L.; Caroli, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of high-energy spectra (E is greater than or equal to 0.01 keV) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The catalog contains 209 objects (140 Seyfert galaxies, 65 quasars, and 4 objects otherwise classified), for a total of 1030 spectra. Most of the data have been collected from the literature over a period spanning more than 20 yr starting from the early 1970s up to the end of 1992. For a numbner of objects (17), EXOSAT/ME data have been extracted and analyzed, and the 27 spectra obtained have been added to the database. For each object we report individual observation spectral fit parameters using a power-law model corrected for cold gas absorption along the line of sight (photon index, 1 keV intensity and hydrogen column density), plus other relevant data. It is hoped that this database can become a useful tool for the study of the AGN phenomenon in its various aspects.

  14. Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity and Key Parameters in High-latitude Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Tan, Arjun; Ridley, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere are important tasks of US Space Weather Program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method, and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two of the main elements of such prediction scheme are: an appropriate geomagnetic activity index, and an appropriate coupling function (the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity). We have developed a new index of geomagnetic activity, the Polar Magnetic (PM) index and an improved version of solar wind coupling function. PM index is similar to the existing polar cap PC index but it shows much better correlation with upstream solar wind/IMF data and other events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. We investigate the correlation of PM index with upstream solar wind/IMF data for 10 years (1995-2004) that include both low and high solar activity. We also have introduced a new prediction function for the predicting of cross-polar-cap voltage and Joule heating based on using both PM index and upstream solar wind/IMF data. As we show such prediction function significantly increase the reliability of prediction of these important parameters. The correlation coefficients between the actual and predicted values of these parameters are approx. 0.9 and higher.

  15. High-throughput functional comparison of promoter and enhancer activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thomas A; Jones, Richard D; Snavely, Andrew R; Pfenning, Andreas R; Kirchner, Rory; Hemberg, Martin; Gray, Jesse M

    2016-08-01

    Promoters initiate RNA synthesis, and enhancers stimulate promoter activity. Whether promoter and enhancer activities are encoded distinctly in DNA sequences is unknown. We measured the enhancer and promoter activities of thousands of DNA fragments transduced into mouse neurons. We focused on genomic loci bound by the neuronal activity-regulated coactivator CREBBP, and we measured enhancer and promoter activities both before and after neuronal activation. We find that the same sequences typically encode both enhancer and promoter activities. However, gene promoters generate more promoter activity than distal enhancers, despite generating similar enhancer activity. Surprisingly, the greater promoter activity of gene promoters is not due to conventional core promoter elements or splicing signals. Instead, we find that particular transcription factor binding motifs are intrinsically biased toward the generation of promoter activity, whereas others are not. Although the specific biases we observe may be dependent on experimental or cellular context, our results suggest that gene promoters are distinguished from distal enhancers by specific complements of transcriptional activators. PMID:27311442

  16. High temperature sensor/microphone development for active noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, Thomas R.

    1993-01-01

    The industrial and scientific communities have shown genuine interest in electronic systems which can operate at high temperatures, among which are sensors to monitor noise, vibration, and acoustic emissions. Acoustic sensing can be accomplished by a wide variety of commercially available devices, including: simple piezoelectric sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges, proximity sensors, and fiber optics. Of the several sensing mechanisms investigated, piezoelectrics were found to be the most prevalent, because of their simplicity of design and application and, because of their high sensitivity over broad ranges of frequencies and temperature. Numerous piezoelectric materials are used in acoustic sensors today; but maximum use temperatures are imposed by their transition temperatures (T(sub c)) and by their resistivity. Lithium niobate, in single crystal form, has the highest operating temperature of any commercially available material, 650 C; but that is not high enough for future requirements. Only two piezoelectric materials show potential for use at 1000 C; AlN thin film reported to be piezoactive at 1150 C, and perovskite layer structure (PLS) materials, which possess among the highest T(sub c) (greater than 1500 C) reported for ferroelectrics. A ceramic PLS composition was chosen. The solid solution composition, 80% strontium niobate (SN) and 20% strontium tantalate (STa), with a T(sub c) approximately 1160 C, was hot forged, a process which concurrently sinters and renders the plate-like grains into a highly oriented configuration to enhance piezo properties. Poled samples of this composition showed coupling (k33) approximately 6 and piezoelectric strain constant (d33) approximately 3. Piezoactivity was seen at 1125 C, the highest temperature measurement reported for a ferroelectric ceramic. The high temperature piezoelectric responses of this, and similar PLS materials, opens the possibility of their use in electronic devices operating at temperatures up to

  17. Manganese oxide-induced strategy to high-performance iron/nitrogen/carbon electrocatalysts with highly exposed active sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tao; Wu, Qiang; Zhuo, Ou; Jiang, Yufei; Bu, Yongfeng; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Iron/nitrogen/carbon (Fe/N/C) catalyst is so far the most promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic medium, whose performance depends closely on the synthesis chemistry. Herein, we report a MnOx-induced strategy to construct the Fe/N/C with highly exposed Fe-Nx active sites, which involves the uniform spreading of polyaniline on hierarchical N-doped carbon nanocages by a reactive-template polymerization, followed by the successive iron incorporation and polyaniline pyrolysis. The resulting Fe/N/C demonstrates an excellent ORR performance, including an onset potential of 0.92 V (vs. RHE), four electron selectivity, superb stability and immunity to methanol crossover. The excellent performance is well correlated with the greatly enhanced surface active sites of the catalyst stemming from the unique MnOx-induced strategy. This study provides an efficient approach for exploring the advanced ORR electrocatalysts by increasing the exposed active sites.Iron/nitrogen/carbon (Fe/N/C) catalyst is so far the most promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic medium, whose performance depends closely on the synthesis chemistry. Herein, we report a MnOx-induced strategy to construct the Fe/N/C with highly exposed Fe-Nx active sites, which involves the uniform spreading of polyaniline on hierarchical N-doped carbon nanocages by a reactive-template polymerization, followed by the successive iron incorporation and polyaniline pyrolysis. The resulting Fe/N/C demonstrates an excellent ORR performance, including an onset potential of 0.92 V (vs. RHE), four electron selectivity, superb stability and immunity to methanol crossover. The excellent performance is well correlated with the greatly enhanced surface active sites of the catalyst stemming from the unique MnOx-induced strategy. This study provides an efficient approach for exploring the advanced ORR electrocatalysts by increasing the

  18. Enhanced thermostability of mesophilic endoglucanase Z with a high catalytic activity at active temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jung; Joo, Ji Eun; Jeon, Sang Duck; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Um, Young Soon; Han, Sung Ok

    2016-05-01

    This is the first study for therrmostable mutants of mesophilic endoglucanase EngZ from Clostridium cellulovorans using by site-directed mutagenesis. K94R, S365P and their double mutant K94R/S365P had a wide range of active temperatures (30-60°C). In addition, the optimal temperature of K94R/S365P was increased by 7.5°C. K94R/S365P retained 78.3% relative activity at 70°C, while the wild type retained only 5.8%. Especially, K94R/S365P remained 45.1-fold higher activity than the wild type at 70°C. In addition, K94R/S365P was 3.1-fold higher activity than the wild type at 42.5°C, which is the optimal temperature of the wild type. K94R/S365P showed also stimulated in 2.5-fold lower concentration of CaCl2 and delayed aggregation temperature in the presence of CaCl2 compared to the wild type. In pH stability, K94R/S365P was not influenced, but the optimum pH was transferred from pH 7 to pH 6. In long-term hydrolysis, K94R/S365P reduced the newly released reducing sugar yields after 12h reaction; however, the yields consistently increased until 72h. Finally, the total reducing sugar of K94R/S365P was 5.0-fold higher than the wild type at 50°C, pH6. EngZ (K94R/S365P) can support information to develop thermostability of GH9 endoglucanase with a high catalytic efficiency as the potential industrial bioprocess candidate. PMID:26808019

  19. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Günther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  20. Toward the Standard Population Synthesis Model of the X-Ray Background: Evolution of X-Ray Luminosity and Absorption Functions of Active Galactic Nuclei Including Compton-thick Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Günther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-01

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ~ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  1. Oxidized amylose with high carboxyl content: A promising solubilizer and carrier of linalool for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Ye, Youxin; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Songling; Chen, Jing; Wang, Shiting; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2016-12-10

    The oxidized amyloses with different carboxyl content were prepared to include linalool for antimicrobial activity in aqueous environment. The results show that linalool can be effectively reserved from volatilization through encapsulation into amylose and oxidized amyloses. The inclusion ability of oxidized amyloses towards linalool is decreasing with the increase of oxidation level due to the depolymerization of amylose. However, the solubilization effect of oxidized amyloses to linalool is enhanced efficiently owning to the high water solubility of oxidized amyloses. It is interesting that the inclusion complexes have good antimicrobial activity in aqueous environment. Linalool solubilized by oxidized amyloses presents better antimicrobial performance than that solubilized by amylose, mainly resulting from that amylose-linalool inclusion complex would aggregate and retrograde fast in aqueous solution, which is disadvantageous for the release of linalool. The study suggests that oxidized amylose is a promising solubilizer and carrier of linalool for antimicrobial activity in aqueous environment. PMID:27577891

  2. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  3. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Mononucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2- methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2(+) in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MelmpU and 2-MelmpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-Iinked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of intemucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MelmpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  4. High resolution studies of complex solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na

    Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are energetic events, which can even impact the near-Earth environment and are the principal source of space weather. Most of them originate in solar active regions. The most violent events are produced in sunspots with a complex magnetic field topology. Studying their morphology and dynamics is helpful in understanding the energy accumulation and release mechanisms for flares and CMEs, which are intriguing problems in solar physics. The study of complex active regions is based on high-resolution observations from space missions and new instruments at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Adaptive optics (AO) in combination with image restoration techniques (speckle masking imaging) can achieve improved image quality and a spatial resolution (about 100 km on the solar surface) close to the diffraction limit of BBSO's 65 cm vacuum telescope. Dopplergrams obtained with a two-dimensional imaging spectrometer combined with horizontal flow maps derived with Local Correlation Tracking (LCT) provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field in sunspots. Magnetic field measurements from ground- and space-based instruments complement these data. At the outset of this study, the evolution and morphology of a typical round sunspot are described in some detail. The sunspot was followed from disk center to the limb, thus providing some insight into the geometry of the magnetic flux system. Having established a benchmark for a stable sunspot, the attention is turned to changes of the sunspot structure associated with flares and CMEs. Rapid penumbral decay and the strengthening of sunspot umbrae are manifestations of photospheric magnetic field changes after a flare. These sudden intensity changes are interpreted as a result of magnetic reconnection during the flare, which causes the magnetic field lines to be turned from more inclined to more vertical. Strong photospheric shear flows along the flaring magnetic

  5. Discovery of Isonicotinamides as Highly Selective, Brain Penetrable, and Orally Active Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanglin; Chen, Ling; Burton, Catherine R; Xiao, Hong; Sivaprakasam, Prasanna; Krause, Carol M; Cao, Yang; Liu, Nengyin; Lippy, Jonathan; Clarke, Wendy J; Snow, Kimberly; Raybon, Joseph; Arora, Vinod; Pokross, Matt; Kish, Kevin; Lewis, Hal A; Langley, David R; Macor, John E; Dubowchik, Gene M

    2016-02-11

    GSK-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has numerous substrates. Many of these proteins are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular functions, including metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 may be useful in treating a number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), type II diabetes, mood disorders, and some cancers, but the approach poses significant challenges. Here, we present a class of isonicotinamides that are potent, highly kinase-selective GSK-3 inhibitors, the members of which demonstrated oral activity in a triple-transgenic mouse model of AD. The remarkably high kinase selectivity and straightforward synthesis of these compounds bode well for their further exploration as tool compounds and therapeutics. PMID:26751161

  6. How High Is It? An Educator's Guide with Activities Focused on Scale Models of Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This guide focuses on scale models of distances. Activities also incorporate mathematics but can be used in science and technology grades 5-8 classes. The content of the book is divided into three sections: (1) Introductory Activities; (2) Core Activities; and (3) Activity/Assessment. Activities include: (1) KWL Chart; (2) Ball and String…

  7. Highly sensitive assay for acetylcholinesterase activity and inhibition based on a specifically reactive photonic nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Li, Xuesong; Cui, Jiecheng; Li, Jian; Lan, Yue; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Hui; Li, Guangtao

    2014-09-10

    Assays for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with high sensitivity and high selectivity as well as facile manipulation have been urgently required in various fields. In this work, a reaction-based photonic strategy was developed for the efficient assay of AChE activity and inhibition based on the synergetic combination of the specific thiol-maleimide addition reaction with photonic porous structure. It was found that various applications including detection of AChE activity, measurement of the related enzymatic kinetics, and screening of inhibitors could be efficiently implemented using such strategy. Remarkably, the unique photonic nanostructure endows the constructed sensing platform with high sensitivity with a limit of detection (LOD) of 5 mU/mL for AChE activity, high selectivity, and self-reporting signaling. Moreover, the label-free solid film-based sensing approach described here has advantages of facile manipulation and bare-eye readout, compared with conventional liquid-phase methods, exhibiting promising potential in practical application for the AChE assay. PMID:25130420

  8. Effects of human activities on the ecological processes of river biofilms in a highly urbanized river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many anthropogenic disturbances and their effects of aquatic ecosystem are difficult to quantify in urbanized rivers. In past, specific taxa analysis of community structure was a common approach in river health monitoring studies. However, it is still difficult to understand stream ecosystem integrity without considering ecosystem processes. The complex species composition and metabolism of a river biofilm have the capacity to interact and/or modulate their surrounding environment. Because of their short life cycles, species richness, and worldwide distribution, structure and function of river biofilm communities are sensitive to change in environmental conditions. Therefore, biofilms are widely used as early warning systems of water pollution for water quality monitoring studies. In this study, we used river biofilms as a bioindicator by examining their extracellular enzyme activities and photosynthesis efficiency to understand human activities on the ecological processes of river ecosystem in a highly urbanized river. We sampled four sites along the Keelung River, Taiwan, based on different intensities of anthropogenic disturbances including water pollution index, population densities, land use types and types of stream habitats. Two study sites are heavily influenced by human activities and the others are not. The activities of extracellular enzymes within the biofilm play an important function for organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. We measured seven extracellular enzyme activities (β-d-glucosidase, phosphatase, leucine-aminopeptidase, sulfatase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase) to examine specific enzyme activity changes at four study sites monthly. In addition, relative proportion of each extracellular enzyme activity on total enzyme activities was calculated in order to examine the relationship between functional biofilm profiles and different urban intensities. Among four study sites, leucine-aminopeptidase and esterase

  9. Altered expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor in high-risk soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Benassi, M S; Ponticelli, F; Azzoni, E; Gamberi, G; Pazzaglia, L; Chiechi, A; Conti, A; Spessotto, P; Scapolan, M; Pignotti, E; Bacchini, P; Picci, P

    2007-09-01

    In recent years, classification of soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) has improved with cytogenetic analyses, but their clinical behavior is still not easily predictable. The aim of this study was to detect alterations in the urokinase-type plasminogen system, involved in tumor growth and invasion, by comparing mRNA levels of its components with those of paired normal tissues, and relating them with patient clinical course. Real-time PCR was performed on human STS cell lines and tissues from highly malignant STS, including leiomyosarcomas and malignant fibrous histiocytomas, to evaluate the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Immunohistochemistry of gene products was also performed. Median mRNA values of all genes studied were higher in tumors than in paired normal tissues. In agreement with data on STS cell lines, significant up-regulation for uPA and PAI-1 genes compared to reference values was seen. Moreover, different levels of expression were related to histotype and metastatic phenotype. There was accordance between uPA mRNA and protein expression, while immunodetection of PAI-1 product was weak and scattered. Clearly, the controversial role of PAI-1 protein requires further biological analyses, but evident involvement of uPA/PAI-1 gene overexpression in STS malignancy may highlight a molecular defect useful in discriminating STS high-risk patients. PMID:17523079

  10. Highly active antiretroviral treatment for the prevention of HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 an estimated 33 million people were living with HIV; 67% resided in sub-Saharan Africa, with 35% in eight countries alone. In 2007, there were about 1.4 million HIV-positive tuberculosis cases. Globally, approximately 4 million people had been given highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the end of 2008, but in 2007, an estimated 6.7 million were still in need of HAART and 2.7 million more became infected with HIV. Although there has been unprecedented investment in confronting HIV/AIDS - the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimates $13.8 billion was spent in 2008 - a key challenge is how to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic given limited and potentially shrinking resources. Economic disparities may further exacerbate human rights issues and widen the increasingly divergent approaches to HIV prevention, care and treatment. HIV transmission only occurs from people with HIV, and viral load is the single greatest risk factor for all modes of transmission. HAART can lower viral load to nearly undetectable levels. Prevention of mother to child transmission offers proof of the concept of HAART interrupting transmission, and observational studies and previous modelling work support using HAART for prevention. Although knowing one's HIV status is key for prevention efforts, it is not known with certainty when to start HAART. Building on previous modelling work, we used an HIV/AIDS epidemic of South African intensity to explore the impact of testing all adults annually and starting persons on HAART immediately after they are diagnosed as HIV positive. This theoretical strategy would reduce annual HIV incidence and mortality to less than one case per 1000 people within 10 years and it would reduce the prevalence of HIV to less than 1% within 50 years. To explore HAART as a prevention strategy, we recommend further discussions to explore human rights and ethical considerations, clarify research priorities and review feasibility and acceptability

  11. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  12. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  13. Selenium-ligated palladium(II) complexes as highly active catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling reactions: the Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Kinney, Elizabeth P; Zheng, Chong

    2004-08-19

    Three selenium-ligated Pd(II) complexes were readily synthesized and shown to be extremely active catalysts for the Heck reaction of various aryl bromides, including deactivated and heterocyclic ones. The catalytic activity of the selenide-based Pd(II) complexes not only rivals but vastly outperforms that of the corresponding phosphorus and sulfur analogues. Practical advantages of the selenium-based catalysts include their straightforward synthesis and high activity in the absence of any additives as well as the enhanced stability of the selenide ligands toward air oxidation. PMID:15330667

  14. High School Students' Participation in Music Activities beyond the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the music activities that high school band students are involved in and how these activities might lead to lifelong music participation. Specific research questions were the following: (a) In what activities are high school band students involved? (b) What are high school band directors…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH ACTIVITY, COAL-DERIVED, PROMOTED CATALYTIC SYSTEMS FOR NOx REDUCTION AT LOW TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Calo

    2000-07-21

    This project is directed at an investigation of catalytic NO{sub x} reduction mechanisms on coal-derived, activated carbon supports at low temperatures. Promoted carbon systems offer some potentially significant advantages for heterogeneous NO{sub x} reduction. These include: low cost; high activity at low temperatures, which minimizes carbon loss; oxygen resistance; and a support material which can be engineered with respect to porosity, transport and catalyst dispersion characteristics. During the reporting period, the following has been accomplished: (1) Steady-state reactivity studies in the packed bed reactor were extended to the NO/CO-carbon reaction system as a function of temperature and NO and CO concentrations. It was found that the NO reaction rate increased in the presence of CO, and the apparent activation energy decreased to about 75 {+-} 8 kJ/mol. In addition, the influence of mass transfer limitations were noted at low NO and CO concentrations. (2) The packed bed reactor/gas flow system has been applied to performing post-reaction temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies of intermediate surface complexes following steady-state reaction. It was found that the amount of CO-evolving intermediate surface complexes exceeded that of the N{sub 2}-evolving surface complexes, and that both increased with reaction temperature. The TPD spectra indicates that both types of complexes desorb late, suggesting that they have high desorption activation energies. Plans for the next reporting period include extending the temperature programmed desorption studies in the packed bed reactor system to the NO/CO reaction system, including exposure to just CO, as well as NO/CO mixtures.

  16. Comparison Between High and Low Source Activity Seeds for I-125 Permanent Seed Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Masucci, Giuseppina Laura; Donath, David; Tetreault-Laflamme, Audrey; Carrier, Jean-Francois; Hervieux, Yannick; Larouche, Renee Xaviere; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Taussky, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To compare low (mean 0.44, SD {+-} 0.0163 mCi) with high source activity (0.61 {+-} 0.0178 mCi) in I{sup 125} permanent seed brachytherapy regarding seed loss, dosimetric outcome, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: The study included 199 patients with prostate cancer treated by permanent seed brachytherapy alone: the first 105 with seeds of lower activity (first cohort), the following 94 with higher seed activity (second cohort). The V100, V150, V200, and D90 were analyzed on the CT scan 30 days after implantation (CTD30). The V100, V150, and D2 of the rectum were also calculated on CTD30. Seed loss was determined 30 days after implantation. Urinary toxicity was measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Results: Lower seed activity was associated with lower V150 and V200 (p = 0.01 and p {<=} 0.001, respectively) on CTD30. More patients had a V100 <90% and D90 <140 Gy in the lower activity cohort (p = 0.098 for D90 and p = 0.029 for V100) on CTD30. There was no difference between cohorts in dose to the rectum (p = 0.325-0.516) or difference in patients' IPSS score from baseline (p = 0.0.117-0.618), although there was a trend toward more urinary toxicity at 4 and 8 months for high activity seeds. Seed loss as a percentage of implanted seeds was not different (p = 0.324). Conclusions: Higher seed activity (I{sup 125} {>=} 0.6 mCi) results in at least equal V100 and D90 on CTD30. However, dose inhomogeneity and a trend toward more urinary toxicity at 4 and 8 months after treatment may lead to a higher long-term urinary complications.

  17. Dreaming: Cognitive Processes during Cortical Activation and High Afferent Thresholds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrobus, John

    1991-01-01

    Current theories and research on distributed activation in sleep are reviewed, and a neurocognitive theory of sleep is presented that is based on distributed activation. Neural and cognitive relationships described by the theory are translated into connectionist models, and simulations are described. (SLD)

  18. Assessing High School Student Learning on Science Outreach Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Courtney L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of hands-on laboratory activities on secondary student learning was examined. Assessment was conducted over a two-year period, with 262 students participating the first year and 264 students the second year. Students took a prequiz, performed a laboratory activity (gas chromatography of alcohols, or photosynthesis and respiration), and…

  19. Activity Packages for Use in Junior High School Math Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Rita; Peterson, Karen

    Eight activity packages, designed to teach students mathematical topics which are inappropriate to teach through a paper and pencil approach, are presented. The materials were created so that students: (1) can follow the instructions with little supervision; (2) are physically engaged in the activity, either measuring, counting, drawing pictures…

  20. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55–79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, metabolic, endocrine and cognitive functions, bone strength, and health and well-being. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption ( showed the closest association with age (r = −0.443 to −0.664; P < 0.001), but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that even when many confounding variables are removed the relationship between function and healthy ageing is complex and likely to be highly individualistic and that physical activity levels must be taken into account in ageing studies. Key Points The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding

  1. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C; Muskal, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  2. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C.; Muskal, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  3. High power, high brightness Al-free active region tapered lasers at 915 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassiaoui, I.; Michel, N.; Lecomte, M.; Parillaud, O.; Calligaro, M.; Krakowski, M.

    2006-04-01

    To achieve high power and high brightness, we have developed tapered diode lasers based on an Al-free active region at 915 nm. The material structure was grown by MOCVD (Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition). It shows very low internal losses of only 0.5 cm -1, a very low transparency current density of 86 A/cm2, an excellent internal quantum efficiency of 86%, and a high characteristic temperature T 0 of 171 K. Based on these good results, at first, we have realised index-guided tapered lasers (IG1) with a narrow output width and a narrow taper angle, which deliver 1 W CW, together with an M2 beam quality parameter of 2.9 at 1/e2, and a narrow divergence angle in the slow axis of 5.1° FWHM and 7.5° at 1/e2. We have also fabricated new index-guided tapered lasers with a Clarinet shape, which were recently proposed to achieve high brightness together with a very narrow divergence angle. The Clarinet lasers deliver 0.6W CW, together with an excellent M2 beam quality factor of 1.2 at 1/e2, and a very narrow divergence angle in the slow axis of only 2.5° FWHM, and 3.9° at 1/e2, which is stable with current. These very narrow divergences are very advantageous for the collective coupling of tapered bars into optical fibers. In this work we have also investigated the influence of taper length on the output power and beam quality.

  4. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  5. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  6. Development of the flowsheet used for decontaminating high-activity-level water at TMI-2. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Using a few small samples of high-activity-level water from TMI-2, a chemical processing flowsheet was developed for decontamination of the water and concentration of the radioactive contaminants in a form suitable for disposal. The initially selected process was evaluated and significantly improved. The improved process included sorption of the bulk radioactive materials, cesium and strontium, onto a mixture of inorganic zeolites and sorption of the anionic contaminants, antimony and ruthenium, plus the remaining traces of cesium and strontium onto standard organic ion exchange resins. The latter step was accomplished by means of a special deionization/sorption technique.

  7. Association of physical activity and health status with intelligence quotient of high school students in Jeddah.

    PubMed

    El-Kholy, Thanaa; Elsayed, Enas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the relationships of physical activity and healthiness with the intelligence quotients of high school students in Jeddah. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 135 male and female students were randomly drawn from public and private secondary schools in Jeddah. A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to the students that included demographic, physical activity, and health status sections. Body mass index measurement and an intelligence quotient test were carried out for all students. In addition, samples of blood were collected to estimate hemoglobin and serum iron. [Results] The highest proportions of males and females (39.1% and 51% respectively) had an intelligence quotient score of more than 75%. Moreover, the findings revealed that about 35% of the students were categorized as overweight obesity, and there was aninverse correlation between body mass index and physical activity. Students who shared physical education classes and exercising at and outside school showed a positive correlation with high IQ scores. Regarding hemoglobin and iron levels, there were significant correlations between their levels in blood and IQ. [Conclusion] The intelligence quotient of adolescent students is positively associated with physical activity and health status. PMID:26311922

  8. Association of physical activity and health status with intelligence quotient of high school students in Jeddah

    PubMed Central

    El-Kholy, Thanaa; Elsayed, Enas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the relationships of physical activity and healthiness with the intelligence quotients of high school students in Jeddah. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 135 male and female students were randomly drawn from public and private secondary schools in Jeddah. A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to the students that included demographic, physical activity, and health status sections. Body mass index measurement and an intelligence quotient test were carried out for all students. In addition, samples of blood were collected to estimate hemoglobin and serum iron. [Results] The highest proportions of males and females (39.1% and 51% respectively) had an intelligence quotient score of more than 75%. Moreover, the findings revealed that about 35% of the students were categorized as overweight obesity, and there was aninverse correlation between body mass index and physical activity. Students who shared physical education classes and exercising at and outside school showed a positive correlation with high IQ scores. Regarding hemoglobin and iron levels, there were significant correlations between their levels in blood and IQ. [Conclusion] The intelligence quotient of adolescent students is positively associated with physical activity and health status. PMID:26311922

  9. Highly Active Microbial Communities in the Ice and Snow Cover of High Mountain Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Felip, M.; Sattler, B.; Psenner, R.; Catalan, J.

    1995-01-01

    An exploratory study carried out in Pyrenean and Alpine lakes shows that a rich, active microbial community lives in the slush layers of the winter cover of such lakes in spite of the low temperature and the seasonal occurrence of the habitat. Bacteria were very diverse in morphology, with filaments reaching up to 100 (mu)m long; flagellates, both autotrophic (chrysophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, and volvocales) and heterotrophic, and ciliates were abundant, reaching biovolume values up to 2.7 x 10(sup6) (mu)m(sup3) ml(sup-1). Species composition was very variable, with dominance depending on date and depth. Although many species were typical of lake plankton communities, some were restricted to the slush, for instance the predatory ciliates Dileptus sp. and Lacrymaria sp., and others were restricted to the surface pools, such as the snow algae Chlamydomonas nivalis. Microbial biomasses and usually bacterial and algal activities were greater in the slush layers than in the lake water. Photosynthesis rate in the upper cover layers reached values up to 0.5 (mu)g of C liter(sup-1) h(sup-1), and high bacterial activities up to 226 pmol of leucine incorporated liter(sup-1) h(sup-1) and 25 pmol of thymidine incorporated liter(sup-1) h(sup-1) were measured. For most species, lake water flooding the ice and snow cover could provide an inoculum. Differential growth depending on the environmental conditions (nutrients, organic matter, light) of a particular slush layer could provide dominance of different groups or species. However, there was no obvious colonizing mechanism for those species not appearing either in plankton or in communities on top of the snowpack. PMID:16535056

  10. Highly active microbial communities in the ice and snow cover of high mountain lakes.

    PubMed

    Felip, M; Sattler, B; Psenner, R; Catalan, J

    1995-06-01

    An exploratory study carried out in Pyrenean and Alpine lakes shows that a rich, active microbial community lives in the slush layers of the winter cover of such lakes in spite of the low temperature and the seasonal occurrence of the habitat. Bacteria were very diverse in morphology, with filaments reaching up to 100 (mu)m long; flagellates, both autotrophic (chrysophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, and volvocales) and heterotrophic, and ciliates were abundant, reaching biovolume values up to 2.7 x 10(sup6) (mu)m(sup3) ml(sup-1). Species composition was very variable, with dominance depending on date and depth. Although many species were typical of lake plankton communities, some were restricted to the slush, for instance the predatory ciliates Dileptus sp. and Lacrymaria sp., and others were restricted to the surface pools, such as the snow algae Chlamydomonas nivalis. Microbial biomasses and usually bacterial and algal activities were greater in the slush layers than in the lake water. Photosynthesis rate in the upper cover layers reached values up to 0.5 (mu)g of C liter(sup-1) h(sup-1), and high bacterial activities up to 226 pmol of leucine incorporated liter(sup-1) h(sup-1) and 25 pmol of thymidine incorporated liter(sup-1) h(sup-1) were measured. For most species, lake water flooding the ice and snow cover could provide an inoculum. Differential growth depending on the environmental conditions (nutrients, organic matter, light) of a particular slush layer could provide dominance of different groups or species. However, there was no obvious colonizing mechanism for those species not appearing either in plankton or in communities on top of the snowpack. PMID:16535056

  11. Effects of high activation energies on acoustic timescale detonation initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, J. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Vasilyev, O. V.

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic timescale Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) has been shown to occur through the generation of compression waves emitted by a hot spot or reaction centre where the pressure and temperature increase with little diminution of density. In order to compensate for the multi-scale nature of the physico-chemical processes, previous numerical simulations in this area have been limited to relatively small activation energies. In this work, a computational study investigates the effect of increased activation energy on the time required to form a detonation wave and the change in behaviour of each hot spot as the activation energy is increased. The simulations use a localised spatially distributed thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas to facilitate DDT. The Adaptive Wavelet-Collocation Method is used to solve efficiently the 1-D reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics. The DDT process as described in previous work is characterised by the formation of hot spots during an initial transient period, explosion of the hot spots and creation of an accelerating reaction front that reaches the lead shock and forms an overdriven detonation wave. Current results indicate that as the activation energy is raised the chemical heat release becomes more temporally distributed. Hot spots that produce an accelerating reaction front with low activation energies change behaviour with increased activation energy so that no accelerating reaction front is created. An acoustic timescale ratio is defined that characterises the change in behaviour of each hot spot.

  12. Development of highly active and stable hybrid cathode catalyst for PEMFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Won Suk

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are attractive power sources of the future for a variety of applications including portable electronics, stationary power, and automobile application. However, sluggish cathode kinetics, high Pt cost, and durability issues inhibit the commercialization of PEMFCs. To overcome these drawbacks, research has been focused on alloying Pt with transition metals since alloy catalysts show significantly improved catalytic properties like high activity, selectivity, and durability. However, Pt-alloy catalysts synthesized using the conventional impregnation method exhibit uneven particle size and poor particle distribution resulting in poor performance and/or durability in PEMFCs. In this dissertation, a novel catalyst synthesis methodology is developed and compared with catalysts prepared using impregnation method and commercial catalysts. Two approaches are investigated for the catalyst development. The catalyst durability was studied under U. S. DRIVE Fuel Cell Tech Team suggested protocols. In the first approach, the carbon composite catalyst (CCC) having active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is employed as a support for the synthesis of Pt/CCC catalyst. The structural and electrochemical properties of Pt/CCC catalyst are investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while RDE and fuel cell testing are carried out to study the electrochemical properties. The synergistic effect of CCC and Pt is confirmed by the observed high activity towards ORR for the Pt/CCC catalyst. The second approach is the synthesis of Co-doped hybrid cathode catalysts (Co-doped Pt/CCC) by diffusing the Co metal present within the CCC support into the Pt nanoparticles during heat-treatment. The optimized Co-doped Pt/CCC catalyst performed better than the commercial catalysts and the catalyst prepared using the impregnation method in PEMFCs and showed high

  13. 78 FR 64927 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; High School Equivalency Program (HEP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; High School Equivalency Program (HEP) Annual... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: High School Equivalency Program (HEP... Office of Migrant Education (OME) is collecting information for the High School Equivalency Program...

  14. Correlates of Insufficient Physical Activity among Junior High School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in Xi’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Hui, Zhaozhao; Terry, Paul D.; Ma, Mei; Cheng, Li; Deng, Fu; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity plays an important role in individual health at all stages of life. However, evidence is lacking regarding the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the related factors to insufficient physical activity (IPA). Methods: A sample of 1060 students aged 12–15 years from nine public junior high schools in China were invited to participate in this study. Physical activity was assessed by a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with IPA. Results: 30.1% boys and 43.0% girls in our sample did not engage in sufficient physical activity. Obesity (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5–2.9) and high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–4.8) were positively associated with IPA, whereas male sex (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5–0.9), underweight status (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.7), and high family support level for physical activity (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6–0.9) showed inverse associations. Age was not associated with IPA. Conclusions: IPA appears to be a considerable problem in this sample of Chinese youth. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are needed and may include improving family support level for physical activity, especially for girls, the obese and those with high SES. PMID:27043607

  15. Active Galactic Nuclei:. Sources for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, P. L.; Becker, J. K.; Caramete, L.; Gergely, L.; Mariş, I. C.; Meli, A.; de Souza, V.; Stanev, T.

    Ultra high energy cosmic ray events presently show a spectrum, which we interpret here as galactic cosmic rays due to a starburst, in the radio galaxy Cen A which is pushed up in energy by the shock of a relativistic jet. The knee feature and the particles with energy immediately higher in galactic cosmic rays then turn into the bulk of ultra high energy cosmic rays. This entails that all ultra high energy cosmic rays are heavy nuclei. This picture is viable if the majority of the observed ultra high energy events come from the radio galaxy Cen A, and are scattered by intergalactic magnetic fields across much of the sky.

  16. Accelerating the Discovery of Biologically Active Small Molecules Using a High-Throughput Yeast Halo Assay#

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Nadine C.; Tamble, Craig M.; Bock, Jonathan E.; Cotton, Naomi; White, Kimberly N.; Tenney, Karen; St. Onge, Robert P.; Proctor, Michael J.; Giaever, Guri; Davis, Ronald W.; Crews, Phillip; Holman, Theodore R.; Lokey, R. Scott

    2008-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a powerful model system for the study of basic eukaryotic cell biology, has been used increasingly as a screening tool for the identification of bioactive small molecules. We have developed a novel yeast toxicity screen that is easily automated and compatible with high-throughput screening robotics. The new screen is quantitative and allows inhibitory potencies to be determined, since the diffusion of the sample provides a concentration gradient and a corresponding toxicity halo. The efficacy of this new screen was illustrated by testing materials including 3,104 compounds from the NCI libraries, 167 marine sponge crude extracts, and 149 crude marine-derived fungal extracts. There were 46 active compounds among the NCI set. One very active extract was selected for bioactivity-guided fractionation resulting in the identification of crambescidin 800 as a potent antifungal agent. PMID:17291044

  17. Actively compensation of low order aberrations by refractive shaping system for high power slab lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zheng-wei; Guo, Ya-ding; Chen, Zhong-zheng; Li, Shuai; Xu, Yi-ting; Xu, Jian; Wang, Bao-shan; Gong, Ke-ling; Gao, Hong-wei; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qin-jun; Cui, Da-fu; Xu, Zu-yan

    2015-12-01

    We present a compact refractive shaping system for actively compensating low order aberrations of high power slab lasers. The shaping system includes three spherical lenses and two cylindrical lenses. Both theoretical and experimental investigations were performed to evaluate the compensation capability of the refractive shaping system. For a typical input beam with large low order aberrations of peak-to-valley (PV)=66.10λ and root-mean-square (RMS)=16.05λ, adjusting the distance between lenses, the wavefront aberrations are reduced to PV=0.48λ, RMS=0.10λ for the theoretical simulation and PV=0.50λ, RMS=0.11λ for the experimental result, respectively. It indicates that the main low order aberrations of defocus and 0° astigmatism can be significantly compensated by actively adjusting the distance between lenses and the experimental result agree well with the theoretical simulation.

  18. Quality Assurance Activities in High School Student Mental Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura; Tashman, Nancy; Myers, Patrick; Weist, Mark

    This study of school-based mental health programs used stakeholder focus groups to examine factors related to positive treatment outcomes, barriers to accessing services, and methods for improving service delivery to high school students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Fifty-one high school students (34 receiving treatment) at three urban…

  19. Ternary dendritic nanowires as highly active and stable multifunctional electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yoojin; Jin, Haneul; Kim, Ho Young; Yoon, Jisun; Park, Jongsik; Baik, Hionsuck; Joo, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2016-08-18

    Multimetallic nanocatalysts with a controlled structure can provide enhanced catalytic activity and durability by exploiting electronic, geometric, and strain effects. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel ternary nanocatalyst based on Mo doped PtNi dendritic nanowires (Mo-PtNi DNW) and its bifunctional application in the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) at the anode and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode for direct methanol fuel cells. An unprecedented Mo-PtNi DNW structure can combine multiple structural attributes of the 1D nanowire morphology and dendritic surfaces. In the MOR, Mo-PtNi DNW exhibits superior activity to Pt/C and Mo doped Pt dendritic nanowires (Mo-Pt DNW), and excellent durability. Furthermore, Mo-PtNi DNW demonstrates excellent activity and durability for the ORR. This work highlights the important role of compositional and structural control in nanocatalysts for boosting catalytic performances. PMID:27507777

  20. High-frequency, resonance-enhanced microactuators with active structures for high-speed flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreth, Phillip Andrew

    The need for actuators that are adaptable for use in a wide array of applications has been the motivation behind actuator development research over the past few years. Recent developments at the Advanced Aero-Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at Florida State University have produced a microactuator that uses the unsteadiness of a small-scale impinging jet to produce pulsed, supersonic microjets -- this is referred to as the Resonance-Enhanced Microjet (REM) actuator. Prior studies on these actuators at AAPL have been somewhat limited in that the actuator response has only been characterized through pressure/acoustic measurements and qualitative flow visualizations. Highly-magnified particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to measure the velocity fields of both a 1 mm underexpanded jet and an REM actuator. The results demonstrate that this type of microactuator is capable of producing pulsed, supersonic microjets that have velocities of approximately 400 m/s that are sustained for significant portions of their cycles (> 60 %). These are the first direct velocity measurements of these flowfields, and they allow for a greater understanding of the flow physics associated with this microactuator. The previous studies on the REM actuators have shown that the microactuator volume is among the principal parameters in determining the actuator's maximum-amplitude frequency component. In order to use this actuator in a closed-loop, feedback control system, a modified design that incorporates smart materials is studied. The smart materials (specifically piezoelectric ceramic stack actuators) have been implemented into the microactuator to actively change its geometry, thus permitting controllable changes in the microactuator's resonant frequency. The distinct feature of this design is that the smart materials are not used to produce the primary perturbation or flow from the actuator (which has in the past limited the control authority of other designs) but to